Sample records for affects comodulation masking

  1. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben


    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed.......75. A CMR of up to 10 dB was obtained at a distance of 6 Bark above the masker. The amount of CMR was found to depend on the presentation level of the masker; a higher masker level leads to a higher CMR effect. Hence, the risk of CMR affecting the subjective performance of bit-rate reduction systems cannot...

  2. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben


    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe...... same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be theaudio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise.Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noisemaskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths arefixed...

  3. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    of the study investigates the relation between CMR and envelope-based binaural masking level differences (BMLD), using narrowband noise maskers and classical across-channel configurations (like N0Spi, N0Sm). In the second part, a model is presented that explicitly simulates CMR whereby the EC mechanism...

  4. Can comodulation masking release occur when frequency changes could promote perceptual segregation of the on-frequency and flanking bands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Epp, Bastian; Stasiak, Arkadiusz


    bands relative to the inhibitory areas (as seen in physiological recordings using stationary flanking bands). Preliminary physiological results in the cochlear nucleus of the Guinea pig show that a correlate of CMR can also be found at this level of the auditory pathway with sweeping flanking bands.......A common characteristic of natural sounds is that the level fluctuations in different frequency regions are coherent. The ability of the auditory system to use this comodulation is shown when a sinusoidal signal is masked by a masker centred at the signal frequency (on-frequency masker, OFM...... and comodulation could serve as cues to indicate which of the stimulus components originate from one source. If the common fate of frequency components is the stronger binding cue, the sweeping FBs and the OFM with a fixed centre frequency should no longer form one auditory object and the CMR should be abolished...

  5. Comparison of intensity discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the envelope and audio-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.;

    In the audio-frequency domain, the envelope apparently plays an important role in detection of intensity increments and in comodulation masking release (CMR). The current study addressed the question whether the second-order envelope ("venelope") contributes similarly for comparable experiments...... were found to be the same in conditions with a continuous (modulated) carrier and with traditional gated stimuli for AM frequencies ranging from 4 –64 Hz. The second set of experiments compared the amount of CMR in a tone-in-noise detection task when slow, regular fluctuations were imposed...

  6. Auditory stream formation affects comodulation masking release retroactively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Ewert, Stephan; Oxenham, A. J.


    in terms of the sequence of "postcursor" flanking bands forming a perceptual stream with the original flanking bands, resulting in perceptual segregation of the flanking bands from the masker. The results are consistent with the idea that modulation analysis occurs within, not across, auditory objects......, and that across-frequency CMR only occurs if the on-frequency and flanking bands fall within the same auditory object or stream....

  7. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.


    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...

  8. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.;


    -frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal......In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level...

  9. Comodules over semiperfect corings

    CERN Document Server

    Caenepeel, S


    We discuss when the Rat functor associated to a coring satisfying the left $\\alpha$-condition is exact. We study the category of comodules over a semiperfect coring. We characterize semiperfect corings over artinian rings and over qF-rings.

  10. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.


    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  11. Equivalences between Categories of Modules and Categories of Comodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We show the close connection between apparently different Galois theories for comodules introduced recently in [J.Gómez-Torrecillas and J.Vercruysse,Comatrix corings and Galois Comodules over firm rings,Algebr.Represent.Theory,10 (2007),271-306]and [Wisbauer,On Galois comodules, Comm.Algebra 34 (2006),2683-2711].Furthermore we study equivalences between categories of comodules over a coring and modules over a firm ring.We show that these equivalences are related to Galois theory for comodules.

  12. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华


    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  13. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization-cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten


    the transition between conditions dominated by within-channel processing and those dominated by across-channel processing, and (iii) CMR obtained in the "classical" band-widening paradigm in order to study the role of across-channel processing in a condition which always includes within-channel processing...

  14. Automatic evaluation isn't that crude! Moderation of masked affective priming by type of valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentura, D.; Degner, J.


    In two experiments, the automatic processing of evaluative information was investigated using a masked affective priming paradigm, varying valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance (other-relevant traits vs. possessor-relevant traits; Peeters, 1983) of prime and target stimuli. It was found that

  15. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy. (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert


    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  16. Neural correlates of affective priming effects based on masked facial emotion: an fMRI study. (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Ohrmann, Patricia; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo


    Affective priming refers to the phenomenon that subliminal presentation of facial emotion biases subsequent evaluation of a neutral object in the direction of the prime. The aim of the present study was to specify the neural correlates of evaluative shifts elicited by facial emotion shown below the threshold of conscious perception. We tested the hypotheses whether the amygdala is involved in negative priming, whereas the nucleus accumbens participates in positive priming. In addition, exploratory whole brain correlation analyses were conducted. During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of sad, happy, and neutral facial expression masked by neutral faces were presented to 110 healthy adults who had to judge valence of masks on a four-point scale. There was evidence for significant negative priming based on sad faces. A correlation was observed between amygdala activation and negative priming. Activation in medial, middle, and superior frontal and middle temporo-occipital areas, and insula was also associated with negative priming. No significant priming based on happy faces was found. However, nucleus accumbens activation to happy faces correlated with the positive priming score. The present findings confirm that the amygdala but also other brain regions, especially the medial frontal cortex, appear involved in automatically elicited negative evaluative shifts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Emilia Wijayanti


    Full Text Available We recall the notion of prie modules and use the analogue technique to define prime comodules and corings. Moreover, the related properties are of interest. We investigate the relation of primeness of C-comodule M and the dual algebra *C of a coring C, the relation to projectivity of a coring in the associated category, the implication of the primeness to the injective hull and product of prime coalgebras.

  18. Relative Yetter-Drinfeld modules and comodules over braided groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haixing, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, 210037 Nanjing (China)


    Let H{sub 1} be a quantum group and f : H{sub 1}⟶H{sub 2} a Hopf algebra homomorphism. Assume that B is some braided group obtained by Majid’s transmutation process. We first show that there is a tensor equivalence between the category of comodules over the braided group B and that of relative Yetter-Drinfeld modules. Next, we prove that the Drinfeld centers of the two categories mentioned above are equivalent to the category of modules over some quantum double, namely, the category of ordinary Yetter-Drinfeld modules over some Radford’s biproduct Hopf algebra. Importantly, the above results not only hold for a finite dimensional quantum group but also for an infinite dimensional one.

  19. π-H-comodule algebra and π-H-comodule subalgebra%π-H-余模代数与π-H-余模子代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士银; 周坚


    研究了π-H-余模子代数的相关性质。借助对偶原理证明了M 是π-H-余模代数A的π-H-余模子代数当且仅当M⊥是π-H-模余代数A的π-H-模余理想。%Some properties of π-H-comodule subalgebra are studied. With the help of the dual principle, we prove that M is aπ-H-comodule subalgebra of A if and only if M⊥ is aπ-H-module coideal of A.

  20. Can common functional gene variants affect visual discrimination in metacontrast masking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Maksimov

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of visual perception should be robustly fast and provide veridical information about environmental objects in order to facilitate survival and successful coping. Because species-specific brain mechanisms for fast vision must have evolved under heavy pressure for efficiency, it has been held that different human individuals see the physical world in the same way and produce psychophysical functions of visual discrimination that are qualitatively the same. For many years, this assumption has been implicitly accepted in vision research studying extremely fast, basic visual processes, including studies of visual masking. However, in recent studies of metacontrast masking surprisingly robust individual differences in the qualitative aspects of subjects' performance have been found. As the basic species-specific visual functions very likely are based on universal brain mechanisms of vision, these differences probably are the outcome of variability in ontogenetic development (i.e., formation of idiosyncrasic skills of perception. Such developmental differences can be brought about by variants of genes that are differentially expressed in the course of CNS development. The objective of this study was to assess whether visual discrimination in metacontrast masking is related to three widely studied genetic polymorphisms implicated in brain function and used here as independent variables. The findings suggest no main effects of BDNF Val66Met, NRG1/rs6994992, or 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on metacontrast performance, but several notable interactions of genetic variables with gender, stage of the sequence of experimental trials, perceptual strategies, and target/mask shape congruence were found. Thus, basic behavioral functions of fast vision may be influenced by common genetic variability. Also, when left uncontrolled, genetic factors may seriously confound variables in vision research using masking, obscure clear theoretical interpretation, lead to

  1. A Note on "Modules, Comodules, and Cotensor Products over Frobenius Algebras"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowu CHEN; Hualin HUANG; Yanhua WANG


    This is a note on Abrams' paper "Modules, Comodules, and Cotensor Products over Frobenius Algebras, Journal of Algebras" (1999). With the application of Frobenius coordinates developed recently by Kadison, one has a direct proof of Abrams' characterization for Frobenius algebras in terms of comultiplication (see L. Kadison (1999)). For any Frobenius algebra, by using the explicit comultiplication, the explicit correspondence between the category of modules and the category of comodules is obtained. Moreover,with this we give very simplified proofs and improve Abrams' results on the Hom functor description of cotensor functor.

  2. A study on the factors that affect the advanced mask defect verification (United States)

    Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu


    Defect verification has become significantly difficult to higher technology nodes over the years. Traditional primary method of defect (include repair point) control consists of inspection, AIMS and repair steps. Among them, AIMS process needs various wafer lithography conditions, such as NA, inner/outer sigma, illumination shape and etc. It has a limit to analyze for every layer accurately because AIMS tool uses the physical aperture system. And it requires meticulous management of exposure condition and CD target value which change frequently in advanced mask. We report on the influence of several AIMS parameters on the defect analysis including repair point. Under various illumination conditions with different patterns, it showed the significant correlation in defect analysis results. It is able to analyze defect under certain error budget based on the management specification required for each layer. In addition, it provided us with one of the clues in the analysis of wafer repeating defect. Finally we will present 'optimal specification' for defect management with common AIMS recipe and suggest advanced mask process flow.

  3. Unconscious affective reactions to masked happy versus angry faces influence consumption behavior and judgments of value. (United States)

    Winkielman, Piotr; Berridge, Kent C; Wilbarger, Julia L


    The authors explored three properties of basic, unconsciously triggered affective reactions: They can influence consequential behavior, they work without eliciting conscious feelings, and they interact with motivation. The authors investigated these properties by testing the influence of subliminally presented happy versus angry faces on pouring and consumption of beverage (Study 1), perception of beverage value (Study 2), and reports of conscious feelings (both studies). Consistent with incentive motivation theory, the impact of affective primes on beverage value and consumption was strongest for thirsty participants. Subliminal smiles caused thirsty participants to pour and consume more beverage (Study 1) and increased their willingness to pay and their wanting more beverage (Study 2). Subliminal frowns had the opposite effect. No feeling changes were observed, even in thirsty participants. The results suggest that basic affective reactions can be unconscious and interact with incentive motivation to influence assessment of value and behavior toward valenced objects.

  4. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study. (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas


    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level.

  5. Ophthalmological affectation: A way to mask Miastenia Gravis. A case purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor R. Sánchez Dacal


    Full Text Available Myasthenia Gravis MG is an autoimmune and chronic neuromuscular disease characterized by variable of weakness in the skeletal muscles that control the eye movements and it is confused with an ophthalmological disorder. With this presentation we pretend to systematize the Theoretical references about MG which allow making a correct diagnosis of the disease from the experience of a clinical case. The theory about MG regarding the presentation of the disease is discussed, emphasising on the significance of its differential diagnosis with an ophthalmopathy, which will contribute to apply a proper treatment and a satisfactory evolution of the patient, arriving to the conclusion that affectation of the III cranial pair is a way of frequent presentation of MG, being valuable the differential diagnosis of the ophthalmopaties in these entities.

  6. Clay Mask Workshop (United States)

    Gamble, David L.


    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  7. Comodulation of dopamine and serotonin on prefrontal cortical rhythms: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hui eWang


    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated to play an important role in cognitive control. Abnormal PFC activities and rhythms have been observed in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and evidences suggest influences from the neuromodulators dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT. Despite the high level of interest in these brain systems, the combined effects of DA and 5-HT modulation on PFC dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we build a mathematical model that incorporates available experimental findings to systematically study the comodulation of DA and 5-HT on the network behavior, focusing on beta and gamma band oscillations. Single neuronal model shows pyramidal cells with 5-HT1A and 2A receptors can be non-monotonically modulated by 5-HT. Two-population excitatory-inhibitory type network consisting of pyramidal cells with D1 receptors can provide rich repertoires of oscillatory behavior. In particular, 5-HT and DA can modulate the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, which can emerge or cease, depending on receptor types. Certain receptor combinations are conducive for the robustness of the oscillatory regime, or the existence of multiple discrete oscillatory regimes. In a multi-population heterogeneous model that takes into account possible combination of receptors, we demonstrate that robust network oscillations require high DA concentration. We also show that selective D1 receptor antagonists (agonists tend to suppress (enhance network oscillations, increase the frequency from beta toward gamma band, while selective 5-HT1A antagonists (agonists act in opposite ways. Selective D2 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (agonists can lead to decrease (increase in oscillation amplitude, but only 5-HT2A antagonists (agonists can increase (decrease the frequency. These results are comparable to some pharmacological effects. Our work illustrates the complex mechanisms of DA and 5-HT when operating simultaneously through multiple

  8. How does breathing frequency affect the performance of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a surgical mask against surrogates of viral particles? (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A


    Breathing frequency (breaths/min) differs among individuals and levels of physical activity. Particles enter respirators through two principle penetration pathways: faceseal leakage and filter penetration. However, it is unknown how breathing frequency affects the overall performance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs) against viral particles, as well as other health-relevant submicrometer particles. A FFR and SM were tested on a breathing manikin at four mean inspiratory flows (MIFs) (15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min) and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). Filter penetration (Pfilter) and total inward leakage (TIL) were determined for the tested respiratory protection devices against sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol particles in the size range of 20 to 500 nm. "Faceseal leakage-to-filter" (FLTF) penetration ratios were calculated. Both MIF and breathing frequency showed significant effects (p breathing frequency increased TIL for the N95 FFR whereas no clear trends were observed for the SM. Increasing MIF increased Pfilter and decreased TIL resulting in decreasing FLTF ratio. Most of FLTF ratios were >1, suggesting that the faceseal leakage was the primary particle penetration pathway at various breathing frequencies. Breathing frequency is another factor (besides MIF) that can significantly affect the performance of N95 FFRs, with higher breathing frequencies increasing TIL. No consistent trend of increase or decrease of TIL with either MIF or breathing frequency was observed for the tested SM. To potentially extend these findings beyond the manikin/breathing system used, future studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism causing the breathing frequency effect on the performance of respiratory protection devices on human subjects.

  9. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta


    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  10. Effects of sequential streaming on auditory masking using psychoacoustics and auditory evoked potentials. (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Ernst, Stephan M A; Yasin, Ifat


    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the mismatch negativity (MMN) and psychoacoustical effects of sequential streaming on comodulation masking release (CMR). The influence of sequential streaming on CMR was investigated using a psychoacoustical alternative forced-choice procedure and electroencephalography (EEG) for the same group of subjects. The psychoacoustical data showed, that adding precursors comprising of only off-signal-frequency maskers abolished the CMR. Complementary EEG data showed an MMN irrespective of the masker envelope correlation across frequency when only the off-signal-frequency masker components were present. The addition of such precursors promotes a separation of the on- and off-frequency masker components into distinct auditory objects preventing the auditory system from using comodulation as an additional cue. A frequency-specific adaptation changing the representation of the flanking bands in the streaming conditions may also contribute to the reduction of CMR in the stream conditions, however, it is unlikely that adaptation is the primary reason for the streaming effect. A neurophysiological correlate of sequential streaming was found in EEG data using MMN, but the magnitude of the MMN was not correlated with the audibility of the signal in CMR experiments. Dipole source analysis indicated different cortical regions involved in processing auditory streaming and modulation detection. In particular, neural sources for processing auditory streaming include cortical regions involved in decision-making.

  11. Vibrotactile masking through the body. (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R


    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  12. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;


    1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour...

  13. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population. (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A


    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.

  14. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms. (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R


    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  15. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram


    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  16. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia. (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S


    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  17. Mask industry assessment: 2004 (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.


    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  18. Analyzing EUV mask costs (United States)

    Lercel, Michael; Kasprowicz, Bryan


    The introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) as a replacement for multiple patterning is based on improvements of cycle time, yield, and cost. Earlier cost studies have assumed a simple assumption that EUV masks (being more complex with the multilayer coated blank) are not more than three times as expensive as advanced ArFi (ArF immersion) masks. EUV masks are expected to be more expensive during the ramp of the technology because of the added cost of the complex mask blank, the use of EUV specific mask tools, and a ramp of yield learning relative to the more mature technologies. This study concludes that, within a range of scenarios, the hypothesis that EUV mask costs are not more than three times that of advanced ArFi masks is valid and conservative.

  19. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud. (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A


    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions.

  20. Lithographic performance evaluation of a contaminated EUV mask after cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Holfeld, Christian; Wuest, Andrea


    The effect of surface contamination and subsequent mask surface cleaning on the lithographic performance of a EUV mask is investigated. SEMATECH's Berkeley micro-field exposure tool (MET) printed 40 nm and 50 nm line and space (L/S) patterns are evaluated to compare the performance of a contaminated and cleaned mask to an uncontaminated mask. Since the two EUV masks have distinct absorber architectures, optical imaging models and aerial image calculations were completed to determine any expected differences in performance. Measured and calculated Bossung curves, process windows, and exposure latitudes for the two sets of L/S patterns are compared to determine how the contamination and cleaning impacts the lithographic performance of EUV masks. The observed differences in mask performance are shown to be insignificant, indicating that the cleaning process did not appreciably affect mask performance.

  1. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio


    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  2. Mask industry assessment: 2003 (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.


    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  3. Binary mask programmable hologram. (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K


    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  4. No masking between test and mask components in perceptually different depth planes. (United States)

    Hibbeler, Patrick J; Olzak, Lynn A


    2-D cues to perceived depth organization have been used to segregate test and mask stimulus components in a discrimination task. Observers made either spatial-frequency or orientation judgments on a rectangular test component by itself or in the presence of constant rectangular masks. There were two basic masking conditions: same-plane or different-plane. In the same-plane conditions, the test components and masks are perceived as existing in the same depth plane. In the different-plane conditions, the test and mask components are perceived to exist in different depth planes. The perception of different depth planes was achieved by using perceived occlusion, which could place either component closer or further from the observer. The results suggest that when test and mask components are separated into different depth planes they no longer influence one another. This effect could be observed in either depth organization, test components in front of the masks or mask components in front of the test. These results indicate that the figure-ground organization of components is not important. Only the designation as existing in the same or different depth planes affects whether or not a mask is effective.

  5. Mask industry assessment: 2005 (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott


    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  6. Effect of Dietary Supplements in Reducing Probability of Death for Uremic Crises in Dogs Affected by Chronic Kidney Disease (Masked RCCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatelli


    Full Text Available Chitosan and alkalinizing agents can decrease morbidity and mortality in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Whether this holds true in dog is not known. Objective of the study was to determine whether a commercial dietary supplement containing chitosan, phosphate binders, and alkalinizing agents (Renal, compared to placebo, reduces mortality rate due to uremic crises in dogs with spontaneous CKD, fed a renal diet (RD. A masked RCCT was performed including 31 azotemic dogs with spontaneous CKD. Dogs enrolled in the study were randomly allocated to receive RD plus placebo (group A; 15 dogs or RD plus Renal (group B; 16 dogs. During a first 4-week period, all dogs were fed an RD and then randomized and clinically evaluated up to 44 weeks. The effects of dietary supplements on mortality rate due to uremic crises were assessed. At 44 weeks, compared to group A, dogs in group B had approximately 50% lower mortality rate due to uremic crises (P=0.015. Dietary supplementation with chitosan, phosphate binders, and alkalinizing agents, along with an RD, is beneficial in reducing mortality rate in dogs with spontaneous CKD.

  7. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength. (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H


    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  8. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  9. Intact crowding and temporal masking in dyslexia. (United States)

    Doron, Adi; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael H; Ahissar, Merav


    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well documented. However, there is an ongoing discussion about whether visual deficits limit the reading skills of people with dyslexia. Here, we investigated visual crowding and backward masking. We presented a Vernier (i.e., two vertical bars slightly offset to the left or right) and asked observers to indicate the offset direction. Vernier stimuli are visually similar to letters and are strongly affected by crowding, even in the fovea. To increase task difficulty, Verniers are often followed by a mask (i.e., backward masking). We measured Vernier offset discrimination thresholds for the basic Vernier task, under crowding, and under backward masking, in students with dyslexia (n = 19) and age and intelligence matched students (n = 27). We found no group differences in any of these conditions. Controls with fast visual processing (good backward masking performance), were faster readers. By contrast, no such correlation was found among the students with dyslexia, suggesting that backward masking does not limit their reading efficiency. These findings indicate that neither elevated crowding nor elevated backward masking pose a bottleneck to reading skills of people with dyslexia.

  10. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  11. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility.......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...

  12. New mask technology challenges (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.


    Mask technology development has accelerated dramatically in recent years from the glacial pace of the last three decades to the rapid and sometimes simultaneous introductions of new wavelengths and mask-based resolution enhancement techniques. The nature of the semiconductor business has also become one driven by time-to-market as an overwhelming factor in capturing market share and profit. These are among the factors that have created enormous stress on the mask industry to produce masks with enhanced capabilities, such as phase-shifting attenuators, sub-resolution assist bars, and optical proximity correction (OPC) features, while maintaining or reducing cost and cycle time. The mask can no longer be considered a commodity item that is purchased form the lowest-cost supplier. Instead, it must now be promoted as an integral part of the technical and business case for a total lithographic solution. Improving partnership between designer, mask-maker, and wafer lithographer will be the harbinger of success in finding a profitable balance of capability, cost, and cycle time. Likewise for equipment infrastructure development, stronger partnership on the international level is necessary to control development cost and mitigate schedule and technical risks.

  13. Mask Blank Defect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A; Sommargren, G E


    Mask blanks are the substrates that hold the master patterns for integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductor devices, such as microprocessors (mPs), dynamic random access memory (DRAMs), and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that are central to the computer, communication, and electronics industries. These devices are fabricated using a set of master patterns that are sequentially imaged onto light-sensitive coated silicon wafers and processed to form thin layers of insulating and conductive materials on top of the wafer. These materials form electrical paths and transistors that control the flow of electricity through the device. For the past forty years the semiconductor industry has made phenomenal improvements in device functionality, compactness, speed, power, and cost. This progress is principally due to the exponential decrease in the minimum feature size of integrated circuits, which has been reduced by a factor of {radical}2 every three years. Since 1992 the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has coordinated the efforts of producing a technology roadmap for semiconductors. In the latest document, ''The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: 1999'', future technology nodes (minimum feature sizes) and targeted dates were specified and are summarized in Table 1. Lithography is the imaging technology for producing a de-magnified image of the mask on the wafer. A typical de-magnification factor is 4. Mask blank defects as small as one-eighth the equivalent minimum feature size are printable and may cause device failure. Defects might be the result of the surface preparation, such as polishing, or contamination due to handling or the environment. Table 2 shows the maximum tolerable defect sizes on the mask blank for each technology node. This downward trend puts a tremendous burden on mask fabrication, particularly in the area of defect detection and reduction. A new infrastructure for mask

  14. Overview of Mask Metrology (United States)

    Rice, Bryan J.; Jindal, Vibhu; Lin, C. C.; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Kwon, Hyuk Joo; Ma, Hsing-Chien; Goldstein, Michael; Chan, Yau-Wai; Goodwin, Frank


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the successor to optical lithography and will enable advanced patterning in semiconductor manufacturing processes down to the 8 nm half pitch technology node and beyond. However, before EUV can successfully be inserted into high volume manufacturing a few challenges must be overcome. Central among these remaining challenges is the requirement to produce "defect free" EUV masks. Mask blank defects have been one of the top challenges in the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. To determine defect sources and devise mitigation solutions, detailed characterization of defects is critical. However, small defects pose challenges in metrology scale-up. SEMATECH has a comprehensive metrology strategy to address any defect larger than a 20 nm core size to obtain solutions for defect-free EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center has been working since 2003 to develop the technology to support defect free EUV mask blanks. Since 2003, EUV mask blank defects have been reduced from 10000 of size greater than 100 nm to about a few tens at size 70 nm. Unfortunately, today's state of the art defect levels are still about 10 to 100 times higher than needed. Closing this gap requires progress in the various processes associated with glass substrate creation and multilayer deposition. That process development improvement in turn relies upon the availability of metrology equipment that can resolve and chemically characterize defects as small as 30 nm. The current defect reduction efforts at SEMATECH have intensively included a focus on inspection and characterization. The facility boasts nearly 100M of metrology hardware, including an FEI Titan TEM, Lasertec M1350 and M7360 tools, an actinic inspection tool, AFM, SPM, and scanning auger capabilities. The newly established Auger tool at SEMATECH can run a standard 6-inch mask blank and is already providing important information on sub-100 nm defects on EUV

  15. [The laryngeal mask]. (United States)

    Poltroniéri, J


    A new type of airway has been widely used for two years, throughout hospitals in the United Kingdom. Designed and created since 1983 by Dr AIJ Brain, the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a compromise between the endotracheal tube and the face-mask. Blindly inserted in an anaesthetized patient, without either a laryngoscope or neuromuscular blockade, it provides a good airway in almost all cases. It is often able to offer an effective alternative to difficult intubation. The LMA can be used with either spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation. Because it doesn't provide a reliable protection of the airway from aspiration, it should never be used in the patient with a full stomach. The spontaneously breathing patient, undergoing elective surgery for 15 to 60 minutes, in supine position, who would ordinarily be managed with a face-mask is the more likely candidate for the LMA. But, longer procedures, in lateral or prone position, with controlled ventilation can usually be carried out using the Brain's device. More effective and less demanding than the facial-mask, much less hurtful than the endotracheal tube, the Laryngeal Mask is potentially an important and valuable addition to anaesthetic care.

  16. Orion Emergency Mask Approach (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.


    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  17. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed. (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A


    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  18. Practical use of the repeating patterns in mask writing (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Inoue, Tadao; Yamabe, Masaki


    In May 2006, the Mask Design, Drawing, and Inspection Technology Research Department (Mask D2I) at the Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) launched a 4-year program for reducing mask manufacturing cost and TAT by concurrent optimization of MDP, mask writing, and mask inspection. As one of the tasks being pursued at the Mask Design Data Technology Research Laboratory, we have evaluated the effect of reducing the drawing shot counts by utilizing the repeating patterns, and showed positive impact on mask making by using CP drawing. During the past four years, we have developed a software to extract repeating patterns from fractured OPCed mask data which can be used to minimize the shot counts. In this evaluation, we have used an actual device production data obtained from the member companies of MaskD2I. To the extraction software we added new functions for extracting common repeating patterns from a set of multiple masks, and studied how this step can reduce the counts in comparison to the shot counts required during the conventional mask writing techniques. We have also developed software that uses the extraction result of repeating patterns and prepares drawing-data for the MCC/CP drawing system, which has been developed at the Mask Writing Equipment Technology Research Laboratory. With this software, we have simulated EB proximity effect on CP writing and examined how it affect the shot count reduction where CP shots with large CD errors are to be divided into VSB shots. In this paper, we will report the evaluation result of the practical application of repeating patterns in mask writing with this software.

  19. COAs: Behind the Masks. (United States)

    Birke, Szifra


    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  20. Masked mycotoxins: a review. (United States)

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Saeger, Sarah De; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle P; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg


    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders.

  1. CADAT integrated circuit mask analysis (United States)


    CADAT System Mask Analysis Program (MAPS2) is automated software tool for analyzing integrated-circuit mask design. Included in MAPS2 functions are artwork verification, device identification, nodal analysis, capacitance calculation, and logic equation generation.

  2. The VIRMOS mask manufacturing tools; 2, Mask manufacturing and handling

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, G; Mattaini, E; MacCagni, D; Lefèvre, O; Saisse, M; Vettolani, G


    We describe the VIRMOS Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) configuration, composed of two units:the Mask Manufacturing Machine (with its Control Unit) and the Mask Handling Unit (inclusive of Control Unit, Storage Cabinets and robot for loading of the Instrument Cabinets). For both VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments, on the basis of orders received by the Mask Preparation Software (see paper (a) in same proceedings), the function of the MMU is to perform an off-line mask cutting and identification, followed by mask storing and subsequent filling of the Instrument Cabinets (IC). We describe the characteristics of the LPKF laser cutting machine and the work done to support the choice of this equipment. We also describe the remaining of the hardware configuration and the Mask Handling Software.

  3. Masked multichannel analyzer (United States)

    Winiecki, A.L.; Kroop, D.C.; McGee, M.K.; Lenkszus, F.R.


    An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

  4. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.


    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splashes of blood or other potentially infectious substances. They are not necessarily designed for filtration efficiency, or to seal tightly to the face. Masks and respirators are components of a number of infection control measures intended to protect healthcare workers, and prevent the spread of diseases. All healthcare workers who come into contact with a possible or probable case of any respiratory track infections should wear a respirator conforming to at least EN149:2001 FFP3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 296-306

  6. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms. (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R


    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  7. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.


    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh


    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  9. Masked object registration in the Fourier domain. (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk


    Registration is one of the most common tasks of image analysis and computer vision applications. The requirements of most registration algorithms include large capture range and fast computation so that the algorithms are robust to different scenarios and can be computed in a reasonable amount of time. For these purposes, registration in the Fourier domain using normalized cross-correlation is well suited and has been extensively studied in the literature. Another common requirement is masking, which is necessary for applications where certain regions of the image that would adversely affect the registration result should be ignored. To address these requirements, we have derived a mathematical model that describes an exact form for embedding the masking step fully into the Fourier domain so that all steps of translation registration can be computed efficiently using Fast Fourier Transforms. We provide algorithms and implementation details that demonstrate the correctness of our derivations. We also demonstrate how this masked FFT registration approach can be applied to improve the Fourier-Mellin algorithm that calculates translation, rotation, and scale in the Fourier domain. We demonstrate the computational efficiency, advantages, and correctness of our algorithm on a number of images from real-world applications. Our framework enables fast, global, parameter-free registration of images with masked regions.

  10. Masked hypertension: a systematic review. (United States)

    Bobrie, Guillaume; Clerson, Pierre; Ménard, Joël; Postel-Vinay, Nicolas; Chatellier, Gilles; Plouin, Pierre-François


    The purpose of this research was to review the literature on masked hypertension. Studies, reviews and editorials on masked hypertension were identified by PubMed, Pascal BioMed and Cochrane literature systematic searches. Then, we carried out a meta-analysis of the six cohort studies reporting quantitative data for masked hypertension prognosis. There is still no clear consensus definition of masked hypertension and the reproducibility of the phenomenon is unknown. Nevertheless, the prevalence of masked hypertension seems to lie between 8 and 20%, and can be up to 50% in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects with masked hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular accidents [hazard ratios: 1.92 (1.51-2.44)] than normotensive subjects. This is due to a possible failure to recognize and appropriately manage this particular form of hypertension, the frequent association with other risk factors and coexisting target organ damage. The remaining unresolved questions are as follows: is masked hypertension a clinical entity that requires identification and characterization or a statistical phenomenon linked to the variability of blood pressure measurements?; because screening of the entire population is not feasible, how to identify individuals with masked hypertension?; and, in the absence of randomized trial, how to treat masked hypertension?

  11. Trends in mask data preparation (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Pang, Liyong; Su, Bo; Choi, Yohan


    Whether for VSB mask writing or for multibeam mask writing, the shapes we need to write on masks are increasingly complex, increasingly curvilinear, and smaller in minimum width and space. The overwhelming trend in mask data preparation (MDP) is the shift from deterministic, rule-based, geometric, context-independent, shape-modulated, rectangular processing to statistical, simulation-based, context-dependent, dose- and shape-modulated any-shape processing. The paper briefly surveys the history of MDP, and explains through a simulation-based study that 50nm line and space is the tipping point where rule-based processing gives away to simulation-based processing.

  12. What Is Being Masked in Object Substitution Masking? (United States)

    Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Cole, Geoff; Skarratt, Paul


    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur when a perceptual object is hypothesized that is mismatched by subsequent sensory evidence, leading to a new hypothesized object being substituted for the first. For example, when a brief target is accompanied by a longer lasting display of nonoverlapping mask elements, reporting of target…

  13. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick


    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  14. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography (United States)

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David


    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  15. A frequency and pulse-width co-modulation strategy for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation based on sEMG time-domain features (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Hai-Peng; Bao, Xue-Liang; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong


    Objective. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is often used as a control signal in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) systems to enhance the voluntary control and proprioceptive sensory feedback of paralyzed patients. Most sEMG-controlled NMES systems use the envelope of the sEMG signal to modulate the stimulation intensity (current amplitude or pulse width) with a constant frequency. The aims of this study were to develop a strategy that co-modulates frequency and pulse width based on features of the sEMG signal and to investigate the torque-reproduction performance and the level of fatigue resistance achieved with our strategy. Approach. We examined the relationships between wrist torque and two stimulation parameters (frequency and pulse width) and between wrist torque and two sEMG time-domain features (mean absolute value (MAV) and number of slope sign changes (NSS)) in eight healthy volunteers. By using wrist torque as an intermediate variable, customized and generalized transfer functions were constructed to convert the two features of the sEMG signal into the two stimulation parameters, thereby establishing a MAV/NSS dual-coding (MNDC) algorithm. Wrist torque reproduction performance was assessed by comparing the torque generated by the algorithms with that originally recorded during voluntary contractions. Muscle fatigue was assessed by measuring the decline percentage of the peak torque and by comparing the torque time integral of the response to test stimulation trains before and after fatigue sessions. Main Results. The MNDC approach could produce a wrist torque that closely matched the voluntary wrist torque. In addition, a smaller decay in the wrist torque was observed after the MNDC-coded fatigue stimulation was applied than after stimulation using pulse-width modulation alone. Significance. Compared with pulse-width modulation stimulation strategies that are based on sEMG detection, the MNDC strategy is more effective for both voluntary muscle

  16. Mask roughness induced LER: a rule of thumb -- paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick


    Much work has already been done on how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and currently factor into LER limits. Here, we propose a 'rule-of-thumb' simplified solution that provides a fast and powerful method to obtain mask roughness induced LER. We present modeling data on an older generation mask with a roughness of 230 pm as well as the ultimate target roughness of 50 pm. Moreover, we consider feature sizes of 50 nm and 22 nm, and show that as a function of correlation length, the LER peaks at the condition that the correlation length is approximately equal to the resolution of the imaging optic.

  17. Hg-Mask Coronagraph (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  18. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.


    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  19. Fabless company mask technology approach: fabless but not fab-careless (United States)

    Hisamura, Toshiyuki; Wu, Xin


    There are two different foundry-fabless working models in the aspect of mask. Some foundries have in-house mask facility while others contract with merchant mask vendors. Significant progress has been made in both kinds of situations. Xilinx as one of the pioneers of fabless semiconductor companies has been continually working very closely with both merchant mask vendors and mask facilities of foundries in past many years, contributed well in both technology development and benefited from corporations. Our involvement in manufacturing is driven by the following three elements: The first element is to understand the new fabrication and mask technologies and then find a suitable design / layout style to better utilize these new technologies and avoid potential risks. Because Xilinx has always been involved in early stage of advanced technology nodes, this early understanding and adoption is especially important. The second element is time to market. Reduction in mask and wafer manufacturing cycle-time can ensure faster time to market. The third element is quality. Commitment to quality is our highest priority for our customers. We have enough visibility on any manufacturing issues affecting the device functionality. Good correlation has consistently been observed between FPGA speed uniformity and the poly mask Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity performance. To achieve FPGA speed uniformity requirement, the manufacturing process as well as the mask and wafer CD uniformity has to be monitored. Xilinx works closely with the wafer foundries and mask suppliers to improve productivity and the yield from initial development stage of mask making operations. As an example, defect density reduction is one of the biggest challenges for mask supplier in development stage to meet the yield target satisfying the mask cost and mask turn-around-time (TAT) requirement. Historically, masks were considered to be defect free but at these advanced process nodes, that assumption no longer

  20. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues


    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  1. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia


    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  2. Priming of Visual Search Facilitates Attention Shifts: Evidence From Object-Substitution Masking. (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni


    Priming of visual search strongly affects visual function, releasing items from crowding and during free-choice primed targets are chosen over unprimed ones. Two accounts of priming have been proposed: attentional facilitation of primed features and postperceptual episodic memory retrieval that involves mapping responses to visual events. Here, well-known masking effects were used to assess the two accounts. Object-substitution masking has been considered to reflect attentional processing: It does not occur when a target is precued and is strengthened when distractors are present. Conversely, metacontrast masking has been connected to lower level processing where attention exerts little effect. If priming facilitates attention shifts, it should mitigate object-substitution masking, while lower level masking might not be similarly influenced. Observers searched for an odd-colored target among distractors. Unpredictably (on 20% of trials), object-substitution masks or metacontrast masks appeared around the target. Object-substitution masking was strongly mitigated for primed target colors, while metacontrast masking was mostly unaffected. This argues against episodic retrieval accounts of priming, placing the priming locus firmly within the realm of attentional processing. The results suggest that priming of visual search facilitates attention shifts to the target, which allows better spatiotemporal resolution that overcomes object-substitution masking.

  3. Informational masking and musical training. (United States)

    Oxenham, Andrew J; Fligor, Brian J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald


    The relationship between musical training and informational masking was studied for 24 young adult listeners with normal hearing. The listeners were divided into two groups based on musical training. In one group, the listeners had little or no musical training; the other group was comprised of highly trained, currently active musicians. The hypothesis was that musicians may be less susceptible to informational masking, which is thought to reflect central, rather than peripheral, limitations on the processing of sound. Masked thresholds were measured in two conditions, similar to those used by Kidd et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3475-3480 (1994)]. In both conditions the signal was comprised of a series of repeated tone bursts at 1 kHz. The masker was comprised of a series of multitone bursts, gated with the signal. In one condition the frequencies of the masker were selected randomly for each burst; in the other condition the masker frequencies were selected randomly for the first burst of each interval and then remained constant throughout the interval. The difference in thresholds between the two conditions was taken as a measure of informational masking. Frequency selectivity, using the notched-noise method, was also estimated in the two groups. The results showed no difference in frequency selectivity between the two groups, but showed a large and significant difference in the amount of informational masking between musically trained and untrained listeners. This informational masking task, which requires no knowledge specific to musical training (such as note or interval names) and is generally not susceptible to systematic short- or medium-term training effects, may provide a basis for further studies of analytic listening abilities in different populations.

  4. Production mask composition checking flow (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon


    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  5. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan


    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh


    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  7. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations. (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk


    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a modified variant of an affective priming task. Faces with happy, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions were presented as masked primes for 33 ms (Study 1) or 14 ms (Studies 2 and 3) followed by emotional target faces (Studies 1 and 2) or emotional adjectives (Study 3). Participants' task was to categorise the target emotion. In all three studies, discrimination of targets was significantly affected by the emotional primes beyond a simple positive versus negative distinction. Results indicate that specific aspects of emotions might be automatically disentangled in addition to valence, even under conditions of subjective unawareness.

  8. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy


    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  9. Effect of Mask Regions on Weak Lensing Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Hamana, Takashi


    Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 Gaussian simulations in order to examine in detail the impact of mask regions on the weak lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and thus the expected values of the MFs are biased even for a Gaussian random field. The bias is caused by two effects. One is owing to the reduced number of sampling Fourier modes, which can be accounted for analytically by considering the survey geometry appropriately. The other is owing to variation of the variance of the convergence field for each field of view. Lensing MFs are biased systematically when the reconstructed convergence field is normalized by its variance. We then use a large number of cosmological ray-tracing simulations in order to addr...

  10. Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.


    Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.

  11. Mask qualification strategies in a wafer fab (United States)

    Jaehnert, Carmen; Kunowski, Angela


    Having consistent high quality photo masks is one of the key factors in lithography in the wafer fab. Combined with stable exposure- and resist processes, it ensures yield increases in production and fast learning cycles for technology development and design evaluation. Preventive controlling of incoming masks and quality monitoring while using the mask in production is essential for the fab to avoid yield loss or technical problems caused by mask issues, which eventually result in delivery problems to the customer. In this paper an overview of the procedures used for mask qualification and production release, for both logic and DRAM, at Infineon Dresden is presented. Incoming qualification procedures, such as specification checks, incoming inspection, and inline litho process window evaluation, are described here. Pinching and electrical tests, including compatibility tests for mask copies for high volume products on optimized litho processes, are also explained. To avoid mask degradation over lifetime, re-inspection checks are done for re-qualification while using the mask in production. The necessity of mask incoming inspection and re-qualification, due to the repeater printing from either the processing defects of the original mask or degrading defects of being used in the fab (i.e. haze, ESD, and moving particles, etc.), is demonstrated. The need and impact of tight mask specifications, such as CD uniformity signatures and corresponding electrical results, are shown with examples of mask-wafer CD correlation.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device placed over a patient's nose, mouth, or tracheostomy to administer oxygen or aerosols. (b)...

  13. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples. (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe


    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory.

  14. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  15. Spatial release from informational masking (United States)

    Rakerd, Brad; Aaronson, Neil L.


    A new method for investigating spatial release from informational masking was developed and employed in two experiments. The new method is computer controlled and efficient. It employs the versatile coordinate response measure speech stimulus set [Bolia et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1065 (2000)]. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic room, with a primary loudspeaker in front of the listener and a secondary loudspeaker at 60 deg to the right. Target messages were presented from the primary speaker only. For a standard, distractor messages, simultaneous with the target, were also presented from the primary speaker only. Spatial release was measured by presenting the distractors from both primary and secondary speakers with a temporal offset. Experiment 1 fixed the offset (secondary leading, +4 ms) and varied the number of distractors (1 to 3) and the target-to-distractor ratio (-12 to +4 dB). Masking release, sometimes as large as 10 dB, was found for all combinations of these variables. Experiment 2 varied the offset over a wide range of values. Substantial release from masking was found for both positive and negative offsets, but only in the range in which speech echoes are suppressed (<50 ms). [Work supported by NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  16. High performance mask fabrication process for the next-generation mask production (United States)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kobayashi, Yoshihito; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu


    ArF immersion lithography combined with double patterning has been used for fabricating below half pitch 40nm devices. However, when pattern size shrinks below 20nm, we must use new technology like quadruple patterning process or next generation lithography (NGL) solutions. Moreover, with change in lithography tool, next generation mask production will be needed. According to ITRS 2013, fabrication of finer patterns less than 15nm will be required on mask plate in NGL mask production 5 years later [1]. In order to fabricate finer patterns on mask, higher resolution EB mask writer and high performance fabrication process will be required. In a previous study, we investigated a potential of mask fabrication process for finer patterning and achieved 17nm dense line pattern on mask plate by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer and chemically amplified resist [2][3]. After a further investigation, we constructed higher performance mask process by using new EB mask writer EBM9000. EBM9000 is the equipment supporting hp16nm generation's photomask production and has high accuracy and high throughput. As a result, we achieved 15.5nm pattern on mask with high productivity. Moreover, from evaluation of isolated pattern, we proved that current mask process has the capability for sub-10nm pattern. These results show that the performance of current mask fabrication process have the potential to fabricate the next-generation mask.

  17. Mask CD uniformity improvement by electron scanning exposure based Global Loading Effect Correction (United States)

    Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric; Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Lu, Max


    Critical Dimension (CD) Uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC), and towards the advanced technology node 28nm and beyond, corresponding CD Uniformity becomes more and more crucial. It is found that bad mask CD Uniformity is a significant error source at 28nm process. The CD Uniformity on mask, if not controlled well, will badly impact wafer CD performance, and it has been well-studied that CD Uniformity issue from gate line-width in transistors would affect the device performance directly. In this paper we present a novel solution for mask global CD uniformity error correction, which is called as global loading effect correction (GLEC) method and applied nesting in the mask exposure map during the electron beam exposure. There are factors such as global chip layout, writing sequence and chip pattern density distribution (Global Loading), that work on the whole mask CD Uniformity, especially Global Loading is the key factor related to mask global CD error. From our experimental results, different pattern density distribution on mask significantly influenced the final mask CD Uniformity: the mask with undulating pattern density distribution provides much worse CD Uniformity than that with uniform one. Therefore, a GLEC model based on pattern density has been created to compensate the global error during the electron beam exposure, which has been proved to be efficacious to improve mask global CD Uniformity performance. Furthermore, it 's also revealed that pattern type is another important impact factor, and GLEC coefficient need be modified due to the specific pattern type (e.g. dense line-space only, iso-space only or an average of them) to improve the corresponding mask CD uniformity.

  18. Impact of mask CDU and local CD variation on intra-field CDU (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junji; Mouraille, Orion; Finders, Jo; Higuchi, Masaru; Kojima, Yosuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Hiroaki


    The control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), especially intra-field CDU, is an important aspect for advanced lithography, and this property must be controlled very tightly since it affects all of the exposure fields. It is well known that the influence of the mask CDU on the wafer intra-field CDU is becoming dominant because the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) is quite high for low-k1 lithography. Additionally, the abovementioned factors impact the CDU through global (field-level) and local (grating-level) variations. In this paper, we analyze in detail CDU budgets by clarifying the impact of local CD variation. The 50-nm staggered hole features using Att-PSM showed a mask global CDU of 1.64 nm (3sigma at the mask level) and a wafer intra-field CDU of 2.30 nm, indicating that the mask global CDU was a major part of the intra-field CDU. By compensating for the contribution of the mask CD, the wafer intra-field CDU can be reduced to 0.986 nm. We analyzed the budgets of wafer intra-field CDU, which is caused by local CD variation (mask and process) and measurement noise. We determined that a primary cause of the wafer intra-field CDU after applying a mask CD correction was these local CD variations, which might disturb the proper use of dose correction for the mask CD. We demonstrated that the impact of mask local CD variation on the correction flow can be greatly reduced by averaging multiple point measurements within a small area, and therefore discuss the optimum conditions allowing for an accurate intra-field CDU determination. We also consider optimization of the CD sampling scheme in order to apply a dose correction on an exposure system to compensate for the mask CDU.

  19. LER control and mitigation: mask roughness induced LER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick


    In the push towards commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), meeting the stringent requirements for line-edge roughness (LER) is increasingly challenging. For the 22-nm half-pitch node and below, the ITRS requires under 1.2 nm LER. Much of this LER is thought to arise from three significant contributors: LER on the mask absorber pattern, LER from the resist, and LER from mask roughness induced speckle. The physical mechanism behind the last contributor is becoming clearer, but how it is affected by the presence of aberrations is less well understood. Here, we conduct a full 2D aerial image simulation analysis of aberrations sensitivities of mask roughness induced LER for the first 37 fringe zernikes. These results serve as a guideline for future LER aberrations control. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we next consider an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a 'strip'. While this illumination surprisingly provides merely minimal improvement to the LER as several alternate illumination schemes, overall imaging quality in terms of ILS, NILS, and contrast is improved. While the 22-nm half-pitch node can tolerate significant aberrations from a mask roughness induced LER perspective, total aberration levels for the 16-nm half-pitch node need to be strictly capped at 0.25nm rms to meet the ITRS guidelines. An individual aberrations study for the first 37 fringe zernikes on the 16-nm half-pitch node at the 0.25nm rms level reveals a sensitivity to various forms of spherical aberrations (Z9 & Z25) and quadrafoil (Z28) in particular, under conventional crosspole illumination ({sigma} = 0.10). Compared to conventional dipole or crosspole illuminations, an extended dipole 'strip' illumination scheme offers a way to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, while still maintaining

  20. Computational defect review for actinic mask inspections (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram


    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns continues to diminish. The limitation of 1.35 NA posed by water-based lithography has led to the application of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET), for example, use of strong phase-shifting masks, aggressive OPC and sub-resolution assist features, customized illuminators, etc. The adoption of these RET techniques combined with the requirements to detect even smaller defects on masks due to increasing MEEF, poses considerable challenges for a mask inspection engineer. Inspecting masks under their actinic-aerial image conditions would detect defects that are more likely to print under those exposure conditions. However, this also makes reviewing such defects in their low-contrast aerial images very challenging. On the other hand, inspecting masks under higher resolution inspection optics would allow for better viewing of defects post-inspection. However, such inspections generally would also detect many more defects, including printable and nuisance, thereby making it difficult to judge which are of real concern for printability on wafer. Often, an inspection engineer may choose to use Aerial and/or high resolution inspection modes depending on where in the process flow the mask is and the specific device-layer characteristics of the mask. Hence, a comprehensive approach is needed in handling defects both post-aerial and post-high resolution inspections. This analysis system is designed for the Applied Materials Aera™ mask inspection platform, all data reported was collected using the Aera.

  1. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian


    a combination of these cues using a generalized comodulationmasking release (CMR) paradigm. CMR is the effect of a better signal detectability in the presence of comodulated maskers than in the presence of maskers with uncorrelated envelope fluctuations across frequencies. Using a flanking-band paradigm...... modulations and recent physiological evidence of spectro-temporal modulation filters, the second experiment investigates whether CMR is also observed for spectro-temporal masker modulations generated using time-shifted versions of the masker envelope for each component. The thresholds increase as soon...

  2. Model-based mask verification on critical 45nm logic masks (United States)

    Sundermann, F.; Foussadier, F.; Takigawa, T.; Wiley, J.; Vacca, A.; Depre, L.; Chen, G.; Bai, S.; Wang, J.-S.; Howell, R.; Arnoux, V.; Hayano, K.; Narukawa, S.; Kawashima, S.; Mohri, H.; Hayashi, N.; Miyashita, H.; Trouiller, Y.; Robert, F.; Vautrin, F.; Kerrien, G.; Planchot, J.; Martinelli, C.; Di-Maria, J. L.; Farys, V.; Vandewalle, B.; Perraud, L.; Le Denmat, J. C.; Villaret, A.; Gardin, C.; Yesilada, E.; Saied, M.


    In the continuous battle to improve critical dimension (CD) uniformity, especially for 45-nanometer (nm) logic advanced products, one important recent advance is the ability to accurately predict the mask CD uniformity contribution to the overall global wafer CD error budget. In most wafer process simulation models, mask error contribution is embedded in the optical and/or resist models. We have separated the mask effects, however, by creating a short-range mask process model (MPM) for each unique mask process and a long-range CD uniformity mask bias map (MBM) for each individual mask. By establishing a mask bias map, we are able to incorporate the mask CD uniformity signature into our modelling simulations and measure the effects on global wafer CD uniformity and hotspots. We also have examined several ways of proving the efficiency of this approach, including the analysis of OPC hot spot signatures with and without the mask bias map (see Figure 1) and by comparing the precision of the model contour prediction to wafer SEM images. In this paper we will show the different steps of mask bias map generation and use for advanced 45nm logic node layers, along with the current results of this new dynamic application to improve hot spot verification through Brion Technologies' model-based mask verification loop.

  3. Mask process correction (MPC) modeling and its application to EUV mask for electron beam mask writer EBM-7000 (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Bai, Shufeng; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael; Chen, George; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; Wiley, Jim; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Saito, Yasuko; Takigawa, Tadahiro


    In electron beam writing on EUV mask, it has been reported that CD linearity does not show simple signatures as observed with conventional COG (Cr on Glass) masks because they are caused by scattered electrons form EUV mask itself which comprises stacked heavy metals and thick multi-layers. To resolve this issue, Mask Process Correction (MPC) will be ideally applicable. Every pattern is reshaped in MPC. Therefore, the number of shots would not increase and writing time will be kept within reasonable range. In this paper, MPC is extended to modeling for correction of CD linearity errors on EUV mask. And its effectiveness is verified with simulations and experiments through actual writing test.

  4. Masked hypertension, a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P.W. de


    Masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in the physicians' office but elevated elsewhere) is a common phenomenon as prevalence among studies varies from 8 to 45% and is seen at all ages. large discrepancies, however, exist between studies that have dealt with masked hypertension. It is of

  5. Masking the Feeling of Being Stupid. (United States)

    Smith, Sally L.


    Teaching experience at The Lab School of Washington has shown that learning-disabled children and adults cope with their lack of self-esteem and feelings of stupidity by developing masks to hide their hurt. These include masks of super-competence, helplessness, invisibility, clowning, injustice collecting, indifference, boredom, outrageousness,…

  6. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald


    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  7. Extinction controlled adaptive phase-mask coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Bourget, P; Mawet, D; Haguenauer, P


    Context. Phase-mask coronagraphy is advantageous in terms of inner working angle and discovery space. It is however still plagued by drawbacks such as sensitivity to tip-tilt errors and chromatism. A nulling stellar coronagraph based on the adaptive phase-mask concept using polarization interferometry is presented in this paper. Aims. Our concept aims at dynamically and achromatically optimizing the nulling efficiency of the coronagraph, making it more immune to fast low-order aberrations (tip-tilt errors, focus, ...). Methods. We performed numerical simulations to demonstrate the value of the proposed method. The active control system will correct for the detrimental effects of image instabilities on the destructive interference. The mask adaptability both in size, phase and amplitude also compensates for manufacturing errors of the mask itself, and potentially for chromatic effects. Liquid-crystal properties are used to provide variable transmission of an annulus around the phase mask, but also to achieve t...

  8. Schizophrenia and visual backward masking: a general deficit of target enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Herzog


    Full Text Available The obvious symptoms of schizophrenia are of cognitive and psychopathological nature. However, schizophrenia affects also visual processing which becomes particularly evident when stimuli are presented for short durations and are followed by a masking stimulus. Visual deficits are of great interest because they might be related to the genetic variations underlying the disease (endophenotype concept. Visual masking deficits are usually attributed to specific dysfunctions of the visual system such as a hypo- or hyper-active magnocellular system. Here, we propose that visual deficits are a manifestation of a general deficit related to the enhancement of weak neural signals as occurring in all other sorts of information processing. We summarize previous findings with the shine-through masking paradigm where a shortly presented vernier target is followed by a masking grating. The mask deteriorates visual processing of schizophrenic patients by almost an order of magnitude compared to healthy controls. We propose that these deficits are caused by dysfunctions of attention and the cholinergic system leading to weak neural activity corresponding to the vernier. High density electrophysiological recordings (EEG show that indeed neural activity is strongly reduced in schizophrenic patients which we attribute to the lack of vernier enhancement. When only the masking grating is presented, EEG responses are roughly comparable between patients and control. Our hypothesis is supported by findings relating visual masking to genetic deviants of the nicotinic 7 receptor (CHRNA7.

  9. Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption (United States)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu


    The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

  10. Space and time in masking and crowding. (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri


    Masking and crowding are major phenomena associated with contextual modulations, but the relationship between them remains unclear. We have recently shown that crowding is apparent in the fovea when the time available for processing is limited, pointing to the strong relationship between crowding in the spatial and temporal domains. Models of crowding emphasize the size (acuity) of the target and the spacing between the target and flankers as the main determinants that predict crowding. Our model, which is based on lateral interactions, posits that masking and crowding are related in the spatial and temporal domains at the fovea and periphery and that both can be explained by the increasing size of the human perceptive field (PF) with increasing eccentricity. We explored the relations between masking and crowding using letter identification and contrast detection by correlating the crowding effect with the estimated size of the PF and with masking under different spatiotemporal conditions. We found that there is a large variability in PF size and crowding effects across observers. Nevertheless, masking and crowding were both correlated with the estimated size of the PF in the fovea and periphery under a specific range of spatiotemporal parameters. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, crowding and masking share common neural mechanisms that underlie the spatiotemporal properties of these phenomena in both the fovea and periphery. These results could explain the transfer of training gains from spatiotemporal Gabor masking to letter acuity, reading, and reduced crowding.

  11. Printed shadow masks for organic transistors (United States)

    Noguchi, Yoshiaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao


    We have manufactured organic field-effect transistors by using shadow masks that are patterned by a screen printing system. The 50-nm-thick pentacene layer is sublimed as a channel in the vacuum system through the shadow mask on the base film with a multilayer patterned by ink-jet. After the deposition of the pentacene layer, the shadow mask is peeled off from the base film without any mechanical damages to the lower structures. The mobility in the saturation regime is 0.4cm2/Vs and the on-off ratio exceeds 105.

  12. Tom Pickering as a clinical scientist: masked hypertension. (United States)

    Eguchi, Kazuo


    Masked hypertension has been 'unmasked' by the use of the out-of-office measurement of blood pressure, as home BP monitoring or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has become available. The term masked hypertension could be used more widely than the original version of masked hypertension; morning hypertension, stress-induced hypertension, and nocturnal hypertension are all classified as subtypes of masked hypertension. Masked hypertension can also be seen in patients with diabetes, that could change clinical practice in diabetes. Masked hypertension is associated with cardiovascular events, but most of the outcome studies are on antihypertensive medications. Therefore, masked hypertension includes insufficient treatment of hypertension. In Dr Pickering's latest review of masked hypertension, prehypertension or high normal blood pressure was stressed as an associating factor with masked hypertension. The biggest theme in the field of hypertension is how we can detect masked hypertension. I present two interesting cases of possible masked hypertension in this commentary.

  13. Polishing Your Transparencies: Mounting, Masking, Overlays. (United States)

    Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

    This brief guide discusses the mounting of overhead transparencies on frames, the types of mounts, the proper masking for presentation, and the use of overlays. Numerous line drawings provide the reader with a helpful visual reference. (RAO)

  14. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.


    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  15. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather


    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last fe...

  16. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Qiao, E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)


    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (Ω {sub m}, σ{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter

  17. Neurofibromatosis: relinquishing the masks; a quest for quality of life. (United States)

    Messner, R; Smith, M N


    Neurofibromatosis (NF) or von Recklinghausen's disease is mankind's most common neurologic genetic disorder, occurring in one of every 3000 live births. While many individuals with NF suffer disfiguring, disabling, or life-threatening complications, NF is extremely variable in its symptoms, intensity, and progression. For many of its victims, NF is a pseudonym for uncertainty and physical and psychosocial havoc. John Merrick, 'The Elephant Man', endured one of the most severe cases of NF ever recorded. Merrick's rejection by post-Dickensian England forced him to become a sideshow circus attraction just to survive. The essence of nursing intervention with NF patients and their families engaged in the quest for quality of life is to restore them to optimal physical and psychosocial functioning, and, ideally, to help them utilize the experience for growth. Many individuals respond to the frustration of NF and society's reactions to the disorder by the wearing of psychological masks. Likewise, nurses may wear emotional masks as a defence against their own discomfort and fears concerning the disorders. Comprehensive nursing management of NF is realized only as nurses and patients relinquish their respective masks. This article examines the nurse's role in genetic disorders with special considerations presented by NF. Adaptation to NF involves coping with NF and its accompanying sequelae and coping with life as it is affected by NF. The concepts of 'chromosomal coping', 'genetophobia', 'genetic guilt, and 'genetic overload syndrome' are presented and analyzed utilizing the theoretical nursing frameworks of Imogene King and Sister Callista Roy.

  18. In-flight calibration of the INTEGRAL/IBIS mask

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Gros, A; Belanger, G; Beckmann, V; Caballero, I; Goldwurm, A; Gotz, D; Mattana, F; Heras, J A Zurita; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P


    Since the release of the INTEGRAL Offline Scientific Analysis (OSA) software version 9.0, the ghost busters module has been introduced in the INTEGRAL/IBIS imaging procedure, leading to an improvement of the sensitivity around bright sources up to a factor of 7. This module excludes in the deconvolution process the IBIS/ISGRI detector pixels corresponding to the projection of a bright source through mask elements affected by some defects. These defects are most likely associated with screws and glue fixing the IBIS mask to its support. Following these major improvements introduced in OSA 9, a second order correction is still required to further remove the residual noise, now at a level of 0.2-1% of the brightest source in the field of view. In order to improve our knowledge of the IBIS mask transparency, a calibration campaign has been carried out during 2010-2012. We present here the analysis of these data, together with archival observations of the Crab and Cyg X-1, that allowed us to build a composite imag...

  19. Role of mask in asian shamanism




    In the article there is considered a phenomena of shamanism as a cultural universal. Analysis object is a clay mask of National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It was found in Keder settlement (Kuiryktobe), located in Otrar Oasis at one of the most busy part of the Silk Road. The mask as shamanistic ritual attribute is considered as an obligatory condition for meditative function of shaman.

  20. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD. (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D


    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring.

  1. Uncertainty and confusion in temporal masking (United States)

    Formby, C.; Zhang, T.


    In a landmark study, Wright et al. [Nature 387, 176-178 (1997)] reported an apparent backward-masking deficit in language-impaired children. Subsequently, these controversial results have been influential in guiding treatments for childhood language problems. In this study we revisited Wright et al.'s temporal-masking paradigm to evaluate listener uncertainty effects. Masked detection was measured for 20-ms sinusoids (480, 1000, or 1680 Hz) presented at temporal positions before, during, or after a gated narrowband (W=600-1400 Hz) masker. Listener uncertainty was investigated by cueing various stimulus temporal properties with a 6000-Hz sinusoid presented either ipsi- or contra-lateral to the test ear or bilaterally. The primary cueing effect was measured in the backward-masking condition for a contralateral cue gated simultaneously with the on-frequency 1000-Hz signal. The resulting cued masked-detection threshold was reduced to quiet threshold. No significant cueing effects were obtained for other signal temporal positions in the masker nor for any off-frequency signal conditions. These results indicate that (1) uncertainty can be reduced or eliminated for on-frequency backward masking by cueing the signal and (2) the deficit reported by Wright et al. for language-impaired children may reflect uncertainty and confusion rather than a temporal-processing deficit per se. [Research supported by NIDCD.

  2. VSP wave separation by adaptive masking filters (United States)

    Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua


    In vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data processing, the first step might be to separate the down-going wavefield from the up-going wavefield. When using a masking filter for VSP wave separation, there are difficulties associated with two termination ends of the up-going waves. A critical challenge is how the masking filter can restore the energy tails, the edge effect associated with these terminations uniquely exist in VSP data. An effective strategy is to implement masking filters in both τ-p and f-k domain sequentially. Meanwhile it uses a median filter, producing a clean but smooth version of the down-going wavefield, used as a reference data set for designing the masking filter. The masking filter is implemented adaptively and iteratively, gradually restoring the energy tails cut-out by any surgical mute. While the τ-p and the f-k domain masking filters target different depth ranges of VSP, this combination strategy can accurately perform in wave separation from field VSP data.

  3. Claude Levi-Strauss: Mask and Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Kovač


    Full Text Available This paper discuss a relationship between mask and myth and how the appropriate analysis by Claude Levi-Strauss may make clearer a complex field of masks in the part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss stressed the multi- layered character of myth structure. Similar multi-layered character can be seen at the level of expression, content and meaning of Salish, Kwakiutl and other unique masks of this part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss analysed certain myths trying to explain ‘the path’ of the masks that belong to the people with similar languages, or those who lived nearby. The mythology of Tsimshian, Tlingit and Haïda people have certain common characteristics that point to the similarities with the nearby groups (Kwakiutl. Despite differences that exist at the level of meanings of the masks, there is also common ‘mythological heritage’ of the people who used to live in the Northern Pacific Coast. Claude Levi-Strauss showed that there is no final solution in the myth analysis, and that there is no possibility that the dissection of the problem will reveal some hidden unity. "As mythical though does not want to start clearly somewhere and come somewhere, it never goes through its whole trajectory: there is always something waiting to be fullfield. The same way as rituals, myths are infinite." It seems that Levi-Strauss explanation of the Path of masks goes in that direction.

  4. Phase mask coronagraphy at JPL and Palomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serabyn E.


    Full Text Available For the imaging of faint companions, phase mask coronagraphy has the dual advantages of a small inner working angle and high throughput. This paper summarizes our recent work in developing phase masks and in demonstrating their capabilities at JPL. Four-quadrant phase masks have been manufactured at JPL by means of both evaporation and etching, and we have been developing liquid crystal vortex phase masks in partnership with a commercial vendor. Both types of mask have been used with our extreme adaptive optics well-corrected subaperture at Palomar to detect known brown dwarf companions as close as ~ 2.5 λ/D to stars. Moreover, our recent vortex masks perform very well in laboratory tests, with a demonstrated infrared contrast of about 10−6 at 3 λ/D, and contrasts of a few 10−7 with an initial optical wavelength device. The demonstrated performance already meets the needs of ground-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraphy, and further planned improvements are aimed at reaching the 10−10 contrast needed for terrestrial exoplanet detection with a space-based coronagraph.

  5. Emotion Potentiates Response Activation and Inhibition in Masked Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eBocanegra


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotion can have two-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect: PCE. However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect: NCE. These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  6. Clean induced feature CD shift of EUV mask (United States)

    Nesládek, Pavel; Schedel, Thorsten; Bender, Markus


    EUV developed in the last decade to the most promising Second contributor is the fact that EUV mask is currently in contrary to optical mask not yet equipped with sealed pellicle, leading to much higher risk of mask contamination. Third reason is use of EUV mask in vacuum, possibly leading to deposition of vacuum contaminants on the EUV mask surface. Latter reason in combination with tight requirements on backside cleanliness lead to the request of frequent recleaning of the EUV mask, in order to sustain mask lifetime similar to that of optical mask. Mask cleaning process alters slightly the surface of any mask - binary COG mask, as well as phase shift mask of any type and naturally also of the EUV mask as well. In case of optical masks the changes are almost negligible, as the mask is exposed to max. 10-20 re-cleans within its life time. These modifications can be expressed in terms of different specified parameters, e.g. CD shift, phase/trans shift, change of the surface roughness etc. The CD shift, expressed as thinning (or exceptionally thickening) of the dark features on the mask is typically in order of magnitude 0.1nm per process run, which is completely acceptable for optical mask. Projected on the lifetime of EUV mask, assuming 100 clean process cycles, this will lead to CD change of about 10nm. For this reason the requirements for EUV mask cleaning are significantly tighter, << 0.1 nm per process run. This task will look even more challenging, when considering, that the tools for CD measurement at the EUV mask are identical as for optical mask. There is one aspect influencing the CD shift, which demands attention. The mask composition of the EUV mask is significantly different from the optical mask. More precisely there are 2 materials influencing the estimated CD in case of EUV mask, whereas there is one material only in case of optical masks, in first approximation. For optical masks, the CD changes can be attributed to modification of the absorber

  7. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)


    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  8. Formulation design and optimization of taste-masked mouth-dissolving tablets of Tramadol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to mask the extremely bitter taste of Tramadol HCL, an opioid analgesic, and to formulate a tablet which can rapidly disintegrate in saliva (rapidly disintegrating tablet. The crucial aspect in the formulation of mouth-dissolving tablets is to mask the bitter taste and to minimize the disintegration time. Taste masking was done using sweetening agent and D-mannitol and taste-masked pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique. Prepared pellets were tested for drug content, taste evaluation in oral cavity and molecular property. Pellet shows significant taste masking, confirmed by in vitro taste evaluation; therefore, it was selected for further study. Pellets were evaluated for density, angle of repose, Carr′s index, Hausner′s ratio and sphericity while tablets were evaluated for disintegration and in vitro dissolution. A 3 2 full factorial design and statistical models were applied to optimize the effect of two factors, i.e. superdisintegrant sodium starch glycolate and taste-masking agent (D-mannitol. In this study, response surface methodology was used for designing of the experiment, generation of mathematical models and optimization study. Taste evaluation of pellets in human volunteers revealed considerable taste masking with a degree of bitterness below threshold value (2.0 within 10 s, whereas Tramadol HCl was rated intensely bitter with a score of +4 for 10 s. The size of the pellets varied from 0.895 to 1.423 mm for different batch and found to be a spherical. Disintegration time of different formulations varied from 30 to 60 s. It was observed that the responses, i.e. disintegration time and sphericity were affected by both the factors. The statistical models were validated and can be successfully used to prepare optimized taste-masked mouth-dissolving tablets of Tramadol HCl with adequate disintegration and shape.

  9. Optical inspection of EPL stencil masks (United States)

    Lee, Po-Tung; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.; Kawata, Shintaro; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Sogard, Michael R.


    We are now at a major junction in lithography where non-optical lithographies, such as Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) [1], are being introduced. The mask used in EPL is a non-transparent silicon substrate with a thin silicon (~2μm) membrane with openings for electrons to pass through acting as a scatterer. This must be inspected as defects may cause printable defects. Initial mask inspection work has used SEM inspection to find these defects. However, we have historically used optical mask inspection tools, utilising wavelengths at or above what we are using for imaging, to qualify masks. This technology has been increasingly difficult to sustain as we have moved from imaging using mercury lamp based sources to pulsed excimer laser based sources that are not very suited to the inspection imaging. Indeed, review of defects found has moved from optical microscopes to SEM based tools. Inspection tools have also evolved, with the first SEM based mask inspection tools being developed to find the smallest defects, however these have the penalty of very low throughput. We will show the potential of using optical systems for the transmissive inspection of these EPL masks. The high potential of existing tools will be shown together with the need for a next generation of inspection tools. We will show that simulations indicate that an inspection source with 193nm wavelength would be required for the detection of 50nm defects on a mask used to print 70nm dense lines. It will also be shown how the position of the defect within the membrane greatly influences detection as well as the implications of moving to a thinner silicon membrane.

  10. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  11. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word? (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.


    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  12. Metrology on phase-shift masks (United States)

    Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Maurer, Wilhelm; Blaesing-Bangert, Carola


    In the evaluation of new manufacturing processes, metrology is a key function, beginning with the first step of process development through the final step of everyday mass production at the fabrication floor level. RIM-type phase shift masks are expected to be the first application of phase shift masks in high volume production, since they provide improved lithography process capability at the expense of only moderate complexity in their manufacturing. Measurements of critical dimension (CD) and pattern position (overlay) on experimental rim-type and chromeless phase shift masks are reported. Pattern placement (registration) was measured using the Leitz LMS 2000. The overall design and important components were already described. The pattern placement of the RIM type phase shift structures on the photomask described above was determined within a tolerance of 25 nm (3s); nominal accuracy was within 45 nm (3s). On the chromeless phase shift mask the measurement results were easily obtained using a wafer intensity algorithm available with the system. The measurement uncertainties were less than 25 nm and 50 nm for precision and nominal accuracy respectively. The measurement results from the Leitz CD 200 using transmitted light were: a CD- distribution of 135 nm (3s) on a typical 6 micrometers structure all over the mask; the 0.9 micrometers RIM structure had a distribution of 43 nm (3s). Typical long term precision performance values for the CD 200 on both chrome and phase shift structures have been less than 15 nm.

  13. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.


    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  14. Coherent Diffractive Imaging Using Randomly Coded Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Seaberg, Matthew H; Turner, Joshua J


    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides new opportunities for high resolution X-ray imaging with simultaneous amplitude and phase contrast. Extensions to CDI broaden the scope of the technique for use in a wide variety of experimental geometries and physical systems. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a new extension to CDI that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks. The information gained from the few additional diffraction measurements removes the need for typical object-domain constraints; the algorithm uses prior information about the masks instead. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments. Diffraction patterns are collected with up to 15 different masks placed between a CCD detector and a single sample. Phase retrieval is performed using a convex relaxation routine known as "PhaseCut" followed by a variation on Fienup's input-output algorit...

  15. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  16. The 8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome or Nablus mask-like facial syndrome : Report on two patients and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Werner, Marion; Dagan, Judith; Abeliovich, Devorah; Lerer, Israela


    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMFLS) is a rare microdeletion syndrome with a mask-like facial appearance as the most characteristic feature. In 2000, Teebi, was the first to report on a 4 years old boy affected with NMFLS. Since then two additional patients have been reported. Three years later,

  17. Advances in mask fabrication and alignment for masked ion-beam lithography (United States)

    Stumbo, David P.; Damm, George A.; Engler, D. W.; Fong, F. O.; Sen, S.; Wolfe, John C.; Randall, John N.; Mauger, Phillip E.; Shimkunas, Alex R.; Loeschne, Hans


    This paper describes recent developments in three areas ofmasked ion beam lithography (MIBL). These are 1) fabrication oflarge area, low distortion, silicon stencilmasks for demagnifying ion projection lithography, 2) fabrication ofstencil masks with nanometer scale resolution for 1:1 proximity printing, and 3) development of a direct method of alignment using the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02. These topics are discussed below. Demagnifying ion projection masks: We describe the fabrication of stencil masks in large area, low stress (10 MPa), n-type silicon membranes. The projection masks have a silicon foil area 95 mm in diameter, thicknesses between 1.5-5 and resolution of0.6um. Measured distortion (3a) in the IPL masks ranges between 0.23gm and 0.65,um, with an experimental error of 0.20 1um. Proximity printing masks: A process is described for fabricating stencil masks with 50 nm resolution in low stress, n-type silicon membranes. Membranes less than 0.5 ,ttm thick are shown to be free of the sidewall taper that limits resolution in thicker masks. These thin membranes show a slightly flared profile due to the imperfectly collimated etching ions. Alignment: A direct method of alignment is being developed which uses the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02 marks. Fluorescence yield is characterized as a function of ion energy and resist coating thickness. The yield for Si02 is in the range between 0.1-1.0 photons/proton, while the yields for Si, Al, and photoresist are negligibly small. Thus, a simple alignment technique can be implemented where registration of a grating in the mask with a corresponding oxide pattern is detected as a fluorescence maximum. A simple model predicts that 50 nm alignment can be accomplished, following a 1 im prealignment, in 2 seconds.

  18. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask? (United States)


    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  19. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%. Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%, followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  20. Defect printability in CPL mask technology (United States)

    Kuijten, Jan-Pieter; Verhappen, Arjan; Pijnenburg, Wil; Conley, Will; Litt, Lloyd C.; Wu, Wei; Montgomery, Patrick; Roman, Bernard J.; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Progler, Christopher J.; Socha, Robert J.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Schaefer, Erika; Cook, Pat


    Each generation of semiconductor device technology drive new and interesting resolution enhancement technology (RET"s). The race to smaller and smaller geometry"s has forced device manufacturers to k1"s approaching 0.40. The authors have been investigating the use of Chromeless phase-shifting masks (CPL) exposed with ArF, high numerical aperture (NA), and off-axis illumination (OAI) has been shown to produce production worthy sub-100nm resist patterns with acceptable overlapped process window across feature pitch. These new reticle technologies have many issues that are similar to simple binary masks. The authors have investigated the printability of defects in CPL mask technology. Programmed defects of various sizes and types have been simulated and printed for sub 100nm imaging. High resolution scanning electron microscopy has been used to characterize these defects and develop an understanding of size and type that prints. In this paper the authors will focus on image line end shortening and the impact of through dose and focus performance for very high NA ArF imaging. The authors have built a number of test structures that require superior 2D control for SRAM gate structures. Various types of line ends have been evaluated for either straight CPL mask or hybrid type builds.

  1. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects (United States)

    Balasinski, A.


    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  2. A new mask exposure and analysis facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, E. te; Koster, N.B.; Deutz, A.F.; Staring, W.P.M.


    The introduction of ever higher source powers in EUV systems causes increased risks for contamination and degradation of EUV masks and pellicles. Appropriate testing can help to inventory and mitigate these risks. To this end, we propose EBL2: a laboratory EUV exposure system capable of operating at

  3. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    Full Text Available Object-substitution masking (OSM occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact.

  4. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude. (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J


    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  5. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-


    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  6. Differential effects of forward and backward masks on the relationship between perception and action. (United States)

    Deplancke, A; Madelain, L; Coello, Y


    A recent series of experiments has shown that the effects of near-threshold stimuli on perceptual and motor responses are highly dependent on experimental conditions. In particular, motor influences of near-threshold distractors were observed when using low-contrast unmasked stimuli and high-contrast masked stimuli although only the latter affected motor responses in the absence of stimulus awareness. These results are compatible with neurophysiological models of visual masking, suggesting that early neural responses to a visual stimulus can be decomposed in feedforward activations to-and feedback activations from-higher visual areas, correlating respectively with the actual presence of the stimulus and its conscious perception. We tested the compatibility between these neurophysiological models and the behavioural data obtained in near-threshold experiments. We recorded fast reaching movements directed to a highly visible target followed by a report of the presence of a near-threshold distractor presented either at low contrast without mask or at high contrast with a backward or forward mask. Analysis of hand trajectories revealed that deviations toward the distractor were observed in the no-mask condition when the distractor was present and reported, and when it was present but not reported in the backward and forward mask conditions, although the effect was weaker in the latter condition. These data reveal that the presence or absence of perception-action dissociations in behavioural studies are well accounted for by neurophysiological models of visual masking and that behavioural effects of near-threshold distractors cannot result merely from on a dichotomic visual system for perception and action.

  7. Outcome measures based on classification performance fail to predict the intelligibility of binary-masked speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressner, Abigail Anne; May, Tobias; Rozell, Christopher J.


    To date, the most commonly used outcome measure for assessing ideal binary mask estimation algorithms is based on the difference between the hit rate and the false alarm rate (H-FA). Recently, the error distribution has been shown to substantially affect intelligibility. However, H-FA treats each...... mask unit independently and does not take into account how errors are distributed. Alternatively, algorithms can be evaluated with the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) metric using the reconstructed speech. This study investigates the ability of H-FA and STOI to predict intelligibility...

  8. Silicon germanium as a novel mask for silicon deep reactive ion etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed Y.


    This paper reports on the use of p-type polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-Si1-xGex) thin films as a new masking material for the cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon. We investigated the etching behavior of various poly-Si1-xGex:B (0mask for silicon depends strongly on three factors: Ge content; boron concentration; and etching temperature. Compared to conventional SiO2 and SiN masks, the proposed SiGe masking material exhibited several advantages, including high etching selectivity to silicon (>1:800). Furthermore, the SiGe mask was etched in SF6/O2 plasma at temperatures ≥ - 80°C and at rates exceeding 8 μm/min (i.e., more than 37 times faster than SiO2 or SiN masks). Because of the chemical and thermodynamic stability of the SiGe film as well as the electronic properties of the mask, it was possible to deposit the proposed film at CMOS backend compatible temperatures. The paper also confirms that the mask can easily be dry-removed after the process with high etching-rate by controlling the ICP and RF power and the SF6 to O2 ratios, and without affecting the underlying silicon substrate. Using low ICP and RF power, elevated temperatures (i.e., > - 80°C), and an adjusted O2:SF6 ratio (i.e., ~6%), we were able to etch away the SiGe mask without adversely affecting the final profile. Ultimately, we were able to develop deep silicon- trenches with high aspect ratio etching straight profiles. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

  9. Green binary and phase shifting mask (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; Hong, Chao-Sin; Wu, Cheng-San; Chen, S. J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Ting, Yung-Chiang


    SixNy/Ni thin film green mask blanks were developed , and are now going to be used to replace general chromium film used for binary mask as well as to replace molydium silicide embedded material for AttPSM for I-line (365 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm) and Contact/Proximity lithography. A bilayer structure of a 1 nm thick opaque, conductive nickel layer and a SixNy layer is proposed for binary and phase-shifting mask. With the good controlling of plasma CVD of SixNy under silane (50 sccm), ammonia (5 sccm) and nitrogen (100 sccm), the pressure is 250 mTorr. and RF frequency 13.56 MHz and power 50 W. SixNy has enough deposition latitude to meet the requirements as an embedded layer for required phase shift 180 degree, and the T% in 193, 248 and 365 nm can be adjusted between 2% to 20% for binary and phase shifting mask usage. Ni can be deposited by E-gun, its sheet resistance Rs is less than 1.435 kΩ/square. Jeol e-beam system and I-line stepper are used to evaluate these thin film green mask blanks, feature size less than 200 nm half pitch pattern and 0.558 μm pitch contact hole can be printed. Transmission spectrums of various thickness of SixNy film are inspected by using UV spectrometer and FTIR. Optical constants of the SixNy film are measured by n & k meter and surface roughness is inspected by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

  10. Wavelength-specific reflections: A decade of EUV actinic mask inspection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopo


    Mask inspection is essential for the success of any pattern-transfer lithography technology, and EUV Lithography in particular faces unique challenges. EUV masks resonant-reflective multilayer coatings have a narrow, wavelength-specific response that dramatically affects the way that defects appear, or disappear, at various illuminating wavelengths. Furthermore, the ever-shrinking size of 'critical' defects limits the potential effectiveness of DUV inspection techniques over time. Researchers pursuing numerous ways of finding and characterizing defects on EUV masks and have met with varying degrees of success. Their lessons inform the current, urgent exploration to select the most effective techniques for high-volume manufacturing. Ranging from basic research and demonstration experiments to commercial inspection tool prototypes, we survey the recent history of work in this area, including sixteen projects in Europe, Asia, and America. Solutions range from scanning beams to microscopy, dark field imaging to pattern transfer.

  11. Rational development of taste masked oral liquids guided by an electronic tongue. (United States)

    Woertz, Katharina; Tissen, Corinna; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg


    Human taste testing is often associated with ethical concerns, organizational and validation issues. Electrochemical sensor array systems, so called electronic tongues, offer an alternative to assess the taste of multi-component liquid formulations. Therefore, it should be investigated how an electronic tongue can be implemented in the rational development of taste masked formulations. Taste masking of bitter tasting quinine hydrochloride (QH) in a liquid formulation was carried out by screening sweetening agents (sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame potassium, and monoammonium glycyrrhizinate), strong and weak cation ion exchange (IE) resins (Amberlite™ IRP69, Amberlite™ IRP88, and Indion 234), and soluble complexing agents (α-, β-, hydroxypropyl-β-, sulfobutyl ether-β- and γ-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin). Amberlite™ IRP88 showed the best binding capacity for quinine (1.9 g quinine/1 g IE). The addition of sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) could significantly reduce the bitter taste of QH (79% reduction of free QH). The SBE-β-CD formulation was further improved by adding sodium saccharin as secondary taste masking agent. It could also be shown that presence of strawberry flavor and the preservative domiphen bromide does not affect evaluation of taste masking efficiency. The introduced stepwise approach was shown to be applicable to rationally develop novel taste masked formulations.

  12. Model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) and its impact on resist heating (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Bork, Ingo


    Complex mask shapes will be required on critical layer masks for 20nm logic node, threatening to explode the mask write times. Model-Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) has been introduced to reduce the shot count required to write complex masks while simultaneously improving resolution and dose margin of sub-100nm features. For production use of MB-MDP, a number of questions have been raised and answered. This paper summarizes these potential issues and their resolutions. In particular, the paper takes an in-depth look at one of the questions: impact of overlapping shots on heating effect. The paper concludes that while heating effect is an important issue for all e-beam writing even with conventional non-overlapping shots, overall dose density per unit time over microns of space is the principal driver behind heating effects. Highly local shot density and shot sequencing does not affect heating significantly, particularly for smaller shots. MB-MDP does not introduce any additional concerns.

  13. Effects of the combination of mask preconditioning with midazolam pretreatment on anxiety and mask acceptance during pediatric inhalational induction and postoperative mask fear in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Yun-ping; HUANG Zhen-hua; G.Allen Finley; ZUO Yun-xia


    Background Anxiety and fear frequently causes an aversion to applying a face mask and increases difficulty during pediatric induction.There is at present little study of this problem.Therefore,the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of mask preconditioning and midazolam pretrealment on mask acceptance during pediatric induction and on postoperative mask fear.Methods One hundred and sixty children were randomly assigned into four groups:the mask preconditioning group (MaG),the midazolam pretreatment group (MiG),the mask/midazolam combination group (Ma/MiG),and the saline group (SaG).The Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) was employed to assess the anxiety in the operation room (OR).A Mask Acceptance Score (MAS) was measured during inhalational induction and the incidence of mask fear (MAS ≤2) was evaluated postoperatively.Results The MaG and Ma/MiG groups had the highest mask acceptance scores but there were no differences between these two groups (P <0.05).The average anxiety level of children entering the OR was much lower in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups than in the SaG group (P <0.05).During induction,the anxiety level increased in the SaG and MaG groups but decreased in the MiG and Ma/MiG groups (P <0.05).At the postoperative third day,the incidence of mask fears was as high as 23% in the SaG group,15% in the MiG group,but only 2.5% in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups.Conclusions The single use of mask preconditioning has a better influence than midazolam for increasing mask acceptance during inhalational induction and reducing postoperative mask fear,reducing the anxiety level during induction,improving induction compliance and shortening the total mask time.A mask preconditioning and midazolam combination did not increase mask acceptance during inhalational induction,reduce mask fears postoperatively,improve induction compliance,nor shorten the total mask time.But it can better reduce the anxiety level during

  14. How color, regularity, and good Gestalt determine backward masking. (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael


    The strength of visual backward masking depends on the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask. Recently, it was shown that the conjoint spatial layout of target and mask is as crucial as SOA. Particularly, masking strength depends on whether target and mask group with each other. The same is true in crowding where the global spatial layout of the flankers and target-flanker grouping determine crowding strength. Here, we presented a vernier target followed by different flanker configurations at varying SOAs. Similar to crowding, masking of a red vernier target was strongly reduced for arrays of 10 green compared with 10 red flanking lines. Unlike crowding, single green lines flanking the red vernier showed strong masking. Irregularly arranged flanking lines yielded stronger masking than did regularly arranged lines, again similar to crowding. While cuboid flankers reduced crowding compared with single lines, this was not the case in masking. We propose that, first, masking is reduced when the flankers are part of a larger spatial structure. Second, spatial factors counteract color differences between the target and the flankers. Third, complex Gestalts, such as cuboids, seem to need longer processing times to show ungrouping effects as observed in crowding. Strong parallels between masking and crowding suggest similar underlying mechanism; however, temporal factors in masking additionally modulate performance, acting as an additional grouping cue.

  15. Model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) for ArF and EUV mask process correction (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Bork, Ingo; Fujimura, Aki


    Using Model-Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) complex masks with complex sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) can be written in practical write times with today's leading-edge production VSB machines by allowing overlapping VSB shots. This simulation-based approach reduces shot count by taking advantage of the added flexibility in being able to overlap shots. The freedom to overlap shots, it turns out, also increases mask fidelity, CDU on the mask, and CDU on the wafer by writing sub-100nm mask features more accurately, and with better dose margin. This paper describes how overlapping shots enhance mask and wafer quality for various sub-100nm features on ArF masks. In addition, this paper describes how EUV mask accuracy can be enhanced uniquely by allowing overlapping shots.

  16. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species gene expression analyses using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to evaluate a single species can provide spurious results due to mismatches between the interrogated transcriptome and arrayed probes. Based on the most recent human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we developed updated and accessible probe masking methods that allow human Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to be used for robust genome-wide expression analyses in both species. In this process, only data from oligonucleotide probes predicted to have robust hybridization sensitivity and specificity for both transcriptomes are retained for analysis. Results To characterize the utility of this resource, we applied our mask protocols to existing expression data from brains, livers, hearts, testes, and kidneys derived from both species and determined the effects probe numbers have on expression scores of specific transcripts. In all five tissues, probe sets with decreasing numbers of probes showed non-linear trends towards increased variation in expression scores. The relationships between expression variation and probe number in brain data closely matched those observed in simulated expression data sets subjected to random probe masking. However, there is evidence that additional factors affect the observed relationships between gene expression scores and probe number in tissues such as liver and kidney. In parallel, we observed that decreasing the number of probes within probe sets lead to linear increases in both gained and lost inferences of differential cross-species expression in all five tissues, which will affect the interpretation of expression data subject to masking. Conclusion We introduce a readily implemented and updated resource for human and chimpanzee transcriptome analysis through a commonly used microarray platform. Based on empirical observations derived from the analysis of five distinct data sets, we provide novel guidelines

  17. Manufacturability evaluation of model-based OPC masks (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Hoon; Zinn, Sonny Y.; Ki, Won-Tai; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Choi, Seong-Woon; Yoon, Hee-Sun; Sohn, Jung-Min; Oh, Yong-Ho; Lee, Jai-Cheol; Lim, Sungwoo


    A systematic method for the model-based optical proximity correction in presented. This is called optical proximity effect reducing algorithm (OPERA) and has been implemented to TOPO, an in-house program for optical lithography simulations. Comparing simulational results as well as experimental results, we found that OPERA is not only suitable for shape restoration but also for resolution enhancement. However, the resulting optimized patterns have a high degree of complexity and this brought up a number of issues for mask manufacturing. First, data volume and exposure time were dramatically increased for conventional e-beam file formats. This was solved by using the MODE6 format that preserves data hierarchy. Second, due to excessive shot divisions, a variable-shaped beam machine could not finish the exposure process. A raster-scan beam machine successfully finished the exposure. Finally, a die-to-die inspection was performed but many false defects that do not affect wafer printing were defected. This will be solved by a new type of tool that inspects a mask by evaluating its aerial image.

  18. ILT Approach for Compensating 3-D Mask Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wei; ZHANG Jinyu; MinChun; WANG Yan; YU Zhiping


    As mask features scale to smaller dimensions,the so-called "3-D mask effects" which have mostly been neglected before,become important.This paper properly models the 3-D thick mask effects,and then analyses the object-based inverse lithography technique using a simulated annealing algorithm to determine the mask shapes that produce the desired on-wafer results.Evaluations against rigorous simulations show that the synthesized masks provide good image fidelity up to 0.94,and this approach gives improved accuracy and faster results than existing methods.

  19. Multi-part mask for implanting workpieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.


    A multi-part mask has a pattern plate, which includes a planar portion that has the desired aperture pattern to be used during workpiece processing. The multi-part mask also has a mounting frame, which is used to hold the pattern plate. Prior to assembly, the pattern plate has an aligning portion, which has one or more holes through which reusable alignment pins are inserted. These alignment pins enter kinematic joints disposed on the mounting frame, which serve to precisely align the pattern plate to the mounting frame. After the pattern plate has been secured to the mounting frame, the aligning portion can be detached from the pattern plate. The alignment pins can be reused at a later time. In some embodiments, the pattern plate can later be removed from the mounting frame, so that the mounting frame may be reused.

  20. Masking mediated print defect visibility predictor (United States)

    Jing, Xiaochen; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.


    Banding is a well-known artifact produced by printing systems. It usually appears as lines perpendicular to the process direction of the print. Therefore, banding is an important print quality issue which has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers. However, little literature has focused on the study of the masking effect of content for this kind of print quality issue. Compared with other image and print quality research, our work is focused on the print quality of typical documents printed on a digital commercial printing press. In this paper, we propose a Masking Mediated Print Defect Visibility Predictor (MMPDVP) to predict the visibility of defects in the presence of customer content. The parameters of the algorithm are trained from ground-truth images that have been marked by subjects. The MMPDVP could help the press operator decide whether the print quality is acceptable for specific customer requirements. Ultimately, this model can be used to optimize the print-shop workflow.

  1. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101


    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  2. The Fastest Saccadic Responses Escape Visual Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Crouzet, Sébastien; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.


    , which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference......Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant...... visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task...

  3. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  4. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking. (United States)

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R


    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  5. Spatial Hearing, Attention and Informational Masking (United States)


    0704-0188). Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing improving our understanding of the processing of streams of speech masked by other speech. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Speech intelligibility ; informational...PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Gerald Kidd, Jr., Ph.D. a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 617

  6. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: reflective mask technology (United States)

    Walton, Christopher C.; Kearney, Patrick A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bowers, Joel M.; Cerjan, Charles J.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Wilhelmsen, Karl C.; Fought, Eric R.; Moore, Craig E.; Larson, Cindy C.; Baker, Sherry L.; Burkhart, Scott C.; Hector, Scott D.


    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7 nm-pitch bi-layers of Mo and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150 mm substrates, it was upgraded in July 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects > 100 nm below 0.05/cm2. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross- platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  7. Masking a Compact AES S-box (United States)


    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 309–18, 2001. [2] D. Canright. A very compact S-box for AES. In CHES2005, volume 3659 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , al., editor, CHES2003, volume 2779 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 319–333. Springer, 2003. [4] Jovan Dj. Golić and Christophe Tymen...Multiplicative masking and power analysis of AES. In CHES 2002, volume 2523 of Lecture

  8. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography - Reflective Mask Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, C.C.; Kearney, P.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Bowers, J.M.; Cerjan, C.; Warrick, A.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Fought, E.; Moore, C.; Larson, C.; Baker, S.; Burkhart, S.C.; Hector, S.D.


    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7nm-pitch bi-layers of MO and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150mm substrates, it was upgraded in July, 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects >100nm below 0.05/cm{sup 2}. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross-platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  9. Mask image position correction for double patterning lithography (United States)

    Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Ishigo, Kazutaka


    Application of double patterning technique has been discussed for lithography of HP 3X nm device generation. In this case, overlay budget for lithography becomes so hard that it is difficult to achieve it with only improvement of photomask's position accuracy. One of the factors of overlay error will be induced by distortion of photomask after chucking on the mask stage of exposure tool, because photomasks are bended by the force of vacuum chucking. Recently, mask flatness prediction technique was developed. This technique is simulating the surface shape of mask when it is on the mask stage by using the flatness data of free-standing state blank and the information of mask chucking stage. To use this predicted flatness data, it is possible to predict a pattern position error after exposed and it is possible to correct it on the photomask. A blank supplier developed the flatness data transfer system to mask vender. Every blanks are distinguished individually by 2D barcode mark on blank which including serial number. The flatness data of each blank is linked with this serial number, and mask vender can use this serial number as a key code to mask flatness data. We developed mask image position correction system by using 2D barcode mark linked to predicted flatness data, and position accuracy assurance system for these masks. And with these systems, we made some masks actually.

  10. Dose masking feature for BNCT radiotherapy planning (United States)

    Cook, Jeremy L.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.


    A system for displaying an accurate model of isodoses to be used in radiotherapy so that appropriate planning can be performed prior to actual treatment on a patient. The nature of the simulation of the radiotherapy planning for BNCT and Fast Neutron Therapy, etc., requires that the doses be computed in the entire volume. The "entire volume" includes the patient and beam geometries as well as the air spaces in between. Isodoses derived from the computed doses will therefore extend into the air regions between the patient and beam geometries and thus depict the unrealistic possibility that radiation deposition occurs in regions containing no physical media. This problem is solved by computing the doses for the entire geometry and then masking the physical and air regions along with the isodose contours superimposed over the patient image at the corresponding plane. The user is thus able to mask out (remove) the contour lines from the unwanted areas of the image by selecting the appropriate contour masking region from the raster image.

  11. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja


    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  12. Mask design rules (45 nm): time for standardization (United States)

    Mason, Mark; Progler, Christopher J.; Martin, Patrick; Ham, Young-Mog; Dillon, Brian; Pack, Robert; Heins, Mitch; Gookassian, John; Garcia, John; Boksha, Victor


    Time-to-mask (ttm) has been growing exponentially in the subwavelength era with the increased application of advanced RET's (Resolution Enhancement Technology). Not only are a greater number of design/mask layers impacted but more-and-more layers also have more severe restrictions on critical dimension uniformity (CDU) despite operating at a very low k1 factors necessitating rigorous but practical tolerancing. Furthermore, designs are also more complex, may be built up from blocks spanning different design styles, and occupy increasingly-large Rayleigh field areas. Given these factors and scales, it's no wonder that the cycle time for verification of a design following RET, is growing however it is doing so exponentially and that this is a critical factor impeding ttm. Until an unambiguously interprable and standard Mask Design Rule (MaskDR) set is created, neither the designer nor the mask supplier can reliably verify manufacturability of the mask for the simple reason that ambiguity and inter-rule conflict are at the source of the problem and that the problem increasingly requires cooperation spanning a large ecosystem of tool, IP, and mask suppliers all needing to essentially speak the same language. Since the 130 nm node, Texas Instruments has enforced a strict set of mask rule checks (MRCs) in their mask data preparation (MDP) flow based on MaskDRs negotiated with their mask suppliers. The purpose of this effort has been to provide an a-priori guarantee that the data shipped to the mask shop can be used to manufacture a mask reliably and with high yield both from a mask standpoint and from the silicon standpoint. As has been reported earlier, mask manufacturing rules are usually determined from assumed or experimentally acquired/validated mask-manufacturing limits. These rules are then applied during RET/MDP data treatment to guide and/or limit pattern correction strategies. With increasing RET and low-k1 lithography challenges, the importance of MRCs

  13. Direct 3D printed shadow mask on Silicon (United States)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Köhler, E.; Enoksson, P.


    A 3D printed shadow mask method is presented. The 3D printer prints ABS plastic directly on the wafer, thus avoiding gaps between the wafer and the shadow mask, and deformation during the process. The wafer together with the 3D printed shadow mask was sputtered with Ti and Au. The shadow mask was released by immersion in acetone. The sputtered patches through the shadow mask were compared to the opening of the 3D printed shadow mask and the design dimensions. The patterned Au patches were larger than the printed apertures, however they were smaller than the design widths. The mask was printed in 4 min, the cost is less than one euro cent, and the process is a low temperature process suitable for temperature sensitive components.

  14. Cor, iluminação e orientação do reverso de uma máscara facial não afetam a ilusão da máscara côncava Color, illumination and orientation of a hollow mask do not affect the hollow-face illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Cesari Quaglia


    Full Text Available Em condição monocular, 40 observadores julgaram o reverso côncavo de uma máscara facial monocromada cinza e de outra policromada (iluminados por cima, por baixo, pela direita e pela esquerda na posição vertical e na posição vertical invertida, iluminado por baixo como côncavos, planos ou convexos. Além disso, as magnitudes dos seus relevos percebidos foram reproduzidas ao se esticar uma trena retrátil. Independente da cor, iluminação e orientação das máscaras, a maioria das respostas indicou que os reversos das máscaras foram percebidos como convexos. E mesmo nas poucas respostas em que as máscaras foram classificadas como planas, houve atribuição de relevo mensurável. Estes resultados confirmam que a ilusória profundidade da máscara facial côncava como convexa é robusta sob influência de variáveis diversas, o que sugere atuação predominante de processos de alta ordem sobre os processos de baixa ordem na percepção visual de faces.With monocular viewing, forty observers judged a monochrome-gray and a polychrome hollow face mask (illuminated from above, from below, from the right and from the left, and upside-down illuminated form below as inward deep, flat or outward deep. They were also asked to reproduce the perceived depth of the mask by pulling out a tape measure. Regardless of color, illuminating condition and mask orientation, most of the responses indicated that the hollow faces were perceived as outward deep. Even in the few occasions in which the masks were reported flat, measurable depths were assigned on the tape measure. These results support that the hollow face illusion is robust even under diverse variable effects, which suggest preponderant top-down over bottom-up processes on visual face perception.

  15. Nanoparticle and nanosphere mask for etching of ITO nanostructures and their reflection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cigang; Deng, Ligang; Holder, Adam; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Thomas, Owain; Gunn, Robert; Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Leendertz, Caspar [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, Joachim [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany)


    Au nanoparticles and polystyrene nanospheres were used as mask for plasma etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer. By reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, the morphology of polystyrene nanospheres can be tuned through chemical or physical etching, and Au nanoparticle mask can result in ITO nanostructures with larger aspect ratio than nanosphere mask. During inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes, Au nanoparticle mask was not affected by the thermal effect of plasma, whereas temperature of the substrate was essential to protect nanospheres from the damaging effect of plasma. Physical bombardment in the plasma can also modify the nanospheres. It was observed that under the same process conditions, the ratio of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the process gas can affect the etching rate of ITO without completely etching the nanospheres. The morphology of ITO nanostructures also depends on process conditions. The resulting ITO nanostructures show lower reflection in a spectral range of 400-1000 nm than c-Si and conventional antireflection layer of SiN{sub x} film. ITO nanostructures obtained after etching (scale bar = 200 nm). (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. The masked priming toolbox: an open-source MATLAB toolbox for masked priming researchers. (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Tresilian, James; Schlaghecken, Friederike


    The Masked Priming Toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes the free third-party PsychToolbox-3 (PTB3: Brainard, Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436, 1997; Kleiner, Brainard & Pelli, Perception, 36, 2007; Pelli, Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442, 1997). It is designed to allow a researcher to run masked (and unmasked) priming experiments using a variety of response devices (including keyboards, graphics tablets and force transducers). Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required; experiments are generated by creating a text file with the required parameters, and raw and analyzed data are output to Excel (as well as MATLAB) files for further analysis. The toolbox implements a variety of stimuli for use as primes and targets, as well as a variety of masks. Timing, size, location, and orientation of stimuli are all parameterizable. The code is open-source and made available on the Web under a Creative Commons License.

  17. Strategy optimization for mask rule check in wafer fab (United States)

    Yang, Chuen Huei; Lin, Shaina; Lin, Roger; Wang, Alice; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin


    Photolithography process is getting more and more sophisticated for wafer production following Moore's law. Therefore, for wafer fab, consolidated and close cooperation with mask house is a key to achieve silicon wafer success. However, generally speaking, it is not easy to preserve such partnership because many engineering efforts and frequent communication are indispensable. The inattentive connection is obvious in mask rule check (MRC). Mask houses will do their own MRC at job deck stage, but the checking is only for identification of mask process limitation including writing, etching, inspection, metrology, etc. No further checking in terms of wafer process concerned mask data errors will be implemented after data files of whole mask are composed in mask house. There are still many potential data errors even post-OPC verification has been done for main circuits. What mentioned here are the kinds of errors which will only occur as main circuits combined with frame and dummy patterns to form whole reticle. Therefore, strategy optimization is on-going in UMC to evaluate MRC especially for wafer fab concerned errors. The prerequisite is that no impact on mask delivery cycle time even adding this extra checking. A full-mask checking based on job deck in gds or oasis format is necessary in order to secure acceptable run time. Form of the summarized error report generated by this checking is also crucial because user friendly interface will shorten engineers' judgment time to release mask for writing. This paper will survey the key factors of MRC in wafer fab.

  18. Source mask optimization using 3D mask and compact resist models (United States)

    El-Sewefy, Omar; Chen, Ao; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Chung, Angeline; Foong, Yee Mei; Adam, Kostas; Sturtevant, John


    Source Mask Optimization (SMO) has played an important role in technology setup and ground rule definition since the 2x nm technology node. While improvements in SMO algorithms have produced higher quality and more consistent results, the accuracy of the overall solution is critically linked to how faithfully the entire patterning system is modeled, from mask down to substrate. Fortunately, modeling technology has continued to advance to provide greater accuracy in modeling 3D mask effects, 3D resist behavior, and resist phenomena. Specifically, the Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) approximates the 3D mask response as a superposition of edge-responses.1 The DDM can be applied to a sectorized illumination source based on Hybrid-Hopkins Abbe approximation,2 which provides an accurate and fast solution for the modeling of 3D mask effects and has been widely used in OPC modeling. The implementation of DDM in the SMO flow, however, is more challenging because the shape and intensity of the source, unlike the case in OPC modeling, is evolving along the optimization path. As a result, it gets more complicated. It is accepted that inadequate pupil sectorization results in reduced accuracy in any application, however in SMO the required uniformity and density of pupil sampling is higher than typical OPC and modeling cases. In this paper, we describe a novel method to implement DDM in the SMO flow. The source sectorization is defined by following the universal pixel sizes used in SMO. Fast algorithms are developed to enable computation of edge signals from each fine pixel of the source. In this case, each pixel has accurate information to describe its contribution to imaging and the overall objective function. A more continuous angular spectrum from 3D mask scattering is thus captured, leading to accurate modeling of 3D mask effects throughout source optimization. This method is applied on a 2x nm middle-of-line layer test case. The impact of the 3D mask model accuracy on

  19. Women and trauma: transformation of self through mask making and action-based mask work


    Birch, June Elizabeth


    This secondary analysis study examined the stories of six women who were impacted by trauma. These women attended a ten-week counselling group in which they participated in the construction of masks and in action-based mask work as a means of expressing and working through their trauma experiences. Based on a constructivist approach, the methodology employed in this study was a narrative inquiry centred on the work of Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach, and Zilber (1998). The data were generated from o...

  20. ILT based defect simulation of inspection images accurately predicts mask defect printability on wafer (United States)

    Deep, Prakash; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter


    printability of defects at wafer level and automates the process of defect dispositioning from images captured using high resolution inspection machine. It first eliminates false defects due to registration, focus errors, image capture errors and random noise caused during inspection. For the remaining real defects, actual mask-like contours are generated using the Calibre® ILT solution [1][2], which is enhanced to predict the actual mask contours from high resolution defect images. It enables accurate prediction of defect contours, which is not possible from images captured using inspection machine because some information is already lost due to optical effects. Calibre's simulation engine is used to generate images at wafer level using scanner optical conditions and mask-like contours as input. The tool then analyses simulated images and predicts defect printability. It automatically calculates maximum CD variation and decides which defects are severe to affect patterns on wafer. In this paper, we assess the printability of defects for the mask of advanced technology nodes. In particular, we will compare the recovered mask contours with contours extracted from SEM image of the mask and compare simulation results with AIMSTM for a variety of defects and patterns. The results of printability assessment and the accuracy of comparison are presented in this paper. We also suggest how this method can be extended to predict printability of defects identified on EUV photomasks.

  1. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation (United States)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal


    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  2. Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection. (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Palomares, Melanie; Majaj, Najib J


    A letter in the peripheral visual field is much harder to identify in the presence of nearby letters. This is "crowding." Both crowding and ordinary masking are special cases of "masking," which, in general, refers to any effect of a "mask" pattern on the discriminability of a signal. Here we characterize crowding, and propose a diagnostic test to distinguish it from ordinary masking. In ordinary masking, the signal disappears. In crowding, it remains visible, but is ambiguous, jumbled with its neighbors. Masks are usually effective only if they overlap the signal, but the crowding effect extends over a large region. The width of that region is proportional to signal eccentricity from the fovea and independent of signal size, mask size, mask contrast, signal and mask font, and number of masks. At 4 deg eccentricity, the threshold contrast for identification of a 0.32 deg signal letter is elevated (up to six-fold) by mask letters anywhere in a 2.3 deg region, 7 times wider than the signal. In ordinary masking, threshold contrast rises as a power function of mask contrast, with a shallow log-log slope of 0.5 to 1, whereas, in crowding, threshold is a sigmoidal function of mask contrast, with a steep log-log slope of 2 at close spacing. Most remarkably, although the threshold elevation decreases exponentially with spacing, the threshold and saturation contrasts of crowding are independent of spacing. Finally, ordinary masking is similar for detection and identification, but crowding occurs only for identification, not detection. More precisely, crowding occurs only in tasks that cannot be done based on a single detection by coarsely coded feature detectors. These results (and observers' introspections) suggest that ordinary masking blocks feature detection, so the signal disappears, while crowding (like "illusory conjunction") is excessive feature integration - detected features are integrated over an inappropriately large area because there are no smaller integration

  3. Defectivity and particle reduction for mask life extension, and imprint mask replication for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Emoto, Keiji; Sakai, Fumio; Sato, Chiaki; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Takabayashi, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hattori, Tadashi; Hiura, Mitsuru; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Azuma, Hisanobu; Iwanaga, Takehiko; Choi, Jin; Aghili, Ali; Jones, Chris; Irving, J. W.; Fletcher, Brian; Ye, Zhengmao


    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers. Additionally, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask chuck flatness simulation results were also performed and demonstrate that residual image placement errors can be reduced to as little as 1nm.

  4. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong


    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  5. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed


    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  6. Computer-assisted area detector masking. (United States)

    Wright, Christopher J; Zhou, Xiao Dong


    Area detectors have become the predominant type of detector for the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction, small-angle scattering and total scattering. These detectors record the scattering for a large area, giving each shot good statistical significance to the resulting scattered intensity I(Q) pattern. However, many of these detectors have pixel level defects, which cause error in the resulting one-dimensional patterns. In this work, new software to automatically find and mask these dead pixels and other defects is presented. This algorithm is benchmarked with both ideal simulated and experimental datasets.

  7. Revolution with and without the mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanko Vladan


    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to provide a certain “second reading” of those commonplaces which imply that a particular, personal interest always lies behind the mask of objectivity, necessity and truth. As a paradigmatic example of this kind of structure that implies “hidden truths”, here will be taken that of a revolution, whether it is a fascist, a liberal-democratic or a communist revolution. By reexamining how this motif of “truth-behind-the-mask” figures in those regimes, we will try to say something about each of them, and also about the specific kind of subject that is produced under them.

  8. On the relations between crowding and visual masking. (United States)

    Huckauf, Anke; Heller, Dieter


    To study the question of which processes contribute to crowding and whether these are comparable to those of visual temporal masking, we varied the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and flankers in a crowding setting. Monotonically increasing Type A masking functions observedfor small spacings and large eccentricities indicate that the integration of information from target and flankers underlies crowding. Decreasing masking functions obtained for large spacings and small eccentricities relate processes of crowding to those contributing to Type B masking. In addition, Type B masking was more frequent with letter-like nonletter flankers than with letter flankers, suggesting that Type B masking, just like crowding over large areas, is due to higher level interactions. The rapid decrease of the effects of interletter spacing and eccentricity with increasing SOA indicates that positional information is transient.

  9. Constellation-masked secure communication technique for OFDM-PON. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Yu, Jianjun


    This paper proposes a novel secure communication technique using constellation masking for applications in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON). The constellation masking is applied both on each subcarrier and among different subcarriers. The Arnold mapping is utilized as the parameter function for the mask factors. A interleave length is employed to provide a scalable masking granularity for different ONUs. A 15.54 Gb/s constellation-masked 32QAM-OFDM signal has been successfully transmitted over 25-km single mode fiber in the experiment. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively protect the system from illegal ONU without wasting the bandwidth. The constellation-masked technique suggests an effective solution for the physical secure communication in future OFDM access network.

  10. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg


    Reflection masked thresholds (RMTs) for the simple scenario of a test reflection masked by the direct sound (200 ms long broadband noise) were measured as a function of reflection delay for diotic and dichotic stimulus presentations. In order to discriminate between contributions to reflection...... masking from simultaneous versus forward masking, the simultaneous RMT was measured in addition to the traditional RMT. Simultaneous RM was realized by truncating the offset of the test reflection such that the test reflection and the direct sound had a common offset. By comparing the experimental results...... for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays...

  11. Electron optical mask projector with a photocathode for miniaturization (United States)

    Moellenstedt, G.; Speidel, R.; Dostmann, M.; Martin, F.; Mayr, M.


    The projector was developed with an image converter consisting of a masked photocathode and a plane anode grid. The mask structure to be demagnified is on a quartz glass plate in a thin layer of Ti02 strongly absorbing ultraviolet light. A photoemissive layer is deposited by evaporation on the whole front side of the plate. For the demagnification of the electron image of the mask, a system is used consisting of two geometrically similar magnetic lenses in a telescopic arrangement.

  12. Volume Phase Masks in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass (United States)


    2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Volume phase masks in photo- thermo -refractive glass The views, opinions and/or photo- thermo -refractive glass Report Title In many applications such as beam shaping, mode conversion, and phase encoding it is necessary to alter...requiring a new means of producing phase masks. In this dissertation a method for producing robust phase masks in the bulk of photo- thermo - refractive

  13. OSIRIS Multi-Object Spectroscopy: Mask Design Process (United States)

    Gómez-Velarde, G.; García-Alvarez, D.; Cabrerra-Lavers, A.


    The OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and Low-Intermediate Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument at the 10.4 m GTC has offered a multi-object spectroscopic mode since March 2014. In this paper we describe the detailed process of designing a MOS mask for OSIRIS by using the Mask Designer Tool, and give some numbers on the accuracy of the mask manufacture achievable at the telescope for its scientific use.

  14. Practical mask inspection system with printability and pattern priority verification (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hideo; Ozaki, Fumio; Takahara, Kenichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kikuiri, Nobutaka


    Through the four years of study in Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) on reducing mask manufacturing Turn Around Time (TAT) and cost, we have been able to establish a technology to improve the efficiency of the review process by applying a printability verification function that utilizes computational lithography simulations to analyze defects detected by a high-resolution mask inspection system. With the advent of Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) and other technologies that extend the life of existing optical lithography, it is becoming extremely difficult to judge a defect only by the shape of a mask pattern, while avoiding pseudo-defects. Thus, printability verification is indispensable for filtering out nuisance defects from high-resolution mask inspection results. When using computational lithography simulations to verify printability with high precision, the image captured by the inspection system must be prepared with extensive care. However, for practical applications, this preparation process needs to be simplified. In addition, utilizing Mask Data Rank (MDR) to vary the defect detection sensitivity according to the patterns is also useful for simultaneously inspecting minute patterns and avoiding pseudo-defects. Combining these two technologies, we believe practical mask inspection for next generation lithography is achievable. We have been improving the estimation accuracy of the printability verification function through discussion with several customers and evaluation of their masks. In this report, we will describe the progress of these practical mask verification functions developed through customers' evaluations.

  15. Recent advances in CZT strip detectors and coded mask imagers (United States)

    Matteson, J. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Heindl, W. A.; Pelling, M. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Skelton, R. T.; Hink, P. L.; Slavis, K. R.; Binns, W. R.; Tumer, T.; Visser, G.


    The UCSD, WU, UCR and Nova collaboration has made significant progress on the necessary techniques for coded mask imaging of gamma-ray bursts: position sensitive CZT detectors with good energy resolution, ASIC readout, coded mask imaging, and background properties at balloon altitudes. Results on coded mask imaging techniques appropriate for wide field imaging and localization of gamma-ray bursts are presented, including a shadowgram and deconvolved image taken with a prototype detector/ASIC and MURA mask. This research was supported by NASA Grants NAG5-5111, NAG5-5114, and NGT5-50170.

  16. Thermal management of masks for deep x-ray lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.; Chojnowski, D.; Mancini, D.C.; Lai, B.; Dejus, R.


    This paper addresses some options and techniques in the thermal management of masks used in deep x-ray lithography. The x-ray masks are thin plates made of low-atomic-number materials on which a patterned thin film of a high-atomic-number metal has been deposited. When they are exposed to an x-ray beam, part of the radiation is transmitted to replicate the pattern on a downstream photoresist, and the remainder is absorbed in the mask in the form of heat. This heat load can cause deformation of the mask and thus image distortion in the lithography process. The mask geometry considered in the present study is 100 mm x 100 mm in area, and about 0.1 to 2 mm thick. The incident radiation is a bending magnet x-ray beam having a footprint of 60 mm x 4 mm at the mask. The mask is scanned vertically about {+-} 30 mm so that a 60 mm x 60 mm area is exposed. the maximum absorbed heat load in the mask is 80 W, which is significantly greater than a few watts encountered in previous systems. In this paper, cooling techniques, substrate material selection, transient and steady state thermal and structural behavior, and other thermo-mechanical aspects of mask design are discussed. It is shown that, while diamond and graphite remain attractive candidates, at present beryllium is a more suitable material for this purpose and, when properly cooled, can provide the necessary dimensional tolerance.

  17. Quality enhancement of parallel MDP flows with mask suppliers (United States)

    Deng, Erwin; Lee, Rachel; Lee, Chun Der


    For many maskshops, designed parallel mask data preparation (MDP) flows accompanying with a final data comparison are viewed as a reliable method that could reduce quality risks caused by mis-operation. However, in recent years, more and more mask data mistakes have shown that present parallel MDP flows could not capture all mask data errors yet. In this paper, we will show major failure models of parallel MDP flows from analyzing MDP quality accidents and share our approaches to achieve further improvement with mask suppliers together.

  18. Actinic inspection of multilayer defects on EUV masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, A; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Taylor, J S; Wood, O


    The production of defect-free mask blanks, and the development of techniques for inspecting and qualifying EUV mask blanks, remains a key challenge for EUV lithography. In order to ensure a reliable supply of defect-free mask blanks, it is necessary to develop techniques to reliably and accurately detect defects on un-patterned mask blanks. These inspection tools must be able to accurately detect all critical defects whilst simultaneously having the minimum possible false-positive detection rate. There continues to be improvement in high-speed non-actinic mask blank inspection tools, and it is anticipated that these tools can and will be used by industry to qualify EUV mask blanks. However, the outstanding question remains one of validating that non-actinic inspection techniques are capable of detecting all printable EUV defects. To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a unique dual-mode EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In high-speed inspection mode, whole mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm wavelength light to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. In imaging, or defect review mode, a zone plate is placed in the reflected beam path to image a region of interest onto a CCD detector with an effective resolution on the mask of 100-nm or better. Combining the capabilities of the two inspection tools into one system provides the unique capability to determine the coordinates of native defects that can be used to compare actinic defect inspection with visible light defect inspection tools under commercial development, and to provide data for comparing scattering models for EUV mask defects.

  19. Multivariate refinement equation with nonnegative masks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper is concerned with multivariate refinement equations of the type ψ = ∑α∈Zs a(α)ψ(Mx - α),where ψ is the unknown function defined on the s-dimensional Euclidean space Rs, a is a finitely supported nonnegative sequence on Zs, and M is an s × s dilation matrix with m := |detM|. We characterize the existence of L2-solution of refinement equation in terms of spectral radius of a certain finite matrix or transition operator associated with refinement mask a and dilation matrix M. For s = 1 and M = 2, the sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained to characterize the existence of continuous solution of this refinement equation.

  20. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten


    al., 2013, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130], which uses a short-term equalization-cancellation process to model binaural unmasking. In the conditions where informational masking (IM) was involved, the predicted SRTs were lower than the measured values because the model is blind to confusions experienced......Locsei et al. (2015) [Speech in Noise Workshop, Copenhagen, 46] measured ˝ speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in anechoic conditions where the target speech and the maskers were lateralized using interaural time delays. The maskers were speech-shaped noise (SSN) and reversed babble with 2, 4, or 8...... talkers. For a given interferer type, the number of maskers presented on the target’s side was varied, such that none, some, or all maskers were presented on the same side as the target. In general, SRTs did not vary significantly when at least one masker was presented on the same side as the target...

  1. Bunch Profiling Using a Rotating Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mitchell; /SLAC /IIT, Chicago


    The current method for measuring profiles of proton bunches in accelerators is severely lacking. One must dedicate a great deal of time and expensive equipment to achieve meaningful results. A new method to complete this task uses a rotating mask with slots of three different orientations to collect this data. By scanning over the beam in three different directions, a complete profile for each bunch is built in just seconds, compared to the hours necessary for the previous method. This design was successfully tested using synchrotron radiation emitted by SPEAR3. The profile of the beam was measured in each of the three desired directions. Due to scheduled beam maintenance, only one set of data was completed and more are necessary to solve any remaining issues. The data collected was processed and all of the RMS sizes along the major and minor axes, as well as the tilt of the beam ellipse were measured.

  2. Coherent diffractive imaging using randomly coded masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Matthew H., E-mail: [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); D' Aspremont, Alexandre [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)


    We experimentally demonstrate an extension to coherent diffractive imaging that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks, removing the need for typical object-domain constraints while guaranteeing a unique solution to the phase retrieval problem. Phase retrieval is performed using a numerical convex relaxation routine known as “PhaseCut,” an iterative algorithm known for its stability and for its ability to find the global solution, which can be found efficiently and which is robust to noise. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments.

  3. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology (United States)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert


    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  4. General Projective Synchronization and Fractional Order Chaotic Masking Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Quan Shao


    In this paper, a fractional order chaotic masking scheme used for secure communication is introduced. Based on the general projective synchronization of two coupled fractional Chert systems, a popular masking scheme is designed. Numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Optical vortex coronagraphy from soft spin-orbit masks

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksanyan, Artur


    We report on a soft route towards optical vortex coronagraphy based on self-engineered electrically tunable vortex masks based on liquid crystal topological defects. These results suggest that a Nature-assisted technological approach to the fabrication of complex phase masks could be useful in optical imaging whenever optical phase singularities are at play.

  6. Respiratory Protection Provided by Five New Contagion Masks (United States)

    Guyton, H. Gerald; Decker, Herbert M.


    The effectiveness of five recently developed contagion masks in filtering air-borne particles (1 to 5 μ diam) has been reported. One mask, available in four sizes, was 99% efficient. This mask can be reused after sterilization. The other four masks are available in only one size and are intended to be used one time only. Two of these four disposable types were more than 90% efficient but the variability of their respective test results was much greater than that for the reusable mask. The two remaining disposable types were less than 80% efficient. Two of these contagion-mask types were worn by hospital personnel for periods of up to 8 hr to determine the effect of such prolonged use on aerosol filtration efficiency. No significant decrease in filtration efficiency was noted. Physicians, nurses, and other hospital personnel who wear masks will benefit from the increased individual respiratory protection afforded by improved contagion masks. Concurrently, the incidence of hospital patient air-borne infections should be greatly reduced. Images FIG. 1 PMID:13951516

  7. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.


    Background: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the threshol

  8. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials (United States)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.


    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  9. GABAa agonist reduces visual awareness: a masking-EEG experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.; Scholte, H.S.; van Gaal, S.; van der Hoort, B.J.J.; Lamme, V.A.F.


    Consciousness can be manipulated in many ways. Here, we seek to understand whether two such ways, visual masking and pharmacological intervention, share a common pathway in manipulating visual consciousness. We recorded EEG from human participants who performed a backward-masking task in which they

  10. 3D Rigorous simulation of mask induced polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.; Urbach, H.P.; Wachters, A.; Aksenov, Y.


    The polarization induced by the mask is studied by using a 3D rigorous model, wich solves Maxwell equations using the finite element method. Teh aerial image depends strongly on the change of polarization induced by the materials, thickness of the layer and pitch of the periodic masks.

  11. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: Testing the Entry Opening Model (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei


    Since it was introduced in Forster and Davis (1984), masked priming has been widely adopted in the psycholinguistic research on visual word recognition, but there has been little consensus on its actual mechanisms, i.e. how it occurs and how it should be interpreted. This dissertation addresses two different interpretations of masked priming, one…

  12. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Zipser, K.; Spekreijse, H.


    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (<100 msec) followed by a second Stimulus. This typically results in a dramatic decrease in the visibility of the target stimulus. It has been shown that masking reduces responses in V1. It is not known, however, which process in V1 is aff

  13. Migration from full-head mask to "open-face" mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Li, Guang; Lovelock, D Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy


    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an "open-face" thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video-based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X-ray radiography. A three-point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real-time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open-face and full-head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open-face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real-time OSI. With the open-face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre-/post-treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask-locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open-face and full-head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open-face mask to the full-head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open-face mask. The open-face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (< 2 mm) during radiotherapy. It provides a clinical solution to the immobilization of patients with head and neck (HN) cancer undergoing radiotherapy, and is particularly beneficial for claustrophobic patients. This new open-face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to

  14. Antireflective surface patterned by rolling mask lithography (United States)

    Seitz, Oliver; Geddes, Joseph B.; Aryal, Mukti; Perez, Joseph; Wassei, Jonathan; McMackin, Ian; Kobrin, Boris


    A growing number of commercial products such as displays, solar panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs and OLEDs), automotive and architectural glass are driving demand for glass with high performance surfaces that offer anti-reflective, self-cleaning, and other advanced functions. State-of-the-art coatings do not meet the desired performance characteristics or cannot be applied over large areas in a cost-effective manner. "Rolling Mask Lithography" (RML™) enables highresolution lithographic nano-patterning over large-areas at low-cost and high-throughput. RML is a photolithographic process performed using ultraviolet (UV) illumination transmitted through a soft cylindrical mask as it rolls across a substrate. Subsequent transfer of photoresist patterns into the substrate is achieved using an etching process, which creates a nanostructured surface. The current generation exposure tool is capable of patterning one-meter long substrates with a width of 300 mm. High-throughput and low-cost are achieved using continuous exposure of the resist by the cylindrical photomask. Here, we report on significant improvements in the application of RML™ to fabricate anti-reflective surfaces. Briefly, an optical surface can be made antireflective by "texturing" it with a nano-scale pattern to reduce the discontinuity in the index of refraction between the air and the bulk optical material. An array of cones, similar to the structure of a moth's eye, performs this way. Substrates are patterned using RML™ and etched to produce an array of cones with an aspect ratio of 3:1, which decreases the reflectivity below 0.1%.

  15. Study of critical dimension uniformity (CDU) using a mask inspector (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Chun; Yu, Ching-Fang; Lai, Mei-Tsu; Hsu, Luke T. H.; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony


    This paper studies the repeatability and the reliability of CDUs from a mask inspector and their correlation with CD SEM measurements on various pattern attributes such as feature sizes, tones, and orientations. Full-mask image analysis with a mask inspector is one of potential solutions for overcoming the sampling rate limitation of a mask CD SEM. By comparing the design database with the inspected dimension, the complete CDU behavior of specific patterns can be obtained without extra work and tool time. These measurements can be mapped and averaged over various spatial lengths to determine changes in relative CDU across the mask. Eventually, success of this methodology relies on the optical system of the inspector being highly stable.

  16. [Clark's head tent or "small mask"? Value of high oxygen flows administered through a mask]. (United States)

    Landrieu, J P; Milhaud, A; Brille, P; Hermant, A; Tinturier, F


    The measurement of transcutaneous PtcO2 in eight normal adults prove a comparable efficacy of 50 l.min-1 O2 through facial "small mask" (61.5 kPa; 463 mmHg) and 20 l.min-1 O2 through head tent (65.1 kPa; 490 mmHg). First procedure, inexpensive, is very simple to use.

  17. The influence of masked hypertension on the right ventricle: is everything really masked? (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Vukomanovic, Vladan; Celic, Vera; Pavlovic, Tatjana; Kocijancic, Vesna


    We sought to investigate right ventricular (RV) structure, function, and mechanics in subjects with masked hypertension (MH), normotensive, and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 186 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and complete two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) examination including multilayer strain analysis. MH was diagnosed if clinic BP was normal (subjects with sustained hypertension. RV structure, function, and deformation are significantly changed in subjects with MH and sustained hypertension.

  18. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji


    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  20. Novel EUV mask black border suppressing EUV and DUV OoB light reflection (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Kodera, Yutaka; Fukugami, Norihito; Komizo, Toru; Maruyama, Shingo; Watanabe, Genta; Yoshida, Itaru; Kotani, Jun; Konishi, Toshio; Haraguchi, Takashi


    EUV lithography is the most promising technology for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 10nm node and beyond. The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (REMA) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from the image border overlaps edges of neighboring dies, affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack reflects 1-3% of actinic EUV light. To reduce this effect several types of image border with reduced EUV reflectance (CDU contributors in this area. Finally, we state that HBB is a promising technology allowing for CD control at die edges.

  1. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.


    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  2. Dichoptic Metacontrast Masking Functions to Infer Transmission Delay in Optic Neuritis (United States)

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Krämer, Julia; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.


    Optic neuritis (ON) has detrimental effects on the transmission of neuronal signals generated at the earliest stages of visual information processing. The amount, as well as the speed of transmitted visual signals is impaired. Measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP) are often implemented in clinical routine. However, the specificity of VEPs is limited because multiple cortical areas are involved in the generation of P1 potentials, including feedback signals from higher cortical areas. Here, we show that dichoptic metacontrast masking can be used to estimate the temporal delay caused by ON. A group of 15 patients with unilateral ON, nine of which had sufficient visual acuity and volunteered to participate, and a group of healthy control subjects (N = 8) were presented with flashes of gray disks to one eye and flashes of gray annuli to the corresponding retinal location of the other eye. By asking subjects to report the subjective visibility of the target (i.e. the disk) while varying the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between disk and annulus, we obtained typical U-shaped masking functions. From these functions we inferred the critical SOAmax at which the mask (i.e. the annulus) optimally suppressed the visibility of the target. ON-associated transmission delay was estimated by comparing the SOAmax between conditions in which the disk had been presented to the affected and the mask to the other eye, and vice versa. SOAmax differed on average by 28 ms, suggesting a reduction in transmission speed in the affected eye. Compared to previously reported methods assessing perceptual consequences of altered neuronal transmission speed the presented method is more accurate as it is not limited by the observers’ ability to judge subtle variations in perceived synchrony. PMID:27711139

  3. Supercrowding: weakly masking a target expands the range of crowding. (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Shim, Won Mok; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Jiang, Yuhong V; Luedeman, Robert


    Crowding is impairment of peripheral object identification by nearby objects. Critical spacing (the minimum target-flanker distance that does not produce crowding) scales with target eccentricity and is consistently reported as roughly equal to or less than 50% of target eccentricity (0.5e). This study demonstrates that crowding occurs far beyond the typical critical spacing when the target is weakly masked by a surrounding contour or backwards pattern mask. A target was presented at a peripheral location on every trial and participants reported its orientation. Flankers appeared at target-flanker distances of 0.3-0.7e, or were absent. The target was presented with or without a mask. When flankers were absent, the masks only mildly impaired performance. When flankers were present but the mask was absent, target identification was nearly perfect at wide target-flanker distances (0.5e-0.7e). However, when flankers were present and the target was masked, performance dropped significantly, even when target-flanker distances far exceeded the typical crowding range. This phenomenon ("supercrowding") shares critical features with standard crowding: flankers similar to the target impair performance more than dissimilar flankers, and the characteristic anisotropic profile of crowding is preserved. Supercrowding may reflect a general interaction between crowding and other forms of masking.

  4. Application of DBM tool for detection of EUV mask defect (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Byeongjun; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the most leading lithography technologies for high volume manufacturing. The EUVL is based on reflective optic system therefore critical patterning issues are arisen from the surface of photomask. Defects below and inside of the multilayer or absorber of EUV photomask is one of the most critical issues to implement EUV lithography in mass production. It is very important to pick out and repair printable mask defects. Unfortunately, however, infrastructure for securing the defect free photomask such as inspection tool is still under development furthermore it does not seem to be ready soon. In order to overcome the lack of infrastructures for EUV mask inspection, we will discuss an alternative methodology which is based on wafer inspection results using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool. It is very challenging for metrology to quantify real mask defect from wafer inspection result since various sources are possible contributor. One of them is random defect comes from poor CD uniformity. It is probable that those random defects are majority of a defect list including real mask defects. It is obvious that CD uniformity should be considered to pick out only a real mask defect. In this paper, the methodology to determine real mask defect from the wafer inspection results will be discussed. Experiments are carried out on contact layer and on metal layer using mask defect inspection tool, Teron(KLA6xx) and DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170™.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar


    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  6. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  7. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan


    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  8. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng


    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  9. Potential of mask production process for finer pattern fabrication (United States)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kobayashi, Yoshihito; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu


    Photomask used for optical lithography has been developed for purpose of fabrication a pattern along with finer designed rules and increase the productivity. With regard to pattern fabrication on mask, EB (Electron beam) mask writer has been used because it has high resolution beam. But in producing photomask, minimum pattern size on mask is hits a peak around 40nm by the resolution limit of ArF immersion systems. This value is easy to achieve by current EB writer. So, photomask process with EB writer has gotten attached to increase turnaround time. In next generation lithography such as EUV (Extreme ultraviolet) lithography and Nano-imprint lithography, it is enable to fabricate finer pattern beyond the resolution limit of ArF immersion systems. Thereby the pattern on a mask becomes finer rapidly. According to ITRS 2012, fabrication of finer patterns less than 20nm will be required on EUV mask and on NIL template. Especially in NIL template, less than 15nm pattern will be required half a decade later. But today's development of EB writer is aiming to increase photomask's productivity, so we will face a difficulty to fabricate finer pattern in near future. In this paper, we examined a potential of mask production process with EB writer from the view of finer pattern fabrication performances. We succeeded to fabricate hp (half-pitch) 17nm pattern on mask plate by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer with CAR (Chemically Amplified Resist). This result suggests that the photomask fabrication process has the potential for sub-20nm generation mask production.

  10. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  11. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  12. Rheumatic masks of plasma cell dyscrasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev


    Full Text Available Objective: to consider clinical practice problems in the differential diagnosis of different types of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD. Subjects and methods. Fourteen patients (8 men and 6 women aged 52±12 years, in whom rheumatic diseases (RD were ruled out and who were diagnosed as having primary PCD: different types of myeloma in 7 patients, myeloma + AL-amyloidosis in 2, AL-amyloidosis in 3, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia in 2, were examined. Results and discussion. The most common maldiagnosed RDs in patients with PCD were seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s disease, and different forms of vasculitis. The most frequent masks of RD were kidney (78% and osteoarticular system (64% lesions, vascular disorders (36%, peripheral polyneuropathies (36%, and enlarged salivary glands with xerostomia (28.5%. Serum and urine immunochemical study should be performed in all patients who have clinical manifestations of seropositive RA, spondyloarthritis, intensive bone pain syndrome, ulceronecrotic vasculitis, enlarged submandibular salivary glands with macroglossia in the absence of markers of autoimmune disease for the timely diagnosis of PCD and the exclusion of RD. The paper estimates the sensitivity and specificity of main methods used to diagnose different types of PCD.

  13. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy



    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change...

  14. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy



    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change during the induction of and throughout pneumoperit...

  15. Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension (United States)

    ... Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension Young, lean patients can have high blood pressure that's not caught during regular exams, study finds ...

  16. Lithographic performance of a new "low-k" mask (United States)

    Adachi, Takashi; Tani, Ayako; Fujimura, Yukihiro; Hayano, Katsuya; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Inazuki, Yukio; Kawai, Yoshio


    We have been researching new mask blank materials for the next generation lithography (NGL) and developed a new mask blank with low-k phase shifter [1] [2]. The low-k phase shifter consists of only Si and N. In our previous work, we reported the advantages of developed SiN phase shift mask (PSM) [2]. It showed high lithographic performance and high durability against ArF excimer laser as well as against cleaning. In this report, we further verified its high lithographic performance on several types of device pattern. The SiN PSM had high lithographic performance compared with conventional 6% MoSi PSM. Exposure latitude (EL) and mask enhancement factor (MEEF) were especially improved on originally designed Gate, Metal and Via patterns.

  17. Kuldne Mask Tallinnasssssss! / Sergei Zhenovatsh ; interv. Hellar Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhenovatsh, Sergei


    Lavastaja Sergei Zhenovatsh oma Teatrikunsti Stuudiost, noortest näitlejatest, Eestist. Lavastaja on Eestis teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" raames. 10.-11. okt. etendus Tallinnas, Salme Kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Gogoli näidend "Mängurid"

  18. Open-loop frequency response for a chaotic masking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xian-Gao; Yu Pei; Huang Wei


    In this paper, a new numerical simulation approach is proposed for the study of open-loop frequency response of a chaotic masking system. Using Chua's circuit and the Lorenz system as illustrative examples, we have shown that one can employ chaos synchronization to separate the feedback network from a chaotic masking system, and then use numerical simulation to obtain the open-loop synchronization response, the phase response, and the amplitude response of a chaotic masking system. Based on the analysis of the frequency response, we have also proved that changing the amplitude of the exciting (input) signal within normal working domain does not influence the frequency response of the chaotic masking system. The new numerical simulation method developed in this paper can be extended to consider the open-loop frequency response of other systems described by differential or difference equations.

  19. Coronagraph-Integrated Wavefront Sensing with a Sparse Aperture Mask

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A J Eldorado


    Stellar coronagraph performance is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. In order to effectively suppress starlight for exoplanet imaging applications, low-order wavefront aberrations entering a coronagraph such as tip-tilt, defocus and coma must be determined and compensated. Previous authors have established the utility of pupil-plane masks (both non-redundant/sparse-aperture and generally asymmetric aperture masks) for wavefront sensing. Here we show how a sparse aperture mask (SAM) can be integrated with a coronagraph to measure low-order, differential phase aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a subsequent detector. Our numerical Fourier propagation models show that the information encoded in the fringe intensity distortions is sufficient to accurately discriminate and estimate Zernike phase modes extending from tip-tilt up to radial degree $n=5$, with amplitude up to $\\lambda/20$ RM...

  20. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari


    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  1. A Binary Shaped Mask Coronagraph for a Segmented Pupil

    CERN Document Server

    Enya, K


    We present the concept of a binary shaped mask coronagraph applicable to a telescope pupil including obscuration, based on previous works on binary shaped pupil mask by \\citet{Kasdin2005} and \\citet{Vanderbei1999}. Solutions with multi-barcode masks which "skip over" the obscuration are shown for various types of pupil of telescope, such as SUBARU, JWST, SPICA, and other examples. The number of diffraction tails in the point spread function of the coronagraphic image is reduced to two, thus offering a large discovery angle. The concept of mask rotation is also presented, which allows post-processing removal of diffraction tails and provides a 360$^{\\circ}$ continuous discovery angle. It is suggested that the presented concept offers solutions which potentially allow large telescopes with segmented pupil in future to be used as platforms for an coronagraph.

  2. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter has...

  3. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders


    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  4. Improve mask inspection capacity with Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) (United States)

    Wang, Crystal; Ho, Steven; Guo, Eric; Wang, Kechang; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Yu, Jiao; Hu, Peter; Tolani, Vikram; Pang, Linyong


    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns continues to diminish. The adoption of RET techniques like aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features combined with the requirements to detect even smaller defects on masks due to increasing MEEF, poses considerable challenges for mask inspection operators and engineers. Therefore a comprehensive approach is required in handling defects post-inspections by correctly identifying and classifying the real killer defects impacting the printability on wafer, and ignoring nuisance defect and false defects caused by inspection systems. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at the SMIC mask shop for the 40nm technology node. Traditionally, each defect is manually examined and classified by the inspection operator based on a set of predefined rules and human judgment. At SMIC mask shop due to the significant total number of detected defects, manual classification is not cost-effective due to increased inspection cycle time, resulting in constrained mask inspection capacity, since the review has to be performed while the mask stays on the inspection system. Luminescent Technologies Automated Defect Classification (ADC) product offers a complete and systematic approach for defect disposition and classification offline, resulting in improved utilization of the current mask inspection capability. Based on results from implementation of ADC in SMIC mask production flow, there was around 20% improvement in the inspection capacity compared to the traditional flow. This approach of computationally reviewing defects post mask-inspection ensures no yield loss by qualifying reticles without the errors associated with operator mis-classification or human error. The ADC engine retrieves the high resolution inspection images and uses a decision-tree flow to classify a given defect. Some identification mechanisms adopted by ADC to

  5. Oncologic image compression using both wavelet and masking techniques. (United States)

    Yin, F F; Gao, Q


    A new algorithm has been developed to compress oncologic images using both wavelet transform and field masking methods. A compactly supported wavelet transform is used to decompose the original image into high- and low-frequency subband images. The region-of-interest (ROI) inside an image, such as an irradiated field in an electronic portal image, is identified using an image segmentation technique and is then used to generate a mask. The wavelet transform coefficients outside the mask region are then ignored so that these coefficients can be efficiently coded to minimize the image redundancy. In this study, an adaptive uniform scalar quantization method and Huffman coding with a fixed code book are employed in subsequent compression procedures. Three types of typical oncologic images are tested for compression using this new algorithm: CT, MRI, and electronic portal images with 256 x 256 matrix size and 8-bit gray levels. Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used to evaluate the quality of reconstructed image. Effects of masking and image quality on compression ratio are illustrated. Compression ratios obtained using wavelet transform with and without masking for the same PSNR are compared for all types of images. The addition of masking shows an increase of compression ratio by a factor of greater than 1.5. The effect of masking on the compression ratio depends on image type and anatomical site. A compression ratio of greater than 5 can be achieved for a lossless compression of various oncologic images with respect to the region inside the mask. Examples of reconstructed images with compression ratio greater than 50 are shown.

  6. Phase shifting mask modulated laser patterning on graphene (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Liu, Fengyuan; Ye, Ziran; Sui, Chenghua; Yan, Bo; Cai, Pinggen; Lv, Bin; Li, Yun; Chen, Naibo; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi


    A one-step graphene patterning method is developed in this paper. A phase shifting mask is used to modulate incident laser beam spatially and generate graphene patterns by laser heating. Periodic graphene nanoribbon and nanomesh structures are fabricated by employing 1D and 2D phase shifting masks, respectively. The noncontact, simple procedure, easy handling and economic properties of this method make it promising towards graphene-based device fabrication.

  7. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.


    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Secure Communication With Chaos Masking

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Sourav


    The most exciting recent development in nonlinear dynamics is realization that chaos can be useful. One application involves "Secure Communication". Two piecewise linear systems with switching nonlinearities have been taken as chaos generators. In the present work the phenomenon of secure communication with chaos masking has been investigated experimentally. In this investigation chaos which is generated from two chaos generators is masked with the massage signal to be transmitted, thus makes communication is more secure.

  9. [Prospective therapeutic trial of masking treatment in patients with tinnitus]. (United States)

    Hernández Moñiz, F; Barrio, A; Pérez, A; Pertierra, M A; Salafranca, J M; González, M


    We report the results of a therapeutic trial of patients with tinnitus of different characteristics that was unresponsive to other medical or surgical treatments. Treatment was based on a combination of biofeedback training designed to reduce stress and either pure masking therapy or masking therapy consisting of a hearing aid and masker. The results showed an improvement in subjective perceptions and in the audiometric parameter of pitch in a significant percentage of patients.

  10. On-line simulations of models for backward masking. (United States)

    Francis, Gregory


    Five simulations of quantitative models of visual backward masking are available on the Internet at The simulations can be run in a Web browser that supports the Java programming language. This article describes the motivation for making the simulations available and gives a brief introduction as to how the simulations are used. The source code is available on the Web page, and this article describes how the code is organized.

  11. Cloud and Cloud Shadow Masking Using Multi-Temporal Cloud Masking Algorithm in Tropical Environmental (United States)

    Candra, D. S.; Phinn, S.; Scarth, P.


    A cloud masking approach based on multi-temporal satellite images is proposed. The basic idea of this approach is to detect cloud and cloud shadow by using the difference reflectance values between clear pixels and cloud and cloud shadow contaminated pixels. Several bands of satellite image which have big difference values are selected for developing Multi-temporal Cloud Masking (MCM) algorithm. Some experimental analyses are conducted by using Landsat-8 images. Band 3 and band 4 are selected because they can distinguish between cloud and non cloud. Afterwards, band 5 and band 6 are used to distinguish between cloud shadow and clear. The results show that the MCM algorithm can detect cloud and cloud shadow appropriately. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative assessments are conducted using visual inspections and confusion matrix, respectively, to evaluate the reliability of this algorithm. Comparison between this algorithm and QA band are conducted to prove the reliability of the approach. The results show that MCM better than QA band and the accuracy of the results are very high.

  12. Soyinka and Yoruba Sculpture: Masks of Deification and Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Tarka Fai


    Full Text Available The Yoruba mask is a piece of sculpture that is both artistic and functional. The carved work fulfils one or more of several functions—sacred or profane, personal or communal, serious or satirical. As an object it has only its relatively insignificant quota of vital energy that is found, according to African ontology, in all matter and substance of the visible world- animal, vegetable and mineral. But the Yoruba mask also has a force that extends to the world of spirits and gods. These masks also have the dual effect of transforming the wearer and the ambivalence of serving good and evil ends. This indicates that the Yoruba mask apart from its spiritual essence is a symbol of great complexity and ambiguity. It is from this great community of sculptors and from the ambivalent quality of the mask as image and symbol that some of Wole Soyinka’s creative writings emerge. This paper argues that Wole Soyinka uses his native Yoruba sculpture, and the mask in particular, to dramatise the essential spiritual continuity of human nature through the dramatic appearance of gods and the spirits of the ancestors in the world of the living during the dance of possession.

  13. Dissolution methodology for taste masked oral dosage forms. (United States)

    Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel


    Conventional adult dosage forms are often not suitable for the paediatric and geriatric populations due to either swallowing difficulties or patient repulsion and a requirement for tailored dosing to individual compliance or physiological needs. Alternative formulations are available; however these often require the incorporation of more complex taste masking techniques. One approach to taste masking is to reduce contact between the bitter Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and oral cavity taste bud regions. This is achieved by hindering release in the oral cavity, or including competitive inhibition of bitter sensation for example by using flavours or sweeteners. There may also be other sensational complications from the API such as residual burning, reflux or metallic taste sensations to deal with. In vitro dissolution testing is employed to elucidate taste masking capability by quantifying release of the drug in simulated oral cavity conditions. Dissolution testing approaches may also be used to potentially predict or quantify the effect of the taste masking technique on the resultant pharmacokinetic profile. The present review investigates the anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity and current approaches to taste masking. In vitro dissolution methodologies adopted in the evaluation of taste masked formulations are discussed for their relative merits and drawbacks. A vast array of methodologies has been employed, with little agreement between approaches, and a lack of biorelevance. Future directions in dissolution methodology such as TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) and the Artificial Stomach and Duodenum model (ASD) are also discussed.

  14. Line Search-Based Inverse Lithography Technique for Mask Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao


    Full Text Available As feature size is much smaller than the wavelength of illumination source of lithography equipments, resolution enhancement technology (RET has been increasingly relied upon to minimize image distortions. In advanced process nodes, pixelated mask becomes essential for RET to achieve an acceptable resolution. In this paper, we investigate the problem of pixelated binary mask design in a partially coherent imaging system. Similar to previous approaches, the mask design problem is formulated as a nonlinear program and is solved by gradient-based search. Our contributions are four novel techniques to achieve significantly better image quality. First, to transform the original bound-constrained formulation to an unconstrained optimization problem, we propose a new noncyclic transformation of mask variables to replace the wellknown cyclic one. As our transformation is monotonic, it enables a better control in flipping pixels. Second, based on this new transformation, we propose a highly efficient line search-based heuristic technique to solve the resulting unconstrained optimization. Third, to simplify the optimization, instead of using discretization regularization penalty technique, we directly round the optimized gray mask into binary mask for pattern error evaluation. Forth, we introduce a jump technique in order to jump out of local minimum and continue the search.

  15. Translucency and Masking Ability of Various Composite Resins at Different Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Darabi


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Optical properties of the composite resins, concerning their translucency and thickness, are affected by discolored tooth structure or inherent darkness of the oral cavity. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the translucency parameter (TP of five different composite resins in different thicknesses and to evaluate their masking ability in black backgrounds. Materials and Method: Five brands of composite resins; Gradia (GC and Crystalline (Confi-dental in opaque A2 (OA2, Vit-l-escence (Ultradent in opaque snow (OS, Herculite XRV (Kerr and Opallis (FGM in dentin A2 (DA2 shades were selected to enroll the study. Color coordinates of each composite were determined at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm thicknesses on a white backing, the backing of material itself and a black backing were calculated by using a spectrophotometer to evaluate the translucency parameter (TP of the study materials. The masking ability was also calculated from the specimens on the material itself and on black backing. The values under 2 were estimated as im-perceptible. One-way ANOVA, T-test and Tukey HSD were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The masking ability values, recorded for the 1.5 mm-thick specimens, were in the range of imperceptible except for the Herculite. There was no difference in TP values of the materials at 1.5 mm thickness. Opaque snow shade of Vit-l-escence and opaque A2 shade of Gradia showed lower TP values in comparison with the other 1 and 0.5 mm-thick materials and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05. Conclusion: In relatively thin thicknesses (≤1mm, these opaque/dentin shade composite resins could not mask the black background color.

  16. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten;


    with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking...... time-course of OSM, noise backward masking, as well as a simple target contrast decrease. Consistently with a reentrant account, a significantly stronger masking effect was observed for slow (larger than median RT; average median RT = 177 ms) relatively to fast saccades in the OSM condition......Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...

  17. Impact of topographic mask models on scanner matching solutions (United States)

    Tyminski, Jacek K.; Pomplun, Jan; Renwick, Stephen P.


    Of keen interest to the IC industry are advanced computational lithography applications such as Optical Proximity Correction of IC layouts (OPC), scanner matching by optical proximity effect matching (OPEM), and Source Optimization (SO) and Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) used as advanced reticle enhancement techniques. The success of these tasks is strongly dependent on the integrity of the lithographic simulators used in computational lithography (CL) optimizers. Lithographic mask models used by these simulators are key drivers impacting the accuracy of the image predications, and as a consequence, determine the validity of these CL solutions. Much of the CL work involves Kirchhoff mask models, a.k.a. thin masks approximation, simplifying the treatment of the mask near-field images. On the other hand, imaging models for hyper-NA scanner require that the interactions of the illumination fields with the mask topography be rigorously accounted for, by numerically solving Maxwell's Equations. The simulators used to predict the image formation in the hyper-NA scanners must rigorously treat the masks topography and its interaction with the scanner illuminators. Such imaging models come at a high computational cost and pose challenging accuracy vs. compute time tradeoffs. Additional complication comes from the fact that the performance metrics used in computational lithography tasks show highly non-linear response to the optimization parameters. Finally, the number of patterns used for tasks such as OPC, OPEM, SO, or SMO range from tens to hundreds. These requirements determine the complexity and the workload of the lithography optimization tasks. The tools to build rigorous imaging optimizers based on first-principles governing imaging in scanners are available, but the quantifiable benefits they might provide are not very well understood. To quantify the performance of OPE matching solutions, we have compared the results of various imaging optimization trials obtained

  18. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.


    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  19. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak


    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  20. Scanning coherent scattering methods for actinic EUV mask inspection (United States)

    Ekinci, Y.; Helfenstein, P.; Rajeev, R.; Mochi, I.; Mohacsi, I.; Gobrecht, J.; Yoshitake, S.


    Actinic mask inspection for EUV lithography with targeted specifications of resolution, sensitivity, and throughput remains a big hurdle for the successful insertion of EUVL into high volume manufacturing and effective solutions are needed to address this. We present a method for actinic mask inspection based on scanning coherent scattering microscopy. In this method, the mask is scanned with an EUV beam of relatively small spot size and the scattered light is recorded with a pixel detector. Customized algorithms reconstruct the aerial image by iteratively solving the phaseproblem using over-determined diffraction data gathered by scanning across the specimen with a finite illumination. This approach provides both phase and amplitude of actinic aerial images of the mask with high resolution without the need to use high NA (numerical aperture) lenses. Futher, we describe a reflective mode EUV mask scanning lensless imaging tool (RESCAN), which was installed at the XIL-II beamline and later at the SIM beamline of the Swiss Light Source and show reconstructed aerial images down to 10 nm (on-wafer) resolution. As a complementary method, the a-priori knowledge of the sample is employed to identify potential defect sites by analyzing the diffraction patterns. In this method, the recorded diffraction patterns are compared with the die or database data (i.e. previously measured or calculated diffraction data from the defect-free mask layout respectively) and their difference is interpreted as the defect signal. Dynamic software filtering helps to suppress the strong diffraction from defect-free structures and allows registration of faint defects with high sensitivity. Here, we discuss the basic principles of these Fourier domain techniques and its potential for actinic mask inspection with high signal-to-noise ratio and high throughput.

  1. Defects caused by blank masks and repair solution with nanomachining for 20nm node (United States)

    Lee, HyeMi; Kim, ByungJu; Kim, MunSik; Jung, HoYong; Kim, Sang Pyo; Yim, DongGyu


    As the number of masks per wafer product set is increasing and low k1 lithography requires tight mask specifications, the patterning process below sub 20nm tech. node for critical layers will be much more expensive compared with previous tech. generations. Besides, the improved resolution and the zero defect level are necessary to meet tighter specifications on a mask and these resulted in the increased the blank mask price as well as the mask fabrication cost. Unfortunately, in spite of expensive price of blank masks, the certain number of defects on the blank mask is transformed into the mask defects and its ratio is increased. But using high quality blank mask is not a good idea to avoid defects on the blank mask because the price of a blank mask is proportional to specifications related to defect level. Furthermore, particular defects generated from the specific process during manufacturing a blank mask are detected as a smaller defect than real size by blank inspection tools because of its physical properties. As a result, it is almost impossible to prevent defects caused by blank masks during the mask manufacturing. In this paper, blank defect types which is evolved into mask defects and its unique characteristics are observed. Also, the repair issues are reviewed such as the pattern damage according to the defect types and the repair solution is suggested to satisfy the AIMS (Arial Image Measurement System) specification using a nanomachining tool.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet lithography mask etch study and overview (United States)

    Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay; Chandrachood, Madhavi; Sabharwal, Amitabh


    An overview of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask etch is presented and a EUVL mask etch study was carried out. Today, EUVL implementation has three critical challenges that hinder its adoption: extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source power, resist resolution-line width roughness-sensitivity, and a qualified EUVL mask. The EUVL mask defect challenges result from defects generated during blank preparation, absorber and multilayer deposition processes, as well as patterning, etching and wet clean processes. Stringent control on several performance criteria including critical dimension (CD) uniformity, etch bias, micro-loading, profile control, defect control, and high etch selectivity requirement to capping layer is required during the resist pattern duplication on the underlying absorber layer. EUVL mask absorbers comprise of mainly tantalum-based materials rather than chrome- or MoSi-based materials used in standard optical masks. Compared to the conventional chrome-based absorbers and phase shift materials, tantalum-based absorbers need high ion energy to obtain moderate etch rates. However, high ion energy may lower resist selectivity, and could introduce defects. Current EUVL mask consists of an anti-reflective layer on top of the bulk absorber. Recent studies indicate that a native oxide layer would suffice as an anti-reflective coating layer during the electron beam inspection. The absorber thickness and the material properties are optimized based on optical density targets for the mask as well as electromagnetic field effects and optics requirements of the patterning tools. EUVL mask etch processes are modified according to the structure of the absorber, its material, and thickness. However, etch product volatility is the fundamental requirement. Overlapping lithographic exposure near chip border may require etching through the multilayer, resulting in challenges in profile control and etch selectivity. Optical proximity correction is applied to further

  3. UV-NIL mask making and imprint evaluation (United States)

    Fujii, Akiko; Sakai, Yuko; Mizuochi, Jun; Hiraka, Takaaki; Yusa, Satoshi; Kuriyama, Koki; Sakaki, Masashi; Sutou, Takanori; Sasaki, Shiho; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya


    UV NIL shows excellent resolution capability with remarkable low line edge roughness, and has been attracting pioneers in the industry who were searching for the finest patterns. We have been focused on the resolution improvement in mask making, and with a 100kV acceleration voltage EB writer process, we have achieved down to 18nm resolution, and have established a mask making process to meet the requirements of the pioneers. Usually such masks needed just a small field (several hundred microns square or so). Now, UV NIL exploration seems to have reached the step of feasibility study for mass production. Here, instead of a small field, a full chip field mask is required, though the resolution demand is not as tough as for the extremely advanced usage. The 100kV EB writers are adopting spot beams to generate the pattern and have a fatally low throughput if we need full chip writing. In this work, we focused on the 50keV variable shaped beam (VSB) EB writers, which are used in current 4X photomask manufacturing. The 50kV VSB writers can generate full chip pattern in a reasonable time, and by choosing the right patterning material and process, we could achieve resolution down to 32nm. Our initial results of 32nm class NIL masks with full chip field size will be shown and resolution improvement plan to further technology nodes will be discussed.

  4. Economics of automation for the design-to-mask interface (United States)

    Erck, Wesley


    Mask order automation has increased steadily over the years through a variety of individual mask customer implementations. These have been supported by customer-specific software at the mask suppliers to support the variety of customer output formats. Some customers use the SEMI P10 1 standard, some use supplier-specific formats, and some use customer-specific formats. Some customers use little automation and depend instead on close customer-supplier relationships. Implementations are varied in quality and effectiveness. A major factor which has prolonged the adoption of more advanced and effective solutions has been a lack of understanding of the economic benefits. Some customers think standardized automation mainly benefits the mask supplier in order entry automation, but this ignores a number of other significant benefits which differ dramatically for each party in the supply chain. This paper discusses the nature of those differing advantages and presents simple models suited to four business cases: integrated device manufacturers (IDM), fabless companies, foundries and mask suppliers. Examples and estimates of the financial advantages for these business types will be shown.

  5. A Dual-Mode Actinic EUV Mask Inspection Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y; Barty, A; Gullikson, E; S.Taylor, J; Liddle, J A; Wood, O


    To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a novel EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Similar to the older generation actinic mask inspection tool, the new system can operate in scanning mode, when mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm in-band radiation to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. By modifying and optimizing beamline optics (11.3.2 at ALS) and replacing K-B focusing mirrors with a high quality Schwarzschild illuminator, the new system achieves an order of magnitude improvement on in-band EUV flux density at the mask, enabling faster scanning speed and higher sensitivity to smaller defects. Moreover, the system can also operate in imaging mode, when it becomes a zone-plate-based full-field EUV microscope with spatial resolution better than 100 nm. The microscope utilizes an off-axis setup, making it possible to obtain bright field images over a field-of-view of 5 x 5 {micro}m.

  6. Perceptual masking of boar taint in Swedish fermented sausages. (United States)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Lindahl, Gunilla; Lundström, Kerstin; Chen, Gang; Byrne, Derek V


    Surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practiced to avoid development of boar taint in pork meat which can occur if entire male pigs are raised. Boar taint is commonly characterised as exhibiting the odour and flavour of urine and manure. This study involves sensory characterisation of the possibilities to mask boar taint in meat from entire male pigs by fermentation and smoking to maintain high sensory quality in meat products if castration is prohibited. Model and commercial type Swedish fermented sausage products based on low or high levels of boar tainted fat, three different starter cultures and two different levels of smoking were studied. In the model sausages, liquid smoke masked the perception of boar taint. In contrast, the smoking procedure of the commercial sausages was insufficient to totally mask the perception of boar taint. In both the model and commercial sausages, the aroma development from the starter cultures lowered the perception of boar taint but was insufficient for total perceptual masking. Due to the total masking effect of smoking in the model sausages, it was clear that smoke may present a potential solution to remove the perception of boar taint in fermented sausages if the smoking procedure is optimised.

  7. Social mask or persona in Tennesse Williams's women chracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çevik Tan


    Full Text Available Common etymon of word “personality” in foreign languages is based on the word “persona”. Meaning of the word “persona”, in latin, is the mask the stage actors use. Jung, defining the “Persona” as a concept within the scope of analytic psychology, sees it as a functional cover, a form of spiritual behavior, which responds to daily needs of the person. When both definitions are read simultaneously the “persona” shall become the “social mask”. In brief; in order to receive acknowledgement-and not to be excluded, and to acquire some sort of things, social masks (personas suitable with communal codes that one is a part of are used. Our social masks in this sense are our face that people around us see and recognize. Maintaining the personality within “normal” borders is dependent on persona’s motion and its transmutation when needed. Play characters, too, have social masks. In this study, a review was performed out of chosen play scripts on play persons who use the social masks that undertake key roles in the stack of encoded social relationships.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bilandi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to cover various aspects related with the use of ion exchange resins for taste masking of bitter drugs and for formulating sustained release dosage form. Ion exchange resins are water insoluble cross-linked polymers containing a salt-forming group at repeating positions on the polymer chain and have the ability to exchange counter-ions within aqueous solutions surrounding them. The bitterness of pharmaceutical medicines plays a critical role in patient compliance, as the oral administration of bitter drugs is often hampered by their unpleasant taste which leads to non-compliance and further worsening of diseased condition. One of the popular approaches in the taste masking of bitter drugs is based on IER. For taste masking purpose weak cation exchange or weak anion exchange resins are used, depending on the nature of drug. The drug resin complex is absolutely tasteless with no after taste, and at the same time, its bioavailability is not affected. Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a pre determined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. The usage of IER during the development of sustained release formulations plays a significant role because of their drug retarding properties. In this review also incorporates various patents related to taste masking and sustained release formulations using IER.

  9. Mask data processing in the era of multibeam writers (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Asturias, Michael; Chandramouli, Maesh; Tezuka, Yoshihiro


    Mask writers' architectures have evolved through the years in response to ever tightening requirements for better resolution, tighter feature placement, improved CD control, and tolerable write time. The unprecedented extension of optical lithography and the myriad of Resolution Enhancement Techniques have tasked current mask writers with ever increasing shot count and higher dose, and therefore, increasing write time. Once again, we see the need for a transition to a new type of mask writer based on massively parallel architecture. These platforms offer a step function improvement in both dose and the ability to process massive amounts of data. The higher dose and almost unlimited appetite for edge corrections open new windows of opportunity to further push the envelope. These architectures are also naturally capable of producing curvilinear shapes, making the need to approximate a curve with multiple Manhattan shapes unnecessary.

  10. An aperture masking mode for the MICADO instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Gendron, E; Boccaletti, A; Galicher, R; Clénet, Y; Gratadour, D; Buey, T; Rousset, G; Hartl, M; Davies, R


    MICADO is a near-IR camera for the Europea ELT, featuring an extended field (75" diameter) for imaging, and also spectrographic and high contrast imaging capabilities. It has been chosen by ESO as one of the two first-light instruments. Although it is ultimately aimed at being fed by the MCAO module called MAORY, MICADO will come with an internal SCAO system that will be complementary to it and will deliver a high performance on axis correction, suitable for coronagraphic and pupil masking applications. The basis of the pupil masking approach is to ensure the stability of the optical transfer function, even in the case of residual errors after AO correction (due to non common path errors and quasi-static aberrations). Preliminary designs of pupil masks are presented. Trade-offs and technical choices, especially regarding redundancy and pupil tracking, are explained.

  11. Application of stencil masks for ion beam lithographic patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, S., E-mail: [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Savu, V. [Laboratoire des Microsystèmes (LMIS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Schintke, S. [HEIG-VD, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Institut de Micro et Nano Techniques – Laboratory of Applied NanoSciences (MNT-LANS), Route de Cheseaux 1, CH-1401 Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Guibert, E.; Keppner, H. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Brugger, J. [Laboratoire des Microsystèmes (LMIS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)


    The application of Au/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stencil masks for the transfer of patterns using different MeV-ion beams with various substrates has been investigated. The techniques investigated were namely, conventional lithography with positive- and negative-tone resist polymers, oxygen ion-induced etching of PTFE and patterning using an etch-stop in silicon. We demonstrate that using different well-known microtechnology material-modification techniques, patterns can be transferred using stencil masks and broad ion beams to nanomachining scenarios. In the case of the etch-stop process; writing of 3D micropatterns with different height levels was achieved using a broad beam. The stencil masks were found to be durable with no obvious deterioration and well suited for exposure of large areas.

  12. Towards reduced impact of EUV mask defectivity on wafer (United States)

    Jonckheere, R.; Van den Heuvel, D.; Pacco, A.; Pollentier, I.; Baudemprez, B.; Jehoul, C.; Hermans, J.; Hendrickx, E.


    The defectivity challenges of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks, that need to be addressed before production readiness of EUV lithography is assured from the mask perspective, are twofold. First, the EUV-specific defect type relating to the multi-layer (ML) mirror, the so-called ML-defects, require to become more detectable than they are printable. This not only requires proven capability of blank inspection, but also the existence of satisfactory printability mitigation strategies (comprising avoidance, pattern shift methodology, compensation repair). Both these assets need to become available within the mask supply chain, as there is little that can still be done about such residual defects at the wafer fab. In a production phase, finding unexpected printing ML-defects is unacceptable. It is shown how the specific way-of-working in use at imec, starting from the printed wafer, contributes to related learning and identification of remaining gaps, in getting this issue fully dealt with. The second challenge relates to particle contamination during use of the reticle at the wafer fab. Avoiding overlaycritical particles on the backside of NXE3100 reticles is facilitated by the established way-of-working. Minimizing the occurrence of particles "hopping" between reticles via the electrostatic clamp of the scanner (so-called clamp-traveling particles) is a major driver for appropriate mask cleaning. The latter may not have negative impact by frequent use, in view of the highly vulnerable EUV mask stack, and especially for the present "black-border" solution in which the ML is etched away at the image border on the reticle. A lot of effort is spent into monitoring of NXE3100 reticles for particle adders on the pattern side. This is realized by comparing past and present mask defect maps obtained by inspection of printed wafers with subsequent repeater analysis.

  13. Terahertz coded aperture mask using vanadium dioxide bowtie antenna array (United States)

    Nadri, Souheil; Percy, Rebecca; Kittiwatanakul, Lin; Arsenovic, Alex; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stu; Weikle, Robert M.


    Terahertz imaging systems have received substantial attention from the scientific community for their use in astronomy, spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and security. One approach to designing such systems is to use focal plane arrays. Although the principle of these systems is straightforward, realizing practical architectures has proven deceptively difficult. A different approach to imaging consists of spatially encoding the incoming flux of electromagnetic energy prior to detection using a reconfigurable mask. This technique is referred to as "coded aperture" or "Hadamard" imaging. This paper details the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype coded aperture mask operating at WR-1.5 (500-750 GHz) that uses the switching properties of vanadium dioxide(VO2). The reconfigurable mask consists of bowtie antennas with vanadium dioxide VO2 elements at the feed points. From the symmetry, a unit cell of the array can be represented by an equivalent waveguide whose dimensions limit the maximum operating frequency. In this design, the cutoff frequency of the unit cell is 640 GHz. The VO2 devices are grown using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition. A reflection coefficient (S11) measurement of the mask in the WR-1.5 (500-750 GHz) band is conducted. The results are compared with circuit models and found to be in good agreement. A simulation of the transmission response of the mask is conducted and shows a transmission modulation of up to 28 dB. This project is a first step towards the development of a full coded aperture imaging system operating at WR-1.5 with VO2 as the mask switching element.

  14. Shadow mask assisted heteroepitaxy of compound semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallenberg, T.


    Shadow Mask assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (SMMBE) is a technique enabling selected area epitaxy of semiconductor heterostructures through shadow masks. The objective of this work was the development of the SMMBE technique for the reliable fabrication of compound semiconductor nanostructures of high structural and optical quality. In order to accomplish this, technological processes have been developed and optimized. One of the technological developments to this effect, which has substantially enhanced the versatility of SMMBE, is the introduction of a new type of freestanding shadow masks. A consistent model has been developed, which successfully explains the growth dynamics of molecular beam epitaxy through shadow masks. The predictions of the model regarding the growth of II-VI and III-V compounds have been tested experimentally and the dependence of the growth rates on the growth parameters has been verified. Moreover, it has been shown, that selected area epitaxy of II-VI and III-V compounds are governed by different surface kinetics. In addition to the basic surface kinetic processes described by the model, the roles of orientation and strain-dependent growth dynamics, partial shadow, and material deposition on the mask (closure of apertures) have been discussed. The resulting advanced understanding of the growth dynamics (model and basic experiments) in combination with the implementation of technical improvements has enabled the development and application of a number of different processes for the fabrication of both II-VI and III-V nanostructures. In addition to specific material properties, various other phenomena have been exploited, e.g., self-organization. Bright cathodoluminescence demonstrates that the resulting quantum structures are of high structural and optical quality. In addition to these results the limitations of the method have also been discussed, and various approaches to overcome them have been suggested. Moreover, propositions for the

  15. Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Luting Agent Shade on the Color Masking Ability of Laminate Veneers. (United States)

    Begum, Zubeda; Chheda, Pratik; Shruthi, C S; Sonika, Radhika


    The main objective of the study was to recognize the effect of ceramic thickness and luting agent on the extent to which the restoration masks color variations that may be present in the underlying dental structure. Two pressable ceramics were used: Lithium disilicate reinforced (IPS e.max- Ivoclar Vivadent) and Leucite reinforced (Cergo- Dentsply). Fifteen ceramic discs were manufactured from each ceramic and divided into three groups, according to the thickness (0.5, 1, 1.5 mm). To simulate the color of a dark underlying dental structure, background discs, color C3, with 20 mm diameter, were made using resin composite. The ceramic discs with varying thicknesses were seated on the dark background of the resin composite with either resinous opaque cement or resinous cement. The color parameters were determined by the CIE Lab system of colors using a spectrophotometer and color differences (ΔE) were calculated. The results were then statistically analyzed, using ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test. The ΔE values of both ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for both ceramic materials. The color masking ability of ceramics used for laminate veneers is significantly affected by the thickness of the ceramic and the shade of the luting agent used.

  16. Mask synthesis and verification based on geometric model for surface micro-machined MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-hua; LIU Yu-sheng; GAO Shu-ming


    Traditional MEMS (microelectromechanical system) design methodology is not a structured method and has become an obstacle for MEMS creative design. In this paper, a novel method of mask synthesis and verification for surface micro-machined MEMS is proposed, which is based on the geometric model of a MEMS device. The emphasis is focused on synthesizing the masks at the basis of the layer model generated from the geometric model of the MEMS device. The method is comprised of several steps: the correction of the layer model, the generation of initial masks and final masks including multi-layer etch masks, and mask simulation. Finally some test results are given.

  17. Actinic Mask Inspection at the ALS Initial Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, A; Chapman, H; Sweeney, D; Levesque, R; Bokor, J; Gullikson, E; Jong, S; Liu, Y; Yi, M; Denbeaux, G; Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Denham, P; Rekawa, S; Baston, P; Tackaberry, R; Barale, P


    This report is the first milestone report for the actinic mask blank inspection project conducted at the VNL, which forms sub-section 3 of the Q1 2003 mask blank technology transfer program at the VNL. Specifically this report addresses deliverable 3.1.1--design review and preliminary tool design. The goal of this project is to design an actinic mask inspection tool capable of operating in two modes: high-speed scanning for the detection of multilayer defects (inspection mode), and a high-resolution aerial image mode in which the image emulates the imaging illumination conditions of a stepper system (aerial image or AIM mode). The purpose and objective of these two modes is as follows: (1) Defect inspection mode--This imaging mode is designed to scan large areas of the mask for defects EUV multilayer coatings. The goal is to detect the presence of multilayer defects on a mask blank and to store the co-ordinates for subsequent review in AIM mode, thus it is not essential that the illumination and imaging conditions match that of a production stepper. Potential uses for this imaging mode include: (a) Correlating the results obtained using actinic inspection with results obtained using other non-EUV defect inspection systems to verify that the non-EUV scanning systems are detecting all critical defects; (b) Gaining sufficient information to associate defects with particular processes, such as various stages of the multilayer deposition or different modes of operation of the deposition tool; and (c) Assessing the density and EUV impact of surface and multilayer anomalies. Because of the low defect density achieved using current multilayer coating technology it is necessary to be able to efficiently scan large areas of the mask in order to obtain sufficient statistics for use in cross-correlation experiments. Speed of operation as well as sensitivity is therefore key to operation in defect inspection mode. (2) Aerial Image Microscope (AIM) mode--In AIM mode the tool is

  18. Masking interference and the evolution of the acoustic communication system in the Amazonian dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis. (United States)

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Hödl, Walter; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Castellanos, Lina; Erdtmann, Luciana; de Araújo, Maria Carmozina


    The efficacy of communication relies on detection of species-specific signals against the background noise. Features affecting signal detection are thus expected to evolve under selective pressures represented by masking noise. Spectral partitioning between the auditory signals of co-occurring species has been interpreted as the outcome of the selective effects of masking interference. However, masking interference depends not only on signal's frequency but on receiver's range of frequency sensitivity; moreover, selection on signal frequency can be confounded by selection on body size, because these traits are often correlated. To know whether geographic variation in communication traits agrees with predictions about masking interference effects, we tested the hypothesis that variation in the male-male communication system of the Amazonian frog, Allobates femoralis, is correlated with the occurrence of a single species calling within an overlapping frequency range, Epipedobates trivittatus. We studied frogs at eight sites, four where both species co-occur and four where A. femoralis occurs but E. trivittatus does not. To study the sender component of the communication system of A. femoralis and to describe the use of the spectral range, we analyzed the signal's spectral features of all coactive species at each site. To study the receiver component, we derived frequency-response curves from playback experiments conducted on territorial males of A. femoralis under natural conditions. Most geographic variation in studied traits was correlated with either call frequency or with response frequency range. The occurrence of E. trivittatus significantly predicted narrower and asymmetric frequency-response curves in A. femoralis, without concomitant differences in the call or in body size. The number of acoustically coactive species did not significantly predict variation in any of the studied traits. Our results strongly support that the receiver but not the sender

  19. 3D mask modeling with oblique incidence and mask corner rounding effects for the 32nm node (United States)

    Saied, Mazen; Foussadier, Franck; Belledent, Jérôme; Trouiller, Yorick; Schanen, Isabelle; Yesilada, Emek; Gardin, Christian; Urbani, Jean Christophe; Sundermann, Frank; Robert, Frédéric; Couderc, Christophe; Vautrin, Florent; LeCam, Laurent; Kerrien, Gurwan; Planchot, Jonathan; Martinelli, Catherine; Wilkinson, Bill; Rody, Yves; Borjon, Amandine; Morgana, Nicolo; Di-Maria, Jean-Luc; Farys, Vincent


    The perpetual shrinking in critical dimensions in semiconductor devices is driving the need for increased resolution in optical lithography. Increasing NA to gain resolution also increases Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) model complexity. Some optical effects which have been completely neglected in OPC modeling become important. Over the past few years, off-axis illumination has been widely used to improve the imaging process. OPC models which utilize such illumination still use the thin film mask approximation (Kirchhoff approach), during optical model generation, which utilizes a normal incidence. However, simulating a three dimensional mask near-field using an off-axis illumination requires OPC models to introduce oblique incidence. In addition, the use of higher NA systems introduces high obliquity field components that can no longer be assimilated as normal incident waves. The introduction of oblique incidence requires other effects, such as corner rounding of mask features, to be considered, that are seldom taken into account in OPC modeling. In this paper, the effects of oblique incidence and corner rounding of mask features on resist contours of 2D structures (i.e. line-ends and corners) are studied. Rigorous electromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the scattering properties of various lithographic 32nm node mask structures. Simulations are conducted using a three dimensional phase shift mask topology and an off-axis illumination at high NA. Aerial images are calculated and compared with those obtained from a classical normal incidence illumination. The benefits of using an oblique incidence to improve hot-spot prediction will be discussed.

  20. Masking the unmasked-gingival veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Sanghavi


    Full Text Available Black triangles are third most disliked aesthetic problem after caries and crown margins. Periodontal disease is one of most common reason for black triangles. The dental aesthetics is a fine balance between white and pink component surrounding natural teeth and their replacements. Gingival veneer is of importance in periodontal conditions where multiple teeth are affected with alveolar bone loss and surgical correction is not a feasible option. Gingival veneer is noninvasive, economical, and less time consuming treatment option large areas of aesthetic and functional deficit.

  1. Comparison of lithographic performance between MoSi binary mask and MoSi attenuated PSM (United States)

    Yamana, Mitsuharu; Lamantia, Matthew; Philipsen, Vicky; Wada, Shingo; Nagatomo, Tatsuya; Tonooka, Yoji


    The mask error budget continues to shrink with shrinking DRAM half pitch and MPU gate size year by year. The ITRS roadmap calls for mask CDU to be cut in half by 2014[1]. Both mask maker and mask user must take advantage of various mask properties, OPC strategies and resolution enhancement techniques to drive improvements. Mask material selection impacts both lithographic performance and mask manufacturability. In turn mask material properties and manufacturing techniques impact our ability to meet the technology roadmap. Studies have shown the advantages of polarized light[2,3] as well as the impact of various mask materials on high NA lithography[4]. In this paper we select the recently introduced binary mask material made from a MoSi absorber called Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) for comparison with the conventional 6% att. PSM and 20% att. MoSi PSM. Through simulation and wafer prints, we optimized mask feature from viewpoint of MEEF and maximum exposure latitude (EL). The MoSi att. PSMs suffer from higher MEEF, which is attributed to the negative effect of TE polarization for mask duty cycle of 50% for 50 nm half pitch and below. Therefore a lower mask duty cycle is required for att. PSM to bring the MEEF performance back to acceptable levels. Experimental results confirm simulation results. As a result of the lower mask duty cycle, the att. MoSi PSMs exhibit poor Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) printability. On the contrary, the MoSi binary mask delivers both acceptable MEEF and acceptable SRAF printing performance. Moreover, we found that the mask structure impact of OMOG to wafer CD is smallest among three masks. OMOG gives the best combination of lithographic performance and delivery compared to the MoSi att. PSMs.

  2. Development of a new high transmission phase shift mask technology for 10 nm logic node (United States)

    Faure, Thomas; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Toda, Yusuke; Badger, Karen; Seki, Kazunori; Lawliss, Mark; Isogawa, Takeshi; Zweber, Amy; Kagawa, Masayuki; Wistrom, Richard; Xu, Yongan; Lobb, Granger; Viswanathan, Ramya; Hu, Lin; Inazuki, Yukio; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro


    In this paper we will describe the development of a new 12% high transmission phase shift mask technology for use with the 10 nm logic node. The primary motivation for this work was to improve the lithographic process window for 10 nm node via hole patterning by reducing the MEEF and improving the depth of focus (DOF). First, the simulated MEEF and DOF data will be compared between the 6% and high T PSM masks with the transmission of high T mask blank varying from 12% to 20%. This resulted in selection of a 12% transmission phase shift mask. As part of this work a new 12% attenuated phase shift mask blank was developed. A detailed description and results of the key performance metrics of the new mask blank including radiation durability, dry etch properties, film thickness, defect repair, and defect inspection will be shared. In addition, typical mask critical dimension uniformity and mask minimum feature size performance for 10 nm logic node via level mask patterns will be shown. Furthermore, the results of work to optimize the chrome hard mask film properties to meet the final mask minimum feature size requirements will be shared. Lastly, the key results of detailed lithographic performance comparisons of the process of record 6% and new 12% phase shift masks on wafer will be described. The 12% High T blank shows significantly better MEEF and larger DOF than those of 6% PSM mask blank, which is consistent with our simulation data.

  3. Challenges and technical requirements for multi-beam mask writer development (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Lee, Ho June; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk


    Because mask patterning quality of CD uniformity, MTT, registration and smaller assist feature size is important for wafer patterning, the higher exposure dose and complex pattern design will be necessary. It is the reason why the faster and more accurate e-beam mask writer is needed for future design node. Multi-beam mask writer is the most promising new e-beam mask writer technology for future sub-10nm device mask patterning to solve the pattern quality issue and writing time problem. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed by comparison with problems of current VSB e-beam mask writer. Comparing with e-beam mask writer which has the critical issues of beam size and position control, the application of entirely different methods and techniques of CD and position control is essential for multi-beam mask writer which has new architecture and writing strategy. Using the simulation method, we present the different challenges between VSB and multi-beam mask writer. And there are many important technical requirements to achieve expected specification of multi-beam mask writer. To understand such requirements, the patterning simulation and mathematical calculation are done for analysis. Based on the patterning simulation, the detail technical requirements and issues of multi-beam mask writer are achieved. Consequently, we suggest the direction of multi-beam mask writer development in terms of technical challenges and requirements.

  4. Experimental demonstration of binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs for telescopes with obscured pupils

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Kanae; Abe, Lyu; Takahashi, Aoi; Kotani, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu


    We present the fabrication and experimental demonstration of three free-standing binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs, which are applicable for telescopes with partially obscured pupils. Three masks, designed to be complementary (labeled Mask-A, Mask-B, and Mask-C), were formed in 5 micron thick nickel. The design of Mask-A is based on a one-dimensional barcode mask. The design principle of Mask-B is similar, but has a smaller inner working angle and a lower contrast than Mask-A. Mask-C is based on a concentric ring mask and provides the widest dark region and a symmetric point spread function. Mask-A and Mask-C were both designed to produce a flexibly tailored dark region (i.e., non-uniform contrast). The contrast was evaluated using a light source comprising a broadband super-luminescent light-emitting diode with a center wavelength of 650 nm, and the measurements were carried out in a large vacuum chamber. Active wavefront control was not applied in this work. The coronagraphic images obtained by experime...

  5. Prognostic importance of white coat and masked hypertention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Pia; Hansen, Tine


    The growing use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has led to an increased awareness of the two types of discrepancy between office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, called white coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH). Based on several longitudinal studies, WCH...

  6. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...

  7. Influence of binary mask estimation errors on robust speaker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias


    and unreliable feature components in the context of automatic speaker identification (SID). A systematic evaluation under ideal and non-ideal conditions demonstrated that the robustness to errors in the binary mask varied substantially across the different missing-data strategies. Moreover, full and bounded...

  8. General Projective Synchronization and Fractional Order Chaotic Masking Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Quan Shao


    In this paper, a fractional order chaoticmasking scheme used for secure communication isintroduced. Based on the general projectivesynchronization of two coupled fractional Chen systems,a popular masking scheme is designed. Numericalexample is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of theproposed method.

  9. Multi-shaped e-beam technology for mask writing (United States)

    Gramss, Juergen; Stoeckel, Arnd; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Bloecker, Martin; Sczyrba, Martin; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Melzer, Detlef


    Photomask lithography for the 22nm technology node and beyond requires new approaches in equipment as well as mask design. Multi Shaped Beam technology (MSB) for photomask patterning using a matrix of small beamlets instead of just one shaped beam, is a very effective and evolutionary enhancement of the well established Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technique. Its technical feasibility has been successfully demonstrated [2]. One advantage of MSB is the productivity gain over VSB with decreasing critical dimensions (CDs) and increasing levels of optical proximity correction (OPC) or for inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) solutions. This makes MSB an attractive alternative to VSB for photomask lithography at future technology nodes. The present paper describes in detail the working principles and advantages of MSB over VSB for photomask applications. MSB integrates the electron optical column, x/y stage and data path into an operational electron beam lithography system. Multi e-beam mask writer specific requirements concerning the computational lithography and their implementation are outlined here. Data preparation of aggressive OPC layouts, shot count reductions over VSB, data path architecture, write time simulation and several aspects of the exposure process sequence are also discussed. Analysis results of both the MSB processing and the write time of full 32nm and 22nm node critical layer mask layouts are presented as an example.

  10. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.


    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  11. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;


    and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  12. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David


    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  13. Auditory Backward Masking Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities (United States)

    Montgomery, Christine R.; Morris, Robin D.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Clarkson, Marsha G.


    Studies evaluating temporal auditory processing among individuals with reading and other language deficits have yielded inconsistent findings due to methodological problems (Studdert-Kennedy & Mody, 1995) and sample differences. In the current study, seven auditory masking thresholds were measured in fifty-two 7- to 10-year-old children (26…

  14. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja


    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the sha...

  15. High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Slot, Esther; de Bree, Elise


    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia

  16. High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, S.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Slot, E.M.; de Bree, E.H.


    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia

  17. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.


    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  18. "Kuldne mask" - hea vene teater Eestis / Laur Kaunissaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaunissaare, Laur, 1982-


    6.-13. okt. Tallinnas ja Jõhvis toimuvast Venemaa rahvuslikust teatrifestivalist "Kuldne mask Eestis". Festivali lavastustest - Temur Tšheidze "Onukese unenägu", Declan Donnellan "Kaheteistkümnes öö", Lev Erenburgi "Äike" ja Alvis Hermanise "Šukšini jutustused"

  19. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo


    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  20. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  1. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.


    Operating at EUV wavelengths, the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements in routine operations for SEMATECH member companies. We have upgraded the optical performance of the AIT to provide multiple image magnifications, and several inspection NA values up to 0.35 NA equivalent (0.0875 mask-side). We report on the improved imaging capabilities including resolution below 100-nm on the mask side (25 nm, 4x wafer equivalent). EUV reticles are intricate optical systems made from of several materials with wavelength-specific optical properties. The combined interactions of the substrate, multilayer-stack, buffer layer and absorber layer produce a reflected EUV optical field that is challenging to model accurately, and difficult to fully assess without actinic at-wavelength inspection. Understanding the aerial image from lithographic printing alone is complicated by photoresist properties. The AIT is now used to investigate mask issues such as amplitude and phase defect printability, pattern repair techniques, contamination, inspection damage, and mask architecture. The AIT has a 6{sup o} illumination angle, and high-resolution exposure times are typically 20 seconds per image. The AIT operates semi-automatically capturing through-focus imaging series with step sizes as small as 0.1 {micro}m (0.5-0.8 {micro}m are typical), and a step resolution of 0.05 {micro}m. We believe it is the most advanced EUV mask inspection tool in operation today. In the AIT, an EUV image of the mask is projected by a zoneplate lens with high magnification (680-910x) onto a CCD camera. The CCD over-samples the image, providing equivalent pixel sizes down to 15 nm in mask coordinates-several image pixels per resolution element. The original AIT zoneplate specifications were designed to emulate the resolution of a 0.25-NA 4x stepper, and thorough benchmarking analysis of the aberrations, flare, contrast

  2. Past and future challenges from a display mask writer perspective (United States)

    Ekberg, Peter; von Sydow, Axel


    Since its breakthrough, the liquid crystal technology has continued to gain momentum and the LCD is today the dominating display type used in desktop monitors, television sets, mobile phones as well as other mobile devices. To improve production efficiency and enable larger screen sizes, the LCD industry has step by step increased the size of the mother glass used in the LCD manufacturing process. Initially the mother glass was only around 0.1 m2 large, but with each generation the size has increased and with generation 10 the area reaches close to 10 m2. The increase in mother glass size has in turn led to an increase in the size of the photomasks used - currently the largest masks are around 1.6 × 1.8 meters. A key mask performance criterion is the absence of "mura" - small systematic errors captured only by the very sensitive human eye. To eliminate such systematic errors, special techniques have been developed by Micronic Mydata. Some mura suppressing techniques are described in this paper. Today, the race towards larger glass sizes has come to a halt and a new race - towards higher resolution and better image quality - is ongoing. The display mask is therefore going through a change that resembles what the semiconductor mask went through some time ago: OPC features are introduced, CD requirements are increasing sharply and multi tone masks (MTMs) are widely used. Supporting this development, Micronic Mydata has introduced a number of compensation methods in the writer, such as Z-correction, CD map and distortion control. In addition, Micronic Mydata MMS15000, the world's most precise large area metrology tool, has played an important role in improving mask placement quality and is briefly described in this paper. Furthermore, proposed specifications and system architecture concept for a new generation mask writers - able to fulfill future image quality requirements - is presented in this paper. This new system would use an AOD/AOM writing engine and be

  3. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho


    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  4. Neuron-specific stimulus masking reveals interference in spike timing at the cortical level. (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Perrone, Ben P; Sen, Kamal; Billimoria, Cyrus P


    The auditory system is capable of robust recognition of sounds in the presence of competing maskers (e.g., other voices or background music). This capability arises despite the fact that masking stimuli can disrupt neural responses at the cortical level. Since the origins of such interference effects remain unknown, in this study, we work to identify and quantify neural interference effects that originate due to masking occurring within and outside receptive fields of neurons. We record from single and multi-unit auditory sites from field L, the auditory cortex homologue in zebra finches. We use a novel method called spike timing-based stimulus filtering that uses the measured response of each neuron to create an individualized stimulus set. In contrast to previous adaptive experimental approaches, which have typically focused on the average firing rate, this method uses the complete pattern of neural responses, including spike timing information, in the calculation of the receptive field. When we generate and present novel stimuli for each neuron that mask the regions within the receptive field, we find that the time-varying information in the neural responses is disrupted, degrading neural discrimination performance and decreasing spike timing reliability and sparseness. We also find that, while removing stimulus energy from frequency regions outside the receptive field does not significantly affect neural responses for many sites, adding a masker in these frequency regions can nonetheless have a significant impact on neural responses and discriminability without a significant change in the average firing rate. These findings suggest that maskers can interfere with neural responses by disrupting stimulus timing information with power either within or outside the receptive fields of neurons.

  5. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  6. Optimization of mask shot count using MB-MDP and lithography simulation (United States)

    Chua, Gek Soon; Wang, Wei Long; Choi, Byoung IL; Zou, Yi; Tabery, Cyrus; Bork, Ingo; Nguyen, Tam; Fujimura, Aki


    In order to maintain manageable process windows, mask shapes at the 20nm technology node and below become so complex that mask write times reach 40 hours or might not be writeable at all since the extrapolated write time reaches 80 hours. The recently introduced Model Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) technique is able to reduce shot count and therefore mask write time by using overlapping shots. Depending on the amount of shot count reduction the contour of the mask shapes is changed leading to the question how the mask contour influences wafer performance. This paper investigates the tradeoff between mask shot count reduction using MB-MDP and wafer performance using lithography simulation. A typical Source-Mask-Optimization (SMO) result for a 20nm technology will be used as an example.

  7. Prototyping 9-inch size PSM mask blanks for 450mm wafer process (2016) (United States)

    Harashima, Noriyuki; Iso, Hiroyuki; Chishima, Tatsuya


    6-inch size (known as 6025QZ) binary Cr mask is widely used in the semiconductor lithography for over 20years. Recently for the 450mm wafer process, high grade 9-inch size mask is expected. For this application, we have studied and developed prototyping 9-inch size PSM KrF and ArF mask blanks. This time we will explain these PSM mask blanks status.

  8. Simple solution for difficult face mask ventilation in children with orofacial clefts. (United States)

    Veerabathula, Prardhana; Patil, Manajeet; Upputuri, Omkar; Durga, Padmaja


    Significant air leak from the facial cleft predisposes to difficult mask ventilation. The reported techniques of use of sterile gauze, larger face mask and laryngeal mask airway after intravenous induction have limited application in uncooperative children. We describe the use of dental impression material molded to the facial contour to cover the facial defect and aid ventilation with an appropriate size face mask in a child with a bilateral Tessier 3 anomaly.

  9. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid


    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  10. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine (United States)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid


    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  11. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO2-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Kruse, J. E.; Lymperakis, L.; Eftychis, S.; Adikimenakis, A.; Doundoulakis, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P.; Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.


    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO2 mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  12. 37 CFR 211.4 - Registration of claims of protection in mask works. (United States)


    ... version of a mask work fixed in an intermediate or final form of any semiconductor chip product. However... registration per work, owners of mask works in final forms of semiconductor chip products that are produced by... commercially exploited: All original mask work elements fixed in a particular form of a semiconductor...

  13. Research on lithography based on the digital coding-mask technique (United States)

    Xu, Yanqiang; Luo, Ningning; Zhang, Zhimin; Bai, Lu; Gao, Yiqing


    Digital coding-mask technique based on digital micro-mirror devices (DMD) is proposed in this paper. The fundamental rule of digital coding-mask technique is to modulate the incident light intensity by adjusting the transmittance of the units on the coding-mask. The transmittance is controlled by the apertures on the units of the coding-mask. Lohmann's III coding method and error diffusion coding method are employed to coding mask, and wavelet transformation is used to suppress the background noise of the mask image. Real-time control on the image of the digital coding mask can be realized by loading the coded mask image to DMD, which is driven by a computer. Digital coding-mask technique gives full play of the advantages of DMD, such as real time and flexibility. In addition, the digital coding-mask technique is helpful to deal with the problem of mask aberration, which is caused by the nonlinear effect in the process of projection and exposure. This technique can also make use of optimization algorithm to suppress the background noise of the digital coding-mask images so that the quality of the relief structure of photoresist is improved.

  14. Computational mask defect review for contamination and haze inspections (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram; Wolf, Yulian; Shah, Pinkesh


    As optical lithography continues to extend into sub-0.35 k1 regime, mask defect inspection and subsequent review has become tremendously challenging, and indeed the largest component to mask manufacturing cost. The routine use of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) have resulted in complex mask patterns, which together with the need to detect even smaller defects due to higher MEEFs, now requires an inspection engineer to use combination of inspection modes. This is achieved in 193nm AeraTM mask inspection systems wherein masks are not only inspected at their scanner equivalent aerial exposure conditions, but also at higher Numerical Aperture resolution, and special reflected-light, and single-die contamination modes, providing better coverage over all available patterns, and defect types. Once the required defects are detected by the inspection system, comprehensively reviewing and dispositioning each defect then becomes the Achilles heel of the overall mask inspection process. Traditionally, defects have been reviewed manually by an operator, which makes the process error-prone especially given the low-contrast in the convoluted aerial images. Such manual review also limits the quality and quantity of classifications in terms of the different types of characterization and number of defects that can practically be reviewed by a person. In some ways, such manual classification limits the capability of the inspection tool itself from being setup to detect smaller defects since it often results in many more defects that need to be then manually reviewed. Paper 8681-109 at SPIE Advanced Lithography 2013 discussed an innovative approach to actinic mask defect review using computational technology, and focused on Die-to-Die transmitted aerial and high-resolution inspections. In this approach, every defect is characterized in two different ways, viz., quantitatively in terms of its print impact on wafer, and qualitatively in terms of its nature and origin in

  15. Galaxies and their Masks A Conference in Honour of K.C. Freeman, FRS

    CERN Document Server

    Block, David L; Puerari, Ivânio


    Various kinds of masks obscure our view of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as well as of other galaxies. Masks of interstellar dust affect our measurements within galaxies, on scales ranging from individual supernovae to the galaxies themselves. The “mass mask” (our inability to image mass rather than light) gives astronomers a very incomplete picture of the size and structure of galaxies themselves, because we cannot image the dark matter which provides most of the galactic mass. Another mass is the “dynamical mask”: as galaxies form, much dynamical information is lost in the birthing process. A new thrust in research is to retrieve such information by means of chemical tagging. About 50 astronomers flew into Namibia in April 2010, to celebrate the 70th birthday of Professor K.C. Freeman, Fellow of the Royal Society. At age 70, Freeman, a father of dark matter in galaxies, continues to be one of planet’s most highly cited astronomers. The current volume affords readers a unique perspective on galaxies b...

  16. Masking of Wind Turbine Noise: Influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier


    In the issue of noise annoyance generated by wind turbines, masking by ambient noise is of great importance. At wind turbine sites, the main source of ambient noise arises from the wind blowing on the vegetation. However, natural wind can barely be described as a steady flow and 'lulls' and 'gusts' are words used to describe its unsteady component. This latter, also called wind turbulence, may affect the masking effect, as the wind turbine may become audible during short laps of time of low wind speed, that is of low ambient noise. The aim of the present report is to study the influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations. It is shown that these latter are governed not only by the turbulence intensity, but also by its temporal and spatial structure. This report provides some elements of atmospheric turbulence as well as techniques for the simulation of turbulent wind fields. Simulation results are given that illustrate how the standard deviation of the vegetation noise can vary as function of the canopy size and turbulence spatial patterns. Finally, ambient noise fluctuations and their statistical descriptions are also discussed, based on both theoretical considerations and empirical results.

  17. Acoustic masking disrupts time-dependent mechanisms of memory encoding in word-list recall. (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Dar, Hayim; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul


    Recall of recently heard words is affected by the clarity of presentation: Even if all words are presented with sufficient clarity for successful recognition, those that are more difficult to hear are less likely to be recalled. Such a result demonstrates that memory processing depends on more than whether a word is simply "recognized" versus "not recognized." More surprising is that, when a single item in a list of spoken words is acoustically masked, prior words that were heard with full clarity are also less likely to be recalled. To account for such a phenomenon, we developed the linking-by-active-maintenance model (LAMM). This computational model of perception and encoding predicts that these effects will be time dependent. Here we challenged our model by investigating whether and how the impact of acoustic masking on memory depends on presentation rate. We found that a slower presentation rate causes a more disruptive impact of stimulus degradation on prior, clearly heard words than does a fast rate. These results are unexpected according to prior theories of effortful listening, but we demonstrated that they can be accounted for by LAMM.

  18. Emotional intelligence is associated with reduced insula responses to masked angry faces. (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S


    High levels of emotional intelligence (EI) have been associated with increased success in the workplace, greater quality of personal relationships, and enhanced wellbeing. Evidence suggests that EI is mediated extensively by the interplay of key emotion regions including the amygdala, insula, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, among others. The insula, in particular, is important for processing interoceptive and somatic cues that are interpreted as emotional responses. We investigated the association between EI and functional brain responses within the aforementioned neurocircuitry in response to subliminal presentations of social threat. Fifty-four healthy adults completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and underwent functional magnetic brain imaging while viewing subliminal presentations of faces displaying anger, using a backward masked facial affect paradigm to minimize conscious awareness of the expressed emotion. In response to masked angry faces, the total MSCEIT scores correlated negatively with a cluster of activation located within the left insula, but not with activation in any other region of interest. Considering the insula's role in the processing of interoceptive emotional cues, the results suggest that greater EI is associated with reduced emotional visceral reactivity and/or more accurate interoceptive prediction when confronted with stimuli indicative of social threat.

  19. Processing of masked and unmasked emotional faces under different attentional conditions: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia eDel Zotto


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interactions between non-spatial selective attention, awareness and emotion processing, we carried out an ERP study using a backward masking paradigm, in which angry, fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions were presented, while participants attempted to detect the presence of one or the other category of facial expressions in the different experimental blocks. ERP results showed that negative emotions enhanced an early N170 response over temporal-occipital leads in both masked and unmasked conditions, independently of selective attention. A later effect arising at the P2 was linked to awareness. Finally, selective attention was found to affect the N2 and N3 components over occipito-parietal leads. Our findings reveal that i the initial processing of facial expressions arises prior to attention and awareness; ii attention and awareness give rise to temporally distinct periods of activation independently of the type of emotion with only a partial degree of overlap; and iii selective attention appears to be influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli, which in turn impinges on unconscious processing at a very early stage. This study confirms previous reports that negative facial expressions can be processed rapidly, in absence of visual awareness and independently of selective attention. On the other hand, attention and awareness may operate in a synergistic way, depending on task demand.

  20. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution (United States)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick


    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  1. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter


    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  2. Pattern generation requirements for mask making beyond 130 nm (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Gesley, Mark A.; Maldonado, Juan R.


    It is commonly accepted in the semiconductor industry that optical lithography will be the most cost-effective solution for 150 nm and 130 nm device generations. Some selected layers at the 130 nm device generation may be produced using electron-beam direct-write or x-ray during the development phase. However, for the production phase, it is expected that 193 nm optical lithography with reticle enhancement techniques such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks (PSM) will be the technology of choice. What about post 193 nm. The range of solutions is more diverse and a clear winner has not yet emerged. The topic, however, is becoming more visible and has taken a prominent place in technical conferences in the past year. The five leading potential alternatives to optical lithography are proximity x-ray, e-beam projection (EBP), extended UV (EUV), ion projection lithography (IPL), and e-beam direct write. The search for the right answer will most likely continue for a few years, and possibly more than one alternative will emerge as an effective solution at and below 100 nm. All of the alternatives, with the exception of e-beam direct write, have one thing in common, the mask. Except for proximity x- ray, all solutions at present envision a 4x reduction of the mask-to-wafer image plane. Instead of chrome-coated quartz, a silicon wafer substrate is used. Aside from patterning, mask fabrication varies depending on the lithography absorbing substrate, and EUV requires a reflective multilayer stack. Most key lithography requirements needed to pattern the imaging layer are common to all of the candidates, at least for the reduction methods. For x-ray lithography, the requirements are significantly more stringent but at a smaller field. This paper will consolidate the requirements of the various types of masks from a pattern generation point of view and will focus on the pattern generation tool requirements to meet those mask requirements. In addition, it

  3. Technical validation of a face mask adapted for dry powder inhalation in the equine species. (United States)

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P


    Development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) for horses requires the use of an adapted face mask. In experiment I, 4 masks (A, B, C and D) were tested and factors influencing the delivery of the dry powder were determined. Mask A was one which is commercially available for metered-dose inhalation. Mask B had the same shape as Mask A but an airtight rubber seal was added for the connection between the mask and horse's head. Mask C was a prototype adapted for DPI with connection for the DPI device between the nostrils, airtight expiratory valves in front of each nostril and airtight rubber seal to attach the mask on the horse's head. Mask D was the same as Mask C but the airtight expiratory valve was situated in front of one nostril and the connection for the DPI device was placed in front of the other nostril. Inhalet emptying and peak inspiratory pressure were measured on 5 healthy horses with each face mask. Both Masks A and B gave a low rate of inhalet emptying. Inspiratory pressures created in Masks C and D were negative enough to ensure inhalet emptying rates of mean +/- s.d. 98.28 +/- 1.79% and 100% respectively. In experiment 2, the face masks giving the greatest inhalet emptying were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of ipratropium bromide DPI. This was tested on 6 horses suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At a dose of 200 micrograms/100 kg bwt, ipratropium administered with Mask D improved significantly pulmonary function measurements compared to baseline values and placebo inhalation. With Mask C, a double dose of ipratropium (400 micrograms/100 kg bwt) was necessary to improve these parameters compared to baseline values. This indicated the importance of locating the DPI device in front of one nostril. It was concluded that inhalet emptying is correlated to inspiratory pressures measured in the face masks. Secondly, these pressures are in turn dependent on the air-tightness of the mask, i.e. air

  4. New type X—ray mask fabricated using inductvely coupled plasma deepetching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Chen; W.Lei; S.Wang; C.Li; X.Guo; H.Mao; D.Zhang; F.Yi


    The fabrication of X-ray masks is a critical and challenging process in LIGA technique.As inductively coupled plasma(ICP) deepetching appears to be the most suitable source for deep silicon etching,we fabricated a new type X-ray mask using this technique.In comparison with other types of X-ray masks,the mask we fabricated has the advantages of its low cost and its simple fabrication process.Besired microstructures have also been fabricated using this new type X-ray mask in LIGA technique.

  5. Neurosarcoidosis-associated central diabetes insipidus masked by adrenal insufficiency. (United States)

    Non, Lemuel; Brito, Daniel; Anastasopoulou, Catherine


    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an infrequent complication of neurosarcoidosis (NS). Its presentation may be masked by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and uncovered by subsequent steroid replacement. A 45-year-old woman with a history of NS presented 2 weeks after abrupt cessation of prednisone with nausea, vomiting, decreased oral intake and confusion. She was diagnosed with secondary AI and intravenous hydrocortisone was promptly begun. Over the next few days, however, the patient developed severe thirst and polyuria exceeding 6 L of urine per day, accompanied by hypernatraemia and hypo-osmolar urine. She was presumed to have CDI due to NS, and intranasal desmopressin was administered. This eventually normalised her urine output and serum sodium. The patient was discharged improved on intranasal desmopressin and oral prednisone. AI may mask the manifestation of CDI because low serum cortisol impairs renal-free water clearance. Steroid replacement reverses this process and unmasks an underlying CDI.

  6. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph: Mask Design and Fabrication (United States)

    Krista, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Horner, Scott D.; Mao, Yalan; Somerstein, Stephen F.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, Marcia J.


    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from lambda =1-5 microns of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  7. Contrast enhanced exposure strategy in multi-beam mask writing (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Hofmann, Ulrich; Klikovits, Jan; Martens, Stephan


    Since multi electron beam exposure has become a serious contender for next generation mask making, proximity- and process effect corrections (PEC) need to be adapted to this technology. With feature sizes in the order of the short-range blurs (resist and tool), contrast enhancements need to be combined with standard linearity corrections. Different PEC strategies are reviewed and compared with respect to their suitability for multi-beam exposure. This analysis recommends a hybrid approach that combines the benefits of shape- and dose PEC and is optimally applicable for multibeam exposure. Exposure results on the proof-of-concept 50keV electron multi-beam mask exposure tool (eMET POC) and a standard 50 kV vector shaped beam tool (VSB) are shown to verify that the combined PEC with overdose contrast enhancement covers the whole pattern range from isolated to opaque.

  8. Electron Beam Pattern Writer For X-Ray Masks (United States)

    Viswanathan, R.; Wilson, A. D.; Lafuente, J.; Voelker, H.; Kern, A.


    This paper discusses the capabilities of a vector scan electron-beam system as an X-ray mask writer for pattern geometries at and below one-half micron. The noise level in the deflection system has been reduced to an RMS value of 150 A over a 0.5 mm deflection field, thus making our exposure system usable in the one-quarter micron regime. Pattern geometries below 2000 A have been fabricated on a thin membrane. Drift compensation techniques, implemented in software, have reduced placement errors over the entire mask to less than 700 A. Accomplishments in the areas of noise reduction, bandwidth error compensation, system resolution, and improvements in pattern placement accuracy are discussed.

  9. Compact excimer laser light source for optical (mask) inspection systems (United States)

    Pflanz, Tobias; Huber, Heinz


    The discharge pumped excimer laser is a gas laser providing ultra violet radiation with well defined spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The fast development of excimer lasers in recent years has succeeded in designing very compact, turn-key systems delivering up to 10 W of radiation at 248 nm (5 W at 193 nm and 1 W at 157 nm) with repetition rates up to 1000 Hz. Experimental data on important beam properties of excimer lasers in the field of mask inspection are being presented and discussed. Relevant parameters are spectral bandwidth, energetic pulse-to-pulse stability, pulse duration, beam pointing stability, beam direction stability, beam dimension, beam profile and coherence. We will compare the excimer laser with lamp sources and continuous wave lasers in the framework of these parameters. The discussion will show future opportunities of compact excimer lasers in optical inspection as well as in mask writing systems, improving resolution and throughput.

  10. Two-tone masking in normal hearing listeners. (United States)

    Rabinowitz, W M; Bilger, R C; Trahiotis, C; Nuetzel, J


    Psychophysical measurements of two-tone masking [E. Zwicker, Acustica 4, 415-420 (1954)] were made at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz utilizing a masker level of 62 dB SPL/tone. Fifty-eight "untrained" subjects were tested using a single run of a 4IFC adaptive procedure for each condition. Individual data were highly variable. Average data were systematic; they were analyzed using a two-line-regression procedure and the obtained critical-bandwidth estimates approximated normative values. Analysis of the literature revealed that a substantial increase of estimated critical bandwidth versus masker level occurs in two-tone masking. A portion of this increase appears artificial and stems from the relative effectiveness of the higher frequency masker tone at high masker levels. An alternative masker-frequency spacing is suggested to reduce level effects. Implications for an underlying critical-band mechanism are discussed.

  11. Imaging protoplanets: observing transition disks with non-redundant masking

    CERN Document Server

    Sallum, Steph; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Philip M; Follette, Katherine B; Kratter, Kaitlin; Skemer, Andrew J; Bailey, Vanessa P; Briguglio, Runa; Defrere, Denis; Macintosh, Bruce A; Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie M; Puglisi, Alfio T; Rodigas, Timothy J; Spalding, Eckhart; Tuthill, Peter G; Vaz, Amali; Weinberger, Alycia; Xomperio, Marco


    Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to detect planetary mass companions at several to tens of AU in nearby transition disks. We present non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks, both of which host posited sub-stellar mass companions. However, due to a loss of information intrinsic to the technique, observations of extended sources (e.g. scattered light from disks) can be misinterpreted as moving companions. We discuss tests to distinguish between these two scenarios, with applications to the T Cha and LkCa 15 observations. We argue that a static, forward-scattering disk can explain the T Cha data, while LkCa 15 is best explained by multiple orbiting companions.

  12. Living kidney donation and masked nationalism in Israel. (United States)

    Epstein, Miran


    This paper draws attention to a current trend of masked conditional-nationalist living kidney donation in Israel, to which the local transplant system has been turning a blind eye. The paper seeks to make the international transplant and bioethics communities aware of this disturbing trend. It also explains why it is wrong and suggests how to tackle it. Finally, it calls on the Israeli system to bring the practice to a halt for the benefit of all parties involved.

  13. Developmental Effects in the Masking-Level Difference (United States)

    Hall, Joseph W.; Buss, Emily; Grose, John H.; Dev, Madhu B.


    Adults and children (aged 5 years 1 month to 10 years 8 months) were tested in a masking-level difference (MLD) paradigm in which detection of brief signals was contrasted for signal placement in masker envelope maxima versus masker envelope minima. Maskers were 50-Hz-wide noise bands centered on 500 Hz, and the signals were So or S[pi] 30-ms,…

  14. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirchin, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)]. E-mail:; Peled, A. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Baal-Zedaka, I. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Margolin, R. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Zagon, M. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Lapsker, I. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Verdyan, A. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Azoulay, J. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)


    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick.

  15. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks (United States)

    Mirchin, N.; Peled, A.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.


    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick.

  16. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van der Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. METHODOLOGY: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  17. Smart mask ship to control for enhanced on wafer CD performance (United States)

    Utzny, Clemens; Schumacher, Karl; Seltmann, Rolf


    In the process of semicondutcor fabrication the translation of the final product requirements into specific targets for each component of the manufacturing process is one of the most demanding tasks. This involves the careful assessment of the error budgets of each component as well as the sensible balancing of the costs implied by the requirements. Photolithographic masks play a pivotal role in the semiconductor fabrication. This attributes a crucial role to mask error budgeting within the overall wafer production process. Masks with borderline performance with respect to the wafer fabrication requirements have a detrimental effect on the wafer process window thus inducing delays and costs. However, prohibitively strict mask specifications will induce large costs and delays in the mask manufacturing process. Thus setting smart control mechanisms for mask quality assessment is highly relevant for an efficient production flow. To this end GLOBALFOUNDRIES and the AMTC have set up a new mask specification check to enable a smart ship to control process for mask manufacturing. Within this process the mask CD distribution is checked as to whether it is commensurable with the advanced dose control capabilities of the stepper in the wafer factory. If this is the case, masks with borderline CD performance will be usable within the manufacturing process as the signatures can be compensated. In this paper we give a detailed explanation of the smart ship control approach with its implications for mask quality.

  18. Progress to First Light for AMASING, an Aperture Masking Instrument (United States)

    Schmidt, Luke M.; Santoro, F. G.; Jurgenson, C. A.


    We report on construction progress for the AMASING (Aperture Masking And Speckle ImagiNG) instrument. AMASING is designed for aperture masking and speckle interferometry at optical wavelengths. This report will focus on three main aspects of the instrument construction. The optical and electronic components have been selected and are assembled in a laboratory. We describe the optical alignment procedures and expected visibility performance across the design wavelengths as well as a discussion on the types of aperture masks developed for the instrument. The support structure and enclosure have been designed to provide a stable platform for the instrument optics. We document the construction, predicted performance and the procedure for aligning the structure with the optical axis of the telescope. Finally we discuss the instrument software control architecture and interface with the telescope. This work has been supported by LANL-NMT MOU UCDRD funding, a College Cost Reduction and Access Act grant to Amarillo College, the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium and the New Mexico Tech Graduate Student Association Matuszeski Research Grant.

  19. Attachment avoidance modulates neural response to masked facial emotion. (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Dannlowski, Udo; Bauer, Jochen; Konrad, Carsten; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Ohrmann, Patricia


    According to recent models of individual differences in attachment organization, a basic dimension of adult attachment is avoidance. Attachment-related avoidance corresponds to tendencies to withdraw from close relationships and to an unwillingness to rely on others. In the formation of attachment orientation during infancy facial emotional interaction plays a central role. There exists an inborn very rapid decoding capacity for facial emotional expression. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in automatic brain reactivity to facial emotions as a function of attachment avoidance in a sample of 51 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces (which are approach-related interpersonal signals) were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess the attachment avoidance. Masked sad faces activated the amygdala, the insula, occipito-temporal areas, and the somatosensory cortices. Independently from trait anxiety, depressivity, and detection performance, attachment avoidance was found to be inversely related to responses of the primary somatosensory cortex (BA 3) to masked sad faces. A low spontaneous responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex to negative faces could be a correlate of the habitual unwillingness to deal with partners' distress and needs for proximity. The somatosensory cortices are known to be critically involved in the processes of emotional mimicry and simulation which have the potential to increase social affiliation. Our data are consistent with the idea that people who withdraw from close relationships respond spontaneously to a lesser extent to negative interpersonal emotional signals than securely attached individuals.

  20. Super-Resolution Recording by an Organic Photochromic Mask Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming; ZHAO Sheng-Min; YI Jia-Xiang; ZHAO Fu-Qun; NIU Li-Hong; LI Zhong-Yu; ZHANG Fu-Shi


    By using the super-resolution near-field structure(super-RENS)method,the super-resolution recording marks are obtained practically by an organic photochromic diarylethene mask layer,under much lower recording laser Dower of 0.45mW.The size of recording marks is decreased by 60% (from 1.6μm to 0.7μm) for a diarylethene (photo-mode)recording layer by the optical detection method(limited by optical diffraction),or decreased by 97%(from 1600nm to 50nm)for a heptaoxyl copper phthalocyanine(thermo-optical)recording layer,the latter is much smaller than the limitation of optical diffraction.In order to obtain a desirable result,a proper extent or Dhotochemistry reaction in the mask layer is needed.Thus,the super-resolution recording marks can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of diarylethene in the mask layer,the recording laser power,and the moving speed of the sample disc.

  1. Optimized distributed computing environment for mask data preparation (United States)

    Ahn, Byoung-Sup; Bang, Ju-Mi; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sun; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yo-Han; Ki, Won-Tai; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung


    As the critical dimension (CD) becomes smaller, various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are widely adopted. In developing sub-100nm devices, the complexity of optical proximity correction (OPC) is severely increased and applied OPC layers are expanded to non-critical layers. The transformation of designed pattern data by OPC operation causes complexity, which cause runtime overheads to following steps such as mask data preparation (MDP), and collapse of existing design hierarchy. Therefore, many mask shops exploit the distributed computing method in order to reduce the runtime of mask data preparation rather than exploit the design hierarchy. Distributed computing uses a cluster of computers that are connected to local network system. However, there are two things to limit the benefit of the distributing computing method in MDP. First, every sequential MDP job, which uses maximum number of available CPUs, is not efficient compared to parallel MDP job execution due to the input data characteristics. Second, the runtime enhancement over input cost is not sufficient enough since the scalability of fracturing tools is limited. In this paper, we will discuss optimum load balancing environment that is useful in increasing the uptime of distributed computing system by assigning appropriate number of CPUs for each input design data. We will also describe the distributed processing (DP) parameter optimization to obtain maximum throughput in MDP job processing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Parasuram Rajan


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Nizatidine and to formulate Orodispersible tablet (ODT and get rapid onset of action, to increase bioavailability and to increase patient compliance. Orodispersible tablets are an innovative technology, which disperse rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, without the need for water, providing optimal convenience to the patient. The taste masking was done by complexing Nizatidine with methacrylate copolymer, Eudragit E100 in different ratios by mass extrusion method. The drug polymer complex was optimized by determining the drug content and in vitro drug release in simulated salivary fluid (SSF of pH 6.8. Complex which did not release the drug in SSF was considered as the optimized batch and used for formulation of ODTs. The effects of various superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Crosspovidone used in formulation of ODTs were studied. The formulation blend was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, angle of repose etc. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression technique and evaluated for hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro drug release etc. Among all formulation, F3 containing 5% w/w concentration of crosspovidone was considered to be the best formulation, with disintegration time of 34 seconds and in vitro drug release of 99.5% in 15 minutes in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets.

  3. The technical consideration of multi-beam mask writer for production (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Ahn, Byung-Sup; Choi, Jin; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk


    Multi-beam mask writer is under development to solve the throughput and patterning resolution problems in VSB mask writer. Theoretically, the writing time is appropriate for future design node and the resolution is improved with multi-beam mask writer. Many previous studies show the feasible results of resolution, CD control and registration. Although such technical results of development tool seem to be enough for mass production, there are still many unexpected problems for real mass production. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed in terms of production and application. The problems and issues are defined based on the performance of current development tool compared with the requirements of mask quality. Using the simulation and experiment, we analyze the specific characteristics of electron beam in multi-beam mask writer scheme. Consequently, we suggest necessary specifications for mass production with multi-beam mask writer in the future.

  4. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue. (United States)

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro


    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study.

  5. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald


    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  6. UDOF direct improvement by modulating mask absorber thickness (United States)

    Yu, Tuan-Yen; Lio, En Chuan; Chen, Po Tsang; Wei, Chih I.; Chen, Yi Ting; Peng, Ming Chun; Chou, William; Yu, Chun Chi


    As the process generation migrate to advanced and smaller dimension or pitch, the mask and resist 3D effects will impact the lithography focus common window severely because of both individual depth-of-focus (iDOF) range decrease and center mismatch. Furthermore, some chemical or thermal factors, such as PEB (Post Exposure Bake) also worsen the usable depth-of-focus (uDOF) performance. So the mismatch of thru-pitch iDOF center should be considered as a lithography process integration issue, and more complicated to partition the 3D effects induced by optical or chemical factors. In order to reduce the impact of 3D effects induced by both optical and chemical issues, and improve iDOF center mismatch, we would like to propose a mask absorber thickness offset approach, which is directly to compensate the iDOF center bias by adjusting mask absorber thickness, for iso, semi-iso or dense characteristics in line, space or via patterns to enlarge common process window, i.e uDOF, which intends to provide similar application as Flexwave[1] (ASML trademark). By the way, since mask absorber thickness offset approach is similar to focus tuning or change on wafer lithography process, it could be acted as the process tuning method of photoresist (PR) profile optimization locally, PR scum improvement in specific patterns or to modulate etching bias to meet process integration request. For mass production consideration, and available material, current att-PSM blank, quartz, MoSi with chrome layer as hard-mask in reticle process, will be implemented in this experiment, i.e. chrome will be kept remaining above partial thru-pitch patterns, and act as the absorber thickness bias in different patterns. And then, from the best focus offset of thru-pitch patterns, the iDOF center shifts could be directly corrected and to enlarge uDOF by increasing the overlap of iDOF. Finally, some negative tone development (NTD) result in line patterns will be demonstrated as well.

  7. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.


    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  8. The effect of SNARC compatibility on perceptual accuracy: evidence from object substitution masking. (United States)

    Huffman, Greg; Pratt, Jay


    If given a relatively small number and asked to make a speeded parity judgment using the left and right responses, people typically respond faster with their left response. Conversely, if given a relatively large number, people usually respond faster with their right response. This finding, however, has primarily been shown using speeded tasks with response time as the primary measure. Here, we report an experiment testing if this remains to be the case in a non-speeded target identification. Using an object-substitution masking paradigm with no emphasis on response speed, number magnitude compatibility with the response hand influenced the accuracy of parity judgments. Given the non-speeded nature of the task, accuracy changes indicate that compatibility affects perception, rather than just response selection. This is explained using a common coding, feature integration approach in which stimuli and responses are represented in a common code and bidirectionally influence each other.

  9. Aging study in advanced photomasks: impact of EFM effects on lithographic performance with MoSi binary and 6% attenuated PSM masks (United States)

    Servin, I.; Belledent, J.; Fialeyre, M. O.; Connolly, B.; Lamantia, M.; Sczyrba, M.; Jullian, M. K.; Le Gratiet, B.; Pain, L.


    As mask dimensions continue to shrink to meet the ITRS roadmap and with the extension of 193 nm immersion lithography, the masks are affected by electromagnetic field at high NA. Absorber degradation is regularly reported under long term 193 nm exposures in the subwavelength diffraction regime. The damage mechanism known as Electric Field induced Migration of chrome (EFM) partly contributes to the lifetime reduction of advanced masks. The EFM results in a progressive alteration of the Critical Dimension (CD), CD uniformity (CDU) degradation and assist features. This study evaluates the impact and the rate of absorber degradation due to an intensive ArF irradiation on assist features and its influence on the through pitch process window for sub-45 nm technology nodes. Lithographic performance is characterized after cumulative reticle aging stages. The aging test exposures are carried out directly on 193 nm scanner to duplicate the production environment. The analysis of printed wafers is correlated to advanced mask inspection (AIMSTM). This paper reports results on irradiation damage sensitivity on two types of reticles: conventional 6% attenuated PSM and new binary material OMOG (Opaque MoSi On Glass) reticle. Test patterns have been generated with and without a set of Optical Proximity Corrections (OPC) model calibration structures based on 45nm down to 28nm half-pitch design. The combination of metrology measurements used in this work between printed wafers and reticles enables to define accurately the impact of mask damage caused by EFM effects on various test patterns and CD evolution and highlight some trends about advances masks aging phenomenon.

  10. Nanoimprint wafer and mask tool progress and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoichi; Seki, Junichi; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuki; Azuma, Hisanobu; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Sato, Chiaki; Sakai, Fumio; Takabayashi, Yukio; Aghili, Ali; Mizuno, Makoto; Choi, Jin; Jones, Chris E.


    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. On the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask replication is required for nanoimprint lithography (NIL), and criteria that are crucial to the success of a replication platform include both particle control, resolution and image placement accuracy. In this paper we discuss the progress made in both feature resolution and in meeting the image placement specification for replica masks.

  11. Polymer masks for structured surface and plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Alexane [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, Marylène, E-mail: [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Sinturel, Christophe [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Tillocher, Thomas; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Dussart, Rémi [Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micrometric silicon structures were prepared by cryogenic plasma etching. • Polymer templates based on phase-separated films of PS/PLA were used. • Silica structured masks were prepared by filling the polymer templates. • Etching of underlying silicon through silica templates gave original structures. - Abstract: Silica and silicon structures have been prepared at the sub-micrometer length-scale, using laterally phase-separated thin films of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) homopolymer blends. The selective removal of one polymer and the filling of the released space by silica precursor solution led, after calcination, to silica structures on silicon such as arrays of bowl-shape features or pillars, layers with through or non-through cylindrical holes, which has not been observed for some of them. The control of the morphology of the initial polymer film was a key point to achieve such type of structures. Particularly relevant was the use of solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing) of the initial spin-coated films that favored and stabilized laterally phase-separated morphologies. Characteristic dimension of the domains were shown to be coupled with the thickness of the film, thinner films giving smaller domain sizes. Despite a relatively high incompatibility of the two polymers, a macro-phase separation was prevented in all the studied conditions. Sub-micrometric domains were formed, and for the thinner films, nanometric domains as small as 74 nm in size can be obtained. The silica structures formed by the infiltration of the polymer templates were used as hard masks for the cryogenic etching of underlying silicon. New structured surfaces, arrays of silicon pillars which can be plain or hollow at the upper part or arrays of cylindrical holes were formed. A selectivity as high as 21 was obtained using this type of mask for 1.5 μm deep holes having a typical diameter of 200 nm.

  12. SU-8 negative photoresist for optical mask manufacturing (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexei L.


    The requirements for better control, linearity, and uniformity of critical dimension (CD) on photomasks in fabrication of 180 and 150 nm generation devices result in increasing demand for thinner, more etching durable, and more sensitive e-beam resists. Novolac based resists with chemical amplification have been a choice for their sensitivity and stability during etching. However, difficult CD control due to the acid catalyzer diffusion and quite narrow post exposure bake (PEB) process window are some of the major drawbacks of these resists. SU-8 is recently introduced to the market negative photoresist. High sensitivity, fairly good adhesion properties, and relatively simple processing of SU-8 make it a good substitution for novolac based chemically amplified negative e-beam resists in optical mask manufacturing. The replacement of traditional chemically amplified resists by SU- 8 can increase the process latitude and reduce resist costs. Among the obvious drawbacks of SU-8 are the use of solvent- based developer and demand of oxygen plasma for resist removal. In this paper the use of SU-8 for optical mask manufacturing is reported. All steps of resist film preparation, exposure and development are paid a share of attention. Possibilities to use reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen in order to increase resist mask contrast are discussed. Special exposure strategy (pattern outlining) was employed to further improve the edge definition. The resist PEB temperature and time were studied to estimate their weight in overall CD control performance. Specially designed test patterns with 0.25 micrometer design rule could be firmly transferred into a chromium layer both by wet etching and ion milling. Influence of exposure dose variation on the pattern CD change was studied.

  13. Study of shape evaluation for mask and silicon using large field of view (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The aim of this integration is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. It can use the mask shape of a large field, besides. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. As an optimal solution to these issues, we provide a DFM solution that extracts 2-dimensional data for a more realistic and error-free simulation by reproducing accurately the contour of the actual mask, in addition to the simulation results from the mask data. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon form made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon form. For this reason, quantification of silicon form is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same form is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the form is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and silicon) and is adaptable to following fields of mask quality management. •Discrimination of nuisance defects for fine pattern. •Determination of two-dimensional variability of

  14. Causal binary mask estimation for speech enhancement using sparsity constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressner, Abigail Anne; Anderson, David V.; Rozell, Christopher J.


    While most single-channel noise reduction algorithms fail to improve speech intelligibility, the ideal binary mask (IBM) has demonstrated substantial intelligibility improvements for both normal- and impaired-hearing listeners. However, this approach exploits oracle knowledge of the target...... and interferer signals to preserve only the time-frequency regions that are target-dominated. Single-channel noise suppression algorithms trying to approximate the IBM using locally estimated signal-to-noise ratios without oracle knowledge have had limited success. Thought of in another way, the IBM exploits...

  15. Musical Sound Separation Based on Binary Time-Frequency Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang DeLiang


    Full Text Available The problem of overlapping harmonics is particularly acute in musical sound separation and has not been addressed adequately. We propose a monaural system based on binary time-frequency masking with an emphasis on robust decisions in time-frequency regions, where harmonics from different sources overlap. Our computational auditory scene analysis system exploits the observation that sounds from the same source tend to have similar spectral envelopes. Quantitative results show that utilizing spectral similarity helps binary decision making in overlapped time-frequency regions and significantly improves separation performance.

  16. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks. (United States)


    Suspenders, pack, combat 1 Protective mask 1 Lipstick , antichap, cold climate 1 C-I TOP 8-4-006 1 November 1986 Item Quantity Sunglasses w/case 1 Box...match, waterproof w/matches I Personal items (i.e., cigarettes, matches, As desired notebook, pencil, etc.) *Either coat or parka or both depending upon...Rucksack 1 Socks, cushion sole 2 Liner, trousers 1 Inserts, mitten, trigger finger 1 Bag, sleeping, type 11 1 Case, water repellent 1 Bag, waterproof 1

  17. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia


    . In putting on a mask, one relates to oneself in distancing oneself from oneself. In being at once a moral agent and a performing actor with an audience and norms in mind, one embodies and transcends the social roles one takes. In addition to the feeling of shame, in which the self finds itself passively...... reflected, the self’s active reflections on its shame are to be taken into account. As examples from Milan Kundera, Shakespeare’s King Lear, a line from Kingsley Amis, a speech by Vaclav Havel and Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments indicate, self-(re)presentation in the public and the private sphere...

  18. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Tahir; K Bhattacharya; A K Chakraborty


    Polarization property is important to the optical imaging system. It has recently been understood that the polarization properties of light can be fruitfully used for improving the characteristics of imaging system that includes polarizing devices. The vector wave imagery lends an additional degree of freedom that can be utilized for obtaining results that are unobtainable in scalar wave imagery. This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the incident beam.

  19. Synchronized chaotic phase masks for encrypting and decrypting images (United States)

    Rueda, Edgar; Vera, Carlos A.; Rodríguez, Boris; Torroba, Roberto


    This paper presents an alternative to secure exchange of encrypted information through public open channels. Chaotic encryption introduces a security improvement by an efficient masking of the message with a chaotic signal. Message extraction by an authorized end user is done using a synchronization procedure, thus allowing a continuous change of the encrypting and decrypting keys. And optical implementation with a 4f optical encrypting architecture is suggested. Digital simulations, including the effects of missing data, corrupted data and noise addition are shown. These results proof the consistency of the proposal, and demonstrate a practical way to operate with it.

  20. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor


    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  1. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Strategic Aircraft (SA): Noise Attenuation Performance (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2015-0026 Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Strategic Aircraft (SA): Noise Attenuation Performance...2015 – July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Strategic Aircraft (SA): Noise Attenuation Performance 5a. CONTRACT...determine if the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) –Strategic Aircraft (SA) performance specification requirements were being met. The requirement stated

  2. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2015-0028 Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance...COVERED (From - To) June 2014 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility...Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech over Communication Systems on the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with

  3. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia



    Introduction Visual masking of primes is a method used to tap into automatic processing while reducing or eliminating conscious processing of the primes. Masking is achieved by presenting primes very rapidly and preceding and/or following them with additional visual stimuli that interfere with conscious processing of the primes (Greenwald, Klinger & Liu, 1989; Forster, Mohan & Hector, 2003). A recent series of studies using masked priming with aphasia (Silkes, Dierkes & Kendall, 2012;...

  4. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline. (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca G; Leal, Luz O; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor


    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1-10 μg Pb L(-1)) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L(-1).

  5. Symmetry: modeling the effects of masking noise, axial cueing and salience. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Tyler, Christopher W


    Symmetry detection is an interesting probe of pattern processing because it requires the matching of novel patterns without the benefit of prior recognition. However, there is evidence that prior knowledge of the axis location plays an important role in symmetry detection. We investigated how the prior information about the symmetry axis affects symmetry detection under noise-masking conditions. The target stimuli were random-dot displays structured to be symmetric about vertical, horizontal, or diagonal axes and viewed through eight apertures (1.2 degrees diameter) evenly distributed around a 6 degrees diameter circle. The information about axis orientation was manipulated by (1) cueing of axis orientation before the trial and (2) varying axis salience by including or excluding the axis region within the noise apertures. The percentage of correct detection of the symmetry was measured at for a range of both target and masking noise densities. The threshold vs. noise density function was flat at low noise density and increased with a slope of 0.75-0.8 beyond a critical density. Axis cueing reduced the target threshold 2-4 fold at all noise densities while axis salience had an effect only at high noise density. Our results are inconsistent with an ideal observer or signal-to-noise account of symmetry detection but can be explained by a multiple-channel model is which the response in each channel is the ratio between the nonlinear transform of the responses of sets of early symmetry detectors and the sum of external and intrinsic sources of noise.

  6. The Bawdy, Brawling, Boisterous World of Korean Mask Dance Dramas: A Brief Essay to Accompany Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CedarBough Saeji


    Full Text Available Korean mask dance dramas are captivating and entrancing. Comedy, tragedy, and social commentary meld with energetic dance, distinctive masks, and lively music. These dramas are often colloquially and incorrectly referred to as talchum (“mask dance” in Korean—in fact, talchum is one of the major variants of mask dance drama from Hwanghae Province in present-day North Korea. Performers of other variants have long objected to the broad application of the term (akin to calling all in-line skates “Rollerblades” or all MP3 players “iPods”. Only in the late 1990s did academia catch on, when two highly respected midcareer mask dance drama scholars, Bak Jintae (Daegu University and Jeon Kyungwook (Korea University, began to use the terminology talnoli (“mask play” and gamyeon-geuk (“mask drama” in their publications.I needed to watch only one performance, in 1997, to fall in love with the mask dance dramas, but at first the many forms of the genre melded together in my mind. It took repeated exposure and study over more than a dozen years for me to see the profound similarities and differences among all of Korea’s mask dance dramas...

  7. Combined laser and atomic force microscope lithography on aluminum: Mask fabrication for nanoelectromechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Boisen, Anja; Davis, Zachary James;


    A direct-write laser system and an atomic force microscope (AFM) are combined to modify thin layers of aluminum on an oxidized silicon substrate, in order to fabricate conducting and robust etch masks with submicron features. These masks are very well suited for the production of nanoelectromecha......A direct-write laser system and an atomic force microscope (AFM) are combined to modify thin layers of aluminum on an oxidized silicon substrate, in order to fabricate conducting and robust etch masks with submicron features. These masks are very well suited for the production...

  8. Binary mask optimization for forward lithography based on the boundary layer model in coherent systems. (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R


    Recently, a set of generalized gradient-based optical proximity correction (OPC) optimization methods have been developed to solve for the forward and inverse lithography problems under the thin-mask assumption, where the mask is considered a thin 2D object. However, as the critical dimension printed on the wafer shrinks into the subwavelength regime, thick-mask effects become prevalent, and thus these effects must be taken into account in OPC optimization methods. OPC methods derived under the thin-mask assumption have inherent limitations and perform poorly in the subwavelength regime. This paper focuses on developing model-based forward binary mask optimization methods that account for the thick-mask effects of coherent imaging systems. The boundary layer (BL) model is exploited to simplify and characterize the thick-mask effects, leading to a model-based OPC method. The BL model is simpler than other thick-mask models, treating the near field of the mask as the superposition of the interior transmission areas and the boundary layers. The advantages and limitations of the proposed algorithm are discussed, and several illustrative simulations are presented.

  9. Binary mask optimization for forward lithography based on boundary layer model in coherent systems (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R.


    Recently, a set of generalized gradient-based optical proximity correction (OPC) optimization methods have been developed to solve for the forward and inverse lithography problem under the thin-mask assumption, where the mask is considered a thin 2-D object. However, as the critical dimension printed on the wafer shrinks into the subwavelength regime, thick-mask effects become prevalent and thus these effects must be taken into account in OPC optimization methods. OPC methods derived under the thin-mask assumption have inherent limitations and perform poorly in the subwavelength scenario. This paper focuses on developing model-based forward binary mask optimization methods which account for the thick-mask effects of coherent imaging systems. The boundary layer (BL) model is exploited to simplify and characterize the thick-mask effects, leading to a computationally efficient OPC method. The BL model is simpler than other thick-mask models, treating the near field of the mask as the superposition of the interior transmission areas and the boundary layers. The advantages and limitations of the proposed algorithm are discussed and several illustrative simulations are presented.

  10. Multi column cell (MCC) e-beam exposure system for mask writing (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akio; Yamabe, Masaki


    Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) Mask Design, Drawing, and Inspection Technology Research Department (Mask D2I) started a 4-year development program for the total optimization of mask design, drawing, and inspection technologies to reduce photomask manufacturing costs in 2006. At the Mask Writing Equipment Technology Research Laboratory, we are developing an e-beam exposure system introducing concepts of MCC (multi column cell), CP (character projection), and VSB (variable shaped beam), which has several times higher throughput than currently commercially available e-beam writing systems.

  11. Novel approaches to the design of halftone masks for analog lithography. (United States)

    Teschke, Marcel; Sinzinger, Stefan


    We report novel approaches to the design of halftone masks for analog lithography. The approaches are derived from interferometric phase contrast. In a first step we show that the interferometric phase-contrast method with detour holograms can be reduced into a single binary mask. In a second step we introduce the interferometric phase-contrast method by interference of the object wavefront with the conjugate object wavefront. This method also allows for a design of a halftone mask. To use kinoform holograms as halftone phase masks, we show in a third step the combination of the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique with the interferometric phase-contrast method.

  12. Long-range tactile masking occurs in the postural body schema. (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R


    Long-range tactile masking has been reported between mirror symmetric body locations. This suggests a general principle of contralateral inhibition between corresponding points on each side of the body that may serve to enhance distinguishing touches on the two halves of the body. Do such effects occur before or after posture is added to the body schema? Here, we address this question by exploring the effect of arm position on long-range tactile masking. The influence of arm position was investigated using different positions of both the test and masking arms. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile-masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm or to a control site on the shoulder. No difference was found in sensitivity when test arm position was varied. Physical contact between the arms significantly increased the effectiveness of a masking stimulus applied to the other arm. Long-range masking between the arms was strongest when the arms were held parallel to each other and was abolished if the position of either the test arm or the masking arm was moved from this position. Modulation of the effectiveness of masking by the position of both the test and masking arms suggests that these effects occur after posture information is added to the body's representation in the brain.

  13. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy (United States)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan


    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  14. Combining mask and OPC process verification for improved wafer patterning and yield (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman; Abdelghany, Hesham


    As technology advances into deep submicron nodes, the mask manufacturing process accuracy become more important. Mask Process Correction (MPC) has been transitioning from Rules-Based Mask Process correction to Model-Based Mask Process Correction mode. MPC is a subsequent step to OPC, where additional perturbation is applied to the mask shapes to correct for the mask manufacturing process. Shifting towards full model-based MPC is driven mainly by the accuracy requirements in advanced technology nodes, both for DUV and EUV processes. In the current state-of-the-art MPC process, MPC is completely decoupled from OPC, where each of them assumes that the other is executing perfectly. However, this decoupling is not suitable anymore due to the limited tolerance in the mask CDU budget and the increased wafer CDU requirements required from OPC. It is becoming more important to reduce any systematic mask errors, especially where they matter the most. In this work, we present a new combined-verification methodology that allows testing the combined effect of mask process and lithography process together and judging the final wafer patterning quality. This has the potential to intercept risks due to superposition of OPC and MPC correction residual errors, and capturing and correcting such a previously hidden source of patterning degradation.

  15. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children. (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H


    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.

  16. Blind speech source separation via nonlinear time-frequency masking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shun; CHEN Shaorong; LIU Yulin


    Aim at the underdetermined convolutive mixture model, a blind speech source separation method based on nonlinear time-frequency masking was proposed, where the approximate W-disjoint orthogonality (W-DO) property among independent speech signals in time-frequency domain is utilized. In this method, the observation mixture signal from multimicrophones is normalized to be independent of frequency in the time-frequency domain at first, then the dynamic clustering algorithm is adopted to obtain the active source information in each time-frequency slot, a nonlinear function via deflection angle from the cluster center is selected for time-frequency masking, finally the blind separation of mixture speech signals can be achieved by inverse STFT (short-time Fourier transformation). This method can not only solve the problem of frequency permutation which may be met in most classic frequency-domain blind separation techniques, but also suppress the spatial direction diffusion of the separation matrix. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed separation method is better than the typical BLUES method, the signal-noise-ratio gain (SNRG) increases 1.58 dB averagely.

  17. The narcissistic mask: an exploration of 'the defensive grandiosity hypothesis'. (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Hashmi, Amani Al; Chung, Man Cheung; Morgan, Keith; Lyons, Minna


    Narcissism has been conceptualized as involving attempts to defend against negative self-schemata (implicit negative beliefs about one's own self-worth). This idea has been termed the 'mask model of narcissism'. This study explores the mask model, examining the association between extreme narcissistic personality traits and performance on a task purported to assess the influence of negative self-schemata. Participants (n = 232) from the UK and the UAE completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and also performed an incidental learning task involving the surprise recall of self-referential adjectives (traits). A greater recall of negative adjectives was viewed as indicative of negative self-schemata. Looking at the sample as a whole, there were no associations between narcissistic traits and negative adjective recall. However, amongst those scoring in the upper quartile of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, narcissism scores were positively correlated with the recall of negative adjectives even after controlling for age and memory. Narcissism may reflect self-enhancement strategies rooted in negative self-beliefs.

  18. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications (United States)

    Ruane, Garreth J.


    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  19. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz


    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  20. Phase-dependent audiometry with low-frequency masking revisited. (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Rasinski, Christine; Neumann, Kerstin


    Low-frequency masking is a psychoacoustical phenomenon, describing the modulation of a high-frequency probe tone burst by a low-frequency masker tone. The probe tone threshold is increased, if the probe tone is presented at a low-frequency phases around 90 degrees and 270 degrees . At these phases, the low-frequency masker tone induces a displacement of the basilar membrane of the inner ear which modulates the sensitivity of the inner hair cells. Measuring the modulation depth is partially applied in clinical routine to diagnose the endolymphatic hydrops. Although the modulation depth differs between normal ears and those which reveal an endolymphatic hydrops, the significance of these tests seems debatable. Here, we describe a new experimental setup, completely consisting of commercially available devices. Further, a user interface was developed to enable the application in the clinical routine. The experimental setup was approved with ten normal hearing listeners. All reveal a modulation of the probe stimulus threshold by different phases of the low-frequency masker stimulus. With this experimental setup, custom-made modifications of the essential parameters are feasible. This would be a contribution to solve open questions on the clinical relevance of the low-frequency masking phenomenon.

  1. Optimisation of microencapsulation of turmeric extract for masking flavour. (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Natcha; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-ang, Niramon


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the odour masking property, encapsulation efficiency and physicochemical properties of turmeric extract prepared by a binary blend of wall materials, i.e. brown rice flour (BRF) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effect of encapsulation processing variables, including core loading mass (5-25%) and β-CD (5-20%) concentration on product recovery, moisture content, hygroscopicity, curcuminoids encapsulation and volatile release. To investigate odour masking properties of a wall material combination, volatiles in headspace were monitored by GC-MS using ar-turmerone and 2-methyl-4-vinylguaiacol as marker compounds to represent turmeric extract. The obtained results revealed an optimal encapsulation process was 5% of core loading mass with addition 20g/L of β-CD, since it enabled high curcuminoids encapsulation with low volatile release, moisture content and hygroscopicity. Turmeric powder with reduced odour can be used as a nutrient supplement or natural colorant for food products.

  2. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renuka


    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were evaluated for hydration study, folding endurance and in vitro drug dissolution in the distilled water. The films containing both Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films showed neutral surface pH when prepared using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Glycerol played a critical role in imparting flexibility to the film and improving the drug release from film. The bitter taste of the drug was masked by using aspartame and menthol accompanied by the synergistic effect of Eudragit and glycerol. Water uptake by films was found to be dependant both on the amount of Eudragit EPO and glycerol. The films containing the higher proportion of glycerol showed higher water uptake and faster drug release at all the sampling time in the in vitro dissolution test. Optimum plasticity was obtained using the required concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and glycerol. The study revealed that taste masked valdecoxib films can be developed by the selection of appropriate film former and by the use of auxiliary excipients.

  3. Contribution of supra-threshold processing to speech masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Forup Corlin; Dau, Torsten


    Normal-hearing (NH) listeners can typically better understand speech in the presence of a fluctuating noise or a competing talker compared to a stationary noise interferer. However, for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, this masking release (MR) is strongly reduced or completely absent. Traditiona......Normal-hearing (NH) listeners can typically better understand speech in the presence of a fluctuating noise or a competing talker compared to a stationary noise interferer. However, for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, this masking release (MR) is strongly reduced or completely absent....... Traditionally, this has been attributed to the ability of NH listeners to utilize the speech in the low-amplitude periods of the masker, an ability that is supposed to be reduced for HI listeners due to reduced temporal and spectral resolution. However, [1] proposed that the reduced MR experienced by HI...... listeners is due to their higher speech reception threshold (SRT) in stationary noise. In the present study, this hypothesis was investigated by presenting noise-band vocoded as well as low-pass and high-pass filtered stimuli to the NH listeners. In this way, the SRTs of the NH listeners were similar...

  4. Source mask optimization study based on latest Nikon immersion scanner (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fang; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Wei; Nishinaga, Hisashi; El-Sewefy, Omar; Gao, Gen-Sheng; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Zhang, Recoo; Zhu, Cynthia


    The 2x nm logic foundry node has many challenges since critical levels are pushed close to the limits of low k1 ArF water immersion lithography. For these levels, improvements in lithographic performance can translate to decreased rework and increased yield. Source Mask Optimization (SMO) is one such route to realize these image fidelity improvements. During SMO, critical layout constructs are intensively optimized in both the mask and source domain, resulting in a solution for maximum lithographic entitlement. From the hardware side, advances in source technology have enabled free-form illumination. The approach allows highly customized illumination, enabling the practical application of SMO sources. The customized illumination sources can be adjusted for maximum versatility. In this paper, we present a study on a critical layer of an advanced foundry logic node using the latest ILT based SMO software, paired with state-of-the-art scanner hardware and intelligent illuminator. Performance of the layer's existing POR source is compared with the ideal SMO result and the installed source as realized on the intelligent illuminator of an NSR-S630D scanner. Both simulation and on-silicon measurements are used to confirm that the performance of the studied layer meets established specifications.

  5. Master masks for big patterns by electron-beam lithography (United States)

    Zlobin, Vladimir A.; Mamonov, V. I.; Vasiljeva, Olga G.


    Modern technologies for power semiconductor devices, laser and micro optics, micromechanics requires microlithography of patterns having a large are up to 100 cm2 with complicate precise drawing. The electron beam lithography (EBL) tools with variable shape beam have good prospects for this purpose, but their application has a few problems in case of the tasks pointed above. The main problems are a great volume of information and a large exposure time of such patterns. We propose the system for preparation of the exposure data having more than 100 MB volume that consists from set of personal computers, network adapters, and software. The preparation of graphic information and exposure strategy are presented. The optimum exposure conditions are determined by program modeling the exposure process in dependence on the statistic distribution of sizes of EBL figures. Our method permits to decrease the exposure time in several times under certain conditions and brings that nearer to theoretical limit Tmin equals SD/IBmax, where Tmin is minimum exposure time, S is exposure area, D is dose density, IBmax is maximum beam current. This approach is valid if the basic factor limiting the writing speed is IBmax. The developed computer system and writing strategy was applied us for mask making on modified ZBA-21 tool. These masks were meant for production of power semiconductor and laser optics devices.

  6. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH


    Full Text Available Ji-Hee Lee1,*, Goeun Choi1,*, Yeon-Ji Oh1, Je Won Park1, Young Bin Choy3, Mung Chul Park1, Yeo Joon Yoon1, Hwa Jeong Lee2, Hee Chul Chang4, Jin-Ho Choy1 1Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, 2Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; 4Global Strategy Center and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT, for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN. To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%, suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2 and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞ and maximum

  7. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  8. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  9. Method for validating cloud mask obtained from satellite measurements using ground-based sky camera. (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nagao, Takashi M; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsumae, Yoshiaki


    Error propagation in Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface parameters of the satellite products caused by misclassification of the cloud mask is a critical issue for improving the accuracy of satellite products. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of the cloud mask is important for investigating the influence of the cloud mask on satellite products. In this study, we proposed a method for validating multiwavelength satellite data derived cloud masks using ground-based sky camera (GSC) data. First, a cloud cover algorithm for GSC data has been developed using sky index and bright index. Then, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data derived cloud masks by two cloud-screening algorithms (i.e., MOD35 and CLAUDIA) were validated using the GSC cloud mask. The results indicate that MOD35 is likely to classify ambiguous pixels as "cloudy," whereas CLAUDIA is likely to classify them as "clear." Furthermore, the influence of error propagations caused by misclassification of the MOD35 and CLAUDIA cloud masks on MODIS derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in clear and cloudy pixels was investigated using sky camera data. It shows that the influence of the error propagation by the MOD35 cloud mask on the MODIS derived monthly mean reflectance, brightness temperature, and NDVI for clear pixels is significantly smaller than for the CLAUDIA cloud mask; the influence of the error propagation by the CLAUDIA cloud mask on MODIS derived monthly mean cloud products for cloudy pixels is significantly smaller than that by the MOD35 cloud mask.

  10. A laboratory experiment for a new free-standing pupil mask coronagraph (United States)

    Haze, K.; Enya, K.; Kotani, T.; Abe, L.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Sato, T.; Yamamuro, T.


    This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment on a new free-standing pupil mask coronagraph for the direct observation of exoplanets. We focused on a binary-shaped pupil coronagraph, which is planned for installation in the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA. Our laboratory experiments on the coronagraph were implemented inside a vacuum chamber (HOCT) to achieve greater thermal stability and to avoid air turbulence, and a contrast of 1.3×10-9 was achieved with PSF subtraction. We also carried out multi-color/broadband experiments to demonstrate that the pupil mask coronagraph works, in principle, at all wavelengths. We had previously manufactured a checker-board mask, a type of binary-shaped pupil mask, on a glass substrate, which had the disadvantages of light loss by transmission, ghosting from residual reflectance and a slightly different refractive index for each wavelength. Therefore, we developed a new free-standing mask in sheet metal, for which no substrate was needed. As a result of a He-Ne laser experiment with the free-standing mask, a contrast of 1.0×10-7 was achieved for the raw coronagraphic image. We also conducted rotated mask subtractions and numerical simulations of some errors in the mask shape and WFEs. Speckles are the major limiting factor. The free-standing mask exhibited about the same ability to improve contrast as the substrate mask. Consequently, the results of this study suggest that the binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph can be applied to coronagraphic observations by SPICA and other telescopes.

  11. Masked repetition priming hinders subsequent recollection but not familiarity: A behavioral and event-related potential study. (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan


    The present study used the masked repetition priming paradigm in the study phase and the R/K paradigm in the test phase to investigate whether repetition priming can hinder recognition memory and which recognition process (familiarity or recollection) is hindered. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study and test phase were recorded to explore the temporal course of how repetition priming hinders subsequent recognition memory and which old/new effect (FN400 or LPC) is affected. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that masked repetition priming hindered subsequent recollection but not familiarity. The analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that primed words were associated with less negative N400 and less positive LPC compared to unprimed words. The analysis of the priming effect as a function of subsequent memory revealed that only the LPC priming effect was predictive of priming effect on subsequent memory, which suggested that the "prediction-error" account might be a possible explanation of how repetition priming affects subsequent recognition memory.

  12. Covert attention enhances letter identification without affecting channel tuning. (United States)

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Pelli, Denis G; Carrasco, Marisa


    Directing covert attention to the target location enhances sensitivity, but it is not clear how this enhancement comes about. Knowing that a single spatial frequency channel mediates letter identification, we use the critical-band-masking paradigm to investigate whether covert attention affects the spatial frequency tuning of that channel. We find that directing attention to the target location halves threshold energy without affecting the channel's spatial frequency tuning.

  13. Fit factors for quarter masks and facial size categories. (United States)

    Han, D H


    Respirator fit testing is necessary before entering hazardous working environments to ensure that the respirator, when worn, satisfies a minimum fit and that the wearer knows when the respirator fits properly. In the many countries that do not have fit testing or total inward leakage regulations (including Korea), however, many workers wearing respirators may be potentially exposed to hazardous environments. It is necessary to suggest a useful tool to provide an alternative for fit testing in these countries. This study was conducted to evaluate fitting performance for quarter-mask respirators, and fit factors in facial size categories based on face lengths and lip lengths of the wearers. A total of 778 subjects (408 males, 370 females) were fit tested for three quarter masks: Sejin Co. SK-6 (Ulsan, Korea), Yongsung Co. YS-2010 S (Seoul, Korea), and 3 M Co. Series 7500 Medium (MN, USA) masks with a PortaCount 8020 (TSI Co., USA). A facial dimension survey of the subjects was conducted to develop facial size categories, on the basis of face length and lip length. Geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) of Series 7500 Medium were found to be the highest of the three respirators. All of the respirators were more suitable for males than females in fitting performance. The Series 7500 Medium fitted a large number of the males tested, since the GMFFs for males were above 100 for every box of facial size categories, and high pass proportion rates were shown at an individual fit factor level of 100. The YS-2010 S provides an adequate fit for males in a limited range of facial dimensions. The Series 7500 Medium is more limited in providing adequate fit for females at specific facial dimensions than for males. For adequate fitting performance, the SK-6 is not preferentially recommended for Korean male and female workers due to low GMFFs and pass proportions. The result of this study indicates that after more accurate studies are performed, facial size categories, on the basis of

  14. Extra Solar Planet Science With a Non Redundant Mask (United States)

    Minto, Stefenie Nicolet; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Greenbaum, Alexandra; St. Laurent, Kathryn; Thatte, Deeparshi


    To detect faint planetary companions near a much brighter star, at the Resolution Limit of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) will use a non-redundant aperture mask (NRM) for high contrast imaging. I simulated NIRISS data of stars with and without planets, and run these through the code that measures interferometric image properties to determine how sensitive planetary detection is to our knowledge of instrumental parameters, starting with the pixel scale. I measured the position angle, distance, and contrast ratio of the planet (with respect to the star) to characterize the binary pair. To organize this data I am creating programs that will automatically and systematically explore multi-dimensional instrument parameter spaces and binary characteristics. In the future my code will also be applied to explore any other parameters we can simulate.

  15. Systematic study of source mask optimization and verification flows (United States)

    Ben, Yu; Latypov, Azat; Chua, Gek Soon; Zou, Yi


    Source mask optimization (SMO) emerged as powerful resolution enhancement technique (RET) for advanced technology nodes. However, there is a plethora of flow and verification metrics in the field, confounding the end user of the technique. Systemic study of different flows and the possible unification thereof is missing. This contribution is intended to reveal the pros and cons of different SMO approaches and verification metrics, understand the commonality and difference, and provide a generic guideline for RET selection via SMO. The paper discusses 3 different type of variations commonly arise in SMO, namely pattern preparation & selection, availability of relevant OPC recipe for freeform source and finally the metrics used in source verification. Several pattern selection algorithms are compared and advantages of systematic pattern selection algorithms are discussed. In the absence of a full resist model for SMO, alternative SMO flow without full resist model is reviewed. Preferred verification flow with quality metrics of DOF and MEEF is examined.

  16. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieble, Thomas [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)


    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  17. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Ramos


    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  18. Improving the privacy of optical steganography with temporal phase masks. (United States)

    Wang, Z; Fok, M P; Xu, L; Chang, J; Prucnal, P R


    Temporal phase modulation of spread stealth signals is proposed and demonstrated to improve optical steganography transmission privacy. After phase modulation, the temporally spread stealth signal has a more complex spectral-phase-temporal relationship, such that the original temporal profile cannot be restored when only dispersion compensation is applied to the temporally spread stealth signals. Therefore, it increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to detect and intercept the stealth channel that is hidden under a public transmission, even with a correct dispersion compensation device. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and display insignificant degradation in transmission performance, compared to the conventional stealth transmission without temporal phase modulation. The proposed system can also work without a clock transmission for signal synchronization. Our analysis and simulation results show that it is difficult for the adversary to detect the existence of the stealth transmission, or find the correct phase mask to recover the stealth signals.

  19. Hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis masked by anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Steinglass, Joanna; Primack, Marshall; Clark-Hamilton, Jill; Bongiovi, Mary


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is typically associated with altered thyroid function tests, notably a low total and free T3 , and lower, but within normal range, free T4 and TSH. A 16-year-old girl with a four-year history of AN presented with elevated TSH that fluctuated with changes in weight. TSH was within normal limits (1.7-3.64 mIU/L) following periods of weight loss and elevated with weight gain (5.9-21.66 mIU/L). Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were markedly elevated, suggesting chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of note, the elevated TSH that would be expected in Hashimoto's thyroiditis was blunted by weight loss associated with AN. Physicians should be aware that AN may contribute to masking thyroid abnormalities in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  20. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  1. Modelling binaural processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking: limitations of current models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg


    Masked thresholds were measured for a single test reflection, masked by the direct sound, as a function of the reflection delay. This was done for diotic as well as for dichotic stimulus presentations and all stimuli were presented via headphones. The input signal was a 200-ms long broadband nois...

  2. Perceptual effects of noise reduction by time-frequency masking of noisy speech. (United States)

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A


    Time-frequency masking is a method for noise reduction that is based on the time-frequency representation of a speech in noise signal. Depending on the estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), each time-frequency unit is either attenuated or not. A special type of a time-frequency mask is the ideal binary mask (IBM), which has access to the real SNR (ideal). The IBM either retains or removes each time-frequency unit (binary mask). The IBM provides large improvements in speech intelligibility and is a valuable tool for investigating how different factors influence intelligibility. This study extends the standard outcome measure (speech intelligibility) with additional perceptual measures relevant for noise reduction: listening effort, noise annoyance, speech naturalness, and overall preference. Four types of time-frequency masking were evaluated: the original IBM, a tempered version of the IBM (called ITM) which applies limited and non-binary attenuation, and non-ideal masking (also tempered) with two different types of noise-estimation algorithms. The results from ideal masking imply that there is a trade-off between intelligibility and sound quality, which depends on the attenuation strength. Additionally, the results for non-ideal masking suggest that subjective measures can show effects of noise reduction even if noise reduction does not lead to differences in intelligibility.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The present study tested the hypothesis that briefly flashed and backwardly masked phobic stimuli potentiate startle reflexes in phobic subjects. Spider phobic (n = 17) and normal control (n = 12) subjects were exposed to short (30 ms) and backwardly masked presentations of phobic slides (i.e., spid

  4. Oxygen mask fit analysis in F-16 fighter pilots using 3D imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.R.C.; Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Amerongen, P.C.G.M. van; Kon, M.


    Background: The majority of Dutch F-16 pilots experience in-flight oxygen mask related nasal discomfort and injury. We aimed to analyze the fit of the oxygen mask. Methods: We successfully scanned 35 pilots with a 3D scanner to measure the distance between the contact area on the nose and the oxygen

  5. Relevant reduction effect with a modified thermoplastic mask of rotational error for glottic cancer in IMRT (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hong; Jung, Joo-Young; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Bae, Sun Hyun; Moon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choe, Bo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the glottis rotational error (GRE) by using a thermoplastic mask for patients with the glottic cancer undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We selected 20 patients with glottic cancer who had received IMRT by using the tomotherapy. The image modalities with both kilovoltage computed tomography (planning kVCT) and megavoltage CT (daily MVCT) images were used for evaluating the error. Six anatomical landmarks in the image were defined to evaluate a correlation between the absolute GRE (°) and the length of contact with the underlying skin of the patient by the mask (mask, mm). We also statistically analyzed the results by using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and a linear regression analysis ( P correlation ( P < 0.01). We found a statistical significance for each parameter in the linear regression analysis (mask versus absolute roll: P = 0.004 [ P < 0.05]; mask versus 3D-error: P = 0.000 [ P < 0.05]). The range of the 3D-errors with contact by the mask was from 1.2% - 39.7% between the maximumand no-contact case in this study. A thermoplastic mask with a tight, increased contact area may possibly contribute to the uncertainty of the reproducibility as a variation of the absolute GRE. Thus, we suggest that a modified mask, such as one that covers only the glottis area, can significantly reduce the patients' setup errors during the treatment.

  6. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX


    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency rel

  7. Masking Release in Children and Adults with Hearing Loss When Using Amplification (United States)

    Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia


    Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…

  8. Tuning the cognitive environment: Sound masking with 'natural' sounds in open-plan offices (United States)

    DeLoach, Alana

    With the gain in popularity of open-plan office design and the engineering efforts to achieve acoustical comfort for building occupants, a majority of workers still report dissatisfaction in their workplace environment. Office acoustics influence organizational effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction through meeting appropriate requirements for speech privacy and ambient sound levels. Implementing a sound masking system is one tried-and-true method of achieving privacy goals. Although each sound masking system is tuned for its specific environment, the signal -- random steady state electronic noise, has remained the same for decades. This research work explores how `natural' sounds may be used as an alternative to this standard masking signal employed so ubiquitously in sound masking systems in the contemporary office environment. As an unobtrusive background sound, possessing the appropriate spectral characteristics, this proposed use of `natural' sounds for masking challenges the convention that masking sounds should be as meaningless as possible. Through the pilot study presented in this work, we hypothesize that `natural' sounds as sound maskers will be as effective at masking distracting background noise as the conventional masking sound, will enhance cognitive functioning, and increase participant (worker) satisfaction.

  9. 37 CFR 211.6 - Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (United States)


    ..., LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.6 Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (a) General. (1) This section specifies methods of affixation and placement... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of affixation...

  10. An empirical approach adressing the transfer of mask placement errors during exposure (United States)

    Alles, B.; Simeon, B.; Cotte, E.; Wandel, T.; Schulz, B.; Seltmann, R.


    Today's semiconductors consist of up to forty structured layers which make up the electric circuit. Since the market demands more powerful chips at minimal cost, the structure size is decreased with every technology node. The smaller the features become, the more sensitive is the functional effciency of the chip with respect to placement errors. One crucial component for placement errors is the mask which can be viewed as a blueprint of the layer's structures. Hence, placement accuracy requirements for masks are also tightening rapidly. These days, mask shops strive for improving their positioning performance. However, more and more effort is required which will increase the costs for masks. Therefore, the transfer of mask placement errors onto the wafer is analyzed in order to check the guidelines which are used for deriving placement error specifications. In the first section of this paper the basic concepts for measuring placement errors are provided. Then, a method is proposed which is able to characterize the transfer of placement errors from mask to wafer. This is followed by two sections giving a thorough statistical analysis of this method. In the fifth section, the connection to placement accuracy specifications on mask and wafer is established. Finally, the method is applied to a set of test masks provided by AMTC and printed by AMD.

  11. Predicting efficiency of post-induction mask ventilation based on demographic and anatomical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saghaei


    Conclusions: Using EMV is an easy and reliable tool for measuring efficiency of mask ventilation. Based on the result of this study, EMV can be estimated from patient′s demographic and physical factors. In edentolous patients, using the lip-over-mask method results in adequate ventilation of lungs.

  12. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak


    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  13. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology (United States)

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea


    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  14. Improving light harvesting in polymer photodetector devices through nanoindented metal mask films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, A. G.; Zanetti, F.; Mikowski, A.; Hummelen, J. C.; Lepienski, C. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Roman, L. S.


    To enhance light harvesting in organic photovoltaic devices, we propose the incorporation of a metal (aluminum) mask film in the system's usual layout. We fabricate devices in a sandwich geometry, where the mask (nanoindented with a periodic array of holes of sizes d and spacing s) is added between

  15. Current approach to masked hypertension: From diagnosis to clinical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Eamon


    The term masked hypertension phenomenon was first described by the late Professor Thomas Pickering and is commonly defined as having a normal clinic blood pressure (BP) but an elevated "out of office" reading. In the main these elevated readings have been provided through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) but sometimes home BP monitoring is used. It is now largely accepted that ABPM gives a better classification of risk than clinic BP. Thus the elevated ABPM levels should relate to higher cardiovascular risk and it follows that these people might be regarded as being genuinely hypertensive and at higher cardiovascular risk. The problem for clinical practice is how to identify and manage these subjects. The phenomenon should be suspected in subjects who have had an elevated clinic BP at some time, in young subjects with normal or normal-high clinic BP who have early left ventricular hypertrophy, in subjects with a family history of hypertension in both parents, patients with multiple risks for cardiovascular disease and perhaps diabetic patients. It appears to be more prevalent in subjects of male gender, with younger age, higher heart rate, obesity or high cholesterol levels and in smokers. Those with masked hypertension are at higher risk of events such as stroke and have a higher prevalence of target organ damage, for example, nephropathy. In conclusion most of the debate around this topic relates to its reliable identification. Given the higher ambulatory readings there is an increases cardiovascular risk making this diagnosis important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel


    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  17. Masking of a brief probe by sinusoidal frequency modulation. (United States)

    Edwards, B W; Viemeister, N F


    Contrary to level detection models, the thresholds for a brief-duration probe masked by a sinusoidal frequency modulation (FM) masker increases as the modulation index (beta) of FM increases [Zwicker, Acustica 31, 243-256 (1974)]. In this paper the reason for this phenomenon is investigated. In experiment 1, a 10-ms, 1-kHz probe was detected in the presence of an FM masker centered at 1 kHz and sinusoidally modulated at 16 Hz. Thresholds increased by over 15 dB with increasing beta, consistent with Zwicker's findings. In experiment 2, the instantaneous frequency changes of the masker used in experiment 1 were clipped and the resulting thresholds indicated that detection was determined primarily by the masker's total frequency excursion rather than by its instantaneous sweep rate. In experiment 3, the FM maskers from the first two experiments were passed through a roex filter centered at 1 kHz and the resulting envelope was used to amplitude modulate a 1-kHz tone, producing approximately the same effective envelope at 1 kHz as the FM maskers. Threshold functions for the amplitude modulated (AM) maskers were similar to those for their corresponding FM maskers. Thresholds increased by over 15 dB while the total energy of the AM masker decreased by over 10 dB, again contrary to standard level-detection models. The results from these experiments can be explained, at least qualitatively, by a model based on envelope shape discrimination: similarities between the envelopes of the masker alone and masker-plus-probe at the output of an auditory filter centered on the frequency of the probe are primarily responsible for the observed masking, particularly at large beta's.

  18. Lithographic plane review (LPR) for sub-32nm mask defect disposition (United States)

    Tolani, Vikram; Peng, Danping; He, Lin; Hwa, George; Chang, Hsien-Min; Dai, Grace; Corcoran, Noel; Dam, Thuc; Pang, Linyong; Tuo, Laurent C.; Chen, C. J.; Lai, Rick


    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns under mask inspection optical conditions continues to diminish. Furthermore, as mask complexity and MEEF has also increased, it requires detecting even smaller defects in the already narrower pitch mask patterns. This leaves the mask inspection engineer with the option to either purchase a higher resolution mask inspection tool or increase the detector sensitivity on the existing inspection system or maybe even both. In order to meet defect sensitivity requirements in critical features of sub-32nm node designs, increasing sensitivity typically results in increased nuisance (i.e., small sub-specification) defect detection by 5-20X defects making post-inspection defect review non-manufacturable. As a solution for automatically dispositioning the increased number of nuisance and real defects detected at higher inspection sensitivity, Luminescent has successfully extended Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and its patented level-set methods to reconstruct the defective mask from its inspection image, and then perform simulated AIMS dispositioning on the reconstructed mask. In this technique, named Lithographic Plane Review (LPR), inspection transmitted and reflected light images of the test (i.e. defect) and reference (i.e., corresponding defect-free) regions are provided to the "inversion" engine which then computes the corresponding test and reference mask patterns. An essential input to this engine is a well calibrated model incorporating inspection tool optics, mask processing and 3D effects, and also the subsequent AIMS tool optics to be able to then simulate the aerial image impact of the defects. This flow is equivalent to doing an actual AIMS tool measurement of every defect detected during mask inspection, while at the same time maintaining inspection at high enough resolution. What makes this product usable in mask volume production is the high degree of accuracy of

  19. Evaluation of different strategies to mask boar taint in cooked sausage. (United States)

    Martínez, B; Rubio, B; Viera, C; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Panella-Riera, N; Garrido, M D


    The use of smoking and/or spices was evaluated for their ability to mask boar taint in frankfurters manufactured from entire pigs with high levels of androstenone. Five frankfurter types were considered: control, smoked, flavouring+smoked, spicy and spicy+smoked. A trained panel in androstenone perception carried out a sensory profile on the different sausages. The highest scores for androstenone perception (odour, flavour and aftertaste) were found in frankfurters that included no masking strategy which indicated the effectiveness of the evaluated strategies. Regarding masking strategies, the contribution of spices and smoking to sensory perception of frankfurters was detected by the panellists. Smoking was the best strategy to mask androstenone odour, while the use of spices masked androstenone odour to a greater extent than androstenone flavour. Only the combined use of spices and smoking was able to eliminate the perception of androstenone. The application of this strategy in frankfurters could be an alternative in the commercialization of entire pigs.

  20. Laboratory coded aperture imaging experiments: radial hole coded masks and depth-sensitive CZT detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Zhang, M; Bellm, E C; Yousef, A; Noss, J; Grindlay, J E; Narita, T


    The proposed black-hole finder mission EXIST will consist of multiple wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescopes. The high science goals set for the mission require innovations in telescope design. In particular, wide energy band coverage and fine angular resolution require relatively thick coded masks and thick detectors compared to their pixel size, which may introduce mask self-collimation and depth-induced image blurring with conventional design approaches. Previously we proposed relatively simple solutions to these potential problems: radial hole for mask selfcollimation and cathode depth sensing detector for image blurring. We have now performed laboratory experiments to explore the potential of these two techniques. The experimental results show that the radial hole mask greatly alleviates mask self-collimation and a ~1 mm resolution depth-sensitive detector scheme can be relatively easily achieved for the large scale required for EXIST.

  1. Exhaled air dispersion during coughing with and without wearing a surgical or N95 mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Hui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We compared the expelled air dispersion distances during coughing from a human patient simulator (HPS lying at 45° with and without wearing a surgical mask or N95 mask in a negative pressure isolation room. METHODS: Airflow was marked with intrapulmonary smoke. Coughing bouts were generated by short bursts of oxygen flow at 650, 320, and 220L/min to simulate normal, mild and poor coughing efforts, respectively. The coughing jet was revealed by laser light-sheet and images were captured by high definition video. Smoke concentration in the plume was estimated from the light scattered by smoke particles. Significant exposure was arbitrarily defined where there was ≥ 20% of normalized smoke concentration. RESULTS: During normal cough, expelled air dispersion distances were 68, 30 and 15 cm along the median sagittal plane when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. In moderate lung injury, the corresponding air dispersion distances for mild coughing efforts were reduced to 55, 27 and 14 cm, respectively, p < 0.001. The distances were reduced to 30, 24 and 12 cm, respectively during poor coughing effort as in severe lung injury. Lateral dispersion distances during normal cough were 0, 28 and 15 cm when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Normal cough produced a turbulent jet about 0.7 m towards the end of the bed from the recumbent subject. N95 mask was more effective than surgical mask in preventing expelled air leakage during coughing but there was still significant sideway leakage.

  2. Effects of a Mask on Breathing Impairment During a Fencing Assault: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Fencers often complain of progressive difficulty in breathing during matches, which is generally attributed to restricted air, light and heat circulation from wearing a mask. Physiologically, the nasal structure generates airflow resistance that can reach -50% of the total respiratory resistance. Objectives This study aims to investigate the presence of nasal obstruction in fencers and the relationship with the use of mask. Materials and Methods An observational study on 40 fencers (18 males, 22 females was conducted. Fencers perform a usual assault, wearing the mask and standardized physical exercises (running, sprints and obstacles without the mask. ENT examination with a nasal flexible fiberscope, Anterior Active Rhinomanometry (AAR and Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF measurement before and after physical activity with or without the mask was recorded. Results Before physical exercise, the total nasal airway resistance mean value for AAR was 0.33 ± 0.17 Pa/cm3/s at 150 Pa. After a match with the mask, the mean value was 0.28 ± 0.16 Pa/cm3/s. After normal physical exercises without mask, the mean value was 0.24 ± 0.15 Pa/cm3/s. Using t tests, statistically significant difference between nasal resistance before and after physical activity (P < 0.05 was observed, but no significant difference in nasal resistance between the basal value and that taken after a match wearing the masks (P = 0.1265. PNIF values significantly increase with exercise (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our study shows that wearing the mask causes increased breathing impairment in fencers, when compared with similar physical activity without the mask.

  3. The mysterious noh mask: contribution of multiple facial parts to the recognition of emotional expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the

  4. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Borkow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10TCID(50 of human influenza A virus (H1N1 and avian influenza virus (H9N2, respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min. Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (< or = 0.88 log(10TCID(50, while 4.67+/-1.35 log(10TCID(50 were recovered from the control masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were < or = 0.97+/-0.01 log(10TCID(50 and from the control masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10TCID(50. The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical

  5. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne


    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  6. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield (United States)


    ... printed cellulose or colored polypropylene spun bond non-woven. The surgical mask has two filters inside... second filter is made of non-woven netting. The inner facing of the mask is made from a white cellulose... non-woven are used. The surgical mask has ear loops made from knitted polyester. All of the...

  7. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of the mammalian germinal center kinase III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M


    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...

  8. Rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of masked deoxynivalenol and zearalenone prior to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or immuniassay analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Peters, J.; Weignerová, L.; Zuilhof, H.; Franssen, M.C.R.


    Recently it has been shown that conjugates (‘masked mycotoxins’) may contribute to the total daily intake of hazardous mycotoxins. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid analysis methods that assess the level of both free and masked mycotoxins in food and feed. However, the analysis of masked

  9. 75 FR 66083 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, and supplemented on July 15, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for... the feasibility of the Iron Mask Pumped Storage Project to be located near the U.S. Bureau...

  10. 75 FR 53963 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Iron Mask...

  11. Registration performance on EUV masks using high-resolution registration metrology (United States)

    Steinert, Steffen; Solowan, Hans-Michael; Park, Jinback; Han, Hakseung; Beyer, Dirk; Scherübl, Thomas


    Next-generation lithography based on EUV continues to move forward to high-volume manufacturing. Given the technical challenges and the throughput concerns a hybrid approach with 193 nm immersion lithography is expected, at least in the initial state. Due to the increasing complexity at smaller nodes a multitude of different masks, both DUV (193 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) reticles, will then be required in the lithography process-flow. The individual registration of each mask and the resulting overlay error are of crucial importance in order to ensure proper functionality of the chips. While registration and overlay metrology on DUV masks has been the standard for decades, this has yet to be demonstrated on EUV masks. Past generations of mask registration tools were not necessarily limited in their tool stability, but in their resolution capabilities. The scope of this work is an image placement investigation of high-end EUV masks together with a registration and resolution performance qualification. For this we employ a new generation registration metrology system embedded in a production environment for full-spec EUV masks. This paper presents excellent registration performance not only on standard overlay markers but also on more sophisticated e-beam calibration patterns.

  12. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen


    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  13. Defining a Threshold Value for Maximum Spatial Information Loss of Masked Geo-Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania Kounadi


    Full Text Available Geographical masks are a group of location protection methods for the dissemination and publication of confidential and sensitive information, such as health- and crime-related geo-referenced data. The use of such masks ensures that privacy is protected for the individuals involved in the datasets. Nevertheless, the protection process introduces spatial error to the masked dataset. This study quantifies the spatial error of masked datasets using two approaches. First, a perceptual survey was employed where participants ranked the similarity of a diverse sample of masked and original maps. Second, a spatial statistical analysis was performed that provided quantitative results for the same pairs of maps. Spatial statistical similarity is calculated with three divergence indices that employ different spatial clustering methods. All indices are significantly correlated with the perceptual similarity. Finally, the results of the spatial analysis are used as the explanatory variable to estimate the perceptual similarity. Three prediction models are created that indicate upper boundaries for the spatial statistical results upon which the masked data are perceived differently from the original data. The results of the study aim to help potential “maskers” to quantify and evaluate the error of confidential masked visualizations.

  14. Fabrication of complex oxide microstructures by combinatorial chemical beam vapour deposition through stencil masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, E. [3D-OXIDES, 70 rue Gustave Eiffel, Saint Genis Pouilly 01630 (France); Sandu, C.S., E-mail: [3D-OXIDES, 70 rue Gustave Eiffel, Saint Genis Pouilly 01630 (France); Laboratoire de Céramique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Harada, S.; Benvenuti, G. [3D-OXIDES, 70 rue Gustave Eiffel, Saint Genis Pouilly 01630 (France); Savu, V. [Laboratoire de Microsystèmes 1, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 17, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Muralt, P. [Laboratoire de Céramique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Chemical Beam Vapour Deposition is a gas phase deposition technique, operated under high vacuum conditions, in which evaporated chemical precursors are thermally decomposed on heated substrates to form a film. In the particular equipment used in this work, different chemical beams effuse from a plurality of punctual precursor sources with line of sight trajectory to the substrate. A shadow mask is used to produce 3D-structures in a single step, replicating the apertures of a stencil as deposits on the substrate. The small gap introduced between substrate and mask induces a temperature difference between both surfaces and is used to deposit selectively solely on the substrate without modifying the mask, taking advantage of the deposition rate dependency on temperature. This small gap also enables the deposition of complex patterned structures resulting from the superposition of many patterns obtained using several precursor beams from different directions through a single mask aperture. A suitable process parameter window for precursor flow and substrate temperature is evidenced to maximize resolution. - Highlights: • Micro-feature growth with stencil mask by Chemical Beam Vapour Deposition • Growth of complex structured oxide films in one step • The gap between substrate and mask avoids deposition on the stencil. • Fabrication of 3D structures by superposing deposits from several beams • The versatile setup combines few chemical beams, variable geometry and stencil mask patterns.

  15. [Fibre optic-assisted endotracheal intubation through the laryngeal mask in children]. (United States)

    Weiss, M; Mauch, J; Becke, K; Schmidt, J; Jöhr, M


    Fibre optic-assisted tracheal intubation through the laryngeal mask airway is a simple and safe procedure for securing the airway in the paediatric patient with unexpected and known difficult tracheal intubation. Therefore, fibre optic-assisted tracheal intubation through the laryngeal mask airway represents a standard airway technique and must be part of clinical education and also regular training. However, the removal of the laryngeal mask airway over the tracheal tube is impaired by the short length of the tracheal tube, easily resulting in tube dislocation from the trachea. Among several techniques to overcome this problem, the Cook airway exchange catheter offers a reliable method not only for safe removal of the laryngeal mask over the tracheal tube but also for insertion of an adequate tracheal tube, particularly in paediatric patients. This is particularly important for cuffed tubes as the pilot balloon of the cuffed tube is too large to pass through laryngeal mask airway tubes size 2.5 and smaller. This presentation demonstrates fibre optic-assisted tracheal intubation through the laryngeal mask airway in children step-by-step and discusses its clinical implications. A list with compatible sizes of laryngeal mask airways, tracheal tubes and airway exchange catheters is also provided.

  16. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys (United States)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.


    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  17. Modal analysis of the SCALPEL mask using experimental and numerical methods (United States)

    Semke, William H.; Schlax, Michael P.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.; Liddle, James A.


    Controlling the dynamic response of the SCALPEL mask is important to ensure high throughput consistent with the stringent error budgets allocated for sub-130 nm lithography. In this paper experimental and numerical modal analysis result for the SCALPEL mask are presented and compared. These experimental result are used to verify and benchmark the finite element modeling efforts. The mode shapes and their respective frequencies provide valuable information for characterizing the out-of-plane and in-plane oscillations of the mask. The out-of-plane mode shapes were found experimentally with the use of both a Zygo interferometer and a Polytec scanning laser vibrometer. An additional application for out-of-plane oscillations involves a SCALPEL mask cleaning procedure, called the PLAMAX process, where the mask is resonated at its natural frequencies while surface particles are electrostatically charged in the present of a plasma and removed. The in-plane vibrations of the SCALPEL mask have also been investigated, since this is the primary excitation mode of the mask during exposure stepping. For experimental data, the in-plane modes were excited mechanically and detected using a MTI Fotonic sensor fiber-optic probe.

  18. LithoScope: Simulation Based Mask Layout Verification with Physical Resist Model (United States)

    Qian, Qi-De


    Simulation based mask layout verification and optimization is a cost effective way to ensure high mask performance in wafer lithography. Because mask layout verification serves as a gateway to the expensive manufacturing process, the model used for verification must have superior accuracy than models used upstream. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a software system for mask layout verification and optical proximity correction that employs a physical resist development model. The new system, LithoScope, predicts wafer patterning by solving optical and resist processing equations on a scale that is until recently considered unpractical. Leveraging the predictive capability of the physical model, LithoScope can perform mask layout verification and optical proximity correction under a wide range of processing conditions and for any reticle enhancement technology without the need for multiple model development. We show the ability for physical resist model to change iso-focal bias by optimizing resist parameters, which is critical for matching the experimental process window. We present line width variation statistics and chip level process window predictions using a practical cell layout. We show that LithoScope model can accurately describe the resist-intensive poly gate layer patterning. This system can be used to pre-screen mask data problems before manufacturing to reduce the overall cost of the mask and the product.

  19. Practitioners' impressions of patients with Parkinson's disease: the social ecology of the expressive mask. (United States)

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle


    The expressive mask of Parkinson's disease, a reduced spontaneity, intensity, and fluidity of facial, bodily, and vocal expression, jeopardizes interpersonal interaction and quality of life. Observers have difficulty perceiving the "real" person behind the mask, leading to failed communication and misunderstanding. A social ecological explanation of this difficulty is that observers have learned in their daily social lives, and quite appropriately so, that expressive behavior reveals meaningful information about character. The premise of this study was that health practitioners, especially novices, would bring into the clinic their everyday perceptual tendencies related to deciphering character. The study examined novice and expert practitioners' impressions of the personality of patients with Parkinson's disease who were videotaped during a healthcare interview. It was found that practitioners, especially novices, appeared to be overly sensitive to expressive masking when forming impressions about patient extraversion. They incorrectly perceived patients with more masking to be less extraverted than patients with less masking. Novice practitioners were particularly inaccurate in their impressions of neuroticism compared to experts. Novices incorrectly perceived patients with more masking as being more neurotic, whereas experts tended to be sensitive to valid cues of neuroticism. Practitioners' impressions of patient conscientiousness were not sensitive to masking and were highly accurate.

  20. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: Task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially. (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk


    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs. semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In the present study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs. verbal priming by previously activated perceptual versus semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format.

  1. Synthesis of functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and their masked precursors. (United States)

    Percec, V; Bera, T K; De, B B; Sanai, Y; Smith, J; Holerca, M N; Barboiu, B; Grubbs, R B; Fréchet, J M


    The synthesis of functional aromatic bis(sulfonyl chlorides) containing an acetophenone and two sulfonyl chloride groups, i.e., 3,5-bis[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-acetophenone (16), 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-1-acetophenone (17), and 3,5-bis(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyloxy)-1-acetophenone (18) via a sequence of reactions, involving in the last step the quantitative oxidative chlorination of S-(aryl)- N,N'-diethylthiocarbamate, alkyl- or benzyl thiophenyl groups as masked nonreactive precursors to sulfonyl chlorides is described. A related sequence of reactions was used for the synthesis of the aromatic trisulfonyl chloride 1,1,1-tris(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethane (24). 4-(Chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetic acid, 2,2-bis[[[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetyl]oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl ester (27), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (38), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(chlorosulfonyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[6]arene (39), 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(chlorosulfonyl)-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[8]arene (40), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl phenoxyacetoxy)calix[4]arene (44), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(tert-butyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[6]arene (45), and 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(tert-butyl)-49,40,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[8]arene (46) were synthesized by two different multistep reaction procedures, the last step of both methods consisting of the chlorosulfonation of compounds containing suitable activated aromatic positions. 2,4,6-Tris(chlorosulfonyl)aniline (47) was obtained by the chlorosulfonation of aniline. The conformation of two series of multisulfonyl chlorides i.e., 38, 39, 40 and 44, 45, 46, was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The masked nonreactive precursor states of the functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and the aromatic

  2. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean


    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  3. Type of mask may impact on continuous positive airway pressure adherence in apneic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Christian Borel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. METHODS: Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in "Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie", a French national prospective cohort, were included between March 2009 and December 2011. Anthropometric data, medical history, OSA severity, sleepiness, depressive status, treatment modalities (auto-CPAP versus fixed pressure, pressure level, interface type, use of humidifiers and CPAP-related side effects were included in multivariate analysis to determine independent variables associated with CPAP adherence. RESULTS: 2311 OSA (age = 57(12 years, apnea+hypopnea index = 41(21/h, 29% female were included. Nasal masks, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were used by 62.4, 26.2 and 11.4% of the patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were associated with higher risk of CPAP non-adherence. CPAP non-adherence was also associated with younger age, female gender, mild OSA, gastroesophageal reflux, depression status, low effective pressure and CPAP-related side effects. In multivariate analysis, CPAP non-adherence was associated with the use of oronasal masks (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.6; 2.5, depression, low effective pressure, and side effects. CONCLUSION: As oronasal masks negatively impact on CPAP adherence, a nasal mask should be preferred as the first option. Patients on oronasal masks should be carefully followed.

  4. New method of detection and classification of yield-impacting EUV mask defects (United States)

    Graur, Ioana; Vengertsev, Dmitry; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Stobert, Ian; Rankin, Jed


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) advances printability of small size features for both memory and logic semiconductor devices. It promises to bring relief to the semiconductor manufacturing industry, removing the need for multiple masks in rendering a single design layer on wafer. However, EUV also brings new challenges, one of which is of mask defectivity. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. In this paper we will present an efficient way to classify and disposition EUV mask defects through a new algorithm developed to classify defects located on EUV photomasks. By processing scanning electronmicroscopy images (SEM) of small regions of a photomask, we extract highdimensional local features Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG). Local features represent image contents compactly for detection or classification, without requiring image segmentation. Using these HOGs, a supervised classification method is applied which allows differentiating between nondefective and defective images. In the new approach we have developed a superior method of detection and classification of defects, using mask and supporting mask printed data from several metallization masks. We will demonstrate that use of the HOG method allows realtime identification of defects on EUV masks regardless of geometry or construct. The defects identified by this classifier are further divided into subclasses for mask defect disposition: foreign material, foreign material from previous step, and topological defects. The goal of disposition is to categorize on the images into subcategories and provide recommendation of prescriptive actions to avoid impact on the wafer yield.

  5. OPC mask simplification using over-designed timing slack of standard cells (United States)

    Qu, Yifan; Heng, Chun Huat; Tay, Arthur; Lee, Tong Heng


    It is well known that VLSI circuits must be designed to sustain the variations in process, voltage, temperature, etc. As a result, standard cell libraries (collections of the basic circuit components) are usually designed with large margin (also known as "timing slack"). However, in circuit manufacturing, only part of the margin will be utilized. The knowledge of the rest of the margin (over-designed timing slack), armed with models that link between timing domain and shape domain, can help to reduce the complexity of mask patterns and manufacturing cost. This paper proposed a novel methodology to simplify mask patterns in optical proximity correction (OPC) by using extra margin in timing (over-designed timing slack). This methodology can be applied after a conventional OPC, and is compatible with the current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flow. This iterative method is applied to each occurrence of over-designed timing slack. The actual value of timing slack can be estimated from post-OPC simulation. A timing cost function is developed in this work to map timing slack in timing domain to mask patterns in shape domain. This enables us to adjust mask patterns selectively based on the outcome of the cost function. All related mask patterns with over-designed timing slack will be annotated and simplified using our proposed mask simplification algorithm, which is in fact to merge the nearby edge fragments on the mask patterns. Simulations are conducted on a standard cell library and a full chip design to validate this proposed approach. When compared to existing OPC methods without mask simplification in the literature, our approach achieved a 51% reduction in mask fragment count, and this directly leads to a large saving in lithography manufacturing cost. The result also shows that timing closure is ensured, though part of the timing slack has been sacrificed.

  6. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study. (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C


    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  7. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang


    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  8. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems (United States)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.


    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  9. Age Differences in Attention Lapses Mask Age Differences in Memory Failures: A Methodological Note on Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Allan Cheyne


    Full Text Available Although objective measures of memory performance typically indicate memory declines with age, self-reported memory failures often show no relation to age. In contrast, self-reported attention failures are reliably negatively correlated with age. This contrast suggests the possibility that age-related awareness and reporting of memory failures might be masked by a concurrent decrease in attention failures, which would reduce encoding failures with age and hence reduce perceived memory failures. Self-reported problems of attention and memory were evaluated in two samples with the ages spanning eight decades. Initial analysis indicated that attention failures significantly decreased with age, whereas memory problems did not to differ across age. The association of self-reported memory failures became significantly positive, however, when residualized on attention lapses. In contrast, the correlation between attention lapses and age was modestly affected when memory failures were controlled. These results highlight the close relation of attention lapses and memory problems and, beyond the implications of individual differences in attention for memory research, suggest the advisability of assessing attention failures for a full evaluation of memory problems.

  10. Generation of Periodic Sawtooth Optical Intensity by Phase-Shifting Mask (United States)

    Ura, Shogo; Kintaka, Kenji; Awazu, Hideyuki; Nishio, Kenzo; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishii, Junji


    A new simple interference exposure method using a phase-shifting mask was discussed on the basis of Fourier synthesis for fabricating blazed gratings. Phase-shifting mask was designed with 244 nm exposure-light wavelength to launch multiple diffraction beams so that resultant interference pattern fit to required optical intensity profile. Fine surface-relief pattern on SiO2 mask for 3-µm-period sawtooth optical-intensity profile was fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing lithography with 30 nm scanning step and relief height of 65 nm. Sawtooth-like intensity profile was demonstrated with theoretically predicted interference visibility.

  11. Prototype of an energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    by a factor of 2 - 4 for a typical TEA-CO2 system for mask based laser marking. A simple ray-tracing model has been built in order to design and optimise the energy enhancer. Thus we present experimental results as well as simulations and show fine accordance between the two. Important system parameters like......In general mask based laser material processing (MBLMP) is a process which suffers from a low energy efficiency, because the majority of the laser light is absorbed in or reflected by the mask. We have developed a device called an energy enhancer which is capable of improving the energy efficiency...

  12. Development of binary image masks for TPF-C and ground-based AO coronagraphs (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Crepp, Justin; Vanden Heuvel, Andrew; Miller, Shane; McDavitt, Dan; Kravchenko, Ivan; Kuchner, Marc


    We report progress on the development of precision binary notch-filter focal plane coronagraphic masks for directly imaging Earth-like planets at visible wavelengths with the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C), and substellar companions at near infrared wavelengths from the ground with coronagraphs coupled to high-order adaptive optics (AO) systems. Our recent theoretical studies show that 8th-order image masks (Kuchner, Crepp & Ge 2005, KCG05) are capable of achieving unlimited dynamic range in an ideal optical system, while simultaneously remaining relatively insensitive to low-spatial-frequency optical aberrations, such as tip/tilt errors, defocus, coma, astigmatism, etc. These features offer a suite of advantages for the TPF-C by relaxing many control and stability requirements, and can also provide resistance to common practical problems associated with ground-based observations; for example, telescope flexure and low-order errors left uncorrected by the AO system due to wavefront sensor-deformable mirror lag time can leak light at significant levels. Our recent lab experiments show that prototype image masks can generate contrast levels on the order of 2x10 -6 at 3 λ/D and 6x10 -7 at 10 λ/D without deformable mirror correction using monochromatic light (Crepp et al. 2006), and that this contrast is limited primarily by light scattered by imperfections in the optics and extra diffraction created by mask construction errors. These experiments also indicate that the tilt and defocus sensitivities of high-order masks follow the theoretical predictions of Shaklan and Green 2005. In this paper, we discuss these topics as well as review our progress on developing techniques for fabricating a new series of image masks that are "free-standing", as such construction designs may alleviate some of the (mostly chromatic) problems associated with masks that rely on glass substrates for mechanical support. Finally, results obtained from our AO coronagraph

  13. Capability of particle inspection on patterned EUV mask using model EBEYE M (United States)

    Naka, Masato; Yoshikawa, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hirano, Takashi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Terao, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Sobukawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Kiwamu; Hayashi, Takehide; Tajima, Ryo; Kimura, Norio; Hayashi, Naoya


    According to the road map shown in ITRS [1], the EUV mask requirement for defect inspection is to detect the defect size of sub- 20 nm in the near future. EB (Electron Beam) inspection with high resolution is one of the promising candidates to meet such severe defect inspection requirements. However, conventional EB inspection using the SEM method has the problem of low throughput. Therefore, we have developed an EB inspection tool, named Model EBEYE M. The tool has the PEM (Projection Electron Microscope) technique and the image acquisition technique with TDI (Time Delay Integration) sensor while moving the stage continuously to achieve high throughput [2]. In our previous study, we showed the performance of the tool applied for the half pitch (hp) 2X nm node in a production phase for particle inspection on an EUV blank. In the study, the sensitivity of 20 nm with capture rate of 100 % and the throughput of 1 hour per 100 mm square were achieved, which was higher than the conventional optical inspection tool for EUV mask inspection [3]-[5]. Such particle inspection is called for not only on the EUV blank but also on the patterned EUV mask. It is required after defect repair and final cleaning for EUV mask fabrication. Moreover, it is useful as a particle monitoring tool between a certain numbers of exposures for wafer fabrication because EUV pellicle has not been ready yet. However, since the patterned EUV mask consists of 3D structure, it is more difficult than that on the EUV blank. In this paper, we evaluated that the particle inspection on the EUV blank using the tool which was applied for the patterned EUV mask. Moreover, the capability of the particle inspection on the patterned EUV mask for the hp 2X nm node, whose target is 25 nm of the sensitivity, was confirmed. As a result, the inspection and SEM review results of the patterned EUV masks revealed that the sensitivity of the hp 100 nm Line/Space (LS) was 25 nm and that of the hp 140- 160 nm Contact Hole

  14. Improved mask-based CD uniformity for gridded-design-rule lithography (United States)

    Faivishevsky, Lev; Khristo, Sergey; Sagiv, Amir; Mangan, Shmoolik


    The difficulties encountered during lithography of state-of-the-art 2D patterns are formidable, and originate from the fact that deep sub-wavelength features are being printed. This results in a practical limit of k1 >=0.4 as well as a multitude of complex restrictive design rules, in order to mitigate or minimize lithographic hot spots. An alternative approach, that is gradually attracting the lithographic community's attention, restricts the design of critical layers to straight, dense lines (a 1D grid), that can be relatively easily printed using current lithographic technology. This is then followed by subsequent, less critical trimming stages to obtain circuit functionality. Thus, the 1D gridded approach allows hotspot-free, proximity-effect free lithography of ultra low- k1 features. These advantages must be supported by a stable CD control mechanism. One of the overriding parameters impacting CDU performance is photo mask quality. Previous publications have demonstrated that IntenCDTM - a novel, mask-based CDU mapping technology running on Applied Materials' Aera2TM aerial imaging mask inspection tool - is ideally fit for detecting mask-based CDU issues in 1D (L&S) patterned masks for memory production. Owing to the aerial nature of image formation, IntenCD directly probes the CD as it is printed on the wafer. In this paper we suggest that IntenCD is naturally fit for detecting mask-based CDU issues in 1D GDR masks. We then study a novel method of recovering and quantifying the physical source of printed CDU, using a novel implementation of the IntenCD technology. We demonstrate that additional, simple measurements, which can be readily performed on board the Aera2TM platform with minimal throughput penalty, may complement IntenCD and allow a robust estimation of the specific nature and strength of mask error source, such as pattern width variation or phase variation, which leads to CDU issues on the printed wafer. We finally discuss the roles played by

  15. Reservoir computing with a slowly modulated mask signal for preprocessing using a mutually coupled optoelectronic system (United States)

    Tezuka, Miwa; Kanno, Kazutaka; Bunsen, Masatoshi


    Reservoir computing is a machine-learning paradigm based on information processing in the human brain. We numerically demonstrate reservoir computing with a slowly modulated mask signal for preprocessing by using a mutually coupled optoelectronic system. The performance of our system is quantitatively evaluated by a chaotic time series prediction task. Our system can produce comparable performance with reservoir computing with a single feedback system and a fast modulated mask signal. We showed that it is possible to slow down the modulation speed of the mask signal by using the mutually coupled system in reservoir computing.

  16. Spatial mask filtering algorithm for partial discharge pulse extraction of large generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A spatial mask filter algorithm (SMF) for partial discharge (PD) pulse extraction is proposed in this then direct multiplication of coefficients at two adjacent scales is used to detect singularity points of the signal tain the last spatial mask filter. By multiplication of wavelet coefficients with the final mask filter and wavelet reconstruction process, partial discharge pulses are extracted. The results of digital simulation and practical experiment show that this method is superior to traditional wavelet shrinkage method (TWS). This algorithm not only can increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR), but also can preserve the energy and pulse amplitude.

  17. Treatment of myopic astigmatism with photorefractive keratectomy using an erodible mask. (United States)

    Cherry, P M; Tutton, M K; Bell, A; Neave, C; Fichte, C


    The Summit Technology erodible mask treatment of astigmatism does not alter the keratometric astigmatism significantly, even though the refractive astigmatism appears to improve by about 50%. Myopia is satisfactorily treated with the erodible mask, but there is slightly more undercorrection compared to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using an expanding diaphragm. Increasing the minus power in ordering the mask cylinder improves the myopia result, but not the keratometric astigmatism result. The following factors do not influence the keratometric astigmatism result: 1) The type of astigmatism (with-, against-the-rule, or oblique); 2) The initial keratometry readings; and 3) The time from the commencement of epithelial removal to laser treatment.

  18. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems (United States)

    Simon, M. K.


    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  19. Comparison of critical dimension measurements of a mask inspection system with a CD-SEM (United States)

    Heumann, Jan P.; Ullrich, Albrecht; Utzny, Clemens S.; Meusemann, Stefan; Kromer, Frank; Whittey, John M.; Garcia, Edgardo; Wagner, Mark; Schmidt, Norbert J.


    Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is an important parameter for photomask and wafer manufacturing. In order to reduce long-range CD variation, compensation techniques for mask writers and scanners have been developed. Both techniques require mask CD measurements with high spatial sampling. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), which provide CD measurements at very high precision, cannot in practice provide the required spatial sampling due to their low speed. In contrast mask inspection systems, some of which have the ability to perform optical CD measurements with very high sampling frequencies, are an interesting alternative. In this paper we evaluate the CDU measurement results with those of a CD-SEM.

  20. Adaptive multiwavelet-based watermarking through JPW masking. (United States)

    Cui, Lihong; Li, Wenguo


    In this paper, a multibit, multiplicative, spread spectrum watermarking using the discrete multiwavelet (including unbalanced and balanced multiwavelet) transform is presented. Performance improvement with respect to existing algorithm is obtained by means of a new just perceptual weighting (JPW) model. The new model incorporates various masking effects of human visual perception by taking into account the eye's sensitivity to noise changes depending on spatial frequency, luminance and texture of all the image subbands. In contrast to conventional JND threshold model, JPW describing minimum perceptual sensitivity weighting to noise changes, is fitter for nonadditive watermarking. Specifically, watermarking strength is adaptively adjusted to obtain minimum perceptual distortion by employing the JPW model. Correspondingly, an adaptive optimum decoding is derived using a statistic model based on generalized-Gaussian distribution (GGD) for multiwavelet coefficients of the cover-image. Furthermore, the impact of multiwavelet characteristics on proposed watermarking scheme is also analyzed. Finally, the experimental results show that proposed JPW model can improve the quality of the watermarked image and give more robustness of the watermark as compared with a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms.

  1. Application of U-fixed red wax mask in radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejia Liu; Jing Song; Rui Song; Zhiyong Liu; Gang Ni; Wei Ge


    Objective:The aim of our study was to compared non-red wax compensator and adding red wax compensator in the treatment plans of the minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose and target surface dose, and compare the dose volume histograms (DVH) parameters and isodose distributions of two plans. Methods:From January 2009 to December 2010, 8 patients with superficial head and neck cancer and without surgery treatment were col ected. They al confirmed by cancer center, Tianmen First People’s Hospital. Topslane WiMRT was used to design the treatment plan of non-red wax compensa-tor and adding red wax compensator, with 6 MV photons using three-dimensional conformal irradiation mode design, the prescription dose was 50 Gy/25 times. Results:Compared non-red wax compensator with adding red wax compensator, its target minimum dose (t=-3.157, P0.05) and mean dose (t=-9.914, P>0.05) were considered no significant dif erence. Conclusion:The use of U-shaped mask fixed red wax film production in conformal radiotherapy tissue compensator can significantly improve the surface dose and dose distribution superficial planning target volume.

  2. Binaural masking level differences with a variety of waveforms. (United States)

    Henning, G B; Gaskell, H


    Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) were measured in a standard two-interval forced-choice detection task. The signals were (a) 250-ms bursts of pure tones, (b) amplitude-modulated waveforms with either high- or low-frequency carriers, and (c) 20-microseconds clicks. The pure tones and clicks were presented either eith zero phase difference between the ears or with an 180 degrees phase difference between the ears: the AM tones were presented in several different interaural phase conditions, only some of which lead to changes in the apparent location of the signal source. The noise against which all the signals were detected was white, broad-band, and identical at the ears. BMLDs were invariably small with high-frequency signals and with clicks. Although the magnitude of the BMLD obtained with low-frequency signals appeared to be related to the Observers' ability to lateralize the signal, there is a simpler explanation based on the assumption that detection of low-frequency AM signals is determined by independent detection of its components.

  3. Role of laryngeal mask airway in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; M; Bele?a; Ernesto; Josué; Ochoa; Mónica; Nú?ez; Carlos; Gilsanz; Alfonso; Vidal


    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures and the laryngeal mask airway(LMA) is the most common supraglottic airway device used by the anesthesiologists to manage airway during general anesthesia. Use of LMA has some advantages when compared to endotracheal intubation, such as quick and ease of placement, a lesser requirement for neuromuscular blockade and a lower incidence of postoperative morbididy. However, the use of the LMA in laparoscopy is controversial, based on a concern about increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The ability of these devices to provide optimal ventilation during laparoscopic procedures has been also questioned. The most important parameter to secure an adequate ventilation and oxygenation for the LMA under pneumoperitoneum condition is its seal pressure of airway. A good sealing pressure, not only state correct patient ventilation, but it reduces the potential risk of aspiration due to the better seal of airway. In addition, the LMAs incorporating a gastric access, permitting a safe anesthesia based on these commented points. We did a literature search to clarify if the use of LMA in preference to intubation provides inadequate ventilation or increase the risk of aspiration in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We found evidence stating that LMA with drain channel achieves adequate ventilation for these procedures. Limited evidence was found to consider these devices completely safe against aspiration. However, we observed that the incidence of regurgitation and aspiration associated with the use of the LMA in laparoscopic surgery is very low.

  4. Thermal decomposition of fullerene nanowhiskers protected by amorphous carbon mask (United States)

    Guo, Hongxuan; Wang, Chengxiang; Miyazawa, Kun’Ichi; Wang, Hongxin; Masuda, Hideki; Fujita, Daisuke


    Fullerene nanostructures are well known for their unique morphology, physical and mechanical properties. The thermal stability of fullerene nanostructures, such as their sublimation at high temperature is also very important for studying their structures and applications. In this work, We observed fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) in situ with scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM) at elevated temperatures. The FNWs exhibited different stabilities with different thermal histories during the observation. The pristine FNWs were decomposed at the temperatures higher than 300 °C in a vacuum environment. Other FNWs were protected from decomposition with an amorphous carbon (aC) film deposited on the surface. Based on high spacial resolution, aC film with periodic structure was deposited by helium ion beam induced deposition (IBID) on the surface of FNWs. Annealed at the high temperature, the fullerene molecules were selectively sublimated from the FNWs. The periodic structure was formed on the surface of FNWs and observed by HIM. Monte Carlo simulation and Raman characterization proved that the morphology of the FNWs was changed by helium IBID at high temperature. This work provides a new method of fabricating artificial structure on the surface of FNWs with periodic aC film as a mask.

  5. Diseases masking and delaying the diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis. (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Kholtobin, Denis


    As urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) has no specific clinical features, it is often overlooked. To identify some of the reasons for misdiagnosing UGTB we performed a systematic review. We searched in Medline/PubMed papers with keywords 'urogenital tuberculosis, rare' and 'urogenital tuberculosis, unusual'. 'Urogenital tuberculosis, rare' presented 230 articles and 'urogenital tuberculosis, unusual' presented 81 articles only, a total of 311 papers. A total of 34 papers were duplicated and so were excluded from the review. In addition, we excluded from the analysis 33 papers on epidemiological studies and literature reviews, papers describing non-TB cases and cases of TB another than urogenital organs (48 articles), cases of congenital TB (three articles), UGTB as a case of concomitant disease (16 articles), and UGTB as a complication of BCG-therapy (eight articles). We also excluded 22 articles dedicated to complications of the therapy, which made a total of 164 articles. Among the remaining 147 articles we selected 43 which described really unusual, difficult to diagnose cases. We also included in our review a WHO report from 2014, and one scientific monograph on TB urology. The most frequent reasons for delayed diagnosis were absence typical clinical features of UGTB, and the tendency of UGTB to hide behind the mask of another disease. We can conclude that actually UGTB is not rare disease, but it is often an overlooked disease. The main reasons for delayed diagnosis are vague, atypical clinical features and a low index of suspicion.

  6. Two cases of apical ballooning syndrome masking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A; Hurst, R Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P


    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  7. The Keck Aperture Masking Experiment: Dust Enshrouded Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Blasius, T D; Tuthill, P G; Danchi, W C; Anderson, M


    While the importance of dusty asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to galactic chemical enrichment is widely recognised, a sophisticated understanding of the dust formation and wind-driving mechanisms has proven elusive due in part to the difficulty in spatially-resolving the dust formation regions themselves. We have observed twenty dust-enshrouded AGB stars as part of the Keck Aperture Masking Experiment, resolving all of them in multiple near-infrared bands between 1.5 microns and 3.1 microns. We find 45% of the targets to show measurable elongations that, when correcting for the greater distances of the targets, would correspond to significantly asymmetric dust shells on par with the well-known cases of IRC+10216 or CIT6. Using radiative transfer models, we find the sublimation temperature of 1130 +- 90 K and 1170 +- 60 K for silicates and amorphous carbon respectively, both somewhat lower than expected from laboratory measurements and vastly below temperatures inferred from the inner edge of YSO disks. Th...

  8. Minienvironment solutions: special concepts for mask-systems (United States)

    Dobler, M.; Rüb, M.; Billen, T.


    Cleanroom technology is a principle pre-condition and the enabling technology for contamination free manufacturing. With the transition from large cleanroom facilities for semiconductor manufacturing to localized encapsulated cleanroom solutions which are called minienvironments the traditional cleanroom technology is extended into a new field of applications. With view to the highest requirements in semiconductor industries and especially in the mask area, extraordinary concepts and solutions has to be developed and applied. In this contribution the fundamental considerations about the different concepts for minienvironments are outlined and reviewed. A set of various parameters involved in a design process for a state of the art minienvironment are given and discussed in detail. The resulting different concepts are presented and the strength of each concept is discussed. The resulting minienvironment solutions are demonstrated on three characteristic examples and options, alternatives and the advantages of the individual concepts are mentioned. Based on the current status of minienvironment technology an out-look is given about future challenges and open questions to be solved.

  9. [Psychopathy: from "The Mask of Sanity" to social neurosciences]. (United States)

    Leistedt, S J-J; Braun, S; Coumans, N; Linkowski, P


    Although psychopathy has traditionally been cited as a disorder of personality, confusion arises as the term is used interchangeably with the terms antisocial personality disorder of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) or dissocial personality disorder, both of which are largely behaviorally based. This paper aims to provide a clinical and scientific overview of the literature on the topic of psychopathy, which examines this conundrum. This article begins with a wee bit of history about Hervey Cleckley's work, The Mask of Sanity, and then presents the definitions and nosography of psychopathy, focusing on the distinction between the antisocial psychopath and the successful psychopath. The discussion will then lead on the epidemiological aspects and diagnosis, especially psychometric and measurement tools used to assess psychopathy in the individual: Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as this is the most frequently used and validated measure of psychopathy. The second section of the article reviews several studies dealing with structural and functional neuroimaging in psychopaths. The final part of this overview considers the treatment and interventions that are available to psychopathic offenders and the implications for future research, especially in terms of prevention. This review demonstrates that studies and further research are still required in psychopathy, particularly using functional neuroimaging techniques, as fMRI and magnetoencephalography, that can describe the functional neuroanatomy of human emotion. Today, cognitive and social neurosciences constitute one of the most promising way to study psychopathy.

  10. STS-103 MS Clervoy tries on oxygen mask (United States)


    In the bunker at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), tries on an oxygen mask during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), plus Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  11. Safety And Efficacy Of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway Versus Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway And Endo Tracheal Tube During Elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Mansour , Wafaa G.Ahmed , Kawthar A. Azzam ,Tarek M. EL said


    Full Text Available The present study was performed to compare safety , efficacy of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA, classic Laryngeal mask airway (LMA and cuffed Endo Tracheal Tube (ETT as a ventilatory device during controlled positive pressure ventilation and airway management , Haemodynamic response to insertion and removal, gastric tube insertion through either device, air leak detection and assessment of position by fiberoptic bronchoscope . Forty five ASA I or II patients aged between 18-55 years old , were divided equally into three groups of fifteen patients each , and airway management either through PLMA(groupI,classic LMA (groupIIand ETT (group III . All patients were premedicated by zantac hydrochloride 150 mg orally at mid night and two hours before the operation ­ Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 ug/kg and propofol 2.5 mg /kg and maintenance was with a mixture of 50% N2O , 50% O2 and isoflurane 1 - 1.5 % and rocuronium 0.5 mg /kg followed by continous infusion of rocuronium 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/hr A proper size PLMA , classic LMA or ETT was selected oxygenation and ventilation were optimal in 100% in group I and III while in group II 80% optimal and suboptimal in 13.3% and failed in 6.7 % . Haemodynamic parameters showed that significantly increase in HR and MAP in the three studied groups especially at insertion and removal of the airway device with statisticaly significant difference between group I,II in comparison to group III, comparison of gastric tube insertion showed that positive insertion was 86.7% in group I and in 46.7% in group II, while in group III positive insertion was 100% air leak was detected by epigastric auscultation which signified lower leakage in PLMA group than LMA group . Position assessment by fiberoptic bronchoscope in PLMA group was grade 4 in 5 patients , grade 3 in 5 patients , grade2 in 4 patients and grade 1 in 1 patient while in LMA group it was grade 4 in 7 patients , grade 3 in 6 patients , grade 2 in 2

  12. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. (United States)

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Haruta, Hiroki; Eninger, Robert M; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy T; Lee, Shu-An


    The protection level offered by filtering facepiece particulate respirators and face masks is defined by the percentage of ambient particles penetrating inside the protection device. There are two penetration pathways: (1) through the faceseal leakage, and the (2) filter medium. This study aimed at differentiating the contributions of these two pathways for particles in the size range of 0.03-1 microm under actual breathing conditions. One N95 filtering facepiece respirator and one surgical mask commonly used in health care environments were tested on 25 subjects (matching the latest National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health fit testing panel) as the subjects performed conventional fit test exercises. The respirator and the mask were also tested with breathing manikins that precisely mimicked the prerecorded breathing patterns of the tested subjects. The penetration data obtained in the human subject- and manikin-based tests were compared for different particle sizes and breathing patterns. Overall, 5250 particle size- and exercise-specific penetration values were determined. For each value, the faceseal leakage-to-filter ratio was calculated to quantify the relative contributions of the two penetration pathways. The number of particles penetrating through the faceseal leakage of the tested respirator/mask far exceeded the number of those penetrating through the filter medium. For the N95 respirator, the excess was (on average) by an order of magnitude and significantly increased with an increase in particle size (p < 0.001): approximately 7-fold greater for 0.04 microm, approximately 10-fold for 0.1 microm, and approximately 20-fold for 1 microm. For the surgical mask, the faceseal leakage-to-filter ratio ranged from 4.8 to 5.8 and was not significantly affected by the particle size for the tested submicrometer fraction. Facial/body movement had a pronounced effect on the relative contribution of the two penetration pathways. Breathing intensity and

  13. A parallel multibeam mask writing method and its impact on data volumes (United States)

    Chaudhary, N.; Luo, Y.; Savari, S. A.


    The pattern requirements for mask writers have steadily been growing, and there is considerable interest in multibeam mask writers to handle the throughput and resolution challenges associated with the needs of sub- 10nm technology nodes. The mask writer of the future will process terabits of information per second and deal with petabytes of data. In this paper, we investigate lossless data compression and system parallelism together to address part of the data transfer problem. We explore simple compression algorithms and the effect of parallelism on the total compressed data in a multibeam system architecture motivated by the IMS Nanofabrication multibeam mask writer series eMET. We model the shot assignment problem and beam shot overlap by means of two-dimensional linear spatial filtering on an image. We describe a fast scanning strategy and investigate data volumes for a family of beam arrays with 2N ×(2N -1) beams, where N is an odd integer.

  14. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation. (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis


    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  15. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser.......In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review...

  16. Bio-mimic design of PM2.5 anti-smog masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing


    Full Text Available The basic property of anti-smog masks is to block PM2.5 with excellent air permeability. A multi-layer nanofiber woven fabric with hierarchical structure is the best candidate for this purpose.

  17. Simple Strehl ratio based method for pupil phase mask's optimization in wavefront coding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzi Zhang; Yanping Chen; Tingyu Zhao; Zi Ye; Feihong Yu


    @@ By applying the wavefront coding technique to an optical system,the depth of focus can be greatly increased.Several complicated methods have already been taken to optimize for the best pupil phase mask in ideal condition.Here a simple Strehl ratio based method with only the standard deviation method used to evaluate the Strehl ratio stability over the depth of focus is applied to optimize for the best coefficients of pupil phase mask in practical optical systems.Results of imaging simulations for optical systems with and without pupil phase mask are presented,and the sharpness of image is calculated for comparison.The optimized pupil phase mask shows good results in extending the depth of focus.

  18. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A


    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  19. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise. (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R


    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase.

  20. Evaluation of the Bitterness-Masking Effect of Powdered Roasted Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Makita


    Full Text Available The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size. Analysis of the PRS extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that denatonium benzoate was entrapped in the PRS extracts. Thus, PRS may be useful as a bitterness-masking agent in orally administered pharmaceuticals.

  1. Fabrication of nanopore and nanoparticle arrays with high aspect ratio AAO masks (United States)

    Li, Z. P.; Xu, Z. M.; Qu, X. P.; Wang, S. B.; Peng, J.; Mei, L. H.


    How to use high aspect ratio anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as an etching and evaporation mask is one of the unsolved problems in the application of nanostructured arrays. Here we describe the versatile utilizations of the highly ordered AAO membranes with a high aspect ratio of more than 20 used as universal masks for the formation of various nanostructure arrays on various substrates. The result shows that the fabricated nanopore and nanoparticle arrays of substrates inherit the regularity of the AAO membranes completely. The flat AAO substrates and uneven AAO frontages were attached to the Si substrates respectively as an etching mask, which demonstrates that the two kinds of replication, positive and negative, represent the replication of the mirroring of Si substrates relative to the flat AAO substrates and uneven AAO frontages. Our work is a breakthrough for the broad research field of surface nano-masking.

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of Alaska, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States, Canada, and Russia.

  3. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  4. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  6. Stimulus detection after interruption of the feedforward response in a backward masking paradigm. (United States)

    Romeo, August; Puig, Maria Sole; Zapata, Laura Pérez; Lopez-Moliner, Joan; Supèr, Hans


    In backward masking, a target stimulus is rendered invisible by the presentation of a second stimulus, the mask. When the mask is effective, neural responses to the target are suppressed. Nevertheless, weak target responses sometimes may produce a behavioural response. It remains unclear whether the reduced target response is a purely feedforward response or that it includes recurrent activity. Using a feedforward neural network of biological plausible spiking neurons, we tested whether a transient spike burst is sufficient for face categorization. After training the network, the system achieved face/non-face categorization for sets of grayscale images. In a backward masking paradigm, the transient burst response was cut off thereby reducing the feedforward target response. Despite the suppressed feedforward responses stimulus classification remained robust. Thus according to our model data stimulus detection is possible with purely, suppressed feedforward responses.

  7. Uniformity Masks Design Method Based on the Shadow Matrix for Coating Materials with Different Condensation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichao Zhang


    Full Text Available An intuitionistic method is proposed to design shadow masks to achieve thickness profile control for evaporation coating processes. The proposed method is based on the concept of the shadow matrix, which is a matrix that contains coefficients that build quantitive relations between shape parameters of masks and shadow quantities of substrate directly. By using the shadow matrix, shape parameters of shadow masks could be derived simply by solving a matrix equation. Verification experiments were performed on a special case where coating materials have different condensation characteristics. By using the designed mask pair with complementary shapes, thickness uniformities of better than 98% are demonstrated for MgF2 ( and LaF3 ( simultaneously on a 280 mm diameter spherical substrate with the radius curvature of 200 mm.

  8. MISR FIRSTLOOK radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the FIRSTLOOK Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask (RCCM) dataset produced using ancillary inputs (RCCT) from the previous time period. It is...

  9. Silicon dioxide mask by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in focused ion beam lithography (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Shah, Ali; Alasaarela, Tapani; Chekurov, Nikolai; Savin, Hele; Tittonen, Ilkka


    In this work, focused ion beam (FIB) lithography was developed for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) silicon dioxide SiO2 hard mask. The PEALD process greatly decreases the deposition temperature of the SiO2 hard mask. FIB Ga+ ion implantation on the deposited SiO2 layer increases the wet etch resistivity of the irradiated region. A programmed exposure in FIB followed by development in a wet etchant enables the precisely defined nanoscale patterning. The combination of FIB exposure parameters and the development time provides greater freedom for optimization. The developed process provides high pattern dimension accuracy over the tested range of 90–210 nm. Utilizing the SiO2 mask developed in this work, silicon nanopillars with 40 nm diameter were successfully fabricated with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching and the aspect ratio reached 16:1. The fabricated mask is suitable for sub-100 nm high aspect ratio silicon structure fabrication.

  10. Visual masking with frontally applied pre-stimulus TMS and its subject-specific neural correlates. (United States)

    Rutiku, Renate; Tulver, Kadi; Aru, Jaan; Bachmann, Talis


    The visibility of a visual target stimulus depends on the local state of the early visual cortex shortly before the stimulus itself is presented. This view is supported by the observation that occipitally applied pre-stimulus TMS can disrupt subsequent information processing leading to visual masking effects. According to another line of accumulating evidence, however, global pre-stimulus connectivity patterns could be as crucial as local cortical states. In line with the latter view we show that pre-stimulus masking occurs even if TMS is directed to the frontal cortex. Importantly, the individual extent of this effect is strongly correlated with the subject-specific peak latency of a late positive TMS-evoked potential. Our results thus suggest a third type of masking occurring neither through direct interaction with visual areas nor by a modal visual masking input. Our results also shed light on the inter-individual differences in TMS research in general.

  11. Tunable wavefront coded imaging system based on detachable phase mask: Mathematical analysis, optimization and underlying applications (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Jingxuan


    The key to the concept of tunable wavefront coding lies in detachable phase masks. Ojeda-Castaneda et al. (Progress in Electronics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 5-8, 2010) described a typical design in which two components with cosinusoidal phase variation operate together to make defocus sensitivity tunable. The present study proposes an improved design and makes three contributions: (1) A mathematical derivation based on the stationary phase method explains why the detachable phase mask of Ojeda-Castaneda et al. tunes the defocus sensitivity. (2) The mathematical derivations show that the effective bandwidth wavefront coded imaging system is also tunable by making each component of the detachable phase mask move asymmetrically. An improved Fisher information-based optimization procedure was also designed to ascertain the optimal mask parameters corresponding to specific bandwidth. (3) Possible applications of the tunable bandwidth are demonstrated by simulated imaging.

  12. A high efficiency industrial polysilicon solar cell with a honeycomb-like surface fabricated by wet etching using a photoresist mask (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Ding, Bin; Chen, Tianhang


    In this paper, an effective and low cost method of texturization was introduced into the fabrication process for industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cell production. The purpose of the method was to reduce reflectance by creating a honeycomb-like textured surface using a masked wet etching process. A negative photoresist film was selected as an etching mask. Although large surface roughness of wafer was considered to affect the adhesion and acid resistance of etching mask, a honeycomb-like textured surface with a pitch of 18 μm was fabricated successfully. The etched pits had a nearly smooth spherical segment surface, an average aperture of 15.1 μm, and a depth of 6.5 μm. This regular textured surface had a low light reflectivity of approximately 20.5% and greatly increased the carrier lifetime. Compared with multicrystalline silicon solar cells textured by conventional acid etching, the average short circuit current increased by 2.2% and the average efficiency increased from 17.41% to 17.75%, a net gain of 0.34%. And a high throughput above 2400 pieces per hour was obtained. This texturing technique is expected to promote the application of diamond-wire cut multicrystalline silicon wafers with the low saw-damage in the future.

  13. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi


    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  14. Analytical and experimental demonstration of depth of field extension for incoherent imaging system with a standard sinusoidal phase mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Yingcai Li


    The wavefront coding technique is used to enlarge the depth of field (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems.The key to wavefront coding lies in the design of suitable phase masks. To date,numerous kinds of phase masks are proposed.However,further understanding is needed regarding phase mask with its phase function being in a standard sinusoidal form.Therefore,the characteristics of such a phase mask are studied in this letter.Deriving the defocused optical transfer function (OTF) analytically proves that the standard sinusoidal phase mask is effective in extending the DOF,and actual experiments confirm the numerical results.At the same time,with the Fisher information as a criterion,the standard sinusoidal phase mask shows a higher tolerance to focus errors (especially severe focus errors) than the classical cubic phase mask.%The wavefront coding technique is used to enlarge the depth of field (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems. The key to wavefront coding lies in the design of suitable phase masks. To date, numerous kinds of phase masks are proposed. However, further understanding is needed regarding phase mask with its phase function being in a standard sinusoidal form. Therefore, the characteristics of such a phase mask are studied in this letter. Deriving the defocused optical transfer function (OTF) analytically proves that the standard sinusoidal phase mask is effective in extending the DOF, and actual experiments confirm the numerical results. At the same time, with the Fisher information as a criterion, the standard sinusoidal phase mask shows a higher tolerance to focus errors (especially severe focus errors) than the classical cubic phase mask.

  15. [Affective dependency]. (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M


    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  16. Musicians and non-musicians are equally adept at perceiving masked speech


    Boebinger, Dana; Evans, Samuel; Scott, Sophie K.; Rosen, Stuart; Lima, César F.; Manly, Tom


    There is much interest in the idea that musicians perform better than non-musicians in understanding speech in background noise. Research in this area has often used energetic maskers, which have their effects primarily at the auditory periphery. However, masking interference can also occur at more central auditory levels, known as informational masking. This experiment extends existing research by using multiple maskers that vary in their informational content and similarity to speech, in or...

  17. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel


    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  18. Systematic measurements of the gain and the energy resolution of single and double mask GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S., E-mail: [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Schmidt, D.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Abuhoza, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); King Abdulaziz City forv Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany)


    Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.

  19. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. AIMS: To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. METHOD: Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. RESULTS: The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  20. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.