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Sample records for affects comodulation masking

  1. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe ...

  2. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated with...... the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... of 0.75. A CMR of up to 10 dB was obtained at a distance of 6 Bark above the masker. The amount of CMR was found to depend on the presentation level of the masker; a higher masker level leads to a higher CMR effect. Hence, the risk of CMR affecting the subjective performance of bit-rate reduction...

  3. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    facilitation of detecting a signal in noise is comodulation masking release (CMR). It has been suggested that in (monaural) across-channel processing, like in (binaural) across-ear processing, an equalization-cancellation (EC) based circuit might be an effective strategy of noise reduction. The first part of...... the study investigates the relation between CMR and envelope-based binaural masking level differences (BMLD), using narrowband noise maskers and classical across-channel configurations (like N0Spi, N0Sm). In the second part, a model is presented that explicitly simulates CMR whereby the EC mechanism......Across-filter comparisons of temporal envelopes are a general feature of auditory pattern analysis which plays an important role in extracting signals from noise backgrounds. One example where a comparison of the temporal envelope in different frequency regions can lead to a substantial...

  4. Comparison of intensity discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the envelope and audio-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.; Dau, Torsten

    In the audio-frequency domain, the envelope apparently plays an important role in detection of intensity increments and in comodulation masking release (CMR). The current study addressed the question whether the second-order envelope ("venelope") contributes similarly for comparable experiments i...

  5. Modeling within- and across-channel processes in comodulation masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan D

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of within-channel and across-channel processes to perceptual comodulation masking release (CMR) were investigated in the framework of an auditory processing model. A generalized version of the computational auditory signal processing and perception model [CASP; Jepsen et...... al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 422-438 (2008)] was used and extended by an across-channel modulation processing stage according to Piechowiak et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 2111-2126 (2007)]. Five experimental paradigms were considered: CMR with a broadband noise masker as a function of the masker...... different mechanisms contribute to overall CMR in the considered conditions: (1) a within-channel process based on changes in the envelope characteristic due to the addition of the signal to the masker; (2) a within-channel process based on nonlinear peripheral processing of the OFB's envelope caused...

  6. Can comodulation masking release occur when frequency changes could promote perceptual segregation of the on-frequency and flanking bands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Epp, Bastian; Stasiak, Arkadiusz;

    2013-01-01

    A common characteristic of natural sounds is that the level fluctuations in different frequency regions are coherent. The ability of the auditory system to use this comodulation is shown when a sinusoidal signal is masked by a masker centred at the signal frequency (on-frequency masker, OFM) and...... bands relative to the inhibitory areas (as seen in physiological recordings using stationary flanking bands). Preliminary physiological results in the cochlear nucleus of the Guinea pig show that a correlate of CMR can also be found at this level of the auditory pathway with sweeping flanking bands....

  7. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level ...

  8. Hearing Mechanisms and Noise Metrics Related to Auditory Masking in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bakhtiari, Kimberly L; Trickey, Jennifer S; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans are acoustic specialists that depend on sound to hunt, forage, navigate, detect predators, and communicate. Auditory masking from natural and anthropogenic sound sources may adversely affect these fitness-related capabilities. The ability to detect a tone in a broad range of natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise was tested with bottlenose dolphins using a psychophysical, band-widening procedure. Diverging masking patterns were found for noise bandwidths greater than the width of an auditory filter. Despite different noise types having equal-pressure spectral-density levels (95 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz), masked detection threshold differences were as large as 22 dB. Consecutive experiments indicated that noise types with increased levels of amplitude modulation resulted in comodulation masking release due to within-channel and across-channel auditory mechanisms. The degree to which noise types were comodulated (comodulation index) was assessed by calculating the magnitude-squared coherence between the temporal envelope from an auditory filter centered on the signal and temporal envelopes from flanking filters. Statistical models indicate that masked thresholds in a variety of noise types, at a variety of levels, can be explained with metrics related to the comodulation index in addition to the pressure spectral-density level of noise. This study suggests that predicting auditory masking from ocean noise sources depends on both spectral and temporal properties of the noise. PMID:26610950

  9. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization-cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    to study the transition between conditions dominated by within-channel processing and those dominated by across-channel processing, and (iii) CMR obtained in the "classical" band-widening paradigm in order to study the role of across-channel processing in a condition which always includes within...

  10. A comparison of content-masking procedures for obtaining judgments of discrete affective states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M; Farrar, M J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate observers' use of acoustic cues to arrive at judgments of the speaker's affective state and to address current methodological limitations. Ninety-nine female undergraduates rated the level of excitement, happiness, and anger of speech stimuli under three content-masking procedures: low-pass filtering, random splicing, and reiterant speech. Each procedure preserves some forms of acoustic information while disrupting or degrading others. As predicted, the content-masking procedures generated bias in observers' affective ratings. Results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of the content-masking procedures and implications for the study of acoustic cues to speaker affect. PMID:7962995

  11. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  12. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982

  13. PRIMENESS IN CATEGORY OF MODULES AND CATEGORY OF COMODULES OVER CORINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Emilia Wijayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We recall the notion of prie modules and use the analogue technique to define prime comodules and corings. Moreover, the related properties are of interest. We investigate the relation of primeness of C-comodule M and the dual algebra *C of a coring C, the relation to projectivity of a coring in the associated category, the implication of the primeness to the injective hull and product of prime coalgebras.

  14. π-H-comodule algebra and π-H-comodule subalgebra%π-H-余模代数与π-H-余模子代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士银; 周坚

    2014-01-01

    研究了π-H-余模子代数的相关性质。借助对偶原理证明了M 是π-H-余模代数A的π-H-余模子代数当且仅当M⊥是π-H-模余代数A的π-H-模余理想。%Some properties of π-H-comodule subalgebra are studied. With the help of the dual principle, we prove that M is aπ-H-comodule subalgebra of A if and only if M⊥ is aπ-H-module coideal of A.

  15. Mechanisms of within- and across- channel processing in comodulation masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    patterns of amplitude modulation. Most ecologically relevant sounds, such as speech and animal vocalizations, have coherent amplitude modulation patterns across different frequency regions, suggesting that the detection and recognition advantages conveyed by such coherent modulations may play a fundamental...

  16. A study on the factors that affect the advanced mask defect verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    Defect verification has become significantly difficult to higher technology nodes over the years. Traditional primary method of defect (include repair point) control consists of inspection, AIMS and repair steps. Among them, AIMS process needs various wafer lithography conditions, such as NA, inner/outer sigma, illumination shape and etc. It has a limit to analyze for every layer accurately because AIMS tool uses the physical aperture system. And it requires meticulous management of exposure condition and CD target value which change frequently in advanced mask. We report on the influence of several AIMS parameters on the defect analysis including repair point. Under various illumination conditions with different patterns, it showed the significant correlation in defect analysis results. It is able to analyze defect under certain error budget based on the management specification required for each layer. In addition, it provided us with one of the clues in the analysis of wafer repeating defect. Finally we will present 'optimal specification' for defect management with common AIMS recipe and suggest advanced mask process flow.

  17. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  18. Let's not be indifferent about neutrality: Neutral ratings in the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) mask mixed affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Iris K; Veenstra, Lotte; van Harreveld, Frenk; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a picture set used by researchers to select pictures that have been prerated on valence. Researchers rely on the ratings in the IAPS to accurately reflect the degree to which the pictures elicit affective responses. Here we show that this may not always be a safe assumption. More specifically, the scale used to measure valence in the IAPS ranges from positive to negative, implying that positive and negative feelings are end-points of the same construct. This makes interpretation of midpoint, or neutral ratings, especially problematic because it is impossible to tell whether these ratings are the result of neutral, or of mixed feelings. In other words, neutral ratings may not be as neutral as researchers assume them to be. Investigating this, in this work we show that pictures that seem neutral according to the valence ratings in the IAPS indeed vary in levels of ambivalence they elicit. Furthermore, the experience of ambivalence in response to these pictures is predictive of the arousal that people report feeling when viewing these pictures. These findings are of particular importance because neutrality differs from ambivalence in its specific psychological consequences, and by relying on seemingly neutral valance ratings, researchers may unwillingly introduce these consequences into their research design, undermining their level of experimental control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950363

  19. The relative Picard group of a comodule algebra and Harrison cohomology

    OpenAIRE

    Caenepeel, S.; Guedenon, T.

    2004-01-01

    Let $A$ be a commutative comodule algebra over a commutative bialgebra $H$. The group of invertible relative Hopf modules maps to the Picard group of $A$, and the kernel is described as a quotient group of the group of invertible grouplike elements of the coring $A\\ot H$, or as a Harrison cohomology group. Our methods are based on elementary $K$-theory. The Hilbert 90 Theorem follows as a corollary. The part of the Picard group of the coinvariants that becomes trivial after base extension emb...

  20. Ophthalmological affectation: A way to mask Miastenia Gravis. A case purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor R. Sánchez Dacal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia Gravis MG is an autoimmune and chronic neuromuscular disease characterized by variable of weakness in the skeletal muscles that control the eye movements and it is confused with an ophthalmological disorder. With this presentation we pretend to systematize the Theoretical references about MG which allow making a correct diagnosis of the disease from the experience of a clinical case. The theory about MG regarding the presentation of the disease is discussed, emphasising on the significance of its differential diagnosis with an ophthalmopathy, which will contribute to apply a proper treatment and a satisfactory evolution of the patient, arriving to the conclusion that affectation of the III cranial pair is a way of frequent presentation of MG, being valuable the differential diagnosis of the ophthalmopaties in these entities.

  1. Optical inspection of NGL masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, Donald W.; Stokowski, Stanley E.

    2004-12-01

    For the last five years KLA-Tencor and our joint venture partners have pursued a research program studying the ability of optical inspection tools to meet the inspection needs of possible NGL lithographies. The NGL technologies that we have studied include SCALPEL, PREVAIL, EUV lithography, and Step and Flash Imprint Lithography. We will discuss the sensitivity of the inspection tools and mask design factors that affect tool sensitivity. Most of the work has been directed towards EUV mask inspection and how to optimize the mask to facilitate inspection. Our partners have succeeded in making high contrast EUV masks ranging in contrast from 70% to 98%. Die to die and die to database inspection of EUV masks have been achieved with a sensitivity that is comparable to what can be achieved with conventional photomasks, approximately 80nm defect sensitivity. We have inspected SCALPEL masks successfully. We have found a limitation of optical inspection when applied to PREVAIL stencil masks. We have run inspections on SFIL masks in die to die, reflected light, in an effort to provide feedback to improve the masks. We have used a UV inspection system to inspect both unpatterned EUV substrates (no coatings) and blanks (with EUV multilayer coatings). These inspection results have proven useful in driving down the substrate and blank defect levels.

  2. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  3. Electrostatic mask protection for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, R.; Heerens, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic protection of mask for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) was discussed. Both charged and neutral particles could be prevented from moving towards the mask by choosing a nonuniform electrical field. Benefits of electrostatic protection are that it does not affect the EUV beam and w

  4. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2014-01-01

    for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.......6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0...

  5. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  6. Primary sensory and motor cortex excitability are co-modulated in response to peripheral electrical nerve stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Schabrun

    Full Text Available Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES is a common clinical technique known to induce changes in corticomotor excitability; PES applied to induce a tetanic motor contraction increases, and PES at sub-motor threshold (sensory intensities decreases, corticomotor excitability. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying these opposite changes in corticomotor excitability remains elusive. Modulation of primary sensory cortex (S1 excitability could underlie altered corticomotor excitability with PES. Here we examined whether changes in primary sensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortex excitability follow the same time-course when PES is applied using identical stimulus parameters. Corticomotor excitability was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and sensory cortex excitability using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs before and after 30 min of PES to right abductor pollicis brevis (APB. Two PES paradigms were tested in separate sessions; PES sufficient to induce a tetanic motor contraction (30-50 Hz; strong motor intensity and PES at sub motor-threshold intensity (100 Hz. PES applied to induce strong activation of APB increased the size of the N(20-P(25 component, thought to reflect sensory processing at cortical level, and increased corticomotor excitability. PES at sensory intensity decreased the size of the P25-N33 component and reduced corticomotor excitability. A positive correlation was observed between the changes in amplitude of the cortical SEP components and corticomotor excitability following sensory and motor PES. Sensory PES also increased the sub-cortical P(14-N(20 SEP component. These findings provide evidence that PES results in co-modulation of S1 and M1 excitability, possibly due to cortico-cortical projections between S1 and M1. This mechanism may underpin changes in corticomotor excitability in response to afferent input generated by PES.

  7. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  8. Lightweight Face Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  9. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  10. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  11. Interaural level differences do not suffice for restoring spatial release from masking in simulated cochlear implant listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Ihlefeld

    Full Text Available Spatial release from masking refers to a benefit for speech understanding. It occurs when a target talker and a masker talker are spatially separated. In those cases, speech intelligibility for target speech is typically higher than when both talkers are at the same location. In cochlear implant listeners, spatial release from masking is much reduced or absent compared with normal hearing listeners. Perhaps this reduced spatial release occurs because cochlear implant listeners cannot effectively attend to spatial cues. Three experiments examined factors that may interfere with deploying spatial attention to a target talker masked by another talker. To simulate cochlear implant listening, stimuli were vocoded with two unique features. First, we used 50-Hz low-pass filtered speech envelopes and noise carriers, strongly reducing the possibility of temporal pitch cues; second, co-modulation was imposed on target and masker utterances to enhance perceptual fusion between the two sources. Stimuli were presented over headphones. Experiments 1 and 2 presented high-fidelity spatial cues with unprocessed and vocoded speech. Experiment 3 maintained faithful long-term average interaural level differences but presented scrambled interaural time differences with vocoded speech. Results show a robust spatial release from masking in Experiments 1 and 2, and a greatly reduced spatial release in Experiment 3. Faithful long-term average interaural level differences were insufficient for producing spatial release from masking. This suggests that appropriate interaural time differences are necessary for restoring spatial release from masking, at least for a situation where there are few viable alternative segregation cues.

  12. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-21

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  13. Protective Face Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  14. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  15. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  16. Effect of firefighter masks on monocular and binocular peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Daniel G; Bahk, Jane K; Gerkin, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral vision can impact essential job functions of firefighters and other workers who use Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and other full face masks. It is important for physicians to know how these masks alter peripheral vision. Also, one must understand the effect of monocular vision on peripheral vision. Using the Goldman Perimeter Machine we measured peripheral vision in the monocular and binocular state, with and without two different types of masks. The results show that monocularity causes an average loss of 23 degrees in the nasal meridian. The use of the masks did not affect this difference. Also, the masks caused an average loss of 28 degrees of peripheral vision in the inferior meridian. How these losses affect the ability of the users of the masks to perform their essential job functions still needs to be researched. PMID:12708146

  17. Overview of Mask Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Bryan J.; Jindal, Vibhu; Lin, C. C.; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Kwon, Hyuk Joo; Ma, Hsing-Chien; Goldstein, Michael; Chan, Yau-Wai; Goodwin, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the successor to optical lithography and will enable advanced patterning in semiconductor manufacturing processes down to the 8 nm half pitch technology node and beyond. However, before EUV can successfully be inserted into high volume manufacturing a few challenges must be overcome. Central among these remaining challenges is the requirement to produce "defect free" EUV masks. Mask blank defects have been one of the top challenges in the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. To determine defect sources and devise mitigation solutions, detailed characterization of defects is critical. However, small defects pose challenges in metrology scale-up. SEMATECH has a comprehensive metrology strategy to address any defect larger than a 20 nm core size to obtain solutions for defect-free EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center has been working since 2003 to develop the technology to support defect free EUV mask blanks. Since 2003, EUV mask blank defects have been reduced from 10000 of size greater than 100 nm to about a few tens at size 70 nm. Unfortunately, today's state of the art defect levels are still about 10 to 100 times higher than needed. Closing this gap requires progress in the various processes associated with glass substrate creation and multilayer deposition. That process development improvement in turn relies upon the availability of metrology equipment that can resolve and chemically characterize defects as small as 30 nm. The current defect reduction efforts at SEMATECH have intensively included a focus on inspection and characterization. The facility boasts nearly 100M of metrology hardware, including an FEI Titan TEM, Lasertec M1350 and M7360 tools, an actinic inspection tool, AFM, SPM, and scanning auger capabilities. The newly established Auger tool at SEMATECH can run a standard 6-inch mask blank and is already providing important information on sub-100 nm defects on EUV

  18. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  19. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    Moody Mask model was not signicantly improved by adding interactivity, except in a few logical areas. It also performed worse than other IDS applications in all areas. The participants reported issues with the lack of feedback from direct actions, repetitive actions, and problems with the story scenario...

  20. EFFECT OF MASKED REGIONS ON WEAK-LENSING STATISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hamana, Takashi, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple {chi}{sup 2} analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg{sup 2} survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting {chi}{sup 2}/n{sub dof} = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard {Lambda}CDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.

  1. Effect of Masked Regions on Weak-lensing Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki; Hamana, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple χ2 analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg2 survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting χ2/n dof = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard ΛCDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.

  2. EFFECT OF MASKED REGIONS ON WEAK-LENSING STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple χ2 analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg2 survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting χ2/ndof = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard ΛCDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account

  3. Masked mycotoxins: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed re...

  4. Masked mycotoxins: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed re...

  5. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  6. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  7. A frequency and pulse-width co-modulation strategy for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation based on sEMG time-domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Hai-Peng; Bao, Xue-Liang; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is often used as a control signal in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) systems to enhance the voluntary control and proprioceptive sensory feedback of paralyzed patients. Most sEMG-controlled NMES systems use the envelope of the sEMG signal to modulate the stimulation intensity (current amplitude or pulse width) with a constant frequency. The aims of this study were to develop a strategy that co-modulates frequency and pulse width based on features of the sEMG signal and to investigate the torque-reproduction performance and the level of fatigue resistance achieved with our strategy. Approach. We examined the relationships between wrist torque and two stimulation parameters (frequency and pulse width) and between wrist torque and two sEMG time-domain features (mean absolute value (MAV) and number of slope sign changes (NSS)) in eight healthy volunteers. By using wrist torque as an intermediate variable, customized and generalized transfer functions were constructed to convert the two features of the sEMG signal into the two stimulation parameters, thereby establishing a MAV/NSS dual-coding (MNDC) algorithm. Wrist torque reproduction performance was assessed by comparing the torque generated by the algorithms with that originally recorded during voluntary contractions. Muscle fatigue was assessed by measuring the decline percentage of the peak torque and by comparing the torque time integral of the response to test stimulation trains before and after fatigue sessions. Main Results. The MNDC approach could produce a wrist torque that closely matched the voluntary wrist torque. In addition, a smaller decay in the wrist torque was observed after the MNDC-coded fatigue stimulation was applied than after stimulation using pulse-width modulation alone. Significance. Compared with pulse-width modulation stimulation strategies that are based on sEMG detection, the MNDC strategy is more effective for both voluntary muscle

  8. TASTE MASKING IN PHARMACEUTICAL: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  9. A Masked Photocathode in Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-12-14

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside the photoinjector for generating high brightness election beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode material. The masked photocathode also provides transverse cut-off to a Gaussian laser beam that reduces electron beam emittance growth from nonlinear space-charge effects.

  10. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  11. Algebraic masks for color halftoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Vladimir; Anderson, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    Linear Pixel Shuffling (LPS) dithering produces blue-noise-like patterns, but the placement of thresholds in a dither matrix is a result of an exact algebra, rather than iterative procedure -- as is usually the case. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of LPS for construction of color (CMYK) dithering masks. In case of LPS dithering, the addition of the same value to each mask threshold, using modular arithmetic, is equivalent to the spatial mask shift. We propose a set of three shifted color masks for C, M, and Y that we construct from the original LPS mask using modular arithmetic. The main advantage of this approach is its simplicity. These shifts can be "tailored" to the statistical properties of the image and the set of new screens can be calculated on the fly. The proposed method enables creation of screens of arbitrary size, since the dithering masks are tiled automatically (actually, the masks are of unlimited size). The number of gray levels in each screen is limited by the choice of a modulus number used for mask thresholds calculation. This enables us to use a virtually unlimited number of thresholds that are not necessarily linearly related to the LPS calculated matrix values. Thus, it is relatively easy to construct a non-linear dither screen that will compensate for any printer non-linearity.

  12. Combining Simultaneous with Temporal Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H.; Francis, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous and temporal masking are two frequently used techniques in psychology and vision science. Although there are many studies and theories related to each masking technique, there are no systematic investigations of their mutual relationship, even though both techniques are often applied together. Here, the authors show that temporal…

  13. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  14. Mask technology for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, M.; Burkhart, Scott C.; Cerjan, Charles J.; Kearney, Patrick A.; Moore, Craig E.; Prisbrey, Shon T.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Tong, William M.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Walton, Christopher C.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Weber, Frank J.; Wedowski, Marco; Wilhelmsen, Karl C.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Jeong, Sungho; Cardinale, Gregory F.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Stivers, Alan R.; Tejnil, Edita; Yan, Pei-yang; Hector, Scott D.; Nguyen, Khanh B.

    1999-04-01

    Extreme UV Lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading candidates for the next generation lithography, which will decrease critical feature size to below 100 nm within 5 years. EUVL uses 10-14 nm light as envisioned by the EUV Limited Liability Company, a consortium formed by Intel and supported by Motorola and AMD to perform R and D work at three national laboratories. Much work has already taken place, with the first prototypical cameras operational at 13.4 nm using low energy laser plasma EUV light sources to investigate issues including the source, camera, electro- mechanical and system issues, photoresists, and of course the masks. EUV lithograph masks are fundamentally different than conventional photolithographic masks as they are reflective instead of transmissive. EUV light at 13.4 nm is rapidly absorbed by most materials, thus all light transmission within the EUVL system from source to silicon wafer, including EUV reflected from the mask, is performed by multilayer mirrors in vacuum.

  15. Lithographic analysis of distributed photomask defects: II. Random mask CD errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karklin, Linard

    2002-07-01

    With constant push for smaller and faster devices photo mask technology has become the most critical part of the entire integrated circuit (IC) production flow. Mask inspection and mask defect repair are increasingly important components of advanced photo mask technology. The low cost of mask manufacturing and the necessity of delivering photo masks to production floor in the shortest possible time require new photo mask specs and acceptance criteria. It is no longer economically viable to reject a photo mask because some mask anomalies were found, or repair all the defects detected by state of the art inspection tool. One should use a smart approach to separate tolerable mask anomalies from real mask defects that might negatively affect device yield. However, this is not a trivial task. With rising mask complexity (e.g., binary masks with aggressive optical proximity correction or phase-shifting masks (PSM)-attenuated and alternating) and inspection and metrology tools running out of steam, new technologies such as the AIMSTMand Virtual Stepper® system must be used to sort nuisance mask defects from real ones. This will help to reduce the number of required defect repairs and shorten mask manufacturing cycle time. However, it is very difficult to utilize AIMS in the production environment because of its low operational speed; the Virtual Stepper software, in its turn, relies on mask data captured by inspection/metrology hardware. In the case of phase masks, such as Attenuated PSM (especially high transmission EAPSM) and Alternating PSM, inspection tools are not able to accurately retrieve optical properties of mask materials; as a result defect analysis is becoming very difficult and unreliable task. Very common types of PSM defects that occur during mask manufacturing and repair processes are the so-called distributed defects, such as gallium stains, riverbeds, pinhole clusters, and large chrome residuals (on EAPSM). It is very difficult to get accurate

  16. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Reflection masking refers to the specific masking condition where a test reflection is masked by the direct sound. Employing reflection masking techniques, Buchholz [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 2484 (2005)] provided evidence that the binaural system suppresses the test reflection for very short refl...

  17. Fabless company mask technology approach: fabless but not fab-careless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamura, Toshiyuki; Wu, Xin

    2009-10-01

    There are two different foundry-fabless working models in the aspect of mask. Some foundries have in-house mask facility while others contract with merchant mask vendors. Significant progress has been made in both kinds of situations. Xilinx as one of the pioneers of fabless semiconductor companies has been continually working very closely with both merchant mask vendors and mask facilities of foundries in past many years, contributed well in both technology development and benefited from corporations. Our involvement in manufacturing is driven by the following three elements: The first element is to understand the new fabrication and mask technologies and then find a suitable design / layout style to better utilize these new technologies and avoid potential risks. Because Xilinx has always been involved in early stage of advanced technology nodes, this early understanding and adoption is especially important. The second element is time to market. Reduction in mask and wafer manufacturing cycle-time can ensure faster time to market. The third element is quality. Commitment to quality is our highest priority for our customers. We have enough visibility on any manufacturing issues affecting the device functionality. Good correlation has consistently been observed between FPGA speed uniformity and the poly mask Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity performance. To achieve FPGA speed uniformity requirement, the manufacturing process as well as the mask and wafer CD uniformity has to be monitored. Xilinx works closely with the wafer foundries and mask suppliers to improve productivity and the yield from initial development stage of mask making operations. As an example, defect density reduction is one of the biggest challenges for mask supplier in development stage to meet the yield target satisfying the mask cost and mask turn-around-time (TAT) requirement. Historically, masks were considered to be defect free but at these advanced process nodes, that assumption no longer

  18. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  19. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  20. Informational masking and musical training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Fligor, Brian J.; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between musical training and informational masking was studied for 24 young adult listeners with normal hearing. The listeners were divided into two groups based on musical training. In one group, the listeners had little or no musical training; the other group was comprised of highly trained, currently active musicians. The hypothesis was that musicians may be less susceptible to informational masking, which is thought to reflect central, rather than peripheral, limitations on the processing of sound. Masked thresholds were measured in two conditions, similar to those used by Kidd et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3475-3480 (1994)]. In both conditions the signal was comprised of a series of repeated tone bursts at 1 kHz. The masker was comprised of a series of multitone bursts, gated with the signal. In one condition the frequencies of the masker were selected randomly for each burst; in the other condition the masker frequencies were selected randomly for the first burst of each interval and then remained constant throughout the interval. The difference in thresholds between the two conditions was taken as a measure of informational masking. Frequency selectivity, using the notched-noise method, was also estimated in the two groups. The results showed no difference in frequency selectivity between the two groups, but showed a large and significant difference in the amount of informational masking between musically trained and untrained listeners. This informational masking task, which requires no knowledge specific to musical training (such as note or interval names) and is generally not susceptible to systematic short- or medium-term training effects, may provide a basis for further studies of analytic listening abilities in different populations.

  1. Periodontal Side Effect During Orthopedic Face Mask Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti-Parenti, Serena; Checchi, Vittorio; Molinari, Camilla; Alessandri-Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old patient exhibited gingival recession of tooth #41 and severe plaque accumulation after 3 months of face mask therapy. The recession improved only slightly after appropriate oral hygiene instructions and motivation. Decisive improvement began when the vertical chin pad extension was reduced to avoid pressure on the affected area. PMID:27029093

  2. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  3. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma camera is described with a plurality of photodetectors arranged for locating flashes of light produced by a scintillator in response to incident radiation. Masking material is arranged in a radially symmetric pattern on the front face of the scintillator about the axis of each photodetector to reduce the amount of internal reflection of optical photons induced by gamma ray photons

  4. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  5. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  6. Investigation of Anode Striation in 34VGA Shadow Mask PDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Yan; JIANG Youyan; YANG Lanlan; ZHANG Xiong; WANG Baoping

    2007-01-01

    A macro-cell was used to study the phenomenon of anode striation on a 34 VGA Shadow Mask Plasma Display Panel(SMPDP).The breakdown process in the sustaining period of the macro-cell was taken by an Intensified Charge Coupled Device(ICCD)with narrow band filters.The mechanism of formation and evolution of the anode striation on SMPDP were investigated.The influence of the width of the electrode,the sustaining voltage,sustaining frequency and the voltage of the shadow mask on the anode striation was also studied.The results showed that the width of the electrodes,the sustaining voltage and frequency had a strong influence on the anode striation.The voltage of the shadow mask,however,hardly affected the anode striation,the firing voltage or the sustaining voltage.

  7. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. PMID:26409781

  8. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device placed over a patient's nose, mouth, or tracheostomy to administer oxygen or aerosols. (b)...

  9. Mask qualification strategies in a wafer fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehnert, Carmen; Kunowski, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Having consistent high quality photo masks is one of the key factors in lithography in the wafer fab. Combined with stable exposure- and resist processes, it ensures yield increases in production and fast learning cycles for technology development and design evaluation. Preventive controlling of incoming masks and quality monitoring while using the mask in production is essential for the fab to avoid yield loss or technical problems caused by mask issues, which eventually result in delivery problems to the customer. In this paper an overview of the procedures used for mask qualification and production release, for both logic and DRAM, at Infineon Dresden is presented. Incoming qualification procedures, such as specification checks, incoming inspection, and inline litho process window evaluation, are described here. Pinching and electrical tests, including compatibility tests for mask copies for high volume products on optimized litho processes, are also explained. To avoid mask degradation over lifetime, re-inspection checks are done for re-qualification while using the mask in production. The necessity of mask incoming inspection and re-qualification, due to the repeater printing from either the processing defects of the original mask or degrading defects of being used in the fab (i.e. haze, ESD, and moving particles, etc.), is demonstrated. The need and impact of tight mask specifications, such as CD uniformity signatures and corresponding electrical results, are shown with examples of mask-wafer CD correlation.

  10. 47 CFR 90.210 - Emission masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission masks. 90.210 Section 90.210... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.210 Emission masks. Except as indicated elsewhere... emission masks outlined in this section. Unless otherwise stated, per paragraphs (d)(4), (e)(4), and (m)...

  11. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show that the...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section...

  13. Performance of GFIS mask repair system for various mask materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Fumio; Kozakai, Tomokazu; Matsuda, Osamu; Yasaka, Anto; Yoshikawa, Shingo; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoya

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a new focused ion beam (FIB) technology using a gas field ion source (GFIS) for mask repair. Meanwhile, since current high-end photomasks do not have high durability in exposure nor cleaning, some new photomask materials are proposed. In 2012, we reported that our GFIS system had repaired a representative new material "A6L2". It is currently expected to extend the application range of GFIS technology for various new materials and various defect shapes. In this study, we repaired a single bridge, a triple bridge and a missing hole on a phase shift mask (PSM) of "A6L2", and also repaired single bridges on a binary mask of molybdenum silicide (MoSi) material "W4G" and a PSM of high transmittance material "SDC1". The etching selectivity between those new materials and quartz were over 4:1. There were no significant differences of pattern shapes on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images between repair and non-repair regions. All the critical dimensions (CD) at repair regions were less than +/-3% of those at normal ones on an aerial image metrology system (AIMS). Those results demonstrated that GFIS technology is a reliable solution of repairing new material photomasks that are candidates for 1X nm generation.

  14. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  15. Process capability of etched multilayer EUV mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kosuke; Iida nee Sakurai, Noriko; Kamo, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Naoya

    2015-10-01

    With shrinking pattern size at 0.33NA EUV lithography systems, mask 3D effects are expected to become stronger, such as horizontal/vertical shadowing, best focus shifts through pitch and pattern shift through focus. Etched multilayer EUV mask structures have been proposed in order to reduce mask 3D effects. It is estimated that etched multilayer type mask is also effective in reducing mask 3D effects at 0.33NA with lithographic simulation, and it is experimentally demonstrated with NXE3300 EUV Lithography system. We obtained cross-sectional TEM image of etched multilayer EUV mask pattern. It is observed that patterned multilayer width differs from pattern physical width. This means that effective reflecting width of etched multilayer pattern is smaller than pattern width measured by CD-SEM. In this work, we evaluate mask durability against both chemical and physical cleaning process to check the feasibility of etched multilayer EUV mask patterning against mask cleaning for 0.33NA EUV extension. As a result, effective width can be controlled by suitable cleaning chemicals because sidewall film works as a passivation film. And line and space pattern collapse is not detected by DUV mask pattern inspection tool after mask physical cleaning that includes both megasonic and binary spray steps with sufficient particle removal efficiency.

  16. Experiments on the evaluation of protection provided by full-face masks as worn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a dust respirator is affected mostly by the leakage through the interstice between mask and face. Mask man-test using NaCl aerosols has been developed to evaluate protection provided by worn masks. However, there were some problems in application of man-test to field test. The sampling method of the NaCl aerosols inside the mask was discussed. The tool for sampling operated easily was selected, and the best sampling position at the mask was decided. The correction of the measured values was also discussed. Because of NaCl aerosols deposition in the respiratory tract and sampling lines, the leakage might be underestimated. The correction coefficient was experimentally measured and discussed. (author)

  17. Mask CD uniformity improvement by electron scanning exposure based Global Loading Effect Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric; Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Lu, Max

    2015-07-01

    Critical Dimension (CD) Uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC), and towards the advanced technology node 28nm and beyond, corresponding CD Uniformity becomes more and more crucial. It is found that bad mask CD Uniformity is a significant error source at 28nm process. The CD Uniformity on mask, if not controlled well, will badly impact wafer CD performance, and it has been well-studied that CD Uniformity issue from gate line-width in transistors would affect the device performance directly. In this paper we present a novel solution for mask global CD uniformity error correction, which is called as global loading effect correction (GLEC) method and applied nesting in the mask exposure map during the electron beam exposure. There are factors such as global chip layout, writing sequence and chip pattern density distribution (Global Loading), that work on the whole mask CD Uniformity, especially Global Loading is the key factor related to mask global CD error. From our experimental results, different pattern density distribution on mask significantly influenced the final mask CD Uniformity: the mask with undulating pattern density distribution provides much worse CD Uniformity than that with uniform one. Therefore, a GLEC model based on pattern density has been created to compensate the global error during the electron beam exposure, which has been proved to be efficacious to improve mask global CD Uniformity performance. Furthermore, it 's also revealed that pattern type is another important impact factor, and GLEC coefficient need be modified due to the specific pattern type (e.g. dense line-space only, iso-space only or an average of them) to improve the corresponding mask CD uniformity.

  18. LER control and mitigation: mask roughness induced LER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-02-21

    In the push towards commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), meeting the stringent requirements for line-edge roughness (LER) is increasingly challenging. For the 22-nm half-pitch node and below, the ITRS requires under 1.2 nm LER. Much of this LER is thought to arise from three significant contributors: LER on the mask absorber pattern, LER from the resist, and LER from mask roughness induced speckle. The physical mechanism behind the last contributor is becoming clearer, but how it is affected by the presence of aberrations is less well understood. Here, we conduct a full 2D aerial image simulation analysis of aberrations sensitivities of mask roughness induced LER for the first 37 fringe zernikes. These results serve as a guideline for future LER aberrations control. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we next consider an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a 'strip'. While this illumination surprisingly provides merely minimal improvement to the LER as several alternate illumination schemes, overall imaging quality in terms of ILS, NILS, and contrast is improved. While the 22-nm half-pitch node can tolerate significant aberrations from a mask roughness induced LER perspective, total aberration levels for the 16-nm half-pitch node need to be strictly capped at 0.25nm rms to meet the ITRS guidelines. An individual aberrations study for the first 37 fringe zernikes on the 16-nm half-pitch node at the 0.25nm rms level reveals a sensitivity to various forms of spherical aberrations (Z9 & Z25) and quadrafoil (Z28) in particular, under conventional crosspole illumination ({sigma} = 0.10). Compared to conventional dipole or crosspole illuminations, an extended dipole 'strip' illumination scheme offers a way to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, while still maintaining

  19. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0 50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  20. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Kawai; Hiromitsu Miyata; Ritsuko Nishimura; Kazuo Okanoya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressio...

  1. Determination of mask induced polarization effects on AltPSM mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten

    2005-06-01

    In the process of discussion of possible mask-types for the 5x nm node (half-pitch) and below, the alternating phase-shifting mask (AltPSM) is a potential candidate to be screened. The current scenario suggests using 193 nm immersion lithography with NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate need to be taken into account when the optical performance of a mask is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures on a real mask. Measurements of the polarization dependent diffraction efficiencies have been performed on AltPSM masks. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations. A comparison with Binary Masks is made.

  2. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  3. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    Maskless Lithography (ML2) is again being considered for use in mainstream CMOS IC manufacturing. Sessions at technical conferences are being devoted to ML2. A multitude of new companies have been formed in the last several years to apply new concepts to breaking the throughput barrier that has in the past prevented ML2 from achieving the cost and cycle time performance necessary to become economically viable, except in rare cases. Has Maskless Lithography's (we used to call it "Direct Write Lithography") time really come? If so, what is the expected impact on the mask manufacturer and does it matter? The lithography tools used today in mask manufacturing are similar in concept to ML2 except for scale, both in throughput and feature size. These mask tools produce highly accurate lithographic images directly from electronic pattern files, perform multi-layer overlay, and mix-n-match across multiple tools, tool types and sites. Mask manufacturers are already accustomed to the ultimate low volume - one substrate per design layer. In order to achieve the economically required throughput, proposed ML2 systems eliminate or greatly reduce some of the functions that are the source of the mask writer's accuracy. Can these ML2 systems meet the demanding lithographic requirements without these functions? ML2 may eliminate the reticle but many of the processes and procedures performed today by the mask manufacturer are still required. Examples include the increasingly complex mask data preparation step and the verification performed to ensure that the pattern on the reticle is accurately representing the design intent. The error sources that are fixed on a reticle are variable with time on an ML2 system. It has been proposed that if ML2 is successful it will become uneconomical to be in the mask business - that ML2, by taking the high profit masks will take all profitability out of mask manufacturing and thereby endanger the entire semiconductor industry. Others suggest that a

  4. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  5. An interactive tool for gamut masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Lau, Cheryl; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Artists often want to change the colors of an image to achieve a particular aesthetic goal. For example, they might limit colors to a warm or cool color scheme to create an image with a certain mood or feeling. Gamut masking is a technique that artists use to limit the set of colors they can paint with. They draw a mask over a color wheel and only use the hues within the mask. However, creating the color palette from the mask and applying the colors to the image requires skill. We propose an interactive tool for gamut masking that allows amateur artists to create an image with a desired mood or feeling. Our system extracts a 3D color gamut from the 2D user-drawn mask and maps the image to this gamut. The user can draw a different gamut mask or locally refine the image colors. Our voxel grid gamut representation allows us to represent gamuts of any shape, and our cluster-based image representation allows the user to change colors locally.

  6. Actinic review of EUV masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heiko; Ruoff, Johannes; Harnisch, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Winfried

    2010-04-01

    Management of mask defects is a major challenge for the introduction of EUV for HVM production. Once a defect has been detected, its printing impact needs to be predicted. Potentially the defect requires some repair, the success of which needs to be proven. This defect review has to be done with an actinic inspection system that matches the imaging conditions of an EUV scanner. During recent years, several concepts for such an aerial image metrology system (AIMS™) have been proposed. However, until now no commercial solution exists for EUV. Today, advances in EUV optics technology allow envisioning a solution that has been discarded before as unrealistic. We present this concept and its technical cornerstones.While the power requirement for the EUV source is less demanding than for HVM lithography tools, radiance, floor space, and stability are the main criteria for source selection. The requirement to emulate several generations of EUV scanners demands a large flexibility for the ilumination and imaging systems. New critical specifications to the EUV mirrors in the projection microscope can be satisfied using our expertise from lithographic mirrors. In summary, an EUV AIMS™ meeting production requirements seems to be feasible.

  7. Suppression of Mirror Generalization for Reversible Letters: Evidence from Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Panadero, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Readers of the Roman script must "unlearn" some forms of mirror generalization when processing printed stimuli (i.e., herb and herd are different words). Here we examine whether the suppression of mirror generalization is a process that affects all letters or whether it mostly affects reversible letters (i.e., b/d). Three masked priming lexical…

  8. The Effects of Noise Masking and Required Accuracy on Speech Errors, Disfluencies, and Self-Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Albert; Kolk, Herman

    1992-01-01

    This study, involving 32 adult speakers of Dutch, strengthens the covert repair hypothesis of disfluency. It found that emphasis on speech accuracy causes lower speech error rates but does not affect disfluency and self-repair rates, noise masking reduces disfluency and self-repair rates but does not affect speech error numbers, and internal…

  9. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  10. In-flight calibration of the INTEGRAL/IBIS mask

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Gros, A; Belanger, G; Beckmann, V; Caballero, I; Goldwurm, A; Gotz, D; Mattana, F; Heras, J A Zurita; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Since the release of the INTEGRAL Offline Scientific Analysis (OSA) software version 9.0, the ghost busters module has been introduced in the INTEGRAL/IBIS imaging procedure, leading to an improvement of the sensitivity around bright sources up to a factor of 7. This module excludes in the deconvolution process the IBIS/ISGRI detector pixels corresponding to the projection of a bright source through mask elements affected by some defects. These defects are most likely associated with screws and glue fixing the IBIS mask to its support. Following these major improvements introduced in OSA 9, a second order correction is still required to further remove the residual noise, now at a level of 0.2-1% of the brightest source in the field of view. In order to improve our knowledge of the IBIS mask transparency, a calibration campaign has been carried out during 2010-2012. We present here the analysis of these data, together with archival observations of the Crab and Cyg X-1, that allowed us to build a composite imag...

  11. Optimal Masks for Low-Degree Solar Acoustic Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain; Kosovichev

    2000-05-10

    We suggest a solution to an important problem in observational helioseismology of the separation of lines of solar acoustic (p) modes of low angular degree in oscillation power spectra by constructing optimal masks for Doppler images of the Sun. Accurate measurements of oscillation frequencies of low-degree modes are essential for the determination of the structure and rotation of the solar core. However, these measurements for a particular mode are often affected by leakage of other p-modes arising when the Doppler images are projected on to spherical harmonic masks. The leakage results in overlapping peaks corresponding to different oscillation modes in the power spectra. In this Letter, we present a method for calculating optimal masks for a given (target) mode by minimizing the signals of other modes appearing in its vicinity. We apply this method to time series of 2 yr obtained from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory space mission and demonstrate its ability to reduce efficiently the mode leakage. PMID:10813685

  12. Neurofibromatosis: relinquishing the masks; a quest for quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, R; Smith, M N

    1986-07-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) or von Recklinghausen's disease is mankind's most common neurologic genetic disorder, occurring in one of every 3000 live births. While many individuals with NF suffer disfiguring, disabling, or life-threatening complications, NF is extremely variable in its symptoms, intensity, and progression. For many of its victims, NF is a pseudonym for uncertainty and physical and psychosocial havoc. John Merrick, 'The Elephant Man', endured one of the most severe cases of NF ever recorded. Merrick's rejection by post-Dickensian England forced him to become a sideshow circus attraction just to survive. The essence of nursing intervention with NF patients and their families engaged in the quest for quality of life is to restore them to optimal physical and psychosocial functioning, and, ideally, to help them utilize the experience for growth. Many individuals respond to the frustration of NF and society's reactions to the disorder by the wearing of psychological masks. Likewise, nurses may wear emotional masks as a defence against their own discomfort and fears concerning the disorders. Comprehensive nursing management of NF is realized only as nurses and patients relinquish their respective masks. This article examines the nurse's role in genetic disorders with special considerations presented by NF. Adaptation to NF involves coping with NF and its accompanying sequelae and coping with life as it is affected by NF. The concepts of 'chromosomal coping', 'genetophobia', 'genetic guilt, and 'genetic overload syndrome' are presented and analyzed utilizing the theoretical nursing frameworks of Imogene King and Sister Callista Roy. PMID:3091668

  13. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg2, the bias in (Ω m, σ8) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  14. Thorough characterization of a EUV mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, H.; McIntyre, G.; Koay, C.-W.; Burkhardt, M.; He, L.; Hartley, J.; Johnson, C.; Raghunathan, S.; Goldberg, K.; Mochi, I.; La Fontaine, B.; Wood, O.

    2009-06-25

    We reported that we were successful in our 45nm technology node device demonstration in February 2008 and 22nm node technology node device patterning in February 2009 using ASML's Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). In order to insert extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at the 15nm technology node and beyond, we have thoroughly characterized one EUV mask, a so-called NOVACD mask. In this paper, we report on three topics, The first topic is an analysis of line edge roughness (LER) using a mask Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) to compare resist images printed with the ASML ADT. The results of the analysis show a good correlation between the mask AFM and the mask SEM measurements, However, the resist printing results for the isolated space patterns are slightly different. The cause ofthis discrepancy may be resist blur, image log slope and SEM image quality and so on. The second topic is an analysis of mask topography using an AFM and relative reflectivity of mirror and absorber surface using the AIT, The AFM data show 6 and 7 angstrom rms roughness for mirror and absorber, respectively. The reflectivity measurements show that the mirror reflects EUV light about 20 times higher than absorber. The last topic is an analysis of a 32nm technology node SRAM cell which includes a comparison of mask SEM image, AIT image, resist image and simulation results. The ADT images of the SRAM pattern were of high quality even though the mask patters were not corrected for OPC or any EUV-specific effects. Image simulation results were in good agreement with the printing results.

  15. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  16. VSP wave separation by adaptive masking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

    2016-06-01

    In vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data processing, the first step might be to separate the down-going wavefield from the up-going wavefield. When using a masking filter for VSP wave separation, there are difficulties associated with two termination ends of the up-going waves. A critical challenge is how the masking filter can restore the energy tails, the edge effect associated with these terminations uniquely exist in VSP data. An effective strategy is to implement masking filters in both τ-p and f-k domain sequentially. Meanwhile it uses a median filter, producing a clean but smooth version of the down-going wavefield, used as a reference data set for designing the masking filter. The masking filter is implemented adaptively and iteratively, gradually restoring the energy tails cut-out by any surgical mute. While the τ-p and the f-k domain masking filters target different depth ranges of VSP, this combination strategy can accurately perform in wave separation from field VSP data.

  17. Ceramic Masks--A Multi-Cultural Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Elizabeth E.

    1978-01-01

    The creation of ceramic masks in reaction to the film, Roots, focused on the functions of the masks themselves within a particular society, the materials and techniques used to create these masks, and the identification of typical shapes of heads and facial features on the masks in each culture. (Author/RK)

  18. Forward masking in distinguishing inner and outer hair cell damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Mao-li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Forward Masking Temporal audiotory resolution is the ability of the auditory system to resolve auditory signals in the time domain. Forward masking is a means of studying tem-poral resolution where one tone, the probe, is masked by a preceding tone, the masker. Forward masking is believed to relate to the adaptation of the aucliotory system[1-4].

  19. Neonatal resuscitation 3: manometer use in a model of face mask ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, C; Davis, P; Lau, R; Dargaville, P; Doyle, L; Morley, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adequate ventilation is the key to successful neonatal resuscitation. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is initiated with manual ventilation devices via face masks. These devices may be used with a manometer to measure airway pressures delivered. The expiratory tidal volume measured at the mask (VTE(mask)) is a good estimate of the tidal volume delivered during simulated neonatal resuscitation. Aim: To assess the effect of viewing a manometer on the peak inspiratory pressures used, the volume delivered, and leakage from the face mask during PPV with two manual ventilation devices in a model of neonatal resuscitation. Methods: Participants gave PPV to a modified resuscitation mannequin using a Laerdal infant resuscitator and a Neopuff infant resuscitator at specified pressures ensuring adequate chest wall excursion. Each participant gave PPV to the mannequin with each device twice, viewing the manometer on one occasion and unable to see the manometer on the other. Data from participants were averaged for each device used with the manometer and without the manometer separately. Results: A total of 7767 inflations delivered by the 18 participants were recorded and analysed. Peak inspiratory pressures delivered were lower with the Laerdal device. There were no differences in leakage from the face mask or volumes delivered. Whether or not the manometer was visible made no difference to any measured variable. Conclusions: Viewing a manometer during PPV in this model of neonatal resuscitation does not affect the airway pressure or tidal volumes delivered or the degree of leakage from the face mask. PMID:15871988

  20. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  1. Computational Methods for Design-Assisted Mask Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Kagalwalla, Abde Ali Hunaid

    2014-01-01

    The cost per die benefit of semiconductor technology scaling that has driven Moore's law is being threatened by increasing manufacturing cost. Masks, which reproduce circuit patterns on the wafer, are the biggest contributor to this manufacturing cost. The need to print sub-wavelength patterns on the wafer and ensure tight dimension control has significantly increased the cost and complexity of mask manufacturing that consists of three key steps: mask data preparation, mask write and mask ins...

  2. Mask automation: need a revolution in mask makers and equipment industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong-yong; Yu, Sang-yong; Noh, Young-hwa; Son, Ki-jung; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Han-Ku

    2013-09-01

    As improving device integration for the next generation, high performance and cost down are also required accordingly in semiconductor business. Recently, significant efforts have been given on putting EUV technology into fabrication in order to improve device integration. At the same time, 450mm wafer manufacturing environment has been considered seriously in many ways in order to boost up the productivity. Accordingly, 9-inch mask has been discussed in mask fabrication business recently to support 450mm wafer manufacturing environment successfully. Although introducing 9-inch mask can be crucial for mask industry, multi-beam technology is also expected as another influential turning point to overcome currently the most critical issue in mask industry, electron beam writing time. No matter whether 9-inch mask or multi-beam technology will be employed or not, mask quality and productivity will be the key factors to survive from the device competition. In this paper, the level of facility automation in mask industry is diagnosed and analyzed and the automation guideline is suggested for the next generation.

  3. Impact of mask line edge roughness and statistical noise on next generation mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Gook; Choi, Jin; Lee, Sang Hee; Jeon, Chan Uk

    2012-06-01

    As extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) moves toward high volume manufacturing and pushes to increasingly smaller critical dimensions, achieving the stringent requirements for line edge roughness (LER) is increasingly challenging. For the 22 nm half-pitch node and beyond, the International Roadmap for Semiconductors requires less than 1.6 nm of line width roughness (LWR) on the wafer. The major contributor of this tight LWR is wafer resist LER and mask LER. However, in current ITRS, there is no guideline for mask LER. While significant progress has been made to reduce the resist of the LER on the wafer, it is not yet clear how much the mask LER should be improved for a 22 nm half-pitch node application. Additionally, there are various approaches to obtaining a smaller LER on the mask. It could be improved either by reducing well-known statistical noise or manipulating some process condition or material. Both approaches are effective in improving the LER, however, they shows a different result in mask CD uniformity itself. In this paper, in addition to setting the criteria of the mask LER, we will discuss how tight the mask LER is required to be and what kind of approach is desirable with regards to the LER and CD uniformity. Finally, an analysis of the LER and CD variation provides some insights into the impact of the next generation mask infrastructure.

  4. Mask and lithography techniques for FPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, T.; Wahlsten, M.; Sundelin, E.; Hansson, G.; Svensson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Large-field projection lithography for FPDs has developed gradually since the 90s. The LCD screen technology has remained largely unchanged and incremental development has given us better image quality, larger screen sizes, and above all lower cost per area. Recently new types of mobile devices with very high pixel density and/or OLED displays have given rise to dramatically higher requirem ents on photomask technology. Devices with 600 ppi or m ore need lithography with higher optical resolution and better linewidth control. OLED di splays pose new challenges with high sensitivity to transistor parameters and to capacitive cross-talk. New mask requirements leads to new maskwriter requirements and Mycronic has developed a new generation of large -area mask writers with significantly improved properties. This paper discusses and shows data for the improved writers. Mask production to high er quality stan dards also need metrology to verify the quality and Mycronic has introduced a 2D metrology tool with accuracy adequate for current and future masks. New printing or additive methods of producing disp lays on plastic or metal foil will make low-cost disp lays available. This inexpensive type of disp lays will exist side by side with the photographic quality displays of TVs and mobile devices, which will continue to be a challenge in terms of mask and production quality.

  5. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation. PMID:24718110

  6. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  7. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  8. Coherent Diffractive Imaging Using Randomly Coded Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Seaberg, Matthew H; Turner, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides new opportunities for high resolution X-ray imaging with simultaneous amplitude and phase contrast. Extensions to CDI broaden the scope of the technique for use in a wide variety of experimental geometries and physical systems. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a new extension to CDI that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks. The information gained from the few additional diffraction measurements removes the need for typical object-domain constraints; the algorithm uses prior information about the masks instead. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments. Diffraction patterns are collected with up to 15 different masks placed between a CCD detector and a single sample. Phase retrieval is performed using a convex relaxation routine known as "PhaseCut" followed by a variation on Fienup's input-output algorit...

  9. Informational masking release in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joseph W.; Buss, Emily; Grose, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed informational masking and utilization of cues to reduce that masking in children aged 4–9 years and in adults. The signal was a train of eight consecutive tone bursts, each at 1 kHz and 60 ms in duration. Maskers were comprised of a pair of synchronous tone-burst trains, with randomly chosen frequencies spanning 200–5000 Hz, with a protected region 851–1175 Hz. In the reference condition, maskers were eight bursts in duration, with a fixed frequency within intervals. Exper...

  10. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.

    2010-03-12

    The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination topography. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.

  11. OSIRIS Software: The Mask Designer Tool

    CERN Document Server

    González-Serrano, J I; Castaneda, H; Quirk, R; De Miguel, E D; Aguiar, M; Cepa, J

    2006-01-01

    OSIRIS is a Day One instrument that will be available at the 10m GTC telescope which is being built at La Palma observatory in the Canary Islands. This optical instrument is designed to obtain wide-field narrow-band images using tunable filters and to do low-resolution spectroscopy in both long-slit and multislit modes. For the multislit spectroscopy mode, we have developed a software to assist the observers to design focal plane masks. In this paper we describe the characteristics of this Mask Designer tool. We discuss the main design concepts, the functionality and particular features of the software.

  12. Masked fake face detection using radiance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin; Na, Jaekeun; Yoon, Seongbeak; Yi, Juneho

    2009-04-01

    This research presents a novel 2D feature space where real faces and masked fake faces can be effectively discriminated. We exploit the reflectance disparity based on albedo between real faces and fake materials. The feature vector used consists of radiance measurements of the forehead region under 850 and 685 nm illuminations. Facial skin and mask material show linearly separable distributions in the feature space proposed. By simply applying Fisher's linear discriminant, we have achieved 97.78% accuracy in fake face detection. Our method can be easily implemented in commercial face verification systems. PMID:19340250

  13. Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

  14. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  15. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%. Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%, followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  16. A new approach for defect inspection on large area masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Gerd; Döbereiner, Stefan; Hillmann, Frank; Falk, Günther; Brück, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-02-01

    Besides the mask market for IC manufacturing, which mainly uses 6 inch sized masks, the market for the so called large area masks is growing very rapidly. Typical applications of these masks are mainly wafer bumping for current packaging processes, color filters on TFTs, and Flip Chip manufacturing. To expose e.g. bumps and similar features on 200 mm wafers under proximity exposure conditions 9 inch masks are used, while in 300 mm wafer bumping processes (Fig. 1) 14 inch masks are handled. Flip Chip manufacturing needs masks up to 28 by 32 inch. This current maximum mask dimension is expected to hold for the next 5 years in industrial production. On the other hand shrinking feature sizes, just as in case of the IC masks, demand enhanced sensitivity of the inspection tools. A defect inspection tool for those masks is valuable for both the mask maker, who has to deliver a defect free mask to his customer, and for the mask user to supervise the mask behavior conditions during its lifetime. This is necessary because large area masks are mainly used for proximity exposures. During this process itself the mask is vulnerable by contacting the resist on top of the wafers. Therefore a regular inspection of the mask after 25, 50, or 100 exposures has to be done during its whole lifetime. Thus critical resist contamination and other defects, which lead to yield losses, can be recognized early. In the future shrinking feature dimensions will require even more sensitive and reliable defect inspection methods than they do presently. Besides the sole inspection capability the tools should also provide highly precise measurement capabilities and extended review options.

  17. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  18. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  19. Phase-mask grating printing to extremes

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgin, Yannick; Jourlin, Yves; Tonchev, Svetlen; Vartiainen, Ismo; Kuittinen, Markku; Talneau, Anne; Parriaux, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The very restricted range of grating periods printable by standard silica phase-masks is here extended from close to the 45 nm CD-node to arbitrarily large periods by the appropriate choice of material and interference-generating scheme with a potential for unlimited length and wide area.

  20. Software error masking effect on hardware faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL), in this work, a simulation model for fault injection is developed to estimate the dependability of the digital system in operational phase. We investigated the software masking effect on hardware faults through the single bit-flip and stuck-at-x fault injection into the internal registers of the processor and memory cells. The fault location reaches all registers and memory cells. Fault distribution over locations is randomly chosen based on a uniform probability distribution. Using this model, we have predicted the reliability and masking effect of an application software in a digital system-Interposing Logic System (ILS) in a nuclear power plant. We have considered four the software operational profiles. From the results it was found that the software masking effect on hardware faults should be properly considered for predicting the system dependability accurately in operation phase. It is because the masking effect was formed to have different values according to the operational profile

  1. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  2. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  3. Similar results for face mask versus mouthpiece during incremental exercise to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Clark, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the 1990s evaluated the influence of breathing assemblies on respiratory variables at rest and during exercise; however, research on new models of breathing assemblies is lacking. This study compared metabolic gas analysis data from a mouthpiece with a noseclip (MOUTH) and a face mask (MASK). Volunteers (7 males, 7 females; 25.1 ± 2.7 years) completed two maximal treadmill tests within 1 week, one MOUTH and one MASK, in random order. The difference in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) between MOUTH (52.7 ± 11.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and MASK (52.2 ± 11.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) was not significant (P = 0.53). Likewise, the mean MOUTH-MASK differences in minute ventilation (VE), fraction of expired oxygen (FEO2) and carbon dioxide (FECO2), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at maximal and submaximal intensities were not significant (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no systematic bias in the error scores (r = -0.13, P = 0.66), and 12 of the 14 participants had a VO2max difference of ≤3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) between conditions. Finally, there was no clear participant preference for using the MOUTH or MASK. Selection of MOUTH or MASK will not affect the participant's gas exchange or breathing patterns. PMID:26238160

  4. Silicon germanium as a novel mask for silicon deep reactive ion etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed Y.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the use of p-type polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-Si1-xGex) thin films as a new masking material for the cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon. We investigated the etching behavior of various poly-Si1-xGex:B (0mask for silicon depends strongly on three factors: Ge content; boron concentration; and etching temperature. Compared to conventional SiO2 and SiN masks, the proposed SiGe masking material exhibited several advantages, including high etching selectivity to silicon (>1:800). Furthermore, the SiGe mask was etched in SF6/O2 plasma at temperatures ≥ - 80°C and at rates exceeding 8 μm/min (i.e., more than 37 times faster than SiO2 or SiN masks). Because of the chemical and thermodynamic stability of the SiGe film as well as the electronic properties of the mask, it was possible to deposit the proposed film at CMOS backend compatible temperatures. The paper also confirms that the mask can easily be dry-removed after the process with high etching-rate by controlling the ICP and RF power and the SF6 to O2 ratios, and without affecting the underlying silicon substrate. Using low ICP and RF power, elevated temperatures (i.e., > - 80°C), and an adjusted O2:SF6 ratio (i.e., ~6%), we were able to etch away the SiGe mask without adversely affecting the final profile. Ultimately, we were able to develop deep silicon- trenches with high aspect ratio etching straight profiles. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

  5. Sculpture of decorative candlestick based on African totem masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofronova Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the decorative small sculptures and African totem masks, their artistic and stylistic fea-tures, analysis of the works of sculptors and steps for creating a decorative candlestick based on African totem masks.

  6. Mask quality assurance in cleaning for haze elimination using flexible mask specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Kyo; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Mukai, Hidefumi; Kotani, Toshiya; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Hiromitsu; Kamo, Takashi; Tsutsui, Tomohiro; Ikenaga, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We propose a new method of quality assurance for attenuated phase shifting mask (PSM) using the concept of the flexible mask specifications to extend the life of PSM [1]. The haze on PSM is a major issue for ArF lithography in semiconductor device manufacturing since it causes decline of device yield. PSM irradiated by ArF laser is periodically cleaned before haze is printed on wafer, which is a killer defect. Repetition of cleaning causes great changes of properties, i.e. phase, transmittance. Therefore, the number of times cleaning is performed has been limited by predetermined specifications based on ITRS. In this paper, relaxation of the pass/ fail criteria are studied as one solution to this limitation problem. In order to decide a suitable number of times for cleaning to be performed, we introduce the concept of flexible mask specifications, taking lithography margin into account. Firstly, we obtained mask parameters before cleaning; these parameters were, for instance, phase, transmittance and CD. Secondly, using these parameters, we simulated images of resist pattern exposed on wafer and obtained exposure latitude at desired depth of focus. Thirdly, we simulated mask parameters and exposure latitude when the mask was cleaned several times and obtained correlation between number of times cleaning is performed and exposure latitude. And finally, we estimated suitable pass/ fail criteria of mask parameters and the maximum number of times cleaning should be performed for each mask at the standard exposure latitude. In the above procedure, the maximum number of times cleaning should be performed exceeded that determined in the case of conventional specifications based on ITRS.

  7. Effects of the combination of mask preconditioning with midazolam pretreatment on anxiety and mask acceptance during pediatric inhalational induction and postoperative mask fear in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Yun-ping; HUANG Zhen-hua; G.Allen Finley; ZUO Yun-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxiety and fear frequently causes an aversion to applying a face mask and increases difficulty during pediatric induction.There is at present little study of this problem.Therefore,the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of mask preconditioning and midazolam pretrealment on mask acceptance during pediatric induction and on postoperative mask fear.Methods One hundred and sixty children were randomly assigned into four groups:the mask preconditioning group (MaG),the midazolam pretreatment group (MiG),the mask/midazolam combination group (Ma/MiG),and the saline group (SaG).The Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) was employed to assess the anxiety in the operation room (OR).A Mask Acceptance Score (MAS) was measured during inhalational induction and the incidence of mask fear (MAS ≤2) was evaluated postoperatively.Results The MaG and Ma/MiG groups had the highest mask acceptance scores but there were no differences between these two groups (P <0.05).The average anxiety level of children entering the OR was much lower in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups than in the SaG group (P <0.05).During induction,the anxiety level increased in the SaG and MaG groups but decreased in the MiG and Ma/MiG groups (P <0.05).At the postoperative third day,the incidence of mask fears was as high as 23% in the SaG group,15% in the MiG group,but only 2.5% in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups.Conclusions The single use of mask preconditioning has a better influence than midazolam for increasing mask acceptance during inhalational induction and reducing postoperative mask fear,reducing the anxiety level during induction,improving induction compliance and shortening the total mask time.A mask preconditioning and midazolam combination did not increase mask acceptance during inhalational induction,reduce mask fears postoperatively,improve induction compliance,nor shorten the total mask time.But it can better reduce the anxiety level during

  8. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species gene expression analyses using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to evaluate a single species can provide spurious results due to mismatches between the interrogated transcriptome and arrayed probes. Based on the most recent human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we developed updated and accessible probe masking methods that allow human Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to be used for robust genome-wide expression analyses in both species. In this process, only data from oligonucleotide probes predicted to have robust hybridization sensitivity and specificity for both transcriptomes are retained for analysis. Results To characterize the utility of this resource, we applied our mask protocols to existing expression data from brains, livers, hearts, testes, and kidneys derived from both species and determined the effects probe numbers have on expression scores of specific transcripts. In all five tissues, probe sets with decreasing numbers of probes showed non-linear trends towards increased variation in expression scores. The relationships between expression variation and probe number in brain data closely matched those observed in simulated expression data sets subjected to random probe masking. However, there is evidence that additional factors affect the observed relationships between gene expression scores and probe number in tissues such as liver and kidney. In parallel, we observed that decreasing the number of probes within probe sets lead to linear increases in both gained and lost inferences of differential cross-species expression in all five tissues, which will affect the interpretation of expression data subject to masking. Conclusion We introduce a readily implemented and updated resource for human and chimpanzee transcriptome analysis through a commonly used microarray platform. Based on empirical observations derived from the analysis of five distinct data sets, we provide novel guidelines

  9. The difficult business model for mask equipment makers and mask infrastructure development support from consortia and governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    The extension of optical projection lithography through immersion to patterning features with half pitch business model for mask equipment suppliers and highlight government support for mask equipment and materials development.

  10. The Fastest Saccadic Responses Escape Visual Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Crouzet, Sébastien; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.

    2014-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant...... visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task......, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference...

  11. Multi-part mask for implanting workpieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.

    2016-05-10

    A multi-part mask has a pattern plate, which includes a planar portion that has the desired aperture pattern to be used during workpiece processing. The multi-part mask also has a mounting frame, which is used to hold the pattern plate. Prior to assembly, the pattern plate has an aligning portion, which has one or more holes through which reusable alignment pins are inserted. These alignment pins enter kinematic joints disposed on the mounting frame, which serve to precisely align the pattern plate to the mounting frame. After the pattern plate has been secured to the mounting frame, the aligning portion can be detached from the pattern plate. The alignment pins can be reused at a later time. In some embodiments, the pattern plate can later be removed from the mounting frame, so that the mounting frame may be reused.

  12. Finding Terrestrial Planets Using Eighth-Order Image Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J; Ge, J; Kuchner, Marc J.; Crepp, Justin; Ge, Jian

    2004-01-01

    We offer a new series of image masks for coronagraphy that are insensitive to pointing errors and other low-spatial frequency optical aberrations. For a modest cost in throughput, these ``eighth-order'' band-limited masks would allow the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) to operate with a pointing accuracy of no better than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We also provide eighth-order notch filter masks that offer the same robustness to pointing errors and should be relatively easy to construct: binary masks and graded masks with moderate optical density requirements.

  13. Cor, iluminação e orientação do reverso de uma máscara facial não afetam a ilusão da máscara côncava Color, illumination and orientation of a hollow mask do not affect the hollow-face illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Cesari Quaglia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condição monocular, 40 observadores julgaram o reverso côncavo de uma máscara facial monocromada cinza e de outra policromada (iluminados por cima, por baixo, pela direita e pela esquerda na posição vertical e na posição vertical invertida, iluminado por baixo como côncavos, planos ou convexos. Além disso, as magnitudes dos seus relevos percebidos foram reproduzidas ao se esticar uma trena retrátil. Independente da cor, iluminação e orientação das máscaras, a maioria das respostas indicou que os reversos das máscaras foram percebidos como convexos. E mesmo nas poucas respostas em que as máscaras foram classificadas como planas, houve atribuição de relevo mensurável. Estes resultados confirmam que a ilusória profundidade da máscara facial côncava como convexa é robusta sob influência de variáveis diversas, o que sugere atuação predominante de processos de alta ordem sobre os processos de baixa ordem na percepção visual de faces.With monocular viewing, forty observers judged a monochrome-gray and a polychrome hollow face mask (illuminated from above, from below, from the right and from the left, and upside-down illuminated form below as inward deep, flat or outward deep. They were also asked to reproduce the perceived depth of the mask by pulling out a tape measure. Regardless of color, illuminating condition and mask orientation, most of the responses indicated that the hollow faces were perceived as outward deep. Even in the few occasions in which the masks were reported flat, measurable depths were assigned on the tape measure. These results support that the hollow face illusion is robust even under diverse variable effects, which suggest preponderant top-down over bottom-up processes on visual face perception.

  14. MADE: Masked Autoencoder for Distribution Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Germain, Mathieu; Gregor, Karol; Murray, Iain; Larochelle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a lot of recent interest in designing neural network models to estimate a distribution from a set of examples. We introduce a simple modification for autoencoder neural networks that yields powerful generative models. Our method masks the autoencoder’s parameters to respect autoregressive constraints: each input is reconstructed only from previous inputs in a given ordering. Constrained this way, the autoencoder outputs can be interpreted as a set of conditional probabilities, ...

  15. MADE: Masked Autoencoder for Distribution Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Germain, Mathieu; Gregor, Karol; Murray, Iain; Larochelle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a lot of recent interest in designing neural network models to estimate a distribution from a set of examples. We introduce a simple modification for autoencoder neural networks that yields powerful generative models. Our method masks the autoencoder's parameters to respect autoregressive constraints: each input is reconstructed only from previous inputs in a given ordering. Constrained this way, the autoencoder outputs can be interpreted as a set of conditional probabilities, ...

  16. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate that...

  17. Yield Improvement With Pellicalised Masks In Projection Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangappan, A.; Kao, Chuck

    1982-09-01

    Photomask limited yields in LSI and VLSI processes are examined in this paper. Mask defects are classified into two catagories i.e., soft and hard mask defects. Theoretical modelling indicates a substantial yield improvement with pellicle protected masks. In 1:1 projection technology soft mask defects are the predominent cause of mask limited yield. Use of pellicles eliminates the effect of soft defects up to 100 microns in size, does not cause a degradation of image quality or dimensional control, prolongs mask life, and saves considerable labour and cost in maintaining high quality masks. Pellicle mounting, inspection, and handling techniques used are described. Very large die with 3 micron, NMOS, Si-gate technology are used to determine the actual yield improvement. Lots were processed using identical sets of masks of which one set was pellicle protected. Defect density at each process step and final probe yield are statistically analysed to show the individual contributions of hard mask defects, soft mask defects, and random process defects to the overall device yield. Actual yield increase data is presented. This pellicle technology is directly applicable to 10:1 stepping exposure systems where high soft mask defect density could be a more severe problem than in 1:1 projection systems.

  18. Nanoparticle and nanosphere mask for etching of ITO nanostructures and their reflection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cigang; Deng, Ligang; Holder, Adam; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Thomas, Owain; Gunn, Robert; Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Leendertz, Caspar [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, Joachim [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Au nanoparticles and polystyrene nanospheres were used as mask for plasma etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer. By reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, the morphology of polystyrene nanospheres can be tuned through chemical or physical etching, and Au nanoparticle mask can result in ITO nanostructures with larger aspect ratio than nanosphere mask. During inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes, Au nanoparticle mask was not affected by the thermal effect of plasma, whereas temperature of the substrate was essential to protect nanospheres from the damaging effect of plasma. Physical bombardment in the plasma can also modify the nanospheres. It was observed that under the same process conditions, the ratio of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the process gas can affect the etching rate of ITO without completely etching the nanospheres. The morphology of ITO nanostructures also depends on process conditions. The resulting ITO nanostructures show lower reflection in a spectral range of 400-1000 nm than c-Si and conventional antireflection layer of SiN{sub x} film. ITO nanostructures obtained after etching (scale bar = 200 nm). (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Mask R&D activities at the Advanced Mask Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Markus; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) in Dresden is an equally-owned joint venture of Advanced Micro Devices Inc. (AMD), DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (DPI), and Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) founded in 2002 to create a world-leading mask R&D center for both DRAM and logic applications. The AMTC's primary focus is research and development of sub-70 nm technologies. While 193 nm lithography will be used for 65 nm design rules and is probable for 45 nm design rules, solutions for sub-45 nm design rules are still being studied. Possible solutions include 193 nm immersion, 157 nm immersion, EUV, and EPL or its variants. The AMTC is actively involved in multiple collaborative projects to develop masks for advanced lithographies. This paper presents a sampling of AMTC's development activities on both conventional and EUV masks. Intensive studies on adequate materials and their properties for the respective technology have been performed with key partners in the field. Masks have been produced and analyzed. New repair processes have been developed for the small structures of future nodes, the printing capabilities have been predicted by AIMS measurements and analyzed with printing experiments at the respective wavelengths. In this talk we will present the latest results of simulations, experiments, handling and tool qualifications performed at the AMTC or with its partners. We will especially focus on our activities for the EUV technology and will present results on material and process development as well as on simulations for soft and hard pellicle induced distortions. For the EUV technology we will present preliminary results from our etching experiment on binary masks. First results on the performance of our new nano-machining RAVE tool will be shown.

  20. Mask defect printing mechanisms for future lithography generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Graf, Thomas; Bubke, Karsten; Höllein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio

    2006-03-01

    Mask defects are of increasing concern for future lithography generations. The improved resolution capabilities of immersion and EUV systems increase also the sensitivity of these systems with respect to small imperfections of the mask. Advanced mask technologies such as alternating phase shift masks (AltPSM), chromeless phase shift lithography (CPL), or "thick" absorbers on EUV masks introduce new defect types. The paper presents an application of rigorous electromagnetic field modeling for the study of typical defect printing mechanisms in ArF immersion lithography and in EUV lithography. For standard imaging and mask technologies, such as binary masks or attenuated phase shift masks, small defects usually print as linewidth or critical dimension (CD) errors with the largest effect at best focus. For AltPSM, CPL masks, and EUV masks this is not always the case. Several unusual printing scenarios were observed: placement errors due to defects can become more critical than CD-errors, defects may print more critical at defocus positions different from the center of the process window, the defect printing may become asymmetric through focus, and the risk of defect printing depends on the polarization of the used light source. Several simulation examples will demonstrate these effects. Rigorous EMF simulations in combination with vector imaging simulations are very useful to understand the origins of the observed defect printing mechanisms.

  1. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  2. Mortality of female gas mask assemblers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wignall, B K; Fox, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A 30-year follow-up study of the mortality of 500 women employed in manufacturing gas masks during the second world war showed a pronounced excess of deaths from mesothelioma and lung cancer. Although these women were subject only to short periods of exposure, greater excesses were found for those exposed for between one and five years than for those exposed for under one year. Even in the latter group, however, five deaths from lung cancer and four deaths from mesothelioma were recorded comp...

  3. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, B. J.; van Engelen, K.; Vis, J.C.; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B C J

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Although variable expression is known to be present in Marfan syndrome, phenotypic expression of Marfan syndrome in our patient might be masked by the co-occurrence of Down syndrome. (Neth Heart J 2009;1...

  4. Disentangling neural processing of masked and masking stimulus by means of event-related contralateral – ipsilateral differences of EEG potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Verleger, Rolf; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the excellent temporal resolution of event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), the overlapping potentials evoked by masked and masking stimuli are hard to disentangle. However, when both masked and masking stimuli consist of pairs of relevant and irrelevant stimuli, one left and one right from fixation, with the side of the relevant element varying between pairs, effects of masked and masking stimuli can be distinguished by means of the contralateral preponderance of the potentials evo...

  5. Focal Plane Phase Masks for PIAA: Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K.; Conway, J.; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is a coronagraph architecture for the direct detection of extrasolar planets, which can achieve close to the theoretical performance limit of any direct detection system. The primary components of a PIAACMC system are the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) optics and the complex phase-shifting focal plane mask. PIAA optics have been produced and demonstrated with high coronagraph performance. In this paper, we describe the design process for the phase-shifting focal plane mask, and strategies for smoothing the mask profile. We describe the mask manufacturing process and show manufacturing results. Errors in the fabricated mask profile degrade the system performance, but we can recover performance by refining the manufacturing process and implementing wavefront control.

  6. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the...... negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  7. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties. PMID:24499438

  8. Masking Release for Igbo and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebem, Deborah U; Desloge, Joseph G; Reed, Charlotte M; Braida, Louis D; Uguru, Joy O

    2013-09-01

    In this research, we explored the effect of noise interruption rate on speech intelligibility. Specifically, we used the Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) procedure with the original HINT stimuli (English) and Igbo stimuli to assess speech reception ability in interrupted noise. For a given noise level, the HINT test provides an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required for 50%-correct speech intelligibility. The SNR for 50%-correct intelligibility changes depending upon the interruption rate of the noise. This phenomenon (called Masking Release) has been studied extensively in English but not for Igbo - which is an African tonal language spoken predominantly in South Eastern Nigeria. This experiment explored and compared the phenomenon of Masking Release for (i) native English speakers listening to English, (ii) native Igbo speakers listening to English, and (iii) native Igbo speakers listening to Igbo. Since Igbo is a tonal language and English is a non-tonal language, this allowed us to compare Masking Release patterns on native speakers of tonal and non-tonal languages. Our results for native English speakers listening to English HINT show that the SNR and the masking release are orderly and consistent with other English HINT data for English speakers. Our result for Igbo speakers listening to English HINT sentences show that there is greater variability in results across the different Igbo listeners than across the English listeners. This result likely reflects different levels of ability in the English language across the Igbo listeners. The masking release values in dB are less than for English listeners. Our results for Igbo speakers listening to Igbo show that in general, the SNRs for Igbo sentences are lower than for English/English and Igbo/English. This means that the Igbo listeners could understand 50% of the Igbo sentences at SNRs less than those required for English sentences by either native or non-native listeners. This result can be

  9. The wearing examination report of a protection mask. Mask man test in the wearing examination report Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Radiation Control Section practice regularity the face piece fit test (it is called Mask man test) to ensure proper fit for workers who use half masks. This report summarized the matter shown below. The development of the test equipment in connection with the face piece fit test from 1970 to present. The performance test of various respirators. The results and present problems of the face piece fit test to ensure proper fit for workers who use half masks. (author)

  10. Impact of B4C capping layer for extreme ultraviolet mask on the sensitivity of patterned mask inspection using a projection electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    The inspection sensitivity of a patterned extreme ultraviolet mask with B4C-capped multilayer (ML) was investigated using a simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) image. Extrusion and intrusion defects with 16-nm size were detected with their intensity of >10 times the standard deviation of the background level on a half-pitch 64-nm line-and-space pattern. The defect detection sensitivity in this case was higher than that of a Ru-capped ML sample and has a potential to meet the requirement for beyond 16-nm node generation from the standpoint of patterned mask inspection using the PEM technique. These results indicate that the B4C capping layer, besides its good durability, has an advantage for high sensitivity of patterned mask inspection. The optimal condition of the incident beam energy was found to be 500 and 1,000 eV for the samples of B4C-capped ML and B4C-buffered Ru-capped ML, respectively. The sensitivity of defect detection was strongly affected by the difference of secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) between the absorber layer and capping layer. However, the small incident beam energy was found to be preferable when the SEEC difference was relatively high.

  11. Impact of B4C capping layer for EUV mask on the sensitivity of patterned mask inspection using projection electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    The inspection sensitivity of a patterned extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask with B4C capped multilayer (ML) was investigated using a simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) image. Extrusion and intrusion defects with 16 nm in size were detected with their intensity of > 10 times the standard deviation of the background level on a half-pitch (hp) 64 nm line and space pattern. The defect detection sensitivity in this case was higher than that of Ru capped ML sample, and has a potential to meet the requirement for beyond 16 nm node generation from the standpoint of patterned mask inspection using the PEM technique. These results indicate that B4C capping layer besides its good durability has an advantage for high sensitivity of patterned mask inspection. The optimal condition of the incident beam energy was found to be 500 and 1000 eV for the samples of B4C capped ML and B4C buffered Ru capped ML, respectively. The sensitivity of defect detection was strongly affected by the difference of secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) between the absorber layer and capping layer. However, severely scattered electrons near the pattern edge become a source of noise and then they block the effect of large SEEC difference. Thus, the small incident beam energy was found to be preferable when the SEEC difference was relatively high.

  12. On the impact of masking and blocking hypotheses for measuring the efficacy of new tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Sergio; Sanz, Joaquín; Marinova, Dessislava; Martín, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used worldwide to prevent tuberculosis (TB). However, BCG has shown a very variable efficacy in different trials, offering a wide range of protection in adults against pulmonary TB. One of the most accepted hypotheses to explain these inconsistencies points to the existence of a pre-existing immune response to antigens that are common to environmental sources of mycobacterial antigens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Specifically, two different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this phenomenon: the masking and the blocking effects. According to masking hypothesis, previous sensitization confers some level of protection against TB that masks vaccine's effects. In turn, the blocking hypothesis postulates that previous immune response prevents vaccine taking of a new TB vaccine. In this work we introduce a series of models to discriminate between masking and blocking mechanisms and address their relative likelihood. We apply our methodology to the data reported by BCG-REVAC clinical trials, which were specifically designed for studying BCG efficacy variability. Our results yield estimates that are consistent with high levels of blocking (41% in Manaus -95% CI [14-68]- and 96% in Salvador -95% CI [52-100]-). Moreover, we also show that masking does not play any relevant role in modifying vaccine's efficacy either alone or in addition to blocking. The quantification of these effects around a plausible model constitutes a relevant step towards impact evaluation of novel anti-tuberculosis vaccines, which are susceptible of being affected by similar effects, especially if applied on individuals previously exposed to mycobacterial antigens. PMID:26893956

  13. Evaluation of SCAA mask technology as a pathway to the 65-nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Gerold, David J.; McCafferty, Diane C.

    2003-06-01

    This study takes an integrated approach utilizing a combination of high NA 193 nm lithography, a sidewall chrome alternating aperture (SCAA) phase shift mask, optical proximity correction (OPC) and customized illumination in an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using 193 nm lithography to support the 65 nm node. A SCAA mask was designed and built with line/space patterns ranging in pitch from 300 nm down to 140 nm. A range of mask biases were applied to the zero and pi spaces in order to examine to response of the lithography to a combination of the SCAA approach and asymmetric biasing. In combination to the asymmetric biasing, overlay bracketing was applied in order to measure the chrome overlay tolerances of the mask. Simulations suggested that an unconventionally small sigma of 0.15 would be the optimum coherence for a high 193 nm optical system. A custom 0.15 sigma partial coherence illuminator was, therefore, built and installed in the experimental ASML Micrascan V 0.75 NA 193 nm scanner. Wafers were exposed using 190 nm of 193 nm resist and an organic BARC. The 70 nm 1:1 line/space patterns resolved with a depth of focus of about 0.2 μm. The 75 nm 1:1 line/space patterns showed a 0.3-0.4 μm depth of focus. Both of these process windows were limited by pattern collapse. Addressing the pattern collapse may improve the depth of focus. Comparing mask measurements to wafer measurements show that little or no asymmetric biasing in necessary to balance the pitch. Moreover, the measured pitch was stable over a focus range of at least 0.4 microns demonstrating that any phase imbalance present was not significantly affecting the observed lithography.

  14. Coherent diffractive imaging using randomly coded masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally demonstrate an extension to coherent diffractive imaging that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks, removing the need for typical object-domain constraints while guaranteeing a unique solution to the phase retrieval problem. Phase retrieval is performed using a numerical convex relaxation routine known as “PhaseCut,” an iterative algorithm known for its stability and for its ability to find the global solution, which can be found efficiently and which is robust to noise. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments

  15. Effect of musical training on masking paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musicians outperform nonmusicians on brainstem and cortical level processing. However, there are limited literature comparing musicians and nonmusicians on the overall release of masking abilities and correlation across otoacoustic emissions (OAEs, masking level difference (MLD and quick speech-in-noise (Quick-SIN. Aim: To investigate the physiological differences between musicians and nonmusicians by evaluating the effect of musical training on contralateral suppression (CAS of OAE, MLD, and Quick-SIN. Materials and Methods: Distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs recording with and without noise, MLD test using continuous (CMLD and pulsating pure tones (PMLD and Quick-SIN in Kannada were carried out on 15 musicians and 15 nonmusicians. Results: Musicians outperformed nonmusicians on Quick-SIN and CAS of OAEs. However, no significant difference was observed between two groups on CMLD and PMLD. There was a significant difference observed in CMLD, PMLD as well as suppression amplitude across frequencies tested in both groups. A significant difference between PMLD and CMLD was observed only for musicians at 2 kHz. In both groups, there was a significant level of correlation for CAS of DPOAE and Quick-SIN with CMLD and with PMLD between the parameters tested. Conclusion: The results of our finding suggest that CAS of DPOAE and Quick-SIN are sensitive tools to quantify the effect of musical training, compared to MLD. Musical training helps to strengthen afferent and efferent pathways, and hence it aids in speech perception abilities in noise. Hence, for the intervention of individuals with difficulties in speech perception in noise, musical training can be a choice to be considered. As well for appropriate diagnosis and interpretation, one needs to consider the musical experience of individual tested.

  16. Micro-optical structures formed by a mask moving method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Chun-lei; DONG Xiao-chun; DENG Qi-ling; LUO Xian-gang

    2007-01-01

    An unique mask moving method is developed for forming effective micro-optical structures with continuous profile. The mechanism for forming different micro-optical profiles is disclosed, and the designed approach for binary moving mask is described. Finally some concrete micro-optical components with typical microstructures are presented for demonstrating the validity of the method.

  17. Mask cost tradeoffs for sub-100-nm technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, Artur P.

    2003-06-01

    As minimum feature size shrinks below 100 nm, all cost components of photomasks: the material, the writing process, the develop/etch process, and the inspection, are skyrocketing. That increase, which impacts new product R&D return on investment, can be mitigated by improving mask first pass yield or synchronizing technology and device requirements with mask shop capabilities. This work is focused on the optimal utilization and tradeoffs of the existing reticle technology to ensure desired device and circuit parameters. We first look at mask cost increase against the total manufacturing cost, evaluate mask cost by layer, and identify the opportunities to reduce it without compromising product requirements. We then show how integrated simulation (optical combined with electrical) helps estimate the impact of mask CD budget on transistor drive and leakage current, thereby helping justify the need for the tight mask CD control. For cell level simulation, one would extract FET channel shape from the simulated aerial images to get the parametric data depending on the OPC options at the assumed mask grade and exposure conditions. For chip level simulation, one would derive statistical distribution of device parameters, at the assumed mask grade; parametric yield is then estimated using Monte Carlo analysis, to verify the impact of CD variation of a MOSFET channel across the reticle field. Overall, many challenges of the sub-100 nm reticle manufacturing resulting in high cost can be dealt with by simulation. Integration of simulation tools into design flow would itself become a challenge for computing power and CAD procedures.

  18. General Projective Synchronization and Fractional Order Chaotic Masking Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Quan Shao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fractional order chaotic masking scheme used for secure communication is introduced. Based on the general projective synchronization of two coupled fractional Chert systems, a popular masking scheme is designed. Numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Environment-aware ideal binary mask estimation using monaural cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    We present a monaural approach to speech segregation that estimates the ideal binary mask (IBM) by combining amplitude modulation spectrogram (AMS) features, pitch-based features and speech presence probability (SPP) features derived from noise statistics. To maintain a high mask estimation...... speech and noise presence are evaluated by considering adjacent TF units. The proposed system achieves high classification accuracy....

  20. Method To Display Data On A Face Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin-Duron

    1995-01-01

    Proposed electronic instrument displays information on diver's or firefighter's face mask. Includes mask, prism, electronic readouts, transceiver and control electronics. Mounted at periphery of diver's field of view to provide data on elapsed time, depth, pressure, and temperature. Provides greater safety and convenience to user.

  1. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik

    2010-06-21

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  2. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  3. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Subparaventricular Zone Lesions Disrupt Circadian Rhythmicity but Not Light-Induced Masking Behavior in Nile Grass Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Andrew J; Shuboni, Dorela D; Yan, Lily; Nunez, Antonio A; Smale, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The ventral subparaventricular zone (vSPVZ) receives direct retinal input and influences the daily patterning of activity in rodents, making it a likely candidate for the mediation of acute behavioral responses to light (i.e., masking). We performed chemical lesions aimed at the vSPVZ of diurnal grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) using N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), a glutamate agonist. Following NMA lesions, we placed grass rats in various lighting conditions (e.g., 12:12 light-dark, constant dark, constant light); presented a series of light pulses at circadian times (CT) 6, 14, 18, and 22; and placed them in a 7-h ultradian cycle to assess behavioral masking. Extensive bilateral lesions of the vSPVZ disrupted the expression of circadian rhythms of activity and abolished the circadian modulation of masking responses to light, without affecting light-induced masking behavior per se. We also found that in diurnal grass rats, NMA was capable of destroying not only neurons of the vSPVZ but also those of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), even though excitotoxins have been ineffective at destroying cells within the SCN of nocturnal rodents. The vulnerability of the grass rat's SCN to NMA toxicity raises the possibility of a difference in density of receptors for glutamate between nocturnal and diurnal species. In cases in which damage extended to the SCN, masking responses to light were present and similar to those displayed by animals with damage restricted to the vSPVZ. Thus, extensive bilateral lesions of the SCN and vSPVZ disrupted the expression of circadian rhythms without affecting acute responses to light in a diurnal species. Our present and previous results suggest that retinorecipient brain areas other than the SCN or vSPVZ, such as the intergeniculate leaflet or olivary pretectal nucleus, may be responsible for the mediation of masking responses to light in the diurnal grass rat. PMID:26801650

  4. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Chantal Khan; Jackson, Keith H.; Bonivert, William D.; Hruby, Jill

    1996-06-01

    The requirements for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) masks are reviewed and a recently developed cost effective mask fabrication process is described. The review includes a summary of tabulated properties for materials used in the fabrication of DXRL masks. X-ray transparency and mask contrast are calculated for material combinations using simulations of exposure at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley, and compared to the requirements for standard x-ray lithography (XRL) mask technology. Guided by the requirements, a cost-effective fabrication process for manufacturing high contrast masks for DXRL has been developed. Thick absorber patterns (0960-1317/6/2/004/img7) on a thin silicon wafer (0960-1317/6/2/004/img8m) were made using contact printing in thick positive (Hoechst 4620) and negative (OCG 7020) photoresist and subsequent gold electrodeposition. Gold was deposited using a commercially available gold sulphite bath with low current density and good agitation. The resultant gold films were fine-grained and stress-free. Replication of such masks into 0960-1317/6/2/004/img9 thick acrylic sheets was performed at the ALS.

  5. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  6. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  7. The effect of cochlear nonlinearities on binaural masking level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin

    the difference in BMLD between the symmetric and the two asymmetric conditions is constant, in line with the experimental data. Conclusion A model was proposed to account for the effect of level asymmetry on BMLD. The modeling results suggest that cochlear nonlinearites affect the analysis of binaural......Background The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) has been shown to be constant (10−15dB) for masker spectrum levels from 70dB/Hz down to 30−40dB/Hz and to gradually decrease with lower levels (McFadden, 1968; Hall and Harvey, 1984). The decrease at low levels was larger in an asymmetric...... levels between 50 and -10dB/Hz. The difference in BMLD between the two conditions gradually increased with decreasing masker level from 50 to 20dB/Hz and remained constant between 20 and -10dB/Hz. The proposed model could account for these data. A model analysis suggested that the increase in BMLD...

  8. Top Level User Specifications for Mask Inspection Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S

    2002-01-31

    This document compiles top-level user specifications for an EUV microscope for characterizing EUVL mask defects. Two broad categories of application are considered: (1) emulation of the imaging characteristics of a stepper for printability analysis (AIM mode); and (2) high-resolution imaging for obtaining a more detailed characterization of defects or mask features. It is generally assumed that the mask defects that are to be characterized have been located by a previous inspection procedure and the spatial coordinates of the defect can be transferred to the microscope.

  9. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  10. The Mask Designs for Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) consists of three interferometers (science, guide1, and guide2) and two optical paths (metrology and starlight). The system requirements for each interferometer/optical path combination are different and sometimes work against each other. A diffraction model is developed to design and optimize various masks to simultaneously meet the system requirements of three interferometers. In this paper, the details of this diffraction model will be described first. Later, the mask design for each interferometer will be presented to demonstrate the system performance compliance. In the end, a tolerance sensitivity study on the geometrical dimension, shape, and the alignment of these masks will be discussed.

  11. Beyond perspective dual photography with illumination masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppal, Sanjeev J; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G

    2015-07-01

    Scene appearance from the point of view of a light source is called a reciprocal or dual view. Since there exists a large diversity in illumination, these virtual views may be nonperspective and multiviewpoint in nature. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of occluding masks to recover these dual views, which we term shadow cameras. We first show how to render a single reciprocal scene view by swapping the camera and light source positions. We then extend this technique for multiple views by both building a virtual shadow camera array and by exploiting area sources. We also capture nonperspective views such as orthographic, cross-slit and a pushbroom variant, while introducing novel applications such as converting between camera projections and removing refractive and catadioptric distortions. Finally, since a shadow camera is artificial, we can manipulate any of its intrinsic parameters, such as camera skew, to create perspective distortions. We demonstrate a variety of indoor and outdoor results and show a rendering application for capturing the light-field of a light-source. PMID:25794389

  12. Partial airway obstruction following manufacturing defect in laryngeal mask airway (Laryngeal Mask Silken™)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Jangra; Surender Kumar Malhotra; Vikas Saini

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal mask (LM) airway is commonly used for securing airway in day-care surgeries. Various problems have been described while using LM airway. Out of those, mechanical obstruction causing airway compromise is most common. Here, we describe a case report of 4-year-old child who had partial upper airway obstruction due to LM manufacturer′s defect. There was a silicon band in upper one-third of shaft of LM airway. This band was made up of the same material as that of LM airway so it was not ...

  13. Kuldne Mask Tallinnasssssss! / Sergei Zhenovatsh ; interv. Hellar Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhenovatsh, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Lavastaja Sergei Zhenovatsh oma Teatrikunsti Stuudiost, noortest näitlejatest, Eestist. Lavastaja on Eestis teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" raames. 10.-11. okt. etendus Tallinnas, Salme Kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Gogoli näidend "Mängurid"

  14. Open-loop frequency response for a chaotic masking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xian-Gao; Yu Pei; Huang Wei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new numerical simulation approach is proposed for the study of open-loop frequency response of a chaotic masking system. Using Chua's circuit and the Lorenz system as illustrative examples, we have shown that one can employ chaos synchronization to separate the feedback network from a chaotic masking system, and then use numerical simulation to obtain the open-loop synchronization response, the phase response, and the amplitude response of a chaotic masking system. Based on the analysis of the frequency response, we have also proved that changing the amplitude of the exciting (input) signal within normal working domain does not influence the frequency response of the chaotic masking system. The new numerical simulation method developed in this paper can be extended to consider the open-loop frequency response of other systems described by differential or difference equations.

  15. Coronagraph-Integrated Wavefront Sensing with a Sparse Aperture Mask

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A J Eldorado

    2015-01-01

    Stellar coronagraph performance is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. In order to effectively suppress starlight for exoplanet imaging applications, low-order wavefront aberrations entering a coronagraph such as tip-tilt, defocus and coma must be determined and compensated. Previous authors have established the utility of pupil-plane masks (both non-redundant/sparse-aperture and generally asymmetric aperture masks) for wavefront sensing. Here we show how a sparse aperture mask (SAM) can be integrated with a coronagraph to measure low-order, differential phase aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a subsequent detector. Our numerical Fourier propagation models show that the information encoded in the fringe intensity distortions is sufficient to accurately discriminate and estimate Zernike phase modes extending from tip-tilt up to radial degree $n=5$, with amplitude up to $\\lambda/20$ RM...

  16. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter...

  17. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  18. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... produce an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  19. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  20. Front-end Combination Component Of Fixed Mask And Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A front-end combination component of fixed mask and absorber is a device that combines a fixed mask and a photon absorber in one body to save space, setup work and maintenance in the photon beamline front-end. The SPring-8 undulator absorber consists of an upper V-shaped photon absorber part and a lower rectangular beam-transfer channel part. The upper wall of the beam-transfer channel is cut in the V-shape notch as the photon absorber. The combination component design based on the absorber is adopted. The photon duct part is modified in the shape of the fixed mask. The combination component moves up and down. In the upper limit, it acts as the mask and the beam-transfer channel. In the lower limit, it acts as the photon absorber. Design details of the component and its commissioning are presented

  1. Simulated masking of right whale sounds by shipping noise: incorporating a model of the auditory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kane A; Mountain, David C

    2014-03-01

    Many species of large, mysticete whales are known to produce low-frequency communication sounds. These low-frequency sounds are susceptible to communication masking by shipping noise, which also tends to be low frequency in nature. The size of these species makes behavioral assessment of auditory capabilities in controlled, captive environments nearly impossible, and field-based playback experiments are expensive and necessarily limited in scope. Hence, it is desirable to produce a masking model for these species that can aid in determining the potential effects of shipping and other anthropogenic noises on these protected animals. The aim of this study was to build a model that combines a sophisticated representation of the auditory periphery with a spectrogram-based decision stage to predict masking levels. The output of this model can then be combined with a habitat-appropriate propagation model to calculate the potential effects of noise on communication range. For this study, the model was tested on three common North Atlantic right whale communication sounds, both to demonstrate the method and to probe how shipping noise affects the detection of sounds with varying spectral and temporal characteristics. PMID:24606298

  2. Direct weakening of tropical circulations from masked CO2 radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlis, Timothy M

    2015-10-27

    Climate models robustly simulate weakened mean circulations of the tropical atmosphere in direct response to increased carbon dioxide (CO2). The direct response to CO2, defined by the response to radiative forcing in the absence of changes in sea surface temperature, affects tropical precipitation and tropical cyclone genesis, and these changes have been tied to the weakening of the mean tropical circulation. The mechanism underlying this direct CO2-forced circulation change has not been elucidated. Here, I demonstrate that this circulation weakening results from spatial structure in CO2's radiative forcing. In regions of ascending circulation, such as the intertropical convergence zone, the CO2 radiative forcing is reduced, or "masked," by deep-convective clouds and high humidity; in subsiding regions, such as the subtropics, the CO2 radiative forcing is larger because the atmosphere is drier and deep-convective clouds are infrequent. The spatial structure of the radiative forcing reduces the need for the atmosphere to transport energy. This, in turn, weakens the mass overturning of the tropical circulation. The previously unidentified mechanism is demonstrated in a hierarchy of atmospheric general circulation model simulations with altered radiative transfer to suppress the cloud masking of the radiative forcing. The mechanism depends on the climatological distribution of clouds and humidity, rather than uncertain changes in these quantities. Masked radiative forcing thereby offers an explanation for the robustness of the direct circulation weakening under increased CO2. PMID:26460034

  3. A phase mask fiber grating and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha P. Yupapin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of a fabricated fiber grating device characteristics and its applications, using a phase mask writing technique. The use of a most common UV phase laser (KrF eximer laser, with high intensity light source was focussed to the phase mask for writing on a fiber optic sample. The device (i.e. grating characteristic especially, in sensing application, was investigated. The possibility of using such device for temperature and strain sensors is discussed.

  4. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the...... shadow mask allow magnetic clamping to the substrate and spray coating of well defined polymer patterns....

  5. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  6. Recrystallized parylene as a mask for silicon chemical etching

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Hsi-wen; Kuo, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Yao-Joe; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the first use of recrystallized parylene as masking material for silicon chemical etch. Recrystallized parylene was obtained by melting parylene C at 350°C for 2 hours. The masking ability of recrystallized parylene was tested in HNA (hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and acetic acid) solution of various ratios, KOH (potassium hydroxide) solution and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) at different temperatures and concentrations. It is found that interf...

  7. On-line simulations of models for backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    Five simulations of quantitative models of visual backward masking are available on the Internet at http://www.psych.purdue.edu/-gfrancis/Publications/BackwardMasking/. The simulations can be run in a Web browser that supports the Java programming language. This article describes the motivation for making the simulations available and gives a brief introduction as to how the simulations are used. The source code is available on the Web page, and this article describes how the code is organized. PMID:14748495

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Secure Communication With Chaos Masking

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Sourav

    2007-01-01

    The most exciting recent development in nonlinear dynamics is realization that chaos can be useful. One application involves "Secure Communication". Two piecewise linear systems with switching nonlinearities have been taken as chaos generators. In the present work the phenomenon of secure communication with chaos masking has been investigated experimentally. In this investigation chaos which is generated from two chaos generators is masked with the massage signal to be transmitted, thus makes communication is more secure.

  9. Translucency and Masking Ability of Various Composite Resins at Different Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Darabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Optical properties of the composite resins, concerning their translucency and thickness, are affected by discolored tooth structure or inherent darkness of the oral cavity. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the translucency parameter (TP of five different composite resins in different thicknesses and to evaluate their masking ability in black backgrounds. Materials and Method: Five brands of composite resins; Gradia (GC and Crystalline (Confi-dental in opaque A2 (OA2, Vit-l-escence (Ultradent in opaque snow (OS, Herculite XRV (Kerr and Opallis (FGM in dentin A2 (DA2 shades were selected to enroll the study. Color coordinates of each composite were determined at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm thicknesses on a white backing, the backing of material itself and a black backing were calculated by using a spectrophotometer to evaluate the translucency parameter (TP of the study materials. The masking ability was also calculated from the specimens on the material itself and on black backing. The values under 2 were estimated as im-perceptible. One-way ANOVA, T-test and Tukey HSD were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The masking ability values, recorded for the 1.5 mm-thick specimens, were in the range of imperceptible except for the Herculite. There was no difference in TP values of the materials at 1.5 mm thickness. Opaque snow shade of Vit-l-escence and opaque A2 shade of Gradia showed lower TP values in comparison with the other 1 and 0.5 mm-thick materials and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05. Conclusion: In relatively thin thicknesses (≤1mm, these opaque/dentin shade composite resins could not mask the black background color.

  10. Planck CMB Anomalies: Astrophysical and Cosmological Secondary Effects and the Curse of Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassat, Anais

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes are available online.

  11. Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html

  12. Evaluation of the self-inflating bag-valve-mask and non-rebreather mask as preoxygenation devices in volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Amelia; Ercole, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and tolerability of preoxygenation with the self-inflating bag-valve-mask (BVM) and non-rebreather mask (NRM) as are used before emergency anaesthesia. Design Device performance evaluation. Setting Experimental study. Participants 12 male and 12 female healthy volunteers (age range 24–47) with no history of clinically significant respiratory disease. Interventions End-expiration oxygen measurements (FEO2) after 3 min of preoxygenation with B...

  13. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  14. Chloasma – The Mask of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Ivan; Bolanča, Željana; Kuna, Krunoslav; Vuković, Ante; Tučkar, Neven; Herman, Radoslav; Grubišić, Goran

    2008-01-01

    Chloasma is a required hypermelanosis of sun-exposed areas occurred during pregnancy and it can affect 50–70% of pregnant women. It presents as symmetric hyperpigmented macules, which can confluent or punctuate. The most common locations are the cheeks, the upper lip, the chin and the forehead. The exact mechanism by which pregnancy affects the process of melanogenesis is unknown. Estrogen, progesterone, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) levels are normally increased during...

  15. Masking with faces in central visual field under a variety of temporal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Marwan; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-11-01

    With a few exceptions, previous studies have explored masking using either a backward mask or a common onset trailing mask, but not both. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the use of faces in central visual field as a viable method to study the relationship between these two types of mask schedule. We tested observers in a two alternative forced choice face identification task, where both target and mask comprised synthetic faces, and show that a simple model can successfully predict masking across a variety of masking schedules ranging from a backward mask to a common onset trailing mask and a number of intermediate variations. Our data are well accounted for by a window of sensitivity to mask interference that is centered at around 100 ms. PMID:26381296

  16. Design of reconfigurable and structured spiral phase mask for optical security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju

    2016-07-01

    We propose the design and use of structured spiral phase mask as keys in optical security systems. A protocol for the generation of this deterministic and reconfigurable phase mask is demonstrated. Experimental results of the proposed phase masks employed in the double random phase encoding (DRPE) system is presented. To show the advantages of this structured phase mask (SPM) over the random phase mask (RPM), both the encryption and decryption behaviors of the SPM and RPM are compared.

  17. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  18. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal registered or Open Face registered mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast registered -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  19. Appropriate mask selection study for nuclear industries activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution control is one of the major aims to a factory for preserving employee's health and outside environment. The best way to control the dust is to design machines in such a way that either producing the dust is prevented or the amount of produced dust which goes to the environment be less than a defined limit. If dust control is not possible, other ways such as blocking the production area, using localized air control system, and personal controls can be applied. In this work, an attempt was made to examine the quality of different disposable personal masks to be used in industry, especially in nuclear industries. To accomplish the purpose of the study, 21 samples were collected from 10 different companies. In order to choose the most appropriate mask, these masks were examined for their effectiveness with the atmospheric particle method. The quality factor was calculated by examining the pressure drop. This research indicated that there was a significant difference between the qualities of the examined masks. The lowest, average and highest quality factors for different masks, are about 0.002. 0.044 and 0.247, respectively

  20. Laryngeal mask airway: an alternative for the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J R

    1995-10-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was invented by Dr. Archie Brain at the London Hospital, Whitechapel, in 1981. Dr. Brain's main objective for the LMA was that it would provide a better method of maintaining a patient's airway than by face mask. Also, the LMA would be less hemodynamically stressful than with insertion of an endotracheal tube. The LMA consists of a silicone rubber tube connected to a miniature silicone mask. The perimeter of the mask consists of an inflatable elliptical cuff, which forms a tip at the distal aspect of the LMA. The aperture bars in the dome of the mask lift the epiglottis away, so the lumen remains unobstructive. The LMA forms a low pressure seal around the larynx. The LMA is contraindicated in any situation where the patient is at risk for pulmonary aspiration. The LMA is not a substitute for a properly placed endotracheal tube in this situation. The American Society of Anesthesiologists' difficult airway algorithm recommends the insertion of an LMA when ventilation and/or intubation are difficult. The distal aperture of the LMA is in close approximation to the vocal cords, so a 6.0-mm internal diameter endotracheal tube can be passed over an intubating stylet or a pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscope to secure a patient's airway. PMID:7502644

  1. Impact of thermoplastic mask on dosimetry of different radiotherapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the influence of auxiliary thermoplastic mask on dose distribution of photon or electron beams. Methods: Using the PTW Marcus 23343 type fixed-separation parallel-plate ionization chamber in a special phantom(PMMA), the change of photon dose buildup region was measured with rectification of Bruce empirical formula. Using 3-D water phantom, the central axis percentage depth doses (PDD) of electron beams were measured with verification of the parallel-plate ionization chamber at several given depths. Results: When 8 MV X-ray was delivered through the added facial mask, the buildup region doses were increased obviously with a 25% relative increment beneath near the surface. When 8, 12, 15 MeV electron beams and mask were used, all PDD curves moved to the surface. Conclusions: The impact of thermoplastic mask on the dose increase in the X-ray buildup region, and on the PDD decrease in the electron beam target region should be paid much more attention. And the dose distribution, with an added mask, will have to be re-evaluated in 3-D conformal radiotherapy

  2. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  3. Social mask or persona in Tennesse Williams's women chracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çevik Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Common etymon of word “personality” in foreign languages is based on the word “persona”. Meaning of the word “persona”, in latin, is the mask the stage actors use. Jung, defining the “Persona” as a concept within the scope of analytic psychology, sees it as a functional cover, a form of spiritual behavior, which responds to daily needs of the person. When both definitions are read simultaneously the “persona” shall become the “social mask”. In brief; in order to receive acknowledgement-and not to be excluded, and to acquire some sort of things, social masks (personas suitable with communal codes that one is a part of are used. Our social masks in this sense are our face that people around us see and recognize. Maintaining the personality within “normal” borders is dependent on persona’s motion and its transmutation when needed. Play characters, too, have social masks. In this study, a review was performed out of chosen play scripts on play persons who use the social masks that undertake key roles in the stack of encoded social relationships.

  4. Getting the cocktail party started: masking effects in speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; McGettigan, C; Agnew, ZK; Rosen, S; Scott, SK

    2016-01-01

    Spoken conversations typically take place in noisy environments and different kinds of masking sounds place differing demands on cognitive resources. Previous studies, examining the modulation of neural activity associated with the properties of competing sounds, have shown that additional speech streams engage the superior temporal gyrus. However, the absence of a condition in which target speech was heard without additional masking made it difficult to identify brain networks specific to masking and to ascertain the extent to which competing speech was processed equivalently to target speech. In this study, we scanned young healthy adults with continuous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), whilst they listened to stories masked by sounds that differed in their similarity to speech. We show that auditory attention and control networks are activated during attentive listening to masked speech in the absence of an overt behavioural task. We demonstrate that competing speech is processed predominantly in the left hemisphere within the same pathway as target speech but is not treated equivalently within that stream, and that individuals who perform better in speech in noise tasks activate the left mid-posterior superior temporal gyrus more. Finally, we identify neural responses associated with the onset of sounds in the auditory environment, activity was found within right lateralised frontal regions consistent with a phasic alerting response. Taken together, these results provide a comprehensive account of the neural processes involved in listening in noise. PMID:26696297

  5. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is disclosed that is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected toward his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber, during the period of exposure while adjacent the object or person being exposed to the x-ray beam. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam while being exposed to such beam for chest or upper body portion study and examination. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which absorbs or resists penetration, to a degree, of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for facile application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient

  6. Oxytocin Modulates Amygdala Reactivity to Masked Fearful Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Manuela; Heinrichs, Markus; Mader, Irina; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Domes, Gregor

    2015-10-01

    The amygdala reveals enhanced reactivity to fearful eye whites, even when they are backwardly masked by a neutral face and therefore processed with limited visual awareness. In our fMRI study, we investigated whether this effect is indeed associated with fear detection within the eyes of the neutral face mask, or more generally, with reactivity to any salient increase in eye white area. In addition, we examined whether a single dose of intranasal oxytocin would modulate amygdala responses to masked fearful eye whites via a double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacological protocol. We found that increased amygdala responses to salient changes within a face's eye region occurred specifically for masked fearful eyes but not for similar increases in white area as induced by nonsocial control stimuli. Administration of oxytocin attenuated amygdala responses to masked fearful eye whites. Our results suggest that the amygdala is particularly tuned to potential threat signals from the eye region. The dampening effects of oxytocin on early amygdala reactivity may reflect reduced vigilance for facial threat cues at a preconscious level. Future studies may investigate whether this early modulation accounts for the beneficial effects of oxytocin on social cognition in anxiety-related disorders, as suggested by previous studies. PMID:25881796

  7. Facial skin beautification using adaptive region-aware masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingyu; Jin, Lianwen; Li, Xuelong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified facial beautification framework with respect to skin homogeneity, lighting, and color. A novel region-aware mask is constructed for skin manipulation, which can automatically select the edited regions with great precision. Inspired by the state-of-the-art edit propagation techniques, we present an adaptive edge-preserving energy minimization model with a spatially variant parameter and a high-dimensional guided feature space for mask generation. Using region-aware masks, our method facilitates more flexible and accurate facial skin enhancement while the complex manipulations are simplified considerably. In our beautification framework, a portrait is decomposed into smoothness, lighting, and color layers by an edge-preserving operator. Next, facial landmarks and significant features are extracted as input constraints for mask generation. After three region-aware masks have been obtained, a user can perform facial beautification simply by adjusting the skin parameters. Furthermore, the combinations of parameters can be optimized automatically, depending on the data priors and psychological knowledge. We performed both qualitative and quantitative evaluation for our method using faces with different genders, races, ages, poses, and backgrounds from various databases. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is superior to previous methods and comparable to commercial systems, for example, PicTreat, Portrait+ , and Portraiture. PMID:24710839

  8. Investigation on full 6" masks using innovative solutions for direct physico-chemical analyses of mask contamination and haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, L.; Pelissier, B.; Dufaye, F.; Gough, S.; Hamonne, J.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.; Sergent, P.; Tissier, M.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the different types of haze contamination that occur in industrial conditions, using direct physico-chemical analyses on full 6" masks leaving their pellicle intact. Contaminated masks coming from end users (ST - France) or masks fab (Toppan Photomask) have been analysed. First, references XPS analyses on specially designed blanks from Toppan have been performed. Four references have been studied by angle resolved XPS. These studies show the absence of nitrogen and sulfur contamination on SiO2 side for the four references. On Cr side, a weak residual sulfur contamination has been observed as well as a very significant nitrogen concentration for the masks treated with a standard process. Concerning the masks treated with a sulfate free process, on Cr side, no residual sulfur has been detected by XPS, whereas few trace of nitrogen amount has been detected. Then a mask coming from the ST fab contaminated in real industrial conditions has been studied with several complementary characterisation techniques such as XPS, SEM, Raman and Tof-SIMS. Theses analyses confirm that the back glass haze on the mask is on a particle form. Two types of defects have been found: small particles (a few μm size), having a stick shape, with a very typical form indicating a crystal growth mechanism, and big particles (a few 10 μm size).The detailed physico-chemical results show the composition of the particles. Raman and Tof-Sims clearly show that small particle (with a stick form) are made of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 crystals. XPS, Raman and Tof-Sims indicate that big particles are a nitrogen containing polymer with a weak sulphate contamination.

  9. ION EXCHANGE RESINS: AN APPROACH TOWARDS TASTE MASKING OF BITTER DRUGS AND SUSTAINED RELEASE FORMULATIONS WITH THEIR PATENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bilandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to cover various aspects related with the use of ion exchange resins for taste masking of bitter drugs and for formulating sustained release dosage form. Ion exchange resins are water insoluble cross-linked polymers containing a salt-forming group at repeating positions on the polymer chain and have the ability to exchange counter-ions within aqueous solutions surrounding them. The bitterness of pharmaceutical medicines plays a critical role in patient compliance, as the oral administration of bitter drugs is often hampered by their unpleasant taste which leads to non-compliance and further worsening of diseased condition. One of the popular approaches in the taste masking of bitter drugs is based on IER. For taste masking purpose weak cation exchange or weak anion exchange resins are used, depending on the nature of drug. The drug resin complex is absolutely tasteless with no after taste, and at the same time, its bioavailability is not affected. Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a pre determined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. The usage of IER during the development of sustained release formulations plays a significant role because of their drug retarding properties. In this review also incorporates various patents related to taste masking and sustained release formulations using IER.

  10. Visual processing in schizophrenia: Structural equation modeling of visual masking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Breitmeyer, Bruno G; Mintz, Jim

    2005-10-15

    Schizophrenic patients consistently demonstrate performance deficits on visual masking procedures. In visual masking, the subject's ability to process a target stimulus is reduced by another stimulus (mask) presented either before (forward masking) or after (backward masking) the target. Masking procedures employed in schizophrenia research have used several experimental paradigms. Most early studies have used high-energy masks (i.e., the mask is stronger than the target) and spatially overlapping target and mask. More recently, studies have begun to employ relatively weak (i.e., low-energy) masks, as well as masks that surround, but do not spatially overlap, the target. Data for forward and backward masking components of four masking conditions (target location and identification with a high-energy mask, target identification with a low-energy mask, and target identification with equal energy paracontrast/metacontrast) were collected from 75 patients with schizophrenia. Based on theoretical distinctions among masking procedures, we compared four models of visual masking using structural equation modeling. Although high zero-order correlations were found among the masking parameters, a four-factor model, in which factors were separated on the type of response (target location and identification), the shape of the function (monotonic and non-monotonic), and the overlap of the stimuli (overlapping and non-overlapping), provided the best fit for the data. These findings suggest that the four masking procedures used in this study may tap unique aspects of visual processing and are not redundant. The results also support theories of the different mechanisms underlying performance on these measures. PMID:15975768

  11. Comparison of volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ventilation using a laryngeal mask airway during gynecological laparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Cho, Sang Yun; Bang, Mi Rang; Ko, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    Background Several publications have reported the successful, safe use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)-Classic devices in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. However, there have been no studies that have examined the application of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) or pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a LMA during gynecological laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to compare how the VCV and PCV modes and using a LMA affect the pulmonary mechanics, the gas exchange and the ca...

  12. Study of Object Substitution Masking Using Event-related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruki, Atsuo; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    We make use of especially visual information though we are using a lot of information among modality in daily life. However, there is a difference between the real world and the perception of visual world. For instance, conscious perception of a briefly presented target can be reduced by a subsequent dot mask that does not touch it. However, the theory of this phenomenon, called Object Substitution Masking (OSM), is not clear. We investigated this issue by examining the effect of OSM on the N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP). As expected, subsequent dot mask significantly reduced accuracy in identifying the target. The N170 amplitude of P4 was also diminished by OSM. It was suggested that OSM is concerned in right posterior parietal cortex.

  13. Computation of reflected images from extreme ultraviolet masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollepalli, Srinivas B.; Cerrina, Franco

    1999-06-01

    With EUV lithography emerging as a promising technology for semiconductor device fabrication with critical dimensions EQ 100 nm, it is of importance to understand the image formation process in detail. The proposed setup includes a reflective mask consisting of an absorbing material over- coated on a stack of multilayers and 4X de-magnifying optics. In this paper we consider the reflective mask alone i.e. excluding the condenser system and the optics and characterize the reflective properties of the extreme ultra violet mask. In particular, we show the effects caused due to diffraction, non-uniformities in the multilayer stack due to substrate defects, and partial spatial coherence. Several simulation examples are presented.

  14. Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Solomon, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We have implemented a model of contrast gain and control in human vision that incorporates a number of key features, including a contrast sensitivity function, multiple oriented bandpass channels, accelerating nonlinearities, and a devisive inhibitory gain control pool. The parameters of this model have been optimized through a fit to the recent data that describe masking of a Gabor function by cosine and Gabor masks [J. M. Foley, "Human luminance pattern mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710 (1994)]. The model achieves a good fit to the data. We also demonstrate how the concept of recruitment may accommodate a variant of this model in which excitatory and inhibitory paths have a common accelerating nonlinearity, but which include multiple channels tuned to different levels of contrast.

  15. An aperture masking mode for the MICADO instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Gendron, E; Boccaletti, A; Galicher, R; Clénet, Y; Gratadour, D; Buey, T; Rousset, G; Hartl, M; Davies, R

    2014-01-01

    MICADO is a near-IR camera for the Europea ELT, featuring an extended field (75" diameter) for imaging, and also spectrographic and high contrast imaging capabilities. It has been chosen by ESO as one of the two first-light instruments. Although it is ultimately aimed at being fed by the MCAO module called MAORY, MICADO will come with an internal SCAO system that will be complementary to it and will deliver a high performance on axis correction, suitable for coronagraphic and pupil masking applications. The basis of the pupil masking approach is to ensure the stability of the optical transfer function, even in the case of residual errors after AO correction (due to non common path errors and quasi-static aberrations). Preliminary designs of pupil masks are presented. Trade-offs and technical choices, especially regarding redundancy and pupil tracking, are explained.

  16. Analysis of machining characteristics in electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical etching using laser masking (EELM), which is a combination of laser beam irradiation for masking and electrochemical etching, allows the micro fabrication of stainless steel without photolithography technology. The EELM process can produce various micro patterns and multilayered structures. In this study, the machining characteristics of EELM were investigated. Changes in characteristics of recast layer formation and the protective effect of the recast layer according to the laser masking conditions and electrochemical etching conditions were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The oxidized recast layer with a thickness of 500 nm was verified to yield a superior protective effect during electrochemical etching and good form accuracy. Finally, micro patterns and structures were fabricated by EELM.

  17. Information Masking and Amplification: The Source Coding Setting

    CERN Document Server

    Courtade, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The complementary problems of masking and amplifying channel state information in the Gel'fand-Pinsker channel have recently been solved by Merhav and Shamai, and Kim et al., respectively. In this paper, we study a related source coding problem. Specifically, we consider the two-encoder source coding setting where one source is to be amplified, while the other source is to be masked. In general, there is a tension between these two objectives which is characterized by the amplification-masking tradeoff. In this paper, we give a single-letter description of this tradeoff. We apply this result, together with a recent theorem by Courtade and Weissman on multiterminal source coding, to solve a fundamental entropy characterization problem.

  18. Video encryption using chaotic masks in joint transform correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time optical video encryption technique using a chaotic map has been reported. In the proposed technique, each frame of video is encrypted using two different chaotic random phase masks in the joint transform correlator architecture. The different chaotic random phase masks can be obtained either by using different iteration levels or by using different seed values of the chaotic map. The use of different chaotic random phase masks makes the decryption process very complex for an unauthorized person. Optical, as well as digital, methods can be used for video encryption but the decryption is possible only digitally. To further enhance the security of the system, the key parameters of the chaotic map are encoded using RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) public key encryption. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the proposed technique. (paper)

  19. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micro-scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Barty, Anton; Anderson, Erik; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung

    2008-02-01

    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. They describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV) wavelength microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. The defects present in EUV masks can appear in many well-known forms: as particles that cause amplitude or phase variations in the reflected field; as surface contamination that reduces reflectivity and contrast; and as damage from inspection and use that reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating. This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. They describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in defect repair studies, observations of laser damage, actinic inspection following scanning electron microscopy, and the detection of both native and programmed defects.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of dispersible taste masked tablet of roxithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundada A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Roxithromycin is a broad spectrum, semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic, having bitter taste. In the present study, an attempt has been made to mask the bitter taste of roxithromycin by complexation technique. Weak cation exchange resins Indion 214 and Amberlite IRP64, polymer carbopol 934P were used in formulation of complexes with the drug. The loading process was optimized for the pH of loading solution and resin or polymer:drug ratio. The complexes were evaluated for bulk density, angle of repose, taste masking, and in vitro drug release. In vitro drug release studies showed more than 80% drug release from the optimized formulation within 30 min. Amberlite IRP64 was found to be better complexing agent for masking the bitter taste of roxithromycin.

  1. Individually different weighting of multiple processes underlies effects of metacontrast masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Mattler, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Metacontrast masking occurs when a mask follows a target stimulus in close spatial proximity. Target visibility varies with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask in individually different ways leading to different masking functions with corresponding phenomenological reports. We used individual differences to determine the processes that underlie metacontrast masking. We assessed individual masking functions in a masked target discrimination task using different masking conditions and applied factor-analytical techniques on measures of sensitivity. Results yielded two latent variables that (1) contribute to performance with short and long SOA, respectively, (2) relate to specific stimulus features, and (3) differentially correlate with specific subjective percepts. We propose that each latent variable reflects a specific process. Two additional processes may contribute to performance with short and long SOAs, respectively. Discrimination performance in metacontrast masking results from individually different weightings of two to four processes, each of which contributes to specific subjective percepts. PMID:27010825

  2. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  3. Planarization of topography with spin-on carbon hard mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Go; Hama, Yusuke; Ishii, Maki; Nakasugi, Shigemasa; Kudo, Takanori; Padmanaban, Munirathna

    2016-03-01

    Spin-on-carbon hard mask (SOC HM) has been used in semiconductor manufacturing since 45nm node as an alternative carbon hard mask process to chemical vapor deposition (CVD). As advancement of semiconductor to 2X nm nodes and beyond, multiple patterning technology is used and planarization of topography become more important and challenging ever before. In order to develop next generation SOC, one of focuses is planarization of topography. SOC with different concepts for improved planarization and the influence of thermal flow temperature, crosslink, film shrinkage, baking conditions on planarization and filling performance are described in this paper.

  4. The Model 80 face mask fit-tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternack, A.

    1978-06-01

    Leakage from a face mask can be measured quantitatively using ethylene or sulphur hexafluoride as tracer gas. Either ethylene detector tubes or a leak detector are used with a hood which fits over the head of the person tested. The tester can be used for training, to give the wearer a feeling for the correct placement of the face mask and for tightening the straps. It can also be used to check tightness when the hair-style or shape of beard is changed.

  5. Does Masking Matter? Shipping Noise and Fish Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, Sarah T V; Piper, Rayner; White, Paul R; Kemp, Paul; Leighton, Timothy G; Shaw, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Shipping creates large near-field background noises at levels similar to or higher than fish vocalizations and in the same critical bandwidths. This noise has the potential to "mask" biologically important signals and prevent fish from hearing them; any interference with the detection and recognition of sounds may impact fish survival. The Lombard effect, whereby vocalizations are altered to reduce or exclude masking effects, is an adaptation that has been observed in mammals and birds. Research is needed to establish whether the Lombard effect occurs in fish to gain a better understanding of the implications of noise pollution on fish populations. PMID:26611028

  6. Design study of a movable mask with low beam impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design of a movable-mask (collimator) for high current accelerators is proposed. The mask head is supported by a ceramics rod to reduce the interference with beam. One side of the rod is coated by a thin conductive material to avoid charge up of the head. The head is made of graphite or ceramics coated with copper to avoid the direct damage by an intense beam. The impedances of trapped modes, the loss factors and so on were evaluated by simulation codes. The frequencies and the Q factors of the trapped modes were also measured using a cold model, and compared with calculated ones. (author)

  7. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, N.

    2013-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively with...... reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together, these...

  8. Mask synthesis and verification based on geometric model for surface micro-machined MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-hua; LIU Yu-sheng; GAO Shu-ming

    2005-01-01

    Traditional MEMS (microelectromechanical system) design methodology is not a structured method and has become an obstacle for MEMS creative design. In this paper, a novel method of mask synthesis and verification for surface micro-machined MEMS is proposed, which is based on the geometric model of a MEMS device. The emphasis is focused on synthesizing the masks at the basis of the layer model generated from the geometric model of the MEMS device. The method is comprised of several steps: the correction of the layer model, the generation of initial masks and final masks including multi-layer etch masks, and mask simulation. Finally some test results are given.

  9. Optimal mask characterization by Surrogate Wafer Print (SWaP) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.; Hoellein, Ingo; Peters, Jan Hendrick; Ackmann, Paul; Connolly, Brid; West, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, definition of mask specifications is done completely by the mask user, while characterization of the mask relative to the specifications is done completely by the mask maker. As the challenges of low-k1 imaging continue to grow in scope of designs and in absolute complexity, the inevitable partnership between wafer lithographers and mask makers has strengthened as well. This is reflected in the jointly owned mask facilities and device manufacturers' continued maintenance of fully captive mask shops which foster the closer mask-litho relationships. However, while some device manufacturers have leveraged this to optimize mask specifications before the mask is built and, therefore, improve mask yield and cost, the opportunity for post-fabrication partnering on mask characterization is more apparent and compelling. The Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) has been investigating the concept of assessing how a mask images, rather than the mask's physical attributes, as a technically superior and lower-cost method to characterize a mask. The idea of printing a mask under its intended imaging conditions, then characterizing the imaged wafer as a surrogate for traditional mask inspections and measurements represents the ultimate method to characterize a mask's performance, which is most meaningful to the user. Surrogate wafer print (SWaP) is already done as part of leading-edge wafer fab mask qualification to validate defect and dimensional performance. In the past, the prospect of executing this concept has generally been summarily discarded as technically untenable and logistically intractable. The AMTC published a paper at BACUS 2007 successfully demonstrating the performance of SWaP for the characterization of defects as an alternative to traditional mask inspection [1]. It showed that this concept is not only feasible, but, in some cases, desirable. This paper expands on last year's work at AMTC to assess the full implementation of SWaP as an

  10. Optimal distributed computing resources for mask synthesis and tape-out in production environment: an economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Chris; Chacko, Manoj; Levi, Shimon

    2005-11-01

    At the deep Subwavelength process nodes, the use of the aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) and resolution enhancement techniques (RET) is fostering an exponential increase in output database size causing the CPU time required for mask tape-out to increase significantly. This sets up challenging scenarios for integrated device manufacturers (IDMs), and Foundries. For integrated device manufacturers (IDMs), this can impact the time-to-market for their products where even a few days delay could have a huge commercial impact and loss of market window opportunity. For foundries, a shorter turnaround time provides a competitive advantage in their demanding market, too slow could mean customers looking elsewhere for these services; while a fast turnaround may even command a higher price. With FAB turnaround for a CMOS process around 20-30 days, a delay of several days in mask tapeout would contribute a significant fraction to the total time to deliver prototypes. Unlike silicon processing, masks tape-out time can be decreased by applying a combination of extra computing resources and enhancements in the OPC tool like Fracture Friendly OPC (FFOPC) . Mask tape-out groups are taking advantage of the ever-decreasing hardware cost and increasing power of commodity processors. The significant distributability inherent in some commercial Mask Synthesis software can be leveraged to address this critical business issue. Different implementations have different fractions of the code that cannot be parallelized and this affects the efficiency with which it scales, as is described by Amdahl's law. Very few are efficient enough to allow the effective use of 100's of processors, enabling run times to drop from days to only minutes. What follows is a cost aware methodology to quantify the scalability of this class of software, and thus act as a guide to estimating the optimal investment in terms of hardware and software licenses.

  11. Challenges and technical requirements for multi-beam mask writer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Lee, Ho June; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2014-07-01

    Because mask patterning quality of CD uniformity, MTT, registration and smaller assist feature size is important for wafer patterning, the higher exposure dose and complex pattern design will be necessary. It is the reason why the faster and more accurate e-beam mask writer is needed for future design node. Multi-beam mask writer is the most promising new e-beam mask writer technology for future sub-10nm device mask patterning to solve the pattern quality issue and writing time problem. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed by comparison with problems of current VSB e-beam mask writer. Comparing with e-beam mask writer which has the critical issues of beam size and position control, the application of entirely different methods and techniques of CD and position control is essential for multi-beam mask writer which has new architecture and writing strategy. Using the simulation method, we present the different challenges between VSB and multi-beam mask writer. And there are many important technical requirements to achieve expected specification of multi-beam mask writer. To understand such requirements, the patterning simulation and mathematical calculation are done for analysis. Based on the patterning simulation, the detail technical requirements and issues of multi-beam mask writer are achieved. Consequently, we suggest the direction of multi-beam mask writer development in terms of technical challenges and requirements.

  12. Experimental demonstration of binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs for telescopes with obscured pupils

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Kanae; Abe, Lyu; Takahashi, Aoi; Kotani, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2016-01-01

    We present the fabrication and experimental demonstration of three free-standing binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs, which are applicable for telescopes with partially obscured pupils. Three masks, designed to be complementary (labeled Mask-A, Mask-B, and Mask-C), were formed in 5 micron thick nickel. The design of Mask-A is based on a one-dimensional barcode mask. The design principle of Mask-B is similar, but has a smaller inner working angle and a lower contrast than Mask-A. Mask-C is based on a concentric ring mask and provides the widest dark region and a symmetric point spread function. Mask-A and Mask-C were both designed to produce a flexibly tailored dark region (i.e., non-uniform contrast). The contrast was evaluated using a light source comprising a broadband super-luminescent light-emitting diode with a center wavelength of 650 nm, and the measurements were carried out in a large vacuum chamber. Active wavefront control was not applied in this work. The coronagraphic images obtained by experime...

  13. Effects of mask fitness and worker education on the prevention of occupational dust exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishide,Tadashi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the incidence of pneumoconiosis, we examined dust protective mask performance and its relation to pulmonary function as well as the effects of worker education on the proper wearing of masks. One hundred and seventy-eight workers from 15 factories subject to dust exposure participated in this study. All participants were interviewed to obtain relevant personal information and underwent both a mask leakage and a pulmonary function test. The mask leakage was expressed as a percentage, with under 10% leakage indicating that the dust protective mask worked efficiently. In addition, 23 workers from 2 factories were educated on how to wear masks properly. The average mask leakage was 24.3%, and 58% of workers wore ineffective masks. Though pulmonary function was almost normal, the percent vital capacity (%VC tended to be lower depending on the mask leakage. Mask education, which was very easy and took only a short time, dramatically decreased average mask leakage from 32.1% to 10.5% (p0.001. Educating workers to wear masks properly might prevent the worsening of pulmonary function in response to dust exposure. Appropriate mask fitness by education could be useful in preventing the development of pneumoconiosis.

  14. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  15. Immunologically-based methods for detecting masked mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masked mycotoxins are generally described as including unknown mycotoxins, non-extractable forms of known mycotoxins, or untargeted forms of known mycotoxins. Immunoassays can be developed with either broad cross-reaction to mycotoxin congeners or with high selectivity for a particular toxin. The re...

  16. "Kuldne mask" - hea vene teater Eestis / Laur Kaunissaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaunissaare, Laur, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    6.-13. okt. Tallinnas ja Jõhvis toimuvast Venemaa rahvuslikust teatrifestivalist "Kuldne mask Eestis". Festivali lavastustest - Temur Tšheidze "Onukese unenägu", Declan Donnellan "Kaheteistkümnes öö", Lev Erenburgi "Äike" ja Alvis Hermanise "Šukšini jutustused"

  17. EVALUATION OF HOT MELT COATING AS TASTE MASKING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Arun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hot melt technique has been evaluated as a tool to mask bitter or unpleasant taste of Bromhexine hydrochloride and Salbutamol sulphate formulated as pellets. Bees wax and cetyl alcohol were evaluated as hot melt coating materials for taste masking. Drug containing pellets were prepared and coated using hot melt technique. Threshold bitterness concentrations of drugs and taste evaluation of hot melt coated pellets were determined by panel method. The pellets of all the formulation batches were in the size range of 825 to 995 μ after hot melt coating. Pellets exhibited uniformity of content in the range of 97.6 – 101.1%. Threshold bitterness concentration of both the drugs was found to be about 300 µg/ml. Amount of drug released from all pellets batches was less than threshold bitterness concentration for first 5 minutes indicating that taste of the drug was completely masked. Taste evaluation study of hot melt coated pellets by panel method revealed that about 80 % of the volunteers sensed no bitter taste even at 2 and 3% coating level whereas none of the volunteer reported bitter taste for pellets coated at 5%w/w level. Bees wax and cetyl alcohol both found to be better taste masking agents for Bromhexine hydrochloride and Salbutamol sulphate, when used by hot melt technique.

  18. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  19. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  20. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno. B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Huh, S.

    2008-03-24

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  1. Polarization-induced astigmatism caused by topographic masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Johannes; Neumann, Jens Timo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; van Setten, Eelco; le Masson, Nicolas; Progler, Chris; Geh, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    With the continuous shrink of feature sizes the pitch of the mask comes closer to the wave length of light. It has been recognized that in this case polarization effects of the mask become much more pronounced and deviations in the diffraction efficiencies from the well-known Kirchhoff approach can no longer be neglected. It is not only the diffraction efficiencies that become polarization-dependent, also the phases of the diffracted orders tend to deviate from Kirchhoff theory when calculated rigorously. This also happens for large structures, where these phase deviations can mimic polarization dependent wave front aberrations, which in the case of polarized illumination can lead to non-negligible focus shifts that depend on the orientation and the features size themselves. This orientation dependence results in a polarization induced astigmatism offset, which can be of the same order of magnitude or even larger as polarization effects stemming from the lens itself. Hence, for correctly predicting polarization induced astigmatism offsets, one has to both consider lens and mask effects at the same time. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of polarized induced phase effects of topographic masks and develop a simple theoretical model that accurately describes the observed effects.

  2. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-09-18

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-{micro}m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured {sigma} values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA.

  3. Multiaperture spectroscopy with rapid mask fabrication and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiaperture spectroscopy device has been installed on the focal reducer at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The mask processing and positioning operations are described. Emphasis is placed on the speed and reliability of a fully automatic method controlled by a computer routine. Spectra obtained during the first observations at C.F.H.T. are shown as illustration

  4. Size Resolved Penetration of Filters from Respirator Masks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serfozo, N.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lazaridis, M.

    -: Italian Aerosol Society, 2015. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference EAC 2015. Milano (IT), 06.09.2015-11.09.2015] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : size resolved penetration * filter * respirator mask Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Coronagraph-integrated wavefront sensing with a sparse aperture mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado

    2015-07-01

    Stellar coronagraph performance is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. In order to effectively suppress starlight for exoplanet imaging applications, low-order wavefront aberrations entering a coronagraph, such as tip-tilt, defocus, and coma, must be determined and compensated. Previous authors have established the utility of pupil-plane masks (both nonredundant/sparse-aperture and generally asymmetric aperture masks) for wavefront sensing (WFS). Here, we show how a sparse aperture mask (SAM) can be integrated with a coronagraph to measure low-order differential phase aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a subsequent detector. Our numerical Fourier propagation models show that the information encoded in the fringe intensity distortions is sufficient to accurately discriminate and estimate Zernike phase modes extending from tip-tilt up to radial degree n=5, with amplitude up to λ/20 RMS. The SAM sensor can be integrated with both Lyot and shaped pupil coronagraphs at no detriment to the science beam quality. We characterize the reconstruction accuracy and the performance under low flux/short exposure time conditions, and place it in context of other coronagraph WFS schemes.

  6. Mask of Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Teresa M.

    2005-01-01

    One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to Black God. Today, a famous star cluster--the Pleiades--often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while honing their…

  7. General Projective Synchronization and Fractional Order Chaotic Masking Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Quan Shao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fractional order chaoticmasking scheme used for secure communication isintroduced. Based on the general projectivesynchronization of two coupled fractional Chen systems,a popular masking scheme is designed. Numericalexample is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of theproposed method.

  8. Actinic EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  9. Efficient scan mask techniques for connected components labeling algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutheebanjard Phaisarn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Block-based connected components labeling is by far the fastest algorithm to label the connected components in 2D binary images, especially when the image size is quite large. This algorithm produces a decision tree that contains 211 leaf nodes with 14 levels for the depth of a tree and an average depth of 1.5923. This article attempts to provide a faster method for connected components labeling. We propose two new scan masks for connected components labeling, namely, the pixel-based scan mask and the block-based scan mask. In the final stage, the block-based scan mask is transformed to a near-optimal decision tree. We conducted comparative experiments using different sources of images for examining the performance of the proposed method against the existing methods. We also performed an average tree depth analysis and tree balance analysis to consolidate the performance improvement over the existing methods. Most significantly, the proposed method produces a decision tree containing 86 leaf nodes with 12 levels for the depth of a tree and an average depth of 1.4593, resulting in faster execution time, especially when the foreground density is equal to or greater than the background density of the images.

  10. 42 CFR 84.110 - Gas masks; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas masks; description. 84.110 Section 84.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... specific gas or vapor), or those which generate high heats or reaction with sorbent materials in...

  11. Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method so...

  12. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  13. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura K; Smithson, Hannah E

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the center frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size) the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002). Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina-their effect is generally to attenuate high frequencies more than low frequencies but often in a non-monotonic way. We might expect the change in the spatial frequency spectrum caused by the aberration to predict the shift in channel tuning observed for aberrated letters. We show that this is not the case. We used critical-band masking to estimate channel-tuning in the presence of three types of aberration-defocus, coma and secondary astigmatism. We found that the maximum masking was shifted to lower frequencies in the presence of an aberration and that this result was not simply predicted by the spatial-frequency-dependent degradation in image quality, assessed via metrics that have previously been shown to correlate well with performance loss in the presence of an aberration. We show that if image quality effects are taken into account (using visual Strehl metrics), the neural channel required to model the data is shifted to lower frequencies compared to the control (no-aberration) condition. Additionally, we show that when spurious resolution (caused by π phase shifts in the optical transfer function) in the image is masked, the channel tuning properties for aberrated letters are affected, suggesting that there may be interference between visual channels. Even in the presence of simulated aberrations, whose properties change from trial-to-trial, observers exhibit flexibility in selecting the spatial frequencies that support letter identification. PMID:25324794

  14. Critical band masking reveals the effects of optical distortions on the channel mediating letter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eYoung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that letter identification is mediated by only a narrow band of spatial frequencies and that the centre frequency of the neural channel thought to underlie this selectivity is related to the size of the letters. When letters are spatially filtered (at a fixed size the channel tuning characteristics change according to the properties of the spatial filter (Majaj et al., 2002. Optical aberrations in the eye act to spatially filter the image formed on the retina - their effect is generally to attenuate high frequencies more than low frequencies but often in a non-monotonic way. We might expect the change in the spatial frequency spectrum caused by the aberration to predict the shift in channel tuning observed for aberrated letters. We show that this is not the case. We used critical-band masking to estimate channel-tuning in the presence of three types of aberration - defocus, coma and secondary astigmatism. We found that the maximum masking was shifted to lower frequencies in the presence of an aberration and that this result was not simply predicted by the spatial-frequency-dependent degradation in image quality, assessed via metrics that have previously been shown to correlate well with performance loss in the presence of an aberration. We show that if image quality effects are taken into account (using visual Strehl metrics, the neural channel required to model the data is shifted to lower frequencies compared to the control (no-aberration condition. Additionally, we show that when spurious resolution (caused by π phase shifts in the optical transfer function in the image is masked, the channel tuning properties for aberrated letters are affected, suggesting that there may be interference between visual channels. Even in the presence of simulated aberrations, whose properties change from trial-to-trial, observers exhibit flexibility in selecting the spatial frequencies that support letter identification.

  15. Sub-Optical Lithography With Nanometer Definition Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Malek, Chantal Khan; Neogi, Jayant

    2000-01-01

    Nanometer feature size lithography represents a major paradigm shift for the electronics and micro-electro-mechanical industries. In this paper, we discuss the capacity of dynamic focused reactive ion beam (FIB) etching systems to undertake direct and highly anisotropic erosion of thick evaporated gold coatings on boron-doped silicon X-ray mask membranes. FIB offers a new level of flexibility in micro fabrication, allowing for fast fabrication of X-ray masks, where pattern definition and surface alteration are combined in the same step which eliminates the whole lithographic process, in particular resist, resist development, electro-deposition and resist removal. Focused ion beam diameters as small as 7 nm can be obtained enabling fabrication well into the sub-20 nm regime. In preliminary demonstrations of this X-ray mask fabrication technique 22 nm width lines were milled directly through 0.9 microns of gold and a miniature mass spectrometer pattern was milled through over 0.5 microns of gold. Also presented are the results of the shadow printing, using the large depth of field of synchrotron high energy parallel X-ray beam, of these and other sub-optical defined patterns in photoresist conformally coated over surfaces of extreme topographical variation. Assuming that electronic circuits and/or micro devices scale proportionally, the surface area of devices processed with X-ray lithography and 20 nm critical dimension X-ray masks would be 0.5% that of contemporary devices (350 nm CD). The 20 CD mask fabrication represents an initial effort - a further factor of three reduction is anticipated which represents a further order-of-magnitude reduction in die area.

  16. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The face mask and chest shield device of this invention comprises two principal components removably attachable together for mounting upon the shoulders of a person in facing or reverse attitude whereby the person's head, face, neck and shoulders are protected from random deflected x-rays or the direct x-ray beam during the x-ray exposure period. The face mask is preferably made of and comprises a substantially semi-circular or arcuate relatively transparent plate or sheet of plastic material designed to cover the front and sides of the head and neck in one aspect when used by x-ray technician, and the back and sides of the head and neck in another aspect when used by a patient being exposed to the x-ray beam for chest or upper body study. The thickness of the face mask can be varied, as can the density or proportion of the lead salt contained in the plastic material. The face mask is preferably made of a plastic material such as, but not limited to, DuPont's 'SURLYN' (trademark) material which is a nylon, relatively transparent, lead saltinomer compound containing a weight percent of lead up to about 18 percent to 20 percent. Higher proportions of lead salt can also be used. The chest shield is preferably fabricated of a rubber or plastic sheet material suitably impregnated or filled with a lead material such as lead sheet or film, or with lead particles or salt compound. It need not be transparent. The chest shield is designed for removable attachment to the face mask by suitable fasteners, such as for example snap-type fasteners which are relatively easily engaged and disengaged

  17. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-07-01

    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  18. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  19. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  20. Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the forest ecosystems in Easten Fennoscandia on the populations of pygmy and masked shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanter Ernest

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-term (1965-2013 stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006, but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus L. and masked shrew (Sorex caecutiens Laxm. – respond to these changes otherwise. The first one reduces in the number, especially in highly transformed habitats, but in general, its populations acquire the necessary stability and sustainability, while the masked shrew is affected by the massive lumbering negatively. Nevertheless, the latter is regularly found in the newly formed coniferous plantations emerging after the radical forest devastation.

  1. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO2-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J. E.; Lymperakis, L.; Eftychis, S.; Adikimenakis, A.; Doundoulakis, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P.; Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO2 mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  2. 37 CFR 211.6 - Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement of mask work notice. 211.6 Section 211.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.6 Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (a) General. (1) This section specifies methods of affixation and...

  3. Evaluation of protection provided by air purifying half and full-face masks as worn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For selecting good-performing masks and estimating the protection provided by the masks, the leakage has been measured for six types of half mask and three types of full-face mask as worn. The cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was generated within a test hood in which the subject wore his mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. The leakage was measured under four simulated working conditions such as normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. The measured protection factors (defined as the ratio of the concentration of the test cloud outside the mask to that inside the mask) widely distributed from 10 to 3,300 for the half masks and from 100 to 3,300 for the full-face masks, depending on the persons and the working conditions. The values characterising the distribution of the protection factor for each mask are summarized. Based on these values, the performance of each mask and the effects of working conditions on the protection are discussed. (author)

  4. Taste-masked orodispersible tablets of cyclosporine self-nanoemulsion lyophilized with dry silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Aljaeid, Bader M; Mokhtar, Mahmoud; Shehata, Tamer M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of formulation parameters on the disintegration, water absorption and dissolution characteristics of cyclosporine A (CyA) loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) in an orodispersible compacts. Its taste masking efficiency was also attempted using an electronic tongue. ODTs were prepared by freeze-drying liquid SEDDS and synthetic amorphous silica suspension followed by direct compression. The influences of the compression forces and super-disintegrant were evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. The liquid SEDDS was characterized by vesicular size of 48.5 nm, polydispersity index of 0.95, turbidity of 40.7 NTU and rapid CyA dissolution and emulsification rate. The results of micrometric studies demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness and friability to indicate good mechanical strength of ODTs. The interaction and Pareto charts demonstrated a greater effect of low compression force to increase the porosity and facilitate the disintegration rather than the deformation action of the super-disintegrant. Super-disintegrant level was the most important factor affecting the dissolution parameter followed by the compression force then their interaction effect. Moreover, as indicated by Euclidean distance values and discrimination indices, the unpalatable taste and aversion taste of CyA to stimuli were masked in its optimized SEDDS incorporated ODTs. PMID:25069592

  5. Processing of masked and unmasked emotional faces under different attentional conditions: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia eDel Zotto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interactions between non-spatial selective attention, awareness and emotion processing, we carried out an ERP study using a backward masking paradigm, in which angry, fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions were presented, while participants attempted to detect the presence of one or the other category of facial expressions in the different experimental blocks. ERP results showed that negative emotions enhanced an early N170 response over temporal-occipital leads in both masked and unmasked conditions, independently of selective attention. A later effect arising at the P2 was linked to awareness. Finally, selective attention was found to affect the N2 and N3 components over occipito-parietal leads. Our findings reveal that i the initial processing of facial expressions arises prior to attention and awareness; ii attention and awareness give rise to temporally distinct periods of activation independently of the type of emotion with only a partial degree of overlap; and iii selective attention appears to be influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli, which in turn impinges on unconscious processing at a very early stage. This study confirms previous reports that negative facial expressions can be processed rapidly, in absence of visual awareness and independently of selective attention. On the other hand, attention and awareness may operate in a synergistic way, depending on task demand.

  6. Galaxies and their Masks A Conference in Honour of K.C. Freeman, FRS

    CERN Document Server

    Block, David L; Puerari, Ivânio

    2010-01-01

    Various kinds of masks obscure our view of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as well as of other galaxies. Masks of interstellar dust affect our measurements within galaxies, on scales ranging from individual supernovae to the galaxies themselves. The “mass mask” (our inability to image mass rather than light) gives astronomers a very incomplete picture of the size and structure of galaxies themselves, because we cannot image the dark matter which provides most of the galactic mass. Another mass is the “dynamical mask”: as galaxies form, much dynamical information is lost in the birthing process. A new thrust in research is to retrieve such information by means of chemical tagging. About 50 astronomers flew into Namibia in April 2010, to celebrate the 70th birthday of Professor K.C. Freeman, Fellow of the Royal Society. At age 70, Freeman, a father of dark matter in galaxies, continues to be one of planet’s most highly cited astronomers. The current volume affords readers a unique perspective on galaxies b...

  7. Dip listening or modulation masking? Call recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) in temporally fluctuating noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Höbel, Gerlinde; Gordon, Noah M; Bee, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of perceptually separating signals from background noise, we still know little about how nonhuman animals solve this problem. Dip listening, an ability to catch meaningful 'acoustic glimpses' of a target signal when fluctuating background noise levels momentarily drop, constitutes one possible solution. Amplitude-modulated noises, however, can sometimes impair signal recognition through a process known as modulation masking. We asked whether fluctuating noise simulating a breeding chorus affects the ability of female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) to recognize male advertisement calls. Our analysis of recordings of the sounds of green treefrog choruses reveal that their levels fluctuate primarily at rates below 10 Hz. In laboratory phonotaxis tests, we found no evidence for dip listening or modulation masking. Mean signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating chorus-like noises were never statistically different from those in the presence of a non-fluctuating control. An analysis of statistical effects sizes indicates that masker fluctuation rates, and the presence versus absence of fluctuations, had negligible effects on subject behavior. Together, our results suggest that females listening in natural settings should receive no benefits, nor experience any additional constraints, as a result of level fluctuations in the soundscape of green treefrog choruses. PMID:23069882

  8. Masking of Wind Turbine Noise: Influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier

    2002-07-01

    In the issue of noise annoyance generated by wind turbines, masking by ambient noise is of great importance. At wind turbine sites, the main source of ambient noise arises from the wind blowing on the vegetation. However, natural wind can barely be described as a steady flow and 'lulls' and 'gusts' are words used to describe its unsteady component. This latter, also called wind turbulence, may affect the masking effect, as the wind turbine may become audible during short laps of time of low wind speed, that is of low ambient noise. The aim of the present report is to study the influence of wind turbulence on ambient noise fluctuations. It is shown that these latter are governed not only by the turbulence intensity, but also by its temporal and spatial structure. This report provides some elements of atmospheric turbulence as well as techniques for the simulation of turbulent wind fields. Simulation results are given that illustrate how the standard deviation of the vegetation noise can vary as function of the canopy size and turbulence spatial patterns. Finally, ambient noise fluctuations and their statistical descriptions are also discussed, based on both theoretical considerations and empirical results.

  9. A spin-on photosensitive polymeric etch protection mask for anisotropic wet etching of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly developed photosensitive etch protection materials have key advantages over standard photoresists typically used in today's MEMS applications. Using these new materials eliminates the need for silicon nitride (SiN) masks deposited via CVD processes, which require significant investments in processing equipment, utilize extreme processing conditions and contribute to an overall decrease in throughput. This new technology will enhance throughput by reducing the number of process steps and simplify the process flow with minimal impact on overall undercut performance. The polymeric coating serves as a SiN mask replacement for etching silicon substrates in alkaline anisotropic etchants such as KOH and TMAH. The undercut performance observed is larger than that of SiN when etched in KOH, but when alternative alkaline etchants such as TMAH are used, the undercut is identical (1–2% with respect to etch depth). Various factors, such as primer bake, topcoat final cure temperature, etchant concentration and substrate surface conditions, have all been shown to affect undercut results. An additional advantage of this new technology is that it can be easily reworked/removed by solvents, plasma etch, Nano-Strip®, Piranha and RCA cleaning solutions depending on where the removal takes place in the process

  10. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  11. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  12. Continuous positive airway pressure and ventilation are more effective with a nasal mask than a full face mask in unconscious subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Oto, Jun; Li, Qian; Kimball, William R; Wang, Jingping; Sabouri, Abdolnabi S; Harrell, Priscilla G.; Robert M Kacmarek; Jiang, Yandong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a major problem in unconscious subjects, making full face mask ventilation difficult. The mechanism of UAO in unconscious subjects shares many similarities with that of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially the hypotonic upper airway seen during rapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via nasal mask is more effective at maintaining airway patency than a full face mask in patients with OSA. We hypothesized that CPA...

  13. Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C; Comstock, J

    2011-07-25

    Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.

  14. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, S.B.; Kemp, C.D.; Barty, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung

    2008-05-26

    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. We describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV wavelength) microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. Types of defects: (a) Buried Substrate Defects: particles & pits (causes amplitude and/or phase variations); (b) Surface Contamination (reduces reflectivity and (possibly) contrast); (c) Damage from Inspection and Use (reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating). This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. We describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in four cases: defect repair studies; observations of laser damage; after scanning electron microscopy; and native and programmed defects.

  15. Nanofabrication on unconventional substrates using transferred hard masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Lu, Ming; Nam, Chang-Yong; Schröder, Tim; Stein, Aaron; Harris, Nicholas C; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in nanofabrication is to pattern unconventional substrates that cannot be processed for a variety of reasons, such as incompatibility with spin coating, electron beam lithography, optical lithography, or wet chemical steps. Here, we present a versatile nanofabrication method based on re-usable silicon membrane hard masks, patterned using standard lithography and mature silicon processing technology. These masks, transferred precisely onto targeted regions, can be in the millimetre scale. They allow for fabrication on a wide range of substrates, including rough, soft, and non-conductive materials, enabling feature linewidths down to 10 nm. Plasma etching, lift-off, and ion implantation are realized without the need for scanning electron/ion beam processing, UV exposure, or wet etching on target substrates. PMID:25588550

  16. Imaging protoplanets: observing transition disks with non-redundant masking

    CERN Document Server

    Sallum, Steph; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Philip M; Follette, Katherine B; Kratter, Kaitlin; Skemer, Andrew J; Bailey, Vanessa P; Briguglio, Runa; Defrere, Denis; Macintosh, Bruce A; Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie M; Puglisi, Alfio T; Rodigas, Timothy J; Spalding, Eckhart; Tuthill, Peter G; Vaz, Amali; Weinberger, Alycia; Xomperio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to detect planetary mass companions at several to tens of AU in nearby transition disks. We present non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks, both of which host posited sub-stellar mass companions. However, due to a loss of information intrinsic to the technique, observations of extended sources (e.g. scattered light from disks) can be misinterpreted as moving companions. We discuss tests to distinguish between these two scenarios, with applications to the T Cha and LkCa 15 observations. We argue that a static, forward-scattering disk can explain the T Cha data, while LkCa 15 is best explained by multiple orbiting companions.

  17. APPROACHES FOR TASTE MASKING USING STEVIA LEAF IN PHARAMCEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of pharmaceuticals is one of the most popular method of drug dilevery.Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Many active Pharmaceutical ingredients are bitter and require some form of taste masking to yield palatable drug products. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of lipoproteins for inhibiting bitterness, coating of drug with inert agents, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifiers, liposome, prodrug formation, salt formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs but these methods are highly cost effective. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, source of a high-potency natural sweetener and produces diterpene glycosides that are low calorie sweeteners, about 300 times sweeter than saccharose with addition inclusion of without interfere.

  18. Development of taste masked oral formulation of ornidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste masked microspheres of ornidazole were prepared using amino alkyl methacrylate copolymers (Eudragit E-100 by solvent evaporation technique. Taste assessment of these microspheres was done by both spectrophotometric taste evaluation technique and panel testing. Compressed tablets of taste masked ornidazole microspheres which rapidly disintegrated in the oral cavity were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose as directly compressible filler and sodium starch glycolate as a super-disintegrant. These were subsequently evaluated for various pharmacopoeial tests, drug release, and disintegration time in the oral cavity. Sensory taste evaluation was carried by panel testing in 20 healthy human volunteers. Results indicate successful formulation of oral fast disintegrating tablets which disintegrated in the oral cavity in about 30 s and possessed good taste.

  19. New type X—ray mask fabricated using inductvely coupled plasma deepetching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Chen; W.Lei; S.Wang; C.Li; X.Guo; H.Mao; D.Zhang; F.Yi

    2001-01-01

    The fabrication of X-ray masks is a critical and challenging process in LIGA technique.As inductively coupled plasma(ICP) deepetching appears to be the most suitable source for deep silicon etching,we fabricated a new type X-ray mask using this technique.In comparison with other types of X-ray masks,the mask we fabricated has the advantages of its low cost and its simple fabrication process.Besired microstructures have also been fabricated using this new type X-ray mask in LIGA technique.

  20. Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godoi, M. N.; Čapek, Miroslav; Pivatto, M. A. C.; Literák, I.; Kokeš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 428-433. ISSN 0103-5657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tityra semifasciata * Masked Tityra * new records * Mato Grosso do Sul * South America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.134, year: 2011 http://www.ararajuba.org.br/sbo/ararajuba/artigos/Volume193/ccount/click.php?id=19

  1. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh; Devkar Mangesh Shivaji; Kokare Dipali Rameshrao

    2012-01-01

    Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion e...

  2. Band-Limited Masks and Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Band-limited masks have become the baseline design for what is now called "classical TPF" and also the N|RCamcomnagraphonJW8 .This technology remains one of the most promising paths for direct detection ofmxop|anedm and disks. I'll describe some of the latest progress in the implementation of this technique and what we have learned about where it can and can not be effectively applied.

  3. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel; Uttam Budhathoki, Panna Thapa

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was select...

  4. Measurement of effectiveness of masking jamming against surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fengji; Shi, Zhaoxiang

    A method for making quantitative evaluations of the effectiveness of masking jamming (EMJ) is proposed which is based on the use of the JSR criterion defined by Boyd (1978). A practical implementation of the measurements based on the approach proposed here is described. The measurement of EMJ is implemented parallel to actual detection. By directly processing the radar output video signals, the system automatically gives EMJ readings in decibels versus SNR.

  5. Compound Optical Film Using Gray Scale Mask Embedded with Microvoids

    OpenAIRE

    C. T. Pan; Chen, Y.C.; Y. J. Chen; Wang, W.C; Yang, H. C.; Wu, H C

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a compound optical film to improve luminance and uniformity to apply in side-LED (light-emitting diode) backlight module. LIGA (lithographie galvanoformung abformung) technology, soft lithography, and homemade gray scale mask were combined to fabricate microlens array. Optical film with variable size microlens array embedded with microvoids was designed and manufactured. FRED software was used to simulate optical performance. Microvoids were quantitatively embedded in the ...

  6. APPROACHES FOR TASTE MASKING USING STEVIA LEAF IN PHARAMCEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sharma; Bhavesh Joshi; Rahul Kumar Garg; Ashok Dashora; deepak sahu; Piyush Agrawal; Piyush Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pharmaceuticals is one of the most popular method of drug dilevery.Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Many active Pharmaceutical ingredients are bitter and require some form of taste masking to yield palatable drug products. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of lipoproteins for inhibiting bitterness,...

  7. Comparison of Three Methods in Improving Bag Mask Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Samad EJ Golzari; Hassan Soleimanpour; Hamidreza Mehryar; Shaker Salarilak; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Jafar Rahimi Panahi; Mohammadreza Afhami; Majid Sabahi; Zahra Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasedlife expectancy in populations has brought along specific new scenarios in the fields of medicine for the elderly; prevalence of physical complications such as edentulism and patients with dentures is growing. Management of anesthesia and ventilation in this group of patients has turned into a great challenge. Some researchers suggest dentures to be left in place during bag-mask ventilation; yet, no unanimous agreement exists in this regard. Methods: In a single bli...

  8. Removing the Mask: Revealing Imperfection through Authentic Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Fiala, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-01-01

    I have always strived to be perceived as the perfect stage manager. To me, perfection means never making a mistake or appearing vulnerable. Trying to achieve this perfection has meant avoiding moments when I could appear weak, or even worse, risk the possibility of failure. As a result, my attempt toward perfectionism created boundaries that kept me safe, but also kept me from authentically connecting with my collaborators. In The Venetian Twins, the citizens of Verona wear masks to tell the...

  9. Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Masked by the Use of Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Ebben, Matthew R.; Krieger, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a case of narcolepsy with cataplexy masked by the chronic use of cigarettes and nicotine patches. It has been described that narcoleptic smokers report relief of symptoms by smoking tobacco cigarettes.1 In addition, a case describing partial treatment of sleepiness using a nicotine patch in an adolescent with narcolepsy was recently reported in this journal.2 Our case adds to the growing literature that nicotine may be used to manage symptoms associated with narcolepsy.

  10. CPM: Masking code pointers to prevent code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Code Pointer Masking (CPM) is a novel countermeasure against code injection attacks on native code. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, CPM thwarts attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application’s control flow. It does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. This paper reports on two prototype implementations on very distinct processor architec...

  11. Performance of actinic EUVL mask imaging using a zoneplate microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Barty, A; Rekawa, S; Kemp, C; Gunion, R; Salmassi, F; Gullikson, E; Anderson, E; Han, H

    2007-09-25

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a dual-mode, scanning and imaging extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope designed for pre-commercial EUV mask research. Dramatic improvements in image quality have been made by the replacement of several critical optical elements, and the introduction of scanning illumination to improve uniformity and contrast. We report high quality actinic EUV mask imaging with resolutions as low as 100-nm half-pitch, (20-nm, 5x wafer equivalent size), and an assessment of the imaging performance based on several metrics. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements show high contrast imaging for features sizes close to the diffraction-limit. An investigation of the illumination coherence shows that AIT imaging is much more coherent than previously anticipated, with {sigma} below 0.2. Flare measurements with several line-widths show a flare contribution on the order of 2-3% relative intensity in dark regions above the 1.3% absorber reflectivity on the test mask used for these experiments. Astigmatism coupled with focal plane tilt are the dominant aberrations we have observed. The AIT routinely records 250-350 high-quality images in numerous through-focus series per 8-hour shift. Typical exposure times range from 0.5 seconds during alignment, to approximately 20 seconds for high-resolution images.

  12. Performance of actinic EUVL mask imaging using a zoneplatemicroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Barty, Anton; Rekawa,Senajith B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Gunion, Robert F.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Han, Hak-Seung

    2007-08-20

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a dual-mode, scanning and imaging extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope designed for pre-commercial EUV mask research. Dramatic improvements in image quality have been made by the replacement of several critical optical elements, and the introduction of scanning illumination to improve uniformity and contrast. We report high quality actinic EUV mask imaging with resolutions as low as 100-nm half-pitch, (20-nm, 5x wafer equivalent size), and an assessment of the imaging performance based on several metrics. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements show high contrast imaging for features sizes close to the diffraction-limit. An investigation of the illumination coherence shows that AIT imaging is much more coherent than previously anticipated, with {sigma} below 0.2. Flare measurements with several line-widths show a flare contribution on the order of 2-3% relative intensity in dark regions above the 1.3% absorber reflectivity on the test mask used for these experiments. Astigmatism coupled with focal plane tilt are the dominant aberrations we have observed. The AIT routinely records 250-350 high-quality images in numerous through-focus series per 8-hour shift. Typical exposure times range from 0.5 seconds during alignment, to approximately 20 seconds for high-resolution images.

  13. Coronagraphy with 4Q Phase Mask on the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, Daniel; Riaud, Pierre; Baudrand, Jacques; Lacombe, François

    The high angular resolution provided by adaptive optics allows detailed study of the environment of bright objects such as stars or AGNs, provided that dazzling by the direct and scattered light from the central source does not become the main limitation. Masking the bright source with a coronagraph is the way to alleviate this problem. Rabbia and Gay (this conference) propose a possible solution. We recently described another concept of faint object coronagraph using a phase mask with 4 quadrants, which presents an excellent rejection factor, and that can be rather easily made achromatic. We propose to install such a device within the NAOS/CONICA instrument. We first examine the properties of this device in terms of rejection gain versus the different factors (residual AO phase error, central obscuration, chromatism). We estimate the performances under different conditions of adaptive optics correction with NAOS/CONICA and of phase errors due to chromatism within the K band. Results of realistic simulations at K show that a gain of 10-12 magnitude is reachable. We finally describe some technical aspects of the mask manufacturing and achromatisation using two dispersive materials, as well as the implementation of the 4QC within CONICA.

  14. Sparse aperture mask for low order wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A. J. E.

    2015-09-01

    A high contrast is required for direct imaging of exoplanets. Ideally, the level of contrast required for direct imaging of exoplanets can be achieved by coronagraphic imaging, but in practice, the contrast is degraded by wavefront aberrations. To achieve the required contrast, low-order wavefront aberrations such as tip-tilt, defocus and coma must be determined and corrected. In this paper, we present a technique that integrates a sparse- aperture mask (SAM) with a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) to make precise estimates of these low-order aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a detector. Using numerical simulations, we show that the SAM can estimate rapidly varying tip-tilt errors in space telescopes arising from line-of-sight pointing oscillations as well as other higher-order modes. We also show that a Kalman filter can be used with the SAM to improve the estimation. At Princetons High Contrast Imaging Laboratory, we have recently created a testbed devoted to low-order wavefront sensing experiments. The testbed incorporates custom-fabricated masks (shaped pupil, focal plane, and sparse aperture) with a deformable mirror and a CCD camera to demonstrate the estimation and correction of low-order aberrations. Our first experiments aim to replicate the results of the SAM wavefront sensor (SAM WFS) Fourier propagation models.

  15. Control of protein trafficking by reversible masking of transport signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Omer; Gotliv, Karnit; Parnis, Anna; Boncompain, Gaelle; Perez, Franck; Cassel, Dan

    2016-04-15

    Systems that allow the control of protein traffic between subcellular compartments have been valuable in elucidating trafficking mechanisms. Most current approaches rely on ligand or light-controlled dimerization, which results in either retardation or enhancement of the transport of a reporter. We developed an alternative approach for trafficking regulation that we term "controlled unmasking of targeting elements" (CUTE). Regulated trafficking is achieved by reversible masking of the signal that directs the reporter to its target organelle, relying on the streptavidin-biotin system. The targeting signal is generated within or immediately after a 38-amino acid streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) that is appended to the reporter. The binding of coexpressed streptavidin to SBP causes signal masking, whereas addition of biotin causes complex dissociation and triggers protein transport to the target organelle. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the control of nuclear and peroxisomal protein import and the generation of biotin-dependent trafficking through the endocytic and COPI systems. By simultaneous masking of COPI and endocytic signals, we were able to generate a synthetic pathway for efficient transport of a reporter from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26941332

  16. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Wen; Huang, Qing-Guo; Santos, Larissa

    2016-06-01

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF TASTE MASKED NIZATIDINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Parasuram Rajan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Nizatidine and to formulate Orodispersible tablet (ODT and get rapid onset of action, to increase bioavailability and to increase patient compliance. Orodispersible tablets are an innovative technology, which disperse rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, without the need for water, providing optimal convenience to the patient. The taste masking was done by complexing Nizatidine with methacrylate copolymer, Eudragit E100 in different ratios by mass extrusion method. The drug polymer complex was optimized by determining the drug content and in vitro drug release in simulated salivary fluid (SSF of pH 6.8. Complex which did not release the drug in SSF was considered as the optimized batch and used for formulation of ODTs. The effects of various superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Crosspovidone used in formulation of ODTs were studied. The formulation blend was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, angle of repose etc. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression technique and evaluated for hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro drug release etc. Among all formulation, F3 containing 5% w/w concentration of crosspovidone was considered to be the best formulation, with disintegration time of 34 seconds and in vitro drug release of 99.5% in 15 minutes in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets.

  18. Trial manufacture of round mask for TV fluoroscopic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demands for revision of existing medical law were described together with an introduction of TV fluoroscopic unit. Round mask, which does not always press out the bottom face of used x-ray beam from the effective primary fluorescent face of photomultiplier inspite of shifting of a spot in time of TV fluoroscopy, was manufactured for trial, and it was furnished with already established fluoroscopic stand. It is used in daily examination without any trouble. Round mask was divided into two parts, and opened upward and downward quickly by lod motor in time of photographing. Multiple iris was operated in order to fit to film size, and round mask was closed at the same time of the finishment of photographing and fluoroscopy was performed again. Item 3 of Para 2 of Art 30 of the existing medical low states that it is good not to press out, the distance between x-ray focus and fluorescent screen, and used x-ray beam from fluorescent screen. However, a regulation, which states that x-ray beam should not be pressed out from effective primary fluorescent face in x-ray fluoroscopy using photomultiplier, must be added. Improvement of the existing unit is expected, and decrease of unnecessary exposure even in small amount is proposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van der Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. METHODOLOGY: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  20. Imaging 100 nm contacts with high transmission attenuated phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Eynon, Benjamin G., Jr.; Taylor, Darren; Gerold, Dave J.; Maslow, Mark J.

    2002-12-01

    This study explores the capability of printing 100 nm contacts through the use of 9% and 15% attenuated phase shift masks and a 0.75 NA 193 nm scanner. The mask designs targeted simultaneous solutions for 100 nm contacts at pitches from 200 nm to 300 nm. The two masks were successfully manufactured from experimental MoSiON embedded-attenuated phase shift mask (EAPSM) blanks. The 100 nm contacts were successfully printed with a depth of focus (DOF) from 0.1-0.7 μm. Overlapping process windows were not achieved but were possible upon adjustment of the mask biases. The observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) was approximately 3 for the 220 nm pitch. Side lobe printing was not observed for either mask.

  1. Resolution, masking capability and throughput for direct-write, ion implant mask patterning of diamond surfaces using ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct-write, ion implant top surface imaging is a two-step nanopatterning method that simplifies and improves processing of diamond for various applications. The technique utilizes a low-dose (non-milling) gallium ion implant into the first few nanometers of the surface using a focused ion beam. The implanted regions form a hard mask to plasma etching allowing production of well-controlled high relief structures over the exposed surface. We demonstrate the ability of the process to fabricate high aspect ratio, high-resolution patterns over millimetre-size areas in all varieties of diamond including natural, synthetic HPHT and CVD films, at various levels of doping, for industrial scale applications. This paper sets significant new limits of resolution and masking capability for the technique, and compares throughput in comparison to other high resolution lithographic techniques. (paper)

  2. The effect of SNARC compatibility on perceptual accuracy: evidence from object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Greg; Pratt, Jay

    2016-07-01

    If given a relatively small number and asked to make a speeded parity judgment using the left and right responses, people typically respond faster with their left response. Conversely, if given a relatively large number, people usually respond faster with their right response. This finding, however, has primarily been shown using speeded tasks with response time as the primary measure. Here, we report an experiment testing if this remains to be the case in a non-speeded target identification. Using an object-substitution masking paradigm with no emphasis on response speed, number magnitude compatibility with the response hand influenced the accuracy of parity judgments. Given the non-speeded nature of the task, accuracy changes indicate that compatibility affects perception, rather than just response selection. This is explained using a common coding, feature integration approach in which stimuli and responses are represented in a common code and bidirectionally influence each other. PMID:26067890

  3. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  4. Improving patient safety after rigid bronchoscopy in adults: laryngeal mask airway versus face mask – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisi F

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fulvio Nisi,1 Antonio Galzerano,1 Gaetano Cicchitto,2 Francesco Puma,3 Vito Aldo Peduto1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Centre, 2Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, AO Santa Maria della Misericordia, Perugia, Italy Background: There are still no clear guidelines in the literature on per procedural bronchoscopic management for anesthesiologists, and few relevant datasets are available. To obtain rapid recovery from anesthesia, it is often necessary to keep patients in the recovery room for several hours until they become clinically stable. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the laryngeal mask airway (LMA enables better respiratory and hemodynamic recovery than the oxygen face mask (FM in patients undergoing rigid bronchoscopy. Methods: Twenty-one patients undergoing elective bronchoscopy of the upper airway were randomized to ventilation assistance with FM or LMA after a rigid bronchoscopy procedure under general anesthesia. The primary endpoint was duration of post-surgical recovery and the secondary endpoints were postoperative hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Assessment of the study endpoints was performed by an intensive care specialist blinded to the method of ventilation used. The statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher’s Exact test for nominal data and the Student's t-test for continuous data. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in post-procedural time between the two groups (P=0.972. The recovery parameters were significantly better in the LMA group than in the FM group, with significantly fewer desaturation, hypotensive, and bradycardic events (P<0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the LMA may be safer and more comfortable than the FM in patients undergoing rigid bronchoscopy. Keywords: face mask, laryngeal mask airway, anesthesiology, rigid bronchoscopy, safety 

  5. Complete separation of the tube from the mask of a reusable classic laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahriari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an important addition to the anesthetist's equipments. However, its usage may involve some complications. We have encountered an unusual and potentially serious complication using this equipment. A 45-year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anesthesia. After the induction of anesthesia, a size 4 of the reusable classic LMA was inserted without any difficulties and the cuff was inflated. After a little manipulation, the proximal tube of the LMA was separated from the distal part, leaving the distal mask inside the pharynx. The exit of the remaining portion of the LMA was very difficult and made the ventilation of the patient impossible. The patient’s oxygen saturation decreased to 40%. The remaining portion of the LMA was removed by a great clamp and with an extreme effort. Then, an endotracheal tube was inserted and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. After 6 hours, the patient was discharged with no apparent complications. The autoclave was used several times for the sterilization of the LMA.

    KEY WORDS: Laryngeal mask airway, autoclave.

  6. [Airway equipment and its maintenance for a non difficult adult airway management (endotracheal intubation and its alternative: face mask, laryngeal mask airway, laryngeal tube)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francon, D; Estèbe, J P; Ecoffey, C

    2003-08-01

    The airway equipment for a non difficult adult airway management are described: endotracheal tubes with a specific discussion on how to inflate the balloon, laryngoscopes and blades, stylets and intubation guides, oral airways, face masks, laryngeal mask airways and laryngeal tubes. Cleaning and disinfections with the maintenance are also discussed for each type of airway management. PMID:12943860

  7. Beyond a Mask and Against the Bottleneck: Retroactive Dual-Task Interference During Working Memory Consolidation of a Masked Visual Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2014-01-01

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result, es

  8. Investigating the Effect of Color Mask on Sensitivity for the Color Schlieren Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate influence of the color mask for color schlieren technique. To demonstrate the effect, a series of experiments by changing the color mask shape are carried out. The applied color mask is a round mask with three RGB (red, green, and blue colors gaps which is first presented by Settles, G. S. in 1980. In this work, experiments used a digital color mask instead of a film mask. The applied digital color mask is prepared in computer and projected by an LCD projector. The major discussed parameter is ratio of the outside and inside mask diameters. With the new technique, the digital color mask can be easily varied in computer directly and projected conveniently. In this work, the best color mask with outside diameter ca. 10 mm and inside diameter ca. 8 mm that has the highest sensitivity for color schlieren imaging has been successfully found. In general, the larger inside diameter, the higher sensitivity. The inside diameter has the limitation while the passing light intensity is too weak.

  9. Spatial masking: Development and testing of a new tinnitus assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searchfield, Grant D; Kobayashi, Kei; Hodgson, Shirley-Anne; Hodgson, Catherine; Tevoitdale, Hannah; Irving, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Masking is widely used in the management of tinnitus, however, masking at the perceived spatial location of tinnitus has not been investigated. This article examines the development of a method for the spatial masking of tinnitus. This report consists of three studies: Study I is a proof of concept study comparing customized spatial masking to conventional bilateral masking; Study II is a prototype evaluation in which the spatial masking paradigm was compared to a bilaterally equal masker using iPods connected to hearing aids in a 4-week cross-over trial; and Study III is a 4-month crossover pilot study-using prototype hearing aid-based maskers, and in which three-dimensional (3D) masking (2 months) was compared to a Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (2 months). There was a preference for the 3D masking stimulus across all three studies. Individual changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) after 2 weeks of trial (Study II) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) after 2 months of trial (Study III) were observed without large group differences. The spatial masking concept was piloted successfully. The qualitative and quantitative results obtained indicate directions for future clinical trials and therapy development. This study indicates that spatial masking of tinnitus is feasible, of benefit to many participants, and warrants further trials. PMID:26817495

  10. Polymer masks for structured surface and plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micrometric silicon structures were prepared by cryogenic plasma etching. • Polymer templates based on phase-separated films of PS/PLA were used. • Silica structured masks were prepared by filling the polymer templates. • Etching of underlying silicon through silica templates gave original structures. - Abstract: Silica and silicon structures have been prepared at the sub-micrometer length-scale, using laterally phase-separated thin films of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) homopolymer blends. The selective removal of one polymer and the filling of the released space by silica precursor solution led, after calcination, to silica structures on silicon such as arrays of bowl-shape features or pillars, layers with through or non-through cylindrical holes, which has not been observed for some of them. The control of the morphology of the initial polymer film was a key point to achieve such type of structures. Particularly relevant was the use of solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing) of the initial spin-coated films that favored and stabilized laterally phase-separated morphologies. Characteristic dimension of the domains were shown to be coupled with the thickness of the film, thinner films giving smaller domain sizes. Despite a relatively high incompatibility of the two polymers, a macro-phase separation was prevented in all the studied conditions. Sub-micrometric domains were formed, and for the thinner films, nanometric domains as small as 74 nm in size can be obtained. The silica structures formed by the infiltration of the polymer templates were used as hard masks for the cryogenic etching of underlying silicon. New structured surfaces, arrays of silicon pillars which can be plain or hollow at the upper part or arrays of cylindrical holes were formed. A selectivity as high as 21 was obtained using this type of mask for 1.5 μm deep holes having a typical diameter of 200 nm

  11. Hierarchical e-beam proximity correction in mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Kalus, Christian K.; Rosenbusch, Anja; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Hourd, Andrew C.

    1996-05-01

    Both e-beam and optical proximity effects are still a major barrier in the transfer of an ULSI design from the CAD station to the printed result on wafer. Optical proximity effect correction (OPC) is shown to be a strong tool to improve the printing latitudes for i-line lithography of 0.35 micrometers feature sizes and below, but leads to fractal geometries around 0.1 micrometers (corresponding to 0.5 micrometers on a 5x reticle). This quantum leap in required minimum linewidth on the mask may urge mask makers to apply e-beam proximity effect correction (PEC), even more than a decrease in the reticle magnification from 5x to 4x (and further) would. For raster scan e-beams, which are typically used in mask making, correction by dose variation is not practical. Hence, PEC for these systems must be tackled by modifying the geometry of the design, in a way similar to OPC techniques. Both corrections must compromise between the accuracy achieved, which is dominated by the selected (correction and exposure) grid size, and the resulting throughput loss, caused by the use of a smaller grid size. Sigma-C now introduces a new algorithm, which enables the proximity effect correction by shape variation. It is included into CAPROX and supports hierarchy in the same manner as the other postprocessing operations. The exposure of the shape corrected pattern on a raster scan machine requires only one beam pass, whereas dose variation would require one pass for each dose. Exposures were made at IMEC and at Compugraphics. The first results on Leica EBMF10.5 and MEBES III are promising. The pure shape correction increases the line width uniformity and opens the process window for critical dimensions below 1 micrometers . Performance measurements show that the 64 Mb DRAM is a job of a few hours.

  12. Polymer masks for structured surface and plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Alexane [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, Marylène, E-mail: marylene.vayer@univ-orleans.fr [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Sinturel, Christophe [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Tillocher, Thomas; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Dussart, Rémi [Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micrometric silicon structures were prepared by cryogenic plasma etching. • Polymer templates based on phase-separated films of PS/PLA were used. • Silica structured masks were prepared by filling the polymer templates. • Etching of underlying silicon through silica templates gave original structures. - Abstract: Silica and silicon structures have been prepared at the sub-micrometer length-scale, using laterally phase-separated thin films of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) homopolymer blends. The selective removal of one polymer and the filling of the released space by silica precursor solution led, after calcination, to silica structures on silicon such as arrays of bowl-shape features or pillars, layers with through or non-through cylindrical holes, which has not been observed for some of them. The control of the morphology of the initial polymer film was a key point to achieve such type of structures. Particularly relevant was the use of solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing) of the initial spin-coated films that favored and stabilized laterally phase-separated morphologies. Characteristic dimension of the domains were shown to be coupled with the thickness of the film, thinner films giving smaller domain sizes. Despite a relatively high incompatibility of the two polymers, a macro-phase separation was prevented in all the studied conditions. Sub-micrometric domains were formed, and for the thinner films, nanometric domains as small as 74 nm in size can be obtained. The silica structures formed by the infiltration of the polymer templates were used as hard masks for the cryogenic etching of underlying silicon. New structured surfaces, arrays of silicon pillars which can be plain or hollow at the upper part or arrays of cylindrical holes were formed. A selectivity as high as 21 was obtained using this type of mask for 1.5 μm deep holes having a typical diameter of 200 nm.

  13. Improving resolution of superlens lithography by phase-shifting mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Na; Lai, Zian; Fang, Liang; Wang, Changtao; Feng, Qin; Zhao, Zheyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2011-08-01

    We propose to apply phase-shifting mask (PSM) to superlens lithography to improve its resolution. The PSM comprises of chromium slits alternatively filled by Ag and PMMA. The pi-phase shift is induced whereas their transmittance of electric intensity is almost equal for two neighboring slits. The destructive interference between two slits has greatly improved the spatial resolution and image fidelity. For representative configurations of superlens lithography, FDTD numerical simulations demonstrate that two slits with center-to-center distance d = 35 nm (~λ/10) can be resolved in PSM design, compared to 60 nm (~λ/6) without the PSM.

  14. Improved Phase-Mask Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Sharma, Anup

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of fabrication of Bragg gratings in optical fibers combines the best features of two prior methods: one that involves the use of a phase mask and one that involves interference between the two coherent laser beams. The improved method affords flexibility for tailoring Bragg wavelengths and bandwidths over wide ranges. A Bragg grating in an optical fiber is a periodic longitudinal variation in the index of refraction of the fiber core. The spatial period (Bragg wavelength) is chosen to obtain enhanced reflection of light of a given wavelength that would otherwise propagate relatively unimpeded along the core. Optionally, the spatial period of the index modulation can be made to vary gradually along the grating (such a grating is said to be chirped ) in order to obtain enhanced reflection across a wavelength band, the width of which is determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum Bragg wavelengths. In the present method as in both prior methods, a Bragg grating is formed by exposing an optical fiber to an ultraviolet-light interference field. The Bragg grating coincides with the pattern of exposure of the fiber core to ultraviolet light; in other words, the Bragg grating coincides with the interference fringes. Hence, the problem of tailoring the Bragg wavelength and bandwidth is largely one of tailoring the interference pattern and the placement of the fiber in the interference pattern. In the prior two-beam interferometric method, a single laser beam is split into two beams, which are subsequently recombined to produce an interference pattern at the location of an optical fiber. In the prior phase-mask method, a phase mask is used to diffract a laser beam mainly into two first orders, the interference between which creates the pattern to which an optical fiber is exposed. The prior two-beam interferometric method offers the advantage that the period of the interference pattern can be adjusted to produce gratings over a wide range

  15. The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, D.; Riaud, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Clénet, Y.; Labeyrie, A.

    2000-11-01

    We describe a new type of coronagraph, based on the principle of a phase mask as proposed by Roddier and Roddier a few years ago but using an original mask design found by one of us (D. R.), a four-quadrant binary phase mask (0, π) covering the full field of view at the focal plane. The mutually destructive interferences of the coherent light from the main source produce a very efficient nulling. The computed rejection rate of this coronagraph appears to be very high since, when perfectly aligned and phase-error free, it could in principle reduce the total amount of light from the bright source by a factor of 108, corresponding to a gain of 20 mag in brightness at the location of the first Airy ring, relative to the Airy peak. In the real world the gain is of course reduced by a strong factor, but nulling is still performing quite well, provided that the perturbation of the phase, for instance, due to the Earth's atmosphere, is efficiently corrected by adaptive optics. We show from simulations that a detection at a contrast of 10 mag between a star and a faint companion is achievable in excellent conditions, while 8 mag appears routinely feasible. This coronagraph appears less sensitive to atmospheric turbulence and has a larger dynamic range than other recently proposed nulling techniques: the phase-mask coronagraph (by Roddier and Roddier) or the Achromatic Interfero-Coronagraph (by Gay and Rabbia). We present the principle of the four-quadrant coronagraph and results of a first series of simulations. We compare those results with theoretical performances of other devices. We briefly analyze the different limitations in space or ground-based observations, as well as the issue of manufacturing the device. We also discuss several ways to improve the detection of a faint companion around a bright object. We conclude that, with respect to previous techniques, an instrument equipped with this coronagraph should have better performance and even enable the imaging of

  16. Noise masking reveals channels for second-order letters

    OpenAIRE

    Oruç, İpek; Landy, Michael S.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the channels underlying identification of second-order letters using a critical-band masking paradigm. We find that observers use a single 1–1.5 octave-wide channel for this task. This channel’s best spatial frequency (c/letter) did not change across different noise conditions (indicating the inability of observers to switch channels to improve signal-to-noise ratio) or across different letter sizes (indicating scale invariance), for a fixed carrier frequency (c/letter). Howeve...

  17. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  18. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Tahir; K Bhattacharya; A K Chakraborty

    2012-03-01

    Polarization property is important to the optical imaging system. It has recently been understood that the polarization properties of light can be fruitfully used for improving the characteristics of imaging system that includes polarizing devices. The vector wave imagery lends an additional degree of freedom that can be utilized for obtaining results that are unobtainable in scalar wave imagery. This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the incident beam.

  19. Study of shape evaluation for mask and silicon using large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The aim of this integration is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. It can use the mask shape of a large field, besides. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. As an optimal solution to these issues, we provide a DFM solution that extracts 2-dimensional data for a more realistic and error-free simulation by reproducing accurately the contour of the actual mask, in addition to the simulation results from the mask data. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon form made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon form. For this reason, quantification of silicon form is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same form is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the form is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and silicon) and is adaptable to following fields of mask quality management. •Discrimination of nuisance defects for fine pattern. •Determination of two-dimensional variability of

  20. Low-Order Aberration Sensitivity of Eighth-Order Coronagraph Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Green, Joseph J.

    2005-07-01

    In a recent paper, Kuchner, Crepp, and Ge describe new image-plane coronagraph mask designs that reject to eighth order the leakage of starlight caused by image motion at the mask, resulting in a substantial relaxation of image centroiding requirements compared to previous fourth-order and second-order masks. They also suggest that the new masks are effective at rejecting leakage caused by low-order aberrations (e.g., focus, coma, and astigmatism). In this paper, we derive the sensitivity of eighth-order masks to aberrations of any order and provide simulations of coronagraph behavior in the presence of optical aberrations. We find that the masks leak light as the fourth power of focus, astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. This has tremendous performance advantages for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  1. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  2. Actinic review of EUV masks: status and recent results of the AIMSTM EUV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlitz, Sascha; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Weiss, Markus; Hellweg, Dirk; Capelli, Renzo; Magnusson, Krister; Malloy, Matt; Wurm, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Key enabler of the successful introduction of EUV lithography into volume production is the EUV mask infrastructure. For the production of defect free masks, actinic review of potential defect sites to decide on the need for repair or compensation is required. Also, the repair or compensation with the ZEISS MERiT electron beam repair tool needs actinic verification in a closed loop mask repair solution. For the realization of actinic mask review, ZEISS and the SEMATECH EUVL Mask Infrastructure consortium started a development program for an EUV aerial image metrology system, the AIMSTM EUV, with realization of a prototype tool. The development and prototype realization of the AIMSTM EUV has entered the tool calibration and qualification phase utilizing the achieved capabilities of EUV aerial image acquisition and EUV mask handling. In this paper, we discuss the current status of the prototype qualification and show recent measurement results.

  3. Estimating individual listeners’ auditory-filter bandwidth in simultaneous and non-simultaneous masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Caminade, Sabine; Strelcyk, Olaf;

    2010-01-01

    Frequency selectivity in the human auditory system is often measured using simultaneous masking of tones presented in notched noise. Based on such masking data, the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) of the auditory filters can be derived by applying the power spectrum model of masking...... and assuming a rounded-exponential filter shape. If a forward masking paradigm is used instead of simultaneous masking, filter estimates typically show significantly sharper tuning. This difference in frequency selectivity has commonly been related to spectral suppression mechanisms observed in the cochlea...... the reliability of the individual estimates, a statistical resampling method is applied. It is demonstrated that a rather large set of experimental data is required to reliably estimate auditory filter bandwidth, particularly in the case of simultaneous masking. The poor overall reliability of the filter...

  4. High quality shadow masks for top contact organic field effect transistors using deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of top-contact silicon shadow masks for organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using plasma deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Over 50 parallel and interdigitated finger contact masks of 30 µm thickness have been created on a single silicon wafer, with lengths spanning from 6.5 to 60 µm and channel widths varying from 1000 to 50 000 µm. Unlike all other mask fabrication techniques to date, these shadow masks are inexpensive, reusable, have nanoscopically sharp edges and can be made with precise (nanoscale) control over various sizes and shapes. Because a large number of these masks can be made at the same time, they can act as a platform for researchers studying new organic materials and OFET structures. Top contact OFETs have been successfully fabricated using these masks with performances comparable if not superior to those made with standard lithography.

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Sana; Athawale Rajani; Nadkar Sumedha; Bharati Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug. When suspension is swall...

  6. An evaluation of a novel mask in four patients with obstructive sleep apnea and overlap syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Alireza; Nader, Nader D; Zadeii, Gino; Porhomayon, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    We present four cases of adults with obstructive sleep apnea in whom positive airway pressure therapy alone failed to provide adequate oxygenation. We have previously reported the use of dual mask for ventilatory support of a patient postoperatively (Porhomayon et al., 2013). Here, we report an evaluation of the dual mask in four patients with overlap syndromes. Application of dual mask provided adequate oxygenation with lower continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) pressure levels. PMID:23970903

  7. An Evaluation of a Novel Mask in Four Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Overlap Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Yarahmadi; Nader, Nader D; Gino Zadeii; Jahan Porhomayon

    2013-01-01

    We present four cases of adults with obstructive sleep apnea in whom positive airway pressure therapy alone failed to provide adequate oxygenation. We have previously reported the use of dual mask for ventilatory support of a patient postoperatively (Porhomayon et al., 2013). Here, we report an evaluation of the dual mask in four patients with overlap syndromes. Application of dual mask provided adequate oxygenation with lower continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/bilevel positive airway...

  8. An Evaluation of a Novel Mask in Four Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Overlap Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Yarahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present four cases of adults with obstructive sleep apnea in whom positive airway pressure therapy alone failed to provide adequate oxygenation. We have previously reported the use of dual mask for ventilatory support of a patient postoperatively (Porhomayon et al., 2013. Here, we report an evaluation of the dual mask in four patients with overlap syndromes. Application of dual mask provided adequate oxygenation with lower continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP/bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP pressure levels.

  9. A case series of skin necrosis following use of non invasive ventilation pressure masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z; Venus, M; Kisku, W; Rayatt, S S

    2013-02-01

    Two cases of nasal skin necrosis secondary to pressure from the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) face masks are presented. Both developed skin necrosis as a result of wearing these masks over the nasal bridge. These cases highlight the need for clinical vigilance in application of CPAP masks, the need for monitoring the skin of the nose during CPAP use and the possible need for modifications in design to help prevent this serious complication. PMID:22432901

  10. Use of a spatial light modulator as an adaptable phase mask for wavefront coding

    OpenAIRE

    Carles, Guillem; Muyo, G; Bosch i Puig, Salvador; Harvey, A R

    2010-01-01

    A wavefront-coded imaging system employing a spatial light modulator (SLM) for the agile implementation of phase masks is presented. The SLM is a liquid crystal display that can be modulated to implement cubic phase masks of variable coding strength. These phase masks produce broad point spread functions insensitive to defocus aberration and are used in combination with post-detection digital image processing to extend the depth-of-field of an imaging system. A detailed description of the cal...

  11. The narcissistic mask: an exploration of 'the defensive grandiosity hypothesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Hashmi, Amani Al; Chung, Man Cheung; Morgan, Keith; Lyons, Minna

    2013-05-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as involving attempts to defend against negative self-schemata (implicit negative beliefs about one's own self-worth). This idea has been termed the 'mask model of narcissism'. This study explores the mask model, examining the association between extreme narcissistic personality traits and performance on a task purported to assess the influence of negative self-schemata. Participants (n = 232) from the UK and the UAE completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and also performed an incidental learning task involving the surprise recall of self-referential adjectives (traits). A greater recall of negative adjectives was viewed as indicative of negative self-schemata. Looking at the sample as a whole, there were no associations between narcissistic traits and negative adjective recall. However, amongst those scoring in the upper quartile of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, narcissism scores were positively correlated with the recall of negative adjectives even after controlling for age and memory. Narcissism may reflect self-enhancement strategies rooted in negative self-beliefs. PMID:24343942

  12. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Garreth J.

    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  13. Developing a Method to Mask Trees in Commercial Multispectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Jain, D.; Karlekar, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The US Army has an increasing focus on using automated remote sensing techniques with commercial multispectral imagery (MSI) to map urban and peri-urban agricultural and vegetative features; however, similar spectral profiles between trees (i.e., forest canopy) and other vegetation result in confusion between these cover classes. Established vegetation indices, like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are typically not effective in reliably differentiating between trees and other vegetation. Previous research in tree mapping has included integration of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and LiDAR for tree detection and species identification, as well as the use of MSI to distinguish tree crowns from non-vegetated features. This project developed a straightforward method to model and also mask out trees from eight-band WorldView-2 (1.85 meter x 1.85 meter resolution at nadir) satellite imagery at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD spanning 2012 - 2015. The study site included tree cover, a range of agricultural and vegetative cover types, and urban features. The modeling method exploits the product of the red and red edge bands and defines accurate thresholds between trees and other land covers. Results show this method outperforms established vegetation indices including the NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, Simple Ratio, and Normalized Difference Red Edge Index in correctly masking trees while preserving the other information in the imagery. This method is useful when HSI and LiDAR collection are not possible or when using archived MSI.

  14. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties. PMID:24935885

  15. Upgrading the control system of the movable masks for KEKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron ring and the electron ring of KEKB have their own dedicated movable masks to cut off spent electrons/positrons near the beam orbit to reduce background in the detector. The stepping motor drivers of the movable masks were controlled by a Programable Logic Controller (PLC), which was supervised by a VME-based IOC. The IOC and the PLC was connected with each other by using GP-IB interface for the communication. Recently, however, the GP-IB connection came to be unstable causing communication errors between the IOC and the PLC. In order to solve the problem, a new type of IOC, which runs Linux on a CPU module of FA-M3 PLC, has been adopted. The CPU functions with standard I/O modules of FA-M3 on the PLC-bus. In this control system, we replaced an existing ladder CPU with the IOC and the ladder program with an EPICS sequencer program for the efficiency of software development and ease of maintenance. The new IOC has been successfully serving since it was put in operation in September 2008. In this paper, we describe the details of the new control system and its experiences up to the date. (author)

  16. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-06-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  17. Optimisation of microencapsulation of turmeric extract for masking flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Natcha; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-ang, Niramon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the odour masking property, encapsulation efficiency and physicochemical properties of turmeric extract prepared by a binary blend of wall materials, i.e. brown rice flour (BRF) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effect of encapsulation processing variables, including core loading mass (5-25%) and β-CD (5-20%) concentration on product recovery, moisture content, hygroscopicity, curcuminoids encapsulation and volatile release. To investigate odour masking properties of a wall material combination, volatiles in headspace were monitored by GC-MS using ar-turmerone and 2-methyl-4-vinylguaiacol as marker compounds to represent turmeric extract. The obtained results revealed an optimal encapsulation process was 5% of core loading mass with addition 20g/L of β-CD, since it enabled high curcuminoids encapsulation with low volatile release, moisture content and hygroscopicity. Turmeric powder with reduced odour can be used as a nutrient supplement or natural colorant for food products. PMID:26471609

  18. A Generalised Unsharp Masking Algorithm Using Bilateral Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkari Sridhar#1 , Dr.Shaik Meeravali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available we propose a new generalized algorithm using the exploratory data model as unified frame work. Enhancement of contrast and sharpness of an image is required in many applications. In applications like medical radiography enhancing movie features and observing the planets it is necessary to enhance the contrast and sharpness of an image. Unsharp masking is good tool for sharpness enhancement; it is an anti blurring filter. By using unsharp masking algorithm for sharpness enhancement, the resultant image suffering with two problems, first one is a hallo is appear around the edges of an image, and second one is rescaling process is needed for the resultant image. The aim of this paper is to enhance the contrast and sharpness of an image simultaneously and to solve the problems. In the proposed algorithm, we can adjust the two parameters controlling the contrast and sharpness to produce the desired output. The proposed algorithm is designed to address issues:1 simultaneously enhancing contrast and sharpness by means of individual treatment of the model component and the residual,2reducing the halo effect by means of an edgepreserving filter using Bilateral filter. Experimental results, which comparable to recent published results, shows that proposed algorithm is able to significantly improve the sharpness and contrast of an image. This makes the proposed algorithm practically useful.

  19. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were evaluated for hydration study, folding endurance and in vitro drug dissolution in the distilled water. The films containing both Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films showed neutral surface pH when prepared using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Glycerol played a critical role in imparting flexibility to the film and improving the drug release from film. The bitter taste of the drug was masked by using aspartame and menthol accompanied by the synergistic effect of Eudragit and glycerol. Water uptake by films was found to be dependant both on the amount of Eudragit EPO and glycerol. The films containing the higher proportion of glycerol showed higher water uptake and faster drug release at all the sampling time in the in vitro dissolution test. Optimum plasticity was obtained using the required concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and glycerol. The study revealed that taste masked valdecoxib films can be developed by the selection of appropriate film former and by the use of auxiliary excipients.

  20. The Bawdy, Brawling, Boisterous World of Korean Mask Dance Dramas: A Brief Essay to Accompany Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    CedarBough Saeji

    2012-01-01

    Korean mask dance dramas are captivating and entrancing. Comedy, tragedy, and social commentary meld with energetic dance, distinctive masks, and lively music. These dramas are often colloquially and incorrectly referred to as talchum (“mask dance”) in Korean—in fact, talchum is one of the major variants of mask dance drama from Hwanghae Province in present-day North Korea. Performers of other variants have long objected to the broad application of the term (akin to calling all in-line skates...

  1. EUVL printing results of a low-thermal expansion material (LTEM) mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, William M.; Taylor, John S.; Hector, Scott D.; Shell, Melissa K.; Zhang, Guojing; Kearney, Patrick A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Larson, Cindy C.; Wasson, James R.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; O'Connell, Donna J.; Folk, Daniel R.

    2000-07-01

    Minimizing image placement errors due to thermal distortion of the mask is a key requirement for qualifying EUV Lithography as a Next Generation Lithography (NGL). Employing Low Thermal Expansion Materials (LTEMs) for mask substrates is a viable solution for controlling mask thermal distortion and is being investigated by a wide array of researchers, tool makers, photomask suppliers, and material manufacturers. Finite element modeling has shown that an EUVL mask with a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of less than 20 ppb/K will meet overlay error budgets for EQ 70 nm lithography at a throughput of 80 wafers per hour. In this paper, we describe the functional differences between today's photomask and EUVL masks; some of these differences are EUVL specific, while others are natural consequences of the shrinking critical dimension. We demonstrate that a feasible manufacturing pathway exists for Low Thermal Expansion Material (LTEM) EUVL masks by fabricating a wafer-shaped LTEM mask substrate using the same manufacturing steps as for fabricating Si wafers. The LTEM substrate was then coated with Mo/Si multilayers, patterned, and printed using the 10X Microstepper. The images were essentially indistinguishable from those images acquired from masks fabricated from high quality silicon wafers as substrates. Our observations lend further evidence that an LTEM can be used as the EUVL mask substrate material.

  2. The Bawdy, Brawling, Boisterous World of Korean Mask Dance Dramas: A Brief Essay to Accompany Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CedarBough Saeji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean mask dance dramas are captivating and entrancing. Comedy, tragedy, and social commentary meld with energetic dance, distinctive masks, and lively music. These dramas are often colloquially and incorrectly referred to as talchum (“mask dance” in Korean—in fact, talchum is one of the major variants of mask dance drama from Hwanghae Province in present-day North Korea. Performers of other variants have long objected to the broad application of the term (akin to calling all in-line skates “Rollerblades” or all MP3 players “iPods”. Only in the late 1990s did academia catch on, when two highly respected midcareer mask dance drama scholars, Bak Jintae (Daegu University and Jeon Kyungwook (Korea University, began to use the terminology talnoli (“mask play” and gamyeon-geuk (“mask drama” in their publications.I needed to watch only one performance, in 1997, to fall in love with the mask dance dramas, but at first the many forms of the genre melded together in my mind. It took repeated exposure and study over more than a dozen years for me to see the profound similarities and differences among all of Korea’s mask dance dramas...

  3. MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MASKS BASED ON REAL-TIME SIMULATION OF PARAMETRIZED PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rusetski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the new developed approach to manufacturing of original topology using  photographic  masks  that allows to perform a real-time estimation of photolithographic  significance of the pattern defects on a mask being detected while controlling the correspondence of the photographic masks to the required topology.  In this case such operation as projection transfer of an image from the photographic mask to wafer has not been applied. The given approach excludes not only  single but topology group defects as well and also optical proximity correction structure defects. 

  4. Intelligibility Assessment of Ideal Binary-Masked Noisy Speech with Acceptance of Room Acoustic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimír, Sedlak; Daniela, Durackova; Roman, Zalusky; Tomas, Kovacik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy signal is evaluated for different signal to noise ratio (SNR), mask error, masker types, distance between source and receiver, reverberation time and local criteria for forming the binary mask. The ideal binary mask is computed from time-frequency decompositions of target and masker signals by thresholding the local SNR within time-frequency units. The intelligibility of separated signal is measured using different objective measures computed in frequency and perceptual domain. The present study replicates and extends the findings which were already presented but mainly shows impact of room acoustic on the intelligibility performance of IBM technique.

  5. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  6. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Hee Lee1,*, Goeun Choi1,*, Yeon-Ji Oh1, Je Won Park1, Young Bin Choy3, Mung Chul Park1, Yeo Joon Yoon1, Hwa Jeong Lee2, Hee Chul Chang4, Jin-Ho Choy1 1Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, 2Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; 4Global Strategy Center and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT, for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN. To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%, suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2 and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞ and maximum

  7. What's behind the mask? A look at blood flow changes with prolonged facial pressure and expression using laser Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Buendia, Lan B; Allely, Rebekah R; Lassiter, Ronald; Weinand, Christian; Jordan, Marion H; Jeng, James C

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the initial blanching in burn scar seen on transparent plastic face mask application seems to diminish with time and movement requiring mask alteration. To date, studies quantifying perfusion with prolonged mask use do not exist. This study used laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to assess perfusion through the transparent face mask and movement in subjects with and without burn over time. Five subjects fitted with transparent face masks were scanned with the LDI on four occasions. The four subjects without burn were scanned in the following manner: 1) no mask, 2) mask on while at rest, 3) mask on with alternating intervals of sustained facial expression and rest, and 4) after mask removal. Images were acquired every 3 minutes throughout the 85-minute study period. The subject with burn underwent a shortened scanning protocol to increase comfort. Each face was divided into five regions of interest for analysis. Compared with baseline, mask application decreased perfusion significantly in all subjects (P change during the rest period. There were no significant differences with changing facial expression in any of the regions of interest. On mask removal, all regions of the face demonstrated a hyperemic effect with the chin (P = .05) and each cheek (P constantly low while wearing the face mask, despite changing facial expressions. Changing facial expressions with the mask on did not alter perfusion. Hyperemic response occurs on removal of the mask. This study exposed methodology and statistical issues worth considering when conducting future research with the face, pressure therapy, and with LDI technology. PMID:20453735

  8. Method for making a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, D. A.; Harteveld, C. A. M.; Woldering, L. A.; Vos, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to etch three-dimensional monolithic nanostructures using only CMOS-compatible processes. The mask is written in a hard-mask layer that is deposited on two adjacent inclined surfaces of a Si wafer. By projecting in a single step two different 2D patterns within one 3D mask on the two inclined surfaces, the mutual alignment between the patterns is ensured. Thereby after the mask pattern is defined, the etching of deep pores in two oblique directions yields a three-dimensional structure in Si. As a proof of concept we demonstrate 3D mask fabrication for three-dimensional diamond-like photonic band gap crystals in silicon. The fabricated crystals reveal a broad stop gap in optical reflectivity measurements. We propose how 3D nanostructures with five different Bravais lattices can be realized, namely cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and hexagonal, and demonstrate a mask for a 3D hexagonal crystal. We also demonstrate the mask for a diamond-structure crystal with a 3D array of cavities. In general, the 2D patterns on the different surfaces can be completely independently structured and still be in perfect mutual alignment. Indeed, we observe an alignment accuracy of better than 3.0 nm between the 2D mask patterns on the inclined surfaces, which permits one to etch well-defined monolithic 3D nanostructures.

  9. Close-loop simulation of the medial olivocochlear anti-masking effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Yu, Lu-Ming; Wu, Po-Jui

    2015-12-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) is known to affect cochlear signal processing via the electromechanical changes it induces in outer hair cells (OHCs). Experiments showed that electrically stimulating the MOC efferents (i.e., open-loop stimulation) suppresses cochlear responses to acoustic noise while enhancing the response to tone bursts if the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high [5]. However, such experiments did not reveal precisely how MOCR affects cochlear signal processing in a close loop. Presently we have built an integrated computer model for the MOCR pathway; the constituting sub-models include a model for cochlear mechanics with electromotile OHCs [11], a neurotransmitter release model for the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion cells [16], an electrical model for the T-multipolar (TM) cells in the cochlear nucleus [6], a relay from TM cells to the MOC interneurons, and a convolution kernel describing the change of OHC potassium conductance triggered by the MOC inhibitory post synaptic potentials. Thus, close-loop responses of the entire system can be simulated for arbitrary acoustic stimuli. Both open-loop and close-loop simulations demonstrate a decrease in the auditory nerve fiber (ANF) response to noise but an increase in the response to high-level tone bursts. The present integrated computer model can potentially be used for testing hypotheses regarding the physiological mechanisms for MOC anti-masking effects.

  10. Study of effects of sidewall angle on process window using 193nm CPL masks in a 300mm wafer manufacturing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung Feng; Chou, Yueh Lin; Lin, C. L.; Huang, Peter

    2005-11-01

    As semiconductor process technology moves down below 90nm and 65nm, more and more wafer fabs are starting to apply 193nm CPL (Chromeless Phase Lithography) technology as the main lithography strategy for their most critical layers. However the 3D pattern profile is another critical factor, which affects image intensity and final process window. Since 193nm CPL is a relatively new technology in the semiconductor industry, it is important for us to understand the key mask specifications of 193nm CPL and their impact on wafer-level imaging. In this paper, we will study the effects of sidewall angle on process window and wafer CD using 193nm CPL masks in a 300mm wafer manufacturing environment. We begin our experiment by making several special 193nm CPL masks. These masks have been specially designed with different sidewall angles (SWA) with phase of 180 degrees. The sidewall angle spread represents approximately 10 degrees. We use specially designed test patterns that are compatible at the 65nm technology node. In our experiment, we first study the correlation between AFM (atomic force microscope)-determined profile angle and lithographic process behavior. In addition, simulation was also used to predict the impact of 3D profile on process performance. All lithographic experiments were performed on 300mm wafers using a high NA ASML 193nm scanner and high contrast resist. In this study, we have focused on the impact of sidewall angle on wafer process performance by comparing the wafer CD and pattern profile through focus. In order to establish more effective specifications of angle control in 193nm CPL between mask shop and wafer fabs, all AFM, wafer CD, and simulation results will be compared and correlated.

  11. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  12. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieble, Thomas [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  13. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  14. Imaging systems using modulation and coded aperture masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of improved gamma-ray telescopes which incorporate high angular resolution imaging properties and adequate sensitivity will advance this branch of astronomy from the discovery phase to the exploratory phase. The recent development of position sensitive gamma-ray detection planes operated in conjunction with a suitable coded aperture mask have made gamma-ray telescopes feasible which are capable of generating gamma-ray images of the sky with a precision of 1 arc minute over the photon energy range 0.1 to 10 MeV. With a sensitivity of at least 1-10 milliCrab and scintillation standard spectral resolution, not only can a large number of discrete gamma-ray objects be identified and studied in detail but nuclear gamma-ray line images of extended objects such as the Galactic Plane, cloud complexes, and supernovae remnants may be generated by this class of astronomical instrument

  15. An improved algorithm of mask image dodging for aerial image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Zou, Songbai; Zuo, Zhiqi

    2011-12-01

    The technology of Mask image dodging based on Fourier transform is a good algorithm in removing the uneven luminance within a single image. At present, the difference method and the ratio method are the methods in common use, but they both have their own defects .For example, the difference method can keep the brightness uniformity of the whole image, but it is deficient in local contrast; meanwhile the ratio method can work better in local contrast, but sometimes it makes the dark areas of the original image too bright. In order to remove the defects of the two methods effectively, this paper on the basis of research of the two methods proposes a balance solution. Experiments show that the scheme not only can combine the advantages of the difference method and the ratio method, but also can avoid the deficiencies of the two algorithms.

  16. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  17. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides an improved device for shielding and protecting a person against direct and scattered x-ray radiation to the face, head and neck to be worn on the shoulders. The device includes a radiation-shielding face mask having a lead-filled frame and a lead-containing transparent radiation-shielding lens mounted in the frame. The frame is supported upon the shoulders. A first portion of the frame extends generally inward below the chin of the person, and a second portion of the frame extends generally vertically from an inward portion of the first portion and generally rearwardly adjacent to at least one lateral side of the neck of the person

  18. Development of single mask GEM foils in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various techniques available around the globe for making punch through holes for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The GEM foils consists of 5 μm of Cu clad on both the sides of 50 μm polymide (PMMA/kapton) (5/50/5). At present these foils are developed in South Korea without having any adhesive between the Cu and polymide. The available techniques range from chemical etching, reactive plasma etching and laser etching. However, for GEM detectors, having an active area upto 5000 cm2, the chemical etching process using a Single Mask has been developed at CERN which is faster from the viewpoint of mass production of such foils for the upgrades which are foreseen in a couple of years with the Large Hadron Collider facility at CERN

  19. Systematic study of source mask optimization and verification flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yu; Latypov, Azat; Chua, Gek Soon; Zou, Yi

    2012-06-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) emerged as powerful resolution enhancement technique (RET) for advanced technology nodes. However, there is a plethora of flow and verification metrics in the field, confounding the end user of the technique. Systemic study of different flows and the possible unification thereof is missing. This contribution is intended to reveal the pros and cons of different SMO approaches and verification metrics, understand the commonality and difference, and provide a generic guideline for RET selection via SMO. The paper discusses 3 different type of variations commonly arise in SMO, namely pattern preparation & selection, availability of relevant OPC recipe for freeform source and finally the metrics used in source verification. Several pattern selection algorithms are compared and advantages of systematic pattern selection algorithms are discussed. In the absence of a full resist model for SMO, alternative SMO flow without full resist model is reviewed. Preferred verification flow with quality metrics of DOF and MEEF is examined.

  20. Improving the privacy of optical steganography with temporal phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Fok, M P; Xu, L; Chang, J; Prucnal, P R

    2010-03-15

    Temporal phase modulation of spread stealth signals is proposed and demonstrated to improve optical steganography transmission privacy. After phase modulation, the temporally spread stealth signal has a more complex spectral-phase-temporal relationship, such that the original temporal profile cannot be restored when only dispersion compensation is applied to the temporally spread stealth signals. Therefore, it increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to detect and intercept the stealth channel that is hidden under a public transmission, even with a correct dispersion compensation device. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and display insignificant degradation in transmission performance, compared to the conventional stealth transmission without temporal phase modulation. The proposed system can also work without a clock transmission for signal synchronization. Our analysis and simulation results show that it is difficult for the adversary to detect the existence of the stealth transmission, or find the correct phase mask to recover the stealth signals. PMID:20389629

  1. Current approach to masked hypertension: From diagnosis to clinical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Eamon

    2013-11-28

    The term masked hypertension phenomenon was first described by the late Professor Thomas Pickering and is commonly defined as having a normal clinic blood pressure (BP) but an elevated "out of office" reading. In the main these elevated readings have been provided through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) but sometimes home BP monitoring is used. It is now largely accepted that ABPM gives a better classification of risk than clinic BP. Thus the elevated ABPM levels should relate to higher cardiovascular risk and it follows that these people might be regarded as being genuinely hypertensive and at higher cardiovascular risk. The problem for clinical practice is how to identify and manage these subjects. The phenomenon should be suspected in subjects who have had an elevated clinic BP at some time, in young subjects with normal or normal-high clinic BP who have early left ventricular hypertrophy, in subjects with a family history of hypertension in both parents, patients with multiple risks for cardiovascular disease and perhaps diabetic patients. It appears to be more prevalent in subjects of male gender, with younger age, higher heart rate, obesity or high cholesterol levels and in smokers. Those with masked hypertension are at higher risk of events such as stroke and have a higher prevalence of target organ damage, for example, nephropathy. In conclusion most of the debate around this topic relates to its reliable identification. Given the higher ambulatory readings there is an increases cardiovascular risk making this diagnosis important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved achromatization of phase mask coronagraphs using colored apodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Cuevas, S.; Soummer, R.; Sánchez-Pérez, C.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2012-02-01

    Context. For direct imaging of exoplanets, a stellar coronagraph helps to remove the image of an observed bright star by attenuating the diffraction effects caused by the telescope aperture of diameter D. The dual zone phase mask (DZPM) coronagraph constitutes a promising concept since it theoretically offers a small inner working angle (IWA ~ λ0/D where λ0 denotes the central wavelength of the spectral range Δλ), good achromaticity, and high starlight rejection, typically reaching a 106 contrast at 5 λ0/D from the star over a spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ0 of 25% (similar to H-band). This last value proves to be encouraging for broadband imaging of young and warm Jupiter-like planets. Aims: Contrast levels higher than 106 are, however, required for observing older and/or less massive companions over a finite spectral bandwidth. An achromatization improvement of the DZPM coronagraph is therefore mandatory to reach such good performance. Methods: In its design, the DZPM coronagraph uses a gray (or achromatic) apodization. We replaced it by a colored apodization to increase the performance of this coronagraphic system over a wide spectral range. This innovative concept, called colored apodizer phase mask (CAPM) coronagraph, is defined to reach the highest contrast in the exoplanet search area. Once this has been done, we study the performance of the CAPM coronagraph in the presence of different errors to evaluate the sensitivity of our concept. Results: A 2.5 contrast gain is estimated from the performance provided by the CAPM coronagraph with respect to that of the DZPM coronagraph. A 2.2 × 10-8 intensity level at 5 λ0/D separation is then theoretically achieved with the CAPM coronagraph in the presence of a clear circular aperture and a 25% bandwidth. In addition, our studies show that our concept is less sensitive to low than to high-order aberrations for a given value of rms wavefront errors.

  3. Pixel-based ant colony algorithm for source mask optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Wu, Wei-Chen; Li, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) was considered to be one of the key resolution enhancement techniques for node technology below 20 nm prior to the availability of extreme-ultraviolet tools. SMO has been shown to enlarge the process margins for the critical layer in SRAM and memory cells. In this study, a new illumination shape optimization approach was developed on the basis of the ant colony optimization (ACO) principle. The use of this heuristic pixel-based ACO method in the SMO process provides an advantage over the extant SMO method because of the gradient of the cost function associated with the rapid and stable searching capability of the proposed method. This study was conducted to provide lithographic engineers with references for the quick determination of the optimal illumination shape for complex mask patterns. The test pattern used in this study was a contact layer for SRAM design, with a critical dimension and a minimum pitch of 55 and 110 nm, respectively. The optimized freeform source shape obtained using the ACO method was numerically verified by performing an aerial image investigation, and the result showed that the optimized freeform source shape generated an aerial image profile different from the nominal image profile and with an overall error rate of 9.64%. Furthermore, the overall average critical shape difference was determined to be 1.41, which was lower than that for the other off-axis illumination exposure. The process window results showed an improvement in exposure latitude (EL) and depth of focus (DOF) for the ACO-based freeform source shape compared with those of the Quasar source shape. The maximum EL of the ACO-based freeform source shape reached 7.4% and the DOF was 56 nm at an EL of 5%.

  4. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  5. Tuning the cognitive environment: Sound masking with 'natural' sounds in open-plan offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Alana

    With the gain in popularity of open-plan office design and the engineering efforts to achieve acoustical comfort for building occupants, a majority of workers still report dissatisfaction in their workplace environment. Office acoustics influence organizational effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction through meeting appropriate requirements for speech privacy and ambient sound levels. Implementing a sound masking system is one tried-and-true method of achieving privacy goals. Although each sound masking system is tuned for its specific environment, the signal -- random steady state electronic noise, has remained the same for decades. This research work explores how `natural' sounds may be used as an alternative to this standard masking signal employed so ubiquitously in sound masking systems in the contemporary office environment. As an unobtrusive background sound, possessing the appropriate spectral characteristics, this proposed use of `natural' sounds for masking challenges the convention that masking sounds should be as meaningless as possible. Through the pilot study presented in this work, we hypothesize that `natural' sounds as sound maskers will be as effective at masking distracting background noise as the conventional masking sound, will enhance cognitive functioning, and increase participant (worker) satisfaction.

  6. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Moody, Dwight C.; Kern, Brian D.; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Oshiyama, Fumika

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  7. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the...

  8. Rescuing Stimuli from Invisibility: Inducing a Momentary Release from Visual Masking with Pre-Target Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Kyle E.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M.; Lleras, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    At near-threshold levels of stimulation, identical stimulus parameters can result in very different phenomenal experiences. Can we manipulate which stimuli reach consciousness? Here we show that consciousness of otherwise masked stimuli can be experimentally induced by sensory entrainment. We preceded a backward-masked stimulus with a series of…

  9. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  10. Epidemiology of masked and white-coat hypertension: the family-based SKIPOGH study

    OpenAIRE

    Heba Alwan; Menno Pruijm; Belen Ponte; Daniel Ackermann; Idris Guessous; Georg Ehret; Staessen, Jan A; Kei Asayama; Philippe Vuistiner; Sandrine Estoppey Younes; Fred Paccaud; Grégoire Wuerzner; Antoinette Pechere-Bertschi; Markus Mohaupt; Bruno Vogt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated factors associated with masked and white-coat hypertension in a Swiss population-based sample. METHODS: The Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension is a family-based cross-sectional study. Office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were measured using validated devices. Masked hypertension was defined as office blood pressure

  11. Spatial scaling metrics of mask-induced induced line-edge roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gallatin, Gregg

    2008-09-05

    Mask contributors to line-edge roughness (LER) have recently been shown to be an issue of concern for both the accuracy of current resist evaluation tests as well the ultimate LER requirements for the 22-nm production node. Problems arise from mask absorber LER as well as mask reflector or surface roughness leading to random phase variations in the reflected beam. Not only do these mask contributors effect to total measured LER in resist, but they also effect LER spatial characteristic such as the LER power spectral density and related descriptors of correlation length and roughness exponent. Noting that these characteristics are important in the understanding of LER, it is crucial to understand how mask effects impact these parameters. Moreover, understanding how these metrics respond to mask effects may lead to an experimental mechanism for experimentally evaluating the importance of mask contributors to LER. Here we use computer modeling to study the LER spatial metrics arising from mask effects. We further describe the effects of illumination conditions and defocus on the metrics and compare the results to those expected from intrinsic resist LER.

  12. Development for 2D pattern quantification method on mask and wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Yasutaka; Wang, Zhigang

    2010-03-01

    We have developed the effective method of mask and silicon 2-dimensional metrology. The aim of this method is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. 2-dimensional Shape quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon shape made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon shape. For this reason, quantification of silicon shape is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same shape is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the shape is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and

  13. To enhance imaging performance of hybrid imaging systems by using two asymmetrical phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Nhu; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang; Pham, Nghia Minh

    2016-02-10

    We propose the use of two asymmetrical phase masks combined with the subtracted imaging method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in wavefront coding systems. This subtracted imaging technique is similar to the variable pinhole diameter in confocal microscopy. Two different phase modulations of same phase masks are employed to promote the magnitude of the optical transfer function (OTF). The ratio factor is used to control the phase variation between two phase masks. The noise of decoded images is suppressed owing to the higher magnitude of the OTF than the wavefront coding systems with a phase mask. A tangent phase mask as an example is used to demonstrate our concept. Simulated results show that the performance promotion controls noise amplification of decoded images while maintaining a depth-of-field extension. PMID:26906377

  14. Evaluation of different strategies to mask boar taint in cooked sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B; Rubio, B; Viera, C; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Panella-Riera, N; Garrido, M D

    2016-06-01

    The use of smoking and/or spices was evaluated for their ability to mask boar taint in frankfurters manufactured from entire pigs with high levels of androstenone. Five frankfurter types were considered: control, smoked, flavouring+smoked, spicy and spicy+smoked. A trained panel in androstenone perception carried out a sensory profile on the different sausages. The highest scores for androstenone perception (odour, flavour and aftertaste) were found in frankfurters that included no masking strategy which indicated the effectiveness of the evaluated strategies. Regarding masking strategies, the contribution of spices and smoking to sensory perception of frankfurters was detected by the panellists. Smoking was the best strategy to mask androstenone odour, while the use of spices masked androstenone odour to a greater extent than androstenone flavour. Only the combined use of spices and smoking was able to eliminate the perception of androstenone. The application of this strategy in frankfurters could be an alternative in the commercialization of entire pigs. PMID:26844925

  15. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  16. The mysterious noh mask: contribution of multiple facial parts to the recognition of emotional expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the

  17. Exhaled air dispersion during coughing with and without wearing a surgical or N95 mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Hui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We compared the expelled air dispersion distances during coughing from a human patient simulator (HPS lying at 45° with and without wearing a surgical mask or N95 mask in a negative pressure isolation room. METHODS: Airflow was marked with intrapulmonary smoke. Coughing bouts were generated by short bursts of oxygen flow at 650, 320, and 220L/min to simulate normal, mild and poor coughing efforts, respectively. The coughing jet was revealed by laser light-sheet and images were captured by high definition video. Smoke concentration in the plume was estimated from the light scattered by smoke particles. Significant exposure was arbitrarily defined where there was ≥ 20% of normalized smoke concentration. RESULTS: During normal cough, expelled air dispersion distances were 68, 30 and 15 cm along the median sagittal plane when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. In moderate lung injury, the corresponding air dispersion distances for mild coughing efforts were reduced to 55, 27 and 14 cm, respectively, p < 0.001. The distances were reduced to 30, 24 and 12 cm, respectively during poor coughing effort as in severe lung injury. Lateral dispersion distances during normal cough were 0, 28 and 15 cm when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Normal cough produced a turbulent jet about 0.7 m towards the end of the bed from the recumbent subject. N95 mask was more effective than surgical mask in preventing expelled air leakage during coughing but there was still significant sideway leakage.

  18. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  19. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... the manufacturing process involved in producing the surgical face mask occurs in Turkey, the country... Origin of a Surgical Face Mask with a Protective Eye Shield; 19 CFR Sec. 177.21; Textile Rules of Origin... concerns the country of origin of a fluid resistant surgical face mask with an eye shield. We note...

  20. 75 FR 53963 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Iron Mask...

  1. 75 FR 66083 - Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Mask Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On May 6, 2010, and supplemented on July 15, 2010, Iron Mask Hydro, LLC filed an application for... the feasibility of the Iron Mask Pumped Storage Project to be located near the U.S. Bureau...

  2. Impact of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask interpretation on cloud amount estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Andrzej Z.

    2015-09-01

    Cloud masks serve as a basis for estimates of cloud amount, which is an essential parameter for studying the Earth's radiation budget. The most commonly used cloud mask is a simple thematic classification, which includes qualitative information on the presence of clouds in the satellite's instantaneous field of view (IFOV). Cloud mask classes have to be "translated" into a quantitative measure, in order to be used for cloud amount calculations. The assignment of cloud fractions to cloud mask classes is a subjective process and increases uncertainty in cloud amount estimates. We evaluated this degree of uncertainty using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask product. Together with the operational MODIS cloud mask interpretation, we investigated two extreme alternatives: "rigorous" (only "confident cloudy" IFOVs were 100% cloudy) and "tolerant" (only "confident clear" IFOVs were 0% cloudy). Results showed that the range of uncertainty was 14.3% in Europe and controlled by the frequency of small convective clouds. Comparison with surface-based observations suggests that the rigorous interpretation of the cloud mask is more accurate than that used operationally for MODIS level 3 product generation. The rigorous approach resulted in the smallest bias (-0.7%), the smallest root-mean-square error (4.6%), the small standard deviation (6%), and the strongest correlation (0.935). These results suggest that for climatological applications the rigorous scenario should be considered as a more accurate "best guess" over land.

  3. Novel vitamin and gold-loaded nanofiber facial mask for topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Qun, Lin; Chan, Yew Weng; Chan, Sui Yung

    2010-09-01

    L-ascorbic acid has been widely used in cosmetic and dermatological products because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and destroy oxidizing agents. However, it is chemically unstable and can easily be oxidized. The current cosmetic facial masks available in the market are pre-moistened, which means that the aqueous fluid content of the mask may oxidize some of the unstable active ingredients such as ascorbic acid. This work presents an anti-wrinkle nanofiber face mask containing ascorbic acid, retinoic acid, gold nanoparticles, and collagen. This novel face mask will only be wetted when applied to the skin, thus enhancing product stability. Once moistened, the content of the mask will gradually dissolve and release the active ingredients and ensure maximum skin penetration. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of the nanofiber mask will ensure maximum contact with the skin surface and help to enhance the skin permeation to restore its healthy appearance. Electrospun fiber mats may provide an attractive alternative to the commercial facial cotton masks. PMID:20661676

  4. Selective phase masking to reduce material saturation in holographic data storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Seth; Fair, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Emerging networks and applications require enormous data storage. Holographic techniques promise high-capacity storage, given resolution of a few remaining technical issues. In this paper, we propose a technique to overcome one such issue: mitigation of large magnitude peaks in the stored image that cause material saturation resulting in readout errors. We consider the use of ternary data symbols, with modulation in amplitude and phase, and use a phase mask during the encoding stage to reduce the probability of large peaks arising in the stored Fourier domain image. An appropriate mask is selected from a predefined set of pseudo-random masks by computing the Fourier transform of the raw data array as well as the data array multiplied by each mask. The data array or masked array with the lowest Fourier domain peak values is recorded. On readout, the recorded array is multiplied by the mask used during recording to recover the original data array. Simulations are presented that demonstrate the benefit of this approach, and provide insight into the appropriate number of phase masks to use in high capacity holographic data storage systems.

  5. THE RATE AND CHARACTERS OF MASKED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND MASKED INEFFECTIVENESS OF HYPERTENSION TREATMENT IN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS ACCORDING TO THE PREVENTIVE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Smirnova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the rate and characters of masked arterial hypertension (HT and masked ineffectiveness of HT treatment in industrial workers within annual preventive examination.Material and methods. Workers (n=185 with normal office blood pressure (BP <140 and <90 mm Hg were enrolled into cross-cohort study of industrial workers of large enterprise engaged in activity with harmful and/or dangerous conditions (n=477; mean age 53.2±5.5 years. Standard survey, anthropometry, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. Criteria of masked HT and masked HT in treated subjects were the level of office BP <140 and <90 mm Hg in combination with mean BP during the operational period ≥135 and/or ≥85 mmHg. Patient characters significantly associated with this ratio of office BP and BP during the operational period were considered as features of isolated increase in ambulatory BP level.Results. The rate of masked HT among workers with normal office BP was 10.8%, and masked HT among treated subjects was 34.6%. Workers with masked HT, in contrast to the normotensive workers according to the office BP and ABPM measurements, had a higher left ventricular mass index (in males 129.0±21.2 vs. 109.5±28.8 g/m2, respectively, in women 105.2±43.2 vs. 82.4±25.3 g/m2, respectively, p<0.05, and higher body weight (85.4±13.3 vs. 81.3±10.1 kg, respectively; p=0.05. Treated subjects with masked HT, unlike workers with effective antihypertensive therapy had a higher body weight (89.4±16.1 vs. 85.4±15.8 kg, respectively, p<0.05, higher levels of triglycerides (1.56±0.95 vs. 1.23±0.55 mmol/l, respectively, p<0.01 and uric acid (388.5±89.5 vs. 357.2±84.5 mmol/l, respectively, p<0.05, more prominent left ventricular hypertrophy, lower incidence of ischemic heart disease, but higher number of persons taking ACE inhibitors. Occupation and work features were not characters of the masked HT and masked

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Sana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug. When suspension is swallowed bitter taste may not be felt because ion exchange resin complex does not release drug at salivary pH. When it comes in contact with acidic environment of stomach, the complex will be broken down releasing the drug which may then absorbed. Batch method was used for formation of drug resin complex. Various ion exchange resins such as Ionex QM 1011, Ionex WC 23 and Kyron T- 114 were tried to obtained taste masked drug resin complex (DRC. Optimization of drug loading was carried out. With Ionex QM 1011, the drug-resin proportion of 1:6 achieved equilibrium in 6 hours. 96% w/w of drug loading was possible by this method. Complex formation was confirmed by DSC and IR studies. Oral taste masked suspension was prepared using xanthum gum and tween 80 and was evaluated with respect to parameters such as Colour, pH, Viscosity, Sedimentation volume, Redispersibility, Assay, drug release. Taste masking was evaluated with the help of panel of human volunteers and Rat Behavioral Avoidance Taste Model. Taste masked suspension showed easy redispersibility and more than 99.6 % of the drug release within 45 minutes at pH 1.2. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and formulation of suspension with taste masked drug especially for pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, and non cooperative patients.

  7. New method of detection and classification of yield-impacting EUV mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Ioana; Vengertsev, Dmitry; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Stobert, Ian; Rankin, Jed

    2015-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) advances printability of small size features for both memory and logic semiconductor devices. It promises to bring relief to the semiconductor manufacturing industry, removing the need for multiple masks in rendering a single design layer on wafer. However, EUV also brings new challenges, one of which is of mask defectivity. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. In this paper we will present an efficient way to classify and disposition EUV mask defects through a new algorithm developed to classify defects located on EUV photomasks. By processing scanning electronmicroscopy images (SEM) of small regions of a photomask, we extract highdimensional local features Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG). Local features represent image contents compactly for detection or classification, without requiring image segmentation. Using these HOGs, a supervised classification method is applied which allows differentiating between nondefective and defective images. In the new approach we have developed a superior method of detection and classification of defects, using mask and supporting mask printed data from several metallization masks. We will demonstrate that use of the HOG method allows realtime identification of defects on EUV masks regardless of geometry or construct. The defects identified by this classifier are further divided into subclasses for mask defect disposition: foreign material, foreign material from previous step, and topological defects. The goal of disposition is to categorize on the images into subcategories and provide recommendation of prescriptive actions to avoid impact on the wafer yield.

  8. OPC mask simplification using over-designed timing slack of standard cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yifan; Heng, Chun Huat; Tay, Arthur; Lee, Tong Heng

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that VLSI circuits must be designed to sustain the variations in process, voltage, temperature, etc. As a result, standard cell libraries (collections of the basic circuit components) are usually designed with large margin (also known as "timing slack"). However, in circuit manufacturing, only part of the margin will be utilized. The knowledge of the rest of the margin (over-designed timing slack), armed with models that link between timing domain and shape domain, can help to reduce the complexity of mask patterns and manufacturing cost. This paper proposed a novel methodology to simplify mask patterns in optical proximity correction (OPC) by using extra margin in timing (over-designed timing slack). This methodology can be applied after a conventional OPC, and is compatible with the current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flow. This iterative method is applied to each occurrence of over-designed timing slack. The actual value of timing slack can be estimated from post-OPC simulation. A timing cost function is developed in this work to map timing slack in timing domain to mask patterns in shape domain. This enables us to adjust mask patterns selectively based on the outcome of the cost function. All related mask patterns with over-designed timing slack will be annotated and simplified using our proposed mask simplification algorithm, which is in fact to merge the nearby edge fragments on the mask patterns. Simulations are conducted on a standard cell library and a full chip design to validate this proposed approach. When compared to existing OPC methods without mask simplification in the literature, our approach achieved a 51% reduction in mask fragment count, and this directly leads to a large saving in lithography manufacturing cost. The result also shows that timing closure is ensured, though part of the timing slack has been sacrificed.

  9. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection. PMID:26225807

  10. Evaluation of Physical Characteristics and Particulate Filtration Efficiency of Surgical Masks used in Iran's Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMADREZA SHOKRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are the most significant risk for exposed people leads to infectious diseases. This study was aimed at evaluation of physical and microscopic characteristics and submicron particulate filtration efficiency of surgical masks used in hospitals throughout Iran. Five types of domestic (Zist Filter, ElhamTeb and Arman masks and imported (Blosom, Face Masks surgical masks were tested separately for physical characteristics and submicron particulate filtration efficiency based on Standards AS 4381-1996 and ISIRI 6138. Arman mask had  the  maximum levels  in  fluid  resistance  (112  cm of  water,  pressure  drop  (35±2.58  Pa  and particulate filtration efficiency (66.5475%±6.14951 and lowest averages of pore diameter (18.7micron.ElhamTeb had the least weight (59.51 2.46 g/m2 and fluid resistance (50.3 cm of water. Zist filter had the least thickness and pressure drop (11 ±1.82 Pa. Blosom had the least particulate filtration efficiency (27.8275 % ±4.44152 and highest averages of pore diameter (425 micron and fiber diameter (20 micron.The particulate filtration efficiency in the domestic masks (56.130% ±10.07 was more than imported masks (31.906 % ±7.062. Domestic surgical masks have a better quality than imported masks but they cannot satisfy the required level of quality, yet.

  11. Mask CD uniformity metrology for logic patterning and its correlation to wafer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gratiet, Bertrand; Zékri, Raphaël.; Sundermann, Frank; Trautzsch, Thomas; Thaler, Thomas; Birkner, Robert; Buttgereit, Ute

    2012-06-01

    With the next technology nodes 193nm lithography is pushed to its utmost limits. The industry is forced to print at low k1 factor which goes along with a high MEEF. Additionally, new blank materials are being introduced for smaller nodes. From 4x node and beyond, global CD uniformity on wafer is getting more critical and becomes key factor to ensure a high yield in chip production. Advanced process control is required and correction strategies are applied to maintain tight wafer CD uniformity. Beside other parameters, like scanner and etch process, mask CD uniformity is one main contributor to the intra-field CD on wafer. To enable effective CDU correction strategies it is necessary to establish a mask CD uniformity metrology which shows a good correlation to wafer prints. Especially for logic pattern mask uniformity measurements to control intra-field CD uniformity becomes challenging. In this paper we will focus on mask CD uniformity measurement for logic application utilizing WLCD, which is based on aerial image technology. We will investigate 40nm node and 28nm node gate masks using 6% MoSi phase shifting mask and MoSi binary mask respectively. Furthermore, we will correlate the mask CD uniformity data to wafer data to evaluate the capability of WLCD to predict the intra-field wafer CD uniformity correctly in order to support feedforward correction strategies. We will show that WLCD shows an excellent correlation to wafer data. Additionally, we will provide an outlook on logic contact-hole masks showing first CD uniformity data and wafer correlation data.

  12. Age Differences in Attention Lapses Mask Age Differences in Memory Failures: A Methodological Note on Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesAllanCheyne

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although objective measures of memory performance typically indicate memory declines with age, self-reported memory failures often show no relation to age. In contrast, self-reported attention failures are reliably negatively correlated with age. This contrast suggests the possibility that age-related awareness and reporting of memory failures might be masked by a concurrent decrease in attention failures, which would reduce encoding failures with age and hence reduce perceived memory failures. Self-reported problems of attention and memory were evaluated in two samples with the ages spanning eight decades. Initial analysis indicated that attention failures significantly decreased with age, whereas memory problems did not to differ across age. The association of self-reported memory failures became significantly positive, however, when residualized on attention lapses. In contrast, the correlation between attention lapses and age was modestly affected when memory failures were controlled. These results highlight the close relation of attention lapses and memory problems and, beyond the implications of individual differences in attention for memory research, suggest the advisability of assessing attention failures for a full evaluation of memory problems.

  13. Advanced process control of mask dry-etching using RF sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hosono, Koji; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Naito, Akihiko

    2006-05-01

    Advanced process control (APC) of photomask dry-etching has been studied for strict mean control of both CD and phase angle of phase shift masks (PSMs). Equations to correlate process information with actual etching results have been developed for this purpose. It is showed that plasma reactance measured with RF sensor has noticeable correlation with Cr etching bias, which is affected by Cr load and condition of etching chamber. Simulation of etching bias based on plasma reactance shows the good agreement with the trend of actual etching results. Expectation of process capability index (Cpk) for mean-to-target (MTT) within 5.2nm is about 1.27, corresponding to CD yield more than 99.9%. In case of MoSi based PSMs, monitoring the sensor outputs is also useful to simulate the etching rate of phase shifter. One simple relationship can be also derived as the case of Cr etching bias. Expected phase error is within 1.5degree in almost cases. In actual photomask fabrication, maintenance of the equation for APC is a critical issue to guarantee the high process yield for a long period. It is showed that trend of the plasma reactance gives the meaningful information effective in automatic maintenance of the equations. As a conclusion, it is proved that our APC method is one of the answers to give the highest MTT yield for both CD and phase angle.

  14. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-16

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  15. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  16. Fabrication and Characteristics of Free Standing Shaped Pupil Masks for TPF-Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Echternach, Pierre M.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Muller, Richard E.; White, Victor E.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Belikov, Ruslan; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Ceperley, Daniel; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging and characterization of exo-solar terrestrial planets require coronagraphic instruments capable of suppressing star light to 10-10. Pupil shaping masks have been proposed and designed1 at Princeton University to accomplish such a goal. Based on Princeton designs, free standing (without a substrate) silicon masks have been fabricated with lithographic and deep etching techniques. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of such masks and present their physical and optical characteristics in relevance to their performance over the visible to near IR bandwidth.

  17. Masking technique for coating thickness control on large and strongly curved aspherical optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sassolas, B; Flaminio, R; FRANC, J; Michel, C; Michel, Christine; Montorio, J.-L.; Morgado, N.; Pinard, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to control the coating thickness deposited onto large and strongly curved optics by ion beam sputtering. The technique uses an original design of the mask used to screen part of the sputtered materials. A first multi-element mask is calculated from the measured 2D coating thickness distribution. Then, by means of an iterative process the final mask is designed. By using such a technique, it has been possible to deposit layers of tantalum pentoxide having a high t...

  18. Masking technique for coating thickness control on large and strongly curved aspherical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolas, B; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Michel, C; Montorio, J-L; Morgado, N; Pinard, L

    2009-07-01

    We discuss a method to control the coating thickness deposited onto large and strongly curved optics by ion beam sputtering. The technique uses an original design of the mask used to screen part of the sputtered materials. A first multielement mask is calculated from the measured two-dimensional coating thickness distribution. Then, by means of an iterative process, the final mask is designed. By using such a technique, it has been possible to deposit layers of tantalum pentoxide having a high thickness gradient onto a curved substrate 500 mm in diameter. Residual errors in the coating thickness profile are below 0.7%. PMID:19571934

  19. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  20. Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for the generation of large-area periodic surface structures on different materials, like polymers and semiconductors, by direct laser ablation is presented. The surfaces were illuminated with the interference pattern emerging in close proximity behind a laser irradiated phase mask. In the experiments, nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at 248 nm were applied. To prevent contamination or damage of the phase mask caused by the ablated material, the mask is protected by a thin water film or a thin quartz plate. In addition we present a technique to eliminate a lateral variation of the generated structures due to insufficient alignment precision of the workpiece.

  1. A novel hanging bowl-shaped mask for the fabrication of vertical sidewall structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongxue; Liu, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Contact exposure is expected to occur in conventional lithography, and can be a source of process deviations (such as shrinking and distortion of templates) during reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching, as these deviations are induced by ion bombardment. This typically results in undesired sidewall effects, such as lower sidewall angles. Here we report a novel hanging bowlshaped lithography mask that can effectively minimize sidewall effects in lithography applications. As a test case, standard silicon carbide pillars with vertical sidewalls are fabricated using this mask. The mask could be used for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures with ultra-violet lithography.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  3. Spatial mask filtering algorithm for partial discharge pulse extraction of large generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A spatial mask filter algorithm (SMF) for partial discharge (PD) pulse extraction is proposed in this then direct multiplication of coefficients at two adjacent scales is used to detect singularity points of the signal tain the last spatial mask filter. By multiplication of wavelet coefficients with the final mask filter and wavelet reconstruction process, partial discharge pulses are extracted. The results of digital simulation and practical experiment show that this method is superior to traditional wavelet shrinkage method (TWS). This algorithm not only can increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR), but also can preserve the energy and pulse amplitude.

  4. Generation and detection of gigahertz surface acoustic waves using an elastomeric phase-shift mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyao; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Cahill, David G.

    2013-10-01

    We describe a convenient approach for measuring the velocity vSAW of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) of the near-surface layer of a material through optical pump-probe measurements. The method has a lateral spatial resolution of elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane phase-shift mask which is fabricated using a commercially available Si grating as a mold. Time-domain electromagnetics calculations show, in agreement with experiment, that the efficiency of the phase-shift mask for generating and detecting SAWs decreases rapidly as the periodicity of the mask decreases below the optical wavelength. We validate the experimental approach using bulk and thin film samples with known elastic constants.

  5. Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-03-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography poses a number of challenges, one of which is the production of a defect-free mask. To observe the defects on an EUV mask in a quantitative phase image, we have developed a microcoherent EUV scatterometry microscope. The intensity and phase images of the defects are reconstructed using ptychography. We observe four actual defects on an EUV blank mask using the microscope. The reconstructed shapes of the actual defects correspond well to those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our microscope should therefore function as an essential review tool in characterizing defects.

  6. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Schunemann, H J; Fonseca, J;

    2015-01-01

    ) and are available in many languages. An e-CRF and an e-learning tool complete MASK. MASK is flexible and other tools can be added. It appears to be an advanced, global and integrated ICT answer for many unmet needs in allergic diseases which will improve policies and standards....... empowerment. MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a simple system centred around the patient which was devised to fill many of these gaps using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on the most widely used...

  7. Combined laser and atomic force microscope lithography on aluminum: Mask fabrication for nanoelectromechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Boisen, Anja; Davis, Zachary James;

    1999-01-01

    A direct-write laser system and an atomic force microscope (AFM) are combined to modify thin layers of aluminum on an oxidized silicon substrate, in order to fabricate conducting and robust etch masks with submicron features. These masks are very well suited for the production of nanoelectromecha...... writing, and to perform submicron modifications by AFM oxidation. The mask fabrication for a nanoscale suspended resonator bridge is used to illustrate the advantages of this combined technique for NEMS. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(99)00221-1]....

  8. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from 1 to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAs. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in the mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAs. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, ''h,'' in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  9. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ɛ invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  10. Trait dominance promotes reflexive staring at masked angry body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortensius, Ruud; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice; Terburg, David

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger. PMID:25549321

  11. Differential effectiveness of cues in informational masking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Virginia M.; Huang, Rong; Kidd, Gerald

    2001-05-01

    For the detection of a tone added to random multitone maskers, playing a preview of the masker before detection trials can reduce thresholds compared to when there is no preview. In contrast, playing a preview of the signal-plus-masker does not provide a release from masking. This differential effectiveness of cues was examined in several conditions. Using the method of constant stimuli and a yes/no task, observers detected a 1000-Hz tone added to six-tone maskers. Prior to each trial, the frequencies of the masker components were randomly drawn. Two types of cues were tested, either a copy of the masker or a copy of the signal-plus-masker. The cues were presented either before or after the yes/no presentation interval. Finally, data were collected either blocked for each condition or the trials from the four conditions were interleaved. D-prime values were higher when the conditions were blocked than when they were interleaved. The pattern of results was the same in both situations; d was highest for pretrial masker cues, lowest for pretrial signal-plus-masker cues, and intermediate when either cue followed the trial interval. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  12. The role of spatiotemporal edges in visibility and visual masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknik, Stephen L.; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Haglund, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    What parts of a visual stimulus produce the greatest neural signal? Previous studies have explored this question and found that the onset of a stimulus's edge is what excites early visual neurons most strongly. The role of inhibition at the edges of stimuli has remained less clear, however, and the importance of neural responses associated with the termination of stimuli has only recently been examined. Understanding all of these spatiotemporal parameters (the excitation and inhibition evoked by the stimulus's onset and termination, as well as its spatial edges) is crucial if we are to develop a general principle concerning the relationship between neural signals and the parts of the stimulus that generate them. Here, we use visual masking illusions to explore this issue, in combination with human psychophysics, awake behaving primate neurophysiology in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, and optical recording in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized monkeys. The edges of the stimulus, rather than its interior, generate the strongest excitatory and inhibitory responses both perceptually and physiologically. These edges can be imaged directly by using optical recording techniques. Excitation and inhibition are moreover most powerful when the stimulus turns both on and off (what might be thought of as the stimulus's temporal edges). We thus conclude that there is a general principle that relates the generation of neural signals (excitatory and inhibitory) to the spatiotemporal edges of stimuli in the early visual system. PMID:10852945

  13. Trait dominance promotes reflexive staring at masked angry body postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Hortensius

    Full Text Available It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger.

  14. 3D Microfabrication Using Emulsion Mask Grayscale Photolithography Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tze Pin; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the rapid development of technology such as biochips, microfluidic, micro-optical devices and micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) demands the capability to create complex design of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. In order to create 3D microstructures, the traditional photolithography process often requires multiple photomasks to form 3D pattern from several stacked photoresist layers. This fabrication method is extremely time consuming, low throughput, costly and complicated to conduct for high volume manufacturing scale. On the other hand, next generation lithography such as electron beam lithography (EBL), focused ion beam lithography (FIB) and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) are however too costly and the machines require expertise to setup. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a simplified method in producing 3D microstructures using single grayscale emulsion mask technique. By using this grayscale fabrication method, microstructures of thickness as high as 500μm and as low as 20μm are obtained in a single photolithography exposure. Finally, the fabrication of 3D microfluidic channel has been demonstrated by using this grayscale photolithographic technique.

  15. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from I to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAS. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAS. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, open-quotes hclose quotes, in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  16. Binaural cues provide for a release from informational masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M

    2015-10-01

    Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. PMID:26413722

  17. Improved achromatization of phase mask coronagraphs using colored apodization

    CERN Document Server

    N'Diaye, M; Cuevas, S; Soummer, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C; Zamkotsian, F

    2011-01-01

    For direct imaging of exoplanets, a stellar coronagraph helps to remove the image of an observed bright star by attenuating the diffraction effects caused by the telescope aperture of diameter D. The Dual Zone Phase Mask (DZPM) coronagraph constitutes a promising concept since it theoretically offers a small inner working angle (IWA \\sim \\lambda_0/D), good achromaticity and high starlight rejection, typically reaching a 1e6 contrast at 5 \\lambda_0/D from the star over a spectral bandwidth \\Delta\\lambda/\\lambda_0 of 25% (similar to H-band). This last value proves to be encouraging for broadband imaging of young and warm Jupiter-like planets. Contrast levels higher than 1e6 are however required for the observation of older and/or less massive companions over a finite spectral bandwidth. An achromatization improvement of the DZPM coronagraph is therefore mandatory to reach such performance. In its design, the DZPM coronagraph uses a grey (or achromatic) apodization. We propose to replace it by a colored apodizat...

  18. Self-masked high-aspect-ratio polymer nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple, cost effective, and potentially universal method is proposed for the formation of high-aspect-ratio nanopillars on various polymers. Our method involves direct reactive ion etching (RIE) using self-formed nanomasks oriented from a dummy material (cover glass). The mechanism is evaluated using nanopillar characterization and surface analysis results from x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and Auger electron microscopy (AES). By varying the dummy material configuration and modifying the RIE etching time, the distribution and dimensions of the nanopillars can be manipulated to meet a range of requirements. The maximum structural aspect ratio of 60 (6.7 μm high and 112 nm thick nanopillars) can be easily prepared using a 60 min self-masked high-aspect-ratio polymer nanopillars fabrication (SMHAR) process on poly(monochloro-p-xylylene) (Parylene C). Furthermore, nanopillars can also be generated using the same SMHAR process on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and SU-8 photoresist, creating nanostructured PDMS or SU-8 materials in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or nano/micro-electromechanical systems (N/MEMS).

  19. Occurrence and stability of masked fumonisins in corn silage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Alicia; Dagnac, Thierry; Lorenzo, Bruno Fernández; Llompart, María

    2015-12-15

    Corn plants contaminated with Fusarium verticilloides were harvested at two dates and ensiled in laboratory silos. The stability of Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1, FB2) was studied and the effects of inoculant use (Lactobacillus buchneri) and of the ensiling time were assessed. The occurrence of masked fumonisins was also investigated. After the extraction of the free forms (FB1, FB2), the residue was subjected to an alkaline hydrolysis resulting in the release of derivates subsequently detected by LC-HESI-MS/MS. The ensiling time has shown to be a significant factor for the evolution of free FB1 and FB2 at the 2nd harvest date. Moreover, the use of inoculant had a significant effect on the stability of hidden and total FB1 at the two harvest dates. Samples previously ensiled and exposed to aerobic conditions for 7days have shown higher fumonisin levels than those not exposed to air. Our results showed that 65% and 39% of the total FB1 and FB2 contents in silage were due to hidden fumonisins. PMID:26190598

  20. New software for raw data mask processing increases diagnostic ability of myocardial SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased activity of myocardial perfusion tracer technetium-99m in liver and hepatobiliary system causes streak artifacts, which may affect clinical diagnosis. We developed a mask-processing tool for raw data generated using technetium-99m as a myocardial perfusion tracer. Here, we describe improvements in image quality under the influence of artifacts caused by high accumulation in other organs. A heart phantom (RH-2) containing 15 MBq of pertechnetate was defined as model A. Model B was designed in the same phantom containing ten times of cardiac radioactivity overlapping with other organs. Variance in the vertical profile count in the lower part of the myocardial inferior wall and in the myocardial circumferential profile curve were investigated in a phantom and clinical cases using our raw data masking (RDM) software. The profile variances at lower parts of myocardial inferior walls were 965.43 in model A, 1390.11 in model B and 815.85 in B-RDM. The mean ±SD of myocardial circumferential profile curves were 83.91±7.39 in model A, 69.61±11.45 in model B and 82.68±9.71 in model B-RDM. For 11 clinical images with streak artifacts, the average of the variance significantly differed between with and without RDM (3.95 vs. 21.05; P<0.05). For 50 clinical images with hepatic accumulation artifacts, the average of the variance on vertical profiles on images with and without RDM significantly differed (5.99 vs. 15.59; P<0.01). Furthermore, when a segment with <60% uptake in polar maps was defined as abnormal, the average extent score of 1 h (Tc-1h), 5 min of RDM (Tc-0h-RDM) and 5 min of non-RDM (Tc-0h-non-RDM) were 2.25±3.12, 2.35±3.16, and 1.37±2.41, respectively. Differences were significant between Tc-1h and Tc-0h-non-RDM (P<0.005) but not between Tc-1h and Tc-0h-RDM. Batch processing was enabled in all frames by shifting the myocardium to the center of rotation using this software. The waiting time between infusion and image acquisition should be decreased

  1. Safety And Efficacy Of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway Versus Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway And Endo Tracheal Tube During Elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Mansour , Wafaa G.Ahmed , Kawthar A. Azzam ,Tarek M. EL said

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to compare safety , efficacy of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA, classic Laryngeal mask airway (LMA and cuffed Endo Tracheal Tube (ETT as a ventilatory device during controlled positive pressure ventilation and airway management , Haemodynamic response to insertion and removal, gastric tube insertion through either device, air leak detection and assessment of position by fiberoptic bronchoscope . Forty five ASA I or II patients aged between 18-55 years old , were divided equally into three groups of fifteen patients each , and airway management either through PLMA(groupI,classic LMA (groupIIand ETT (group III . All patients were premedicated by zantac hydrochloride 150 mg orally at mid night and two hours before the operation ­ Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 ug/kg and propofol 2.5 mg /kg and maintenance was with a mixture of 50% N2O , 50% O2 and isoflurane 1 - 1.5 % and rocuronium 0.5 mg /kg followed by continous infusion of rocuronium 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/hr A proper size PLMA , classic LMA or ETT was selected oxygenation and ventilation were optimal in 100% in group I and III while in group II 80% optimal and suboptimal in 13.3% and failed in 6.7 % . Haemodynamic parameters showed that significantly increase in HR and MAP in the three studied groups especially at insertion and removal of the airway device with statisticaly significant difference between group I,II in comparison to group III, comparison of gastric tube insertion showed that positive insertion was 86.7% in group I and in 46.7% in group II, while in group III positive insertion was 100% air leak was detected by epigastric auscultation which signified lower leakage in PLMA group than LMA group . Position assessment by fiberoptic bronchoscope in PLMA group was grade 4 in 5 patients , grade 3 in 5 patients , grade2 in 4 patients and grade 1 in 1 patient while in LMA group it was grade 4 in 7 patients , grade 3 in 6 patients , grade 2 in 2

  2. Evaluation of setup uncertainties for single-fraction SRS by comparing two different mask-creation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Geun; Jang, Hyun Soo; Oh, Young Kee; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Eng Chan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the setup uncertainties for single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) based on clinical data with two different mask-creation methods using pretreatment con-beam computed tomography imaging guidance. Dedicated frameless fixation Brain- LAB masks for 23 patients were created as a routine mask (R-mask) making method, as explained in the BrainLAB's user manual. Alternative masks (A-masks), which were created by modifying the cover range of the R-masks for the patient's head, were used for 23 patients. The systematic errors including these for each mask and stereotactic target localizer were analyzed, and the errors were calculated as the means ± standard deviations (SD) from the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and yaw setup corrections. In addition, the frequencies of the threedimensional (3D) vector length were analyzed. The values of the mean setup corrections for the R-mask in all directions were < 0.7 mm and < 0.1°, whereas the magnitudes of the SDs were relatively large compared to the mean values. In contrast, the means and SDs of the A-mask were smaller than those for the R-mask with the exception of the SD in the AP direction. The means and SDs in the yaw rotational direction for the R-mask and the A-mask system were comparable. 3D vector shifts of larger magnitude occurred more frequently for the R-mask than the A-mask. The setup uncertainties for each mask with the stereotactic localizing system had an asymmetric offset towards the positive AP direction. The A-mask-creation method, which is capable of covering the top of the patient's head, is superior to that for the R-mask, so the use of the A-mask is encouraged for SF-SRS to reduce the setup uncertainties. Moreover, careful mask-making is required to prevent possible setup uncertainties.

  3. Comparison of plastic and orfit[reg] masks for patient head fixation during radiotherapy: precision and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Two widely used immobilization systems for head fixation during radiotherapy treatment for ear-nose-throat (ENT) tumors are evaluated. Methods and Materials: Masks made of poly vinyl-chloride (plastuc) are compared to thermoplastic masks (Orfit[reg]) with respect to the accuracy of the treatment setup and the costs. For both types of material, a cut-out (windows corresponding to treatment fields) and a full mask (not cut out) are considered. Forty-three patients treated for ENT tumors were randomized into four groups, to be fixed by one of the following modalities: cut-out plastic mask (12 patients), full plastic mask (11 patients), cut-out Orfit[reg] mask (10 patients), and full Orfit[reg] mask (10 patients). Results: Reproducibility of the treatment setup was assessed by calculating the deviations from the mean value for each individual patient and was demonstrated to be identical for all subgroups: no differences were demonstrated between the plastic (s = 2.1 mm) and the Orfit[reg] (s = 2.1 mm) group nor between the cut-out (s = 2.0 mm) and not cut-out (s = 2.1 mm) group. The transfer chain from simulator to treatment unit was checked by comparing portal images to their respective simulation image, and no differences between the four subgroups (s = ±3.5 mm) could be detected. A methodology was described to compare the costs of both types of masks, and illustrated with the data for a department. It was found that Orfit[reg] masks are a cheaper alternative than plastic masks; they require much less investment expenses and the workload and material cost of the first mask for each patient is also lower. Cut-out masks are more expensive than full masks, because of the higher workload and the additional material required for second and third masks that are required in case of field modifications. Conclusions: No substantial difference in patient setup accuracy between both types of masks was detected, and cutting out the masks had no impact on the fixing

  4. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Haruta, Hiroki; Eninger, Robert M; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy T; Lee, Shu-An

    2009-10-01

    The protection level offered by filtering facepiece particulate respirators and face masks is defined by the percentage of ambient particles penetrating inside the protection device. There are two penetration pathways: (1) through the faceseal leakage, and the (2) filter medium. This study aimed at differentiating the contributions of these two pathways for particles in the size range of 0.03-1 microm under actual breathing conditions. One N95 filtering facepiece respirator and one surgical mask commonly used in health care environments were tested on 25 subjects (matching the latest National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health fit testing panel) as the subjects performed conventional fit test exercises. The respirator and the mask were also tested with breathing manikins that precisely mimicked the prerecorded breathing patterns of the tested subjects. The penetration data obtained in the human subject- and manikin-based tests were compared for different particle sizes and breathing patterns. Overall, 5250 particle size- and exercise-specific penetration values were determined. For each value, the faceseal leakage-to-filter ratio was calculated to quantify the relative contributions of the two penetration pathways. The number of particles penetrating through the faceseal leakage of the tested respirator/mask far exceeded the number of those penetrating through the filter medium. For the N95 respirator, the excess was (on average) by an order of magnitude and significantly increased with an increase in particle size (p < 0.001): approximately 7-fold greater for 0.04 microm, approximately 10-fold for 0.1 microm, and approximately 20-fold for 1 microm. For the surgical mask, the faceseal leakage-to-filter ratio ranged from 4.8 to 5.8 and was not significantly affected by the particle size for the tested submicrometer fraction. Facial/body movement had a pronounced effect on the relative contribution of the two penetration pathways. Breathing intensity and

  5. Simple Strehl ratio based method for pupil phase mask's optimization in wavefront coding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzi Zhang; Yanping Chen; Tingyu Zhao; Zi Ye; Feihong Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By applying the wavefront coding technique to an optical system,the depth of focus can be greatly increased.Several complicated methods have already been taken to optimize for the best pupil phase mask in ideal condition.Here a simple Strehl ratio based method with only the standard deviation method used to evaluate the Strehl ratio stability over the depth of focus is applied to optimize for the best coefficients of pupil phase mask in practical optical systems.Results of imaging simulations for optical systems with and without pupil phase mask are presented,and the sharpness of image is calculated for comparison.The optimized pupil phase mask shows good results in extending the depth of focus.

  6. Accurate characterization of mask defects by combination of phase retrieval and deterministic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Chul; Leportier, Thibault; Kim, Wooshik; Song, Jindong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method to characterize not only shape but also depth of defects in line and space mask patterns. Features in a mask are too fine for conventional imaging system to resolve them and coherent imaging system providing only the pattern diffracted by the mask are used. Then, phase retrieval methods may be applied, but the accuracy it too low to determine the exact shape of the defect. Deterministic methods have been proposed to characterize accurately the defect, but it requires a reference pattern. We propose to use successively phase retrieval algorithm to retrieve the general shape of the mask and then deterministic approach to characterize precisely the defects detected.

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  8. A soft photo-mask with embedded carbon black and its application in contact photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new type of soft photo-mask which can be used in contact photolithography for achieving small line-width, large area, and high throughput ultraviolet (UV) patterning. It starts from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from a silicon master mold. A carbon black photo-resist (PR) is spin-coated on top of the PDMS mold and then thermally cured. After a contact transfer process, the solidified carbon black PR exists only in the concave region of the PDMS mold, which converts the PDMS mold into a carbon-black/PDMS soft photo-mask. Due to its flexibility, this soft photo-mask can be used in contact photolithography on a slightly curved substrate. Experiments on preparing this new soft photo-mask and its application for fabricating patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) used in the light-emitting-diode (LED) industry are carried out. Successful results are observed. (paper)

  9. Bio-mimic design of PM2.5 anti-smog masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic property of anti-smog masks is to block PM2.5 with excellent air permeability. A multi-layer nanofiber woven fabric with hierarchical structure is the best candidate for this purpose.

  10. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  11. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  12. Robust SMO methodology for exposure tool and mask variations in high volume production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takaki; Kai, Yasunobu; Masukawa, Kazuyuki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    A robust source mask optimization (RSMO) methodology has been developed for the first time to decrease variations of critical dimension (CD) and overlay displacement on wafer caused by extremely complex exposure tools and mask patterns. The RSMO methodology takes into account exposure tool variations of source shape, aberrations and mask as well as dose and focus to get source shapes and mask patterns robust to the exposure tool variations. A comparison between the conventional SMO and the new RSMO found that the RSMO improved the edge placement error (EPE) and displacement sensitivity to coma and astigmatism aberrations by 14% and 40%, respectively. Interestingly, even a greatly-simplified source from the RSMO provides totally smaller EPE than uselessly complex source shape from the conventional SMO. Thus, the RSMO methodology is much more effective for semiconductor products with high volume production.

  13. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  14. High-emulation mask recognition with high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiao; Fang, Xiaojing; Li, Shoufeng; Wang, Yongjin

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for distinguishing human face from high-emulation mask, which is increasingly used by criminals for activities such as stealing card numbers and passwords on ATM. Traditional facial recognition technique is difficult to detect such camouflaged criminals. In this paper, we use the high-resolution hyperspectral video capture system to detect high-emulation mask. A RGB camera is used for traditional facial recognition. A prism and a gray scale camera are used to capture spectral information of the observed face. Experiments show that mask made of silica gel has different spectral reflectance compared with the human skin. As multispectral image offers additional spectral information about physical characteristics, high-emulation mask can be easily recognized.

  15. MISR FIRSTLOOK radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the FIRSTLOOK Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask (RCCM) dataset produced using ancillary inputs (RCCT) from the previous time period. It is...

  16. The fabrication of x-ray masks using proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simplified method of fabricating x-ray masks for deep x-ray lithography by using proton beam writing (PBW) without subsequent soft x-ray copying steps. Combining direct PBW and subsequent electroplating, x-ray masks with gold absorber patterns of up to 11 µm height and with vertical and smooth sidewalls were fabricated. The smallest size in the absorber pattern is less than 0.5 µm in this work. The masks were used for x-ray lithography with synchrotron radiation, and 870 µm SU-8 structures with smooth sidewalls were produced. This fabrication method is promising to be an important alternative to conventional methods for x-ray mask making

  17. Fabrication technique for a custom face mask for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Ronald S; Colquitt, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The development of the positive airway pressure custom mask (TAP-PAP CM) has changed the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The TAP-PAP CM is used in continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and is fabricated from the impression of the face. This mask is then connected to a post screwed into the mechanism of the TAP3 (Thornton Anterior Positioner) oral appliance. This strapless CPAP face mask features an efficient and stable CPAP interface with mandibular stabilization (Hybrid Therapy). A technique with a 2-stage polyvinyl siloxane face impression is described that offers improvements over the established single-stage face impression. This 2-stage impression technique eliminates problems inherent in the single-stage face impression, including voids, compressed tissue, inadequate borders, and a rushed experience due to the setting time of the single stage. The result is a custom mask with an improved seal to the CPAP device. PMID:26774315

  18. Continuous noninvasive ventilation delivered by a novel total face mask: a case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel R; Winck, João Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been widely used to decrease the complications associated with tracheal intubation in mechanically ventilated patients. However, nasal ulcerations may occur when conventional masks are used for continuous ventilation. A total face mask, which has no contact with the more sensitive areas of the face, is a possible option. We describe 3 patients with acute respiratory failure due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, who developed nasal bridge skin necrosis during continuous NIV, and one patient with post-extubation respiratory failure due to a high spinal cord injury, who had facial trauma with contraindication for conventional mask use. The total face mask was very well tolerated by all the patients, and permitted safe and efficient continuous NIV for several days until the acute respiratory failure episode resolved. None of the patients required endotracheal intubation during the acute episode. PMID:21968352

  19. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-01-13

    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase. PMID:24515055

  20. Improvement of polycrystalline silicon wafer solar cell efficiency by forming nanoscale pyramids on wafer surface using a self-mask etching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Wen-Hwa; Hong, Franklin C-N

    2013-05-01

    The creation of nanostructures on polycrystalline silicon wafer surface to reduce the solar reflection can enhance the solar absorption and thus increase the solar-electricity conversion efficiency of solar cells. The self-masking reactive ion etching (RIE) was studied to directly fabricate nanostructures on silicon surface without using a masking process for antireflection purpose. Reactive gases comprising chlorine (Cl2), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and oxygen (O2) were activated by radio-frequency plasma in an RIE system at a typical pressure of 120-130 mTorr to fabricate the nanoscale pyramids. Poly-Si wafers were etched directly without masking for 6-10 min to create surface nanostructures by varying the compositions of SF6, Cl2, and O2 gas mixtures in the etching process. The wafers were then treated with acid (KOH:H2O = 1:1) for 1 min to remove the damage layer (100 nm) induced by dry etching. The damage layer significantly reduced the solar cell efficiencies by affecting the electrical properties of the surface layer. The light reflectivity from the surface after acid treatment could be significantly reduced to etching. PMID:23847751

  1. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  2. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenadi, Catherina Josephine; Law, David Zhiwei; Lee, Jia Wen; Ong, Ee Lin; Chee, Wai Kitt; Cheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s) of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon). Results Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52) were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40). The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p $1003c; 0.05) to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337), gender (r = −0.174, p = 0.283) or CCT (r = −0.123, p = 0.445). Conclusion There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27462262

  3. Measurement Errors Arising When Using Distances in Microeconometric Modelling and the Individuals’ Position Is Geo-Masked for Confidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Arbia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many microeconometric models we use distances. For instance, in modelling the individual behavior in labor economics or in health studies, the distance from a relevant point of interest (such as a hospital or a workplace is often used as a predictor in a regression framework. However, in order to preserve confidentiality, spatial micro-data are often geo-masked, thus reducing their quality and dramatically distorting the inferential conclusions. In particular in this case, a measurement error is introduced in the independent variable which negatively affects the properties of the estimators. This paper studies these negative effects, discusses their consequences, and suggests possible interpretations and directions to data producers, end users, and practitioners.

  4. Analytical and experimental demonstration of depth of field extension for incoherent imaging system with a standard sinusoidal phase mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Yingcai Li

    2012-01-01

    The wavefront coding technique is used to enlarge the depth of field (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems.The key to wavefront coding lies in the design of suitable phase masks. To date,numerous kinds of phase masks are proposed.However,further understanding is needed regarding phase mask with its phase function being in a standard sinusoidal form.Therefore,the characteristics of such a phase mask are studied in this letter.Deriving the defocused optical transfer function (OTF) analytically proves that the standard sinusoidal phase mask is effective in extending the DOF,and actual experiments confirm the numerical results.At the same time,with the Fisher information as a criterion,the standard sinusoidal phase mask shows a higher tolerance to focus errors (especially severe focus errors) than the classical cubic phase mask.%The wavefront coding technique is used to enlarge the depth of field (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems. The key to wavefront coding lies in the design of suitable phase masks. To date, numerous kinds of phase masks are proposed. However, further understanding is needed regarding phase mask with its phase function being in a standard sinusoidal form. Therefore, the characteristics of such a phase mask are studied in this letter. Deriving the defocused optical transfer function (OTF) analytically proves that the standard sinusoidal phase mask is effective in extending the DOF, and actual experiments confirm the numerical results. At the same time, with the Fisher information as a criterion, the standard sinusoidal phase mask shows a higher tolerance to focus errors (especially severe focus errors) than the classical cubic phase mask.

  5. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  6. Inter-observer variation in masked and unmasked images for quality evaluation of clinical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of masking on the inter-observer variation in image quality evaluation of clinical radiographs of chest and lumbar spine. Background: Inter-observer variation is a big problem in image quality evaluation since this variation is often much bigger than the variation in image quality between, for example, two radiographic systems. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of masking on the inter-observer variation. The idea of the masking was to force every observer to view exactly the same part of the image and to avoid the effect of the overall 'first impression' of the image. A discussion with a group of European expert radiologists before the study indicated that masking might be a good way to reduce the inter-observer variation. Methods: Five chest and five lumbar spine radiographs were collected together with detailed information regarding exposure conditions. The radiographs were digitised with a high-performance scanner and five different manipulations were performed, simulating five different exposure conditions. The contrast, noise and spatial resolution were manipulated by this method. The images were printed onto the film and the individual masks were produced for each film, showing only the parts of the images that were necessary for the image quality evaluation. The quality of the images was evaluated on ordinary viewing boxes by a large group of experienced radiologists. The images were examined with and without the masks with a set of image criteria (if fulfilled, 1 point; and not fulfilled, 0 point), and the mean score was calculated for each simulated exposure condition. Results: The results of this study indicate that - contrary to what was supposed - the inter-observer variation increased when the images were masked. In some cases, especially for chest, this increase was statistically significant. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, image masking in studies of fulfilment of image criteria cannot

  7. The effectiveness of surgical face masks in the operating room : a systematic review / Nontsokolo Sylvia Makeleni.

    OpenAIRE

    Makeleni, Nontsokolo Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Surgical face masks have been designed to protect health care professionals from the splashes of the patients’ blood or body fluids and also to minimise the transmission of oro- and nasopharyngeal bacteria from the surgical team to the patient’s wounds, thereby decreasing the likelihood of postoperative surgical site infections during a surgical procedure. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the wound during a surgical ...

  8. Investigating the intrinsic cleanliness of automated handling designed for EUV mask pod-in-pod systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brux, O.; van der Walle, P.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Dress, P.

    2011-11-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for technology nodes 16nm (hp) and below. However, several unique EUV mask challenges must be resolved for a successful launch of the technology into the market. Uncontrolled introduction of particles and/or contamination into the EUV scanner significantly increases the risk for device yield loss and potentially scanner down-time. With the absence of a pellicle to protect the surface of the EUV mask, a zero particle adder regime between final clean and the point-of-exposure is critical for the active areas of the mask. A Dual Pod concept for handling EUV masks had been proposed by the industry as means to minimize the risk of mask contamination during transport and storage. SuSS-HamaTech introduces MaskTrackPro InSync as a fully automated solution for the handling of EUV masks in and out of this Dual Pod System and therefore constitutes an interface between various tools inside the Fab. The intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner shell (EIP) of this Dual Pod and the EUV mask inside the InSync Tool has been investigated to confirm the capability for minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. An Entegris Dual Pod EUV-1000A-A110 has been used for the qualification. The particle detection for the qualification procedure was executed with the TNO's RapidNano Particle Scanner, qualified for particle sizes down to 50nm (PSL equivalent). It has been shown that the target specification of mitigate the risk of material abrasion.

  9. Diagnosis of Fault Modes Masked by Control Loops with an Application to Autonomous Hovercraft Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis A. Raptis; Rodney Martin; Robert Mah; Nikunj Oza; Dimitri Mavris; Sehwan Oh; Kilsoo Kim; Young-Ki Lee; Christopher Sconyers; George J. Vachtsevanos

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for the design, testing and assessment of incipient failure detection techniques for failing components/systems of an autonomous vehicle masked or hidden by feedback control loops. It is recognized that the optimum operation of critical assets (aircraft, autonomous systems, etc.) may be compromised by feedback control loops by masking severe fault modes while compensating for typical disturbances. Detrimental consequences of such occurrences include the ina...

  10. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    OpenAIRE

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency related pernicious anaemia by folic acid. aggravate neurological manifestations comes from publications in the mid-1940s, when folic acid was first used to treat patients with pernicious anaemia. This ...

  11. Type of Mask May Impact on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Apneic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Jean Christian; Tamisier, Renaud; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Sapene, Marc; Martin, Francis; Stach, Bruno; Grillet, Yves; Muir, Jean François; Levy, Patrick; Series, Frederic; Pepin, Jean-Louis; ,

    2013-01-01

    Rationale In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. Objective To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. Methods Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in “Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie”, a French natio...

  12. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. AIMS: To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. METHOD: Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. RESULTS: The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  13. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  14. Plasma-deposited fluoropolymer film mask for local porous silicon formation

    OpenAIRE

    Defforge, Thomas; Capelle, Marie; Tran-Van, François; Gautier, Gaël

    2012-01-01

    The study of an innovative fluoropolymer masking layer for silicon anodization is proposed. Due to its high chemical resistance to hydrofluoric acid even under anodic bias, this thin film deposited by plasma has allowed the formation of deep porous silicon regions patterned on the silicon wafer. Unlike most of other masks, fluoropolymer removal after electrochemical etching is rapid and does not alter the porous layer. Local porous regions were thus fabricated both in p+-type and low-doped n-...

  15. The Mysterious Noh Mask: Contribution of Multiple Facial Parts to the Recognition of Emotional Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromitsu Miyata; Ritsuko Nishimura; Kazuo Okanoya; Nobuyuki Kawai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expr...

  16. Masking produces compression of space and time in the absence of eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Born, Sabine; Fink, Gereon R.; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Whenever the visual stream is abruptly disturbed by eye movements, blinks, masks, or flashes of light, the visual system needs to retrieve the new locations of current targets and to reconstruct the timing of events to straddle the interruption. This process may introduce position and timing errors. We here report that very similar errors are seen in human subjects across three different paradigms when disturbances are caused by either eye movements, as is well known, or, as we now show, mask...

  17. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  18. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Ling, Mia; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention defici...

  19. Hidden data transmission using time delay for separating useful signals from masking oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal'Yanov, Er. V.

    2009-03-01

    A new method of hidden data transmission based on the use of time delay for the separation of useful signals from masking noise-like (chaotic or stochastic) oscillations is described. Mathematical models involving a source of chaotic oscillations have been studied using numerical methods. The transmission of a masked non-encoded signal and the pulsed data transmission using 0/1 bit code are considered.

  20. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  1. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne F.X. Almeida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in

  2. TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of any dosage form are mainly depends over its taste i.e. mouth feel. Drug molecule interacts with taste receptor on the tongue to give bitter, sweet or salty taste sensation, when they dissolve in saliva. This sensation of the taste is the result of signal transduction from the receptor organs for taste, commonly known as taste buds. In market, there are numbers of pharmaceutical preparations available in which actives are bitter in taste. The improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations, which improved performance and acceptability. The bitterness of preparation also leads to patient incompliance. So masking of bitterness becomes essential. To overcome this problem, many techniques have been developed to mask the bitter taste of drugs. These techniques are not only mask the bitter taste of drug but also enhance the bioavailability and performance of drug dosage form. It includes adding sugars, flavors, sweeteners, use of lipoproteins, numbing taste buds, granulation, use of adsorbates ,coating drug, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifier, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug and salt formation, inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion and Ion Exchange Resins (IERs which have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review article highlights different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Cyclodextrin Based Binary Systems for Taste Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Birhade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the potential of cyclodextrin complexation as an approach for taste masking. For this purpose, Rizatriptan benzoate (RZBT was selected as model drug which is having bitter taste. Taste improvement of drug by β-Cyclodextrin was done by simple complexation approach using physical and kneading mixture methods with various ratios. Taste perception study was carried out in-vitro by spectrophotometrically and in-vivo by gustatory sensation to evaluate the taste masking ability of binary complexation. The optimized taste masking ratio 1:10 of kneading mixture was selected based on bitterness score and characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffractometry (XRD to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier and its effect on dissolution. In-vitro drug release studies for physical mixture and kneaded system were performed in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers. The FTIR, DSC and XRD studies indicated inclusion complexation in physical mixture and kneaded system. Both the binary systems showed effective taste masking and at the same time showed no limiting effect on the drug release. Whereas in comparison; kneading system showed better results. The results conclusively demonstrated effective taste masking by β-Cyclodextrin in both binary systems, which can be utilized as a novel alternative approach for effective taste masking.

  4. Conceptual design of a hybrid parallel mechanism for mask exchanging of TMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Zhou, Hongfei; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Mask exchange system is an important part of the Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). To solve the problem of stiffness changing with the gravity vector of the mask exchange system in the MOBIE, the hybrid parallel mechanism design method was introduced into the whole research. By using the characteristics of high stiffness and precision of parallel structure, combined with large moving range of serial structure, a conceptual design of a hybrid parallel mask exchange system based on 3-RPS parallel mechanism was presented. According to the position requirements of the MOBIE, the SolidWorks structure model of the hybrid parallel mask exchange robot was established and the appropriate installation position without interfering with the related components and light path in the MOBIE of TMT was analyzed. Simulation results in SolidWorks suggested that 3-RPS parallel platform had good stiffness property in different gravity vector directions. Furthermore, through the research of the mechanism theory, the inverse kinematics solution of the 3-RPS parallel platform was calculated and the mathematical relationship between the attitude angle of moving platform and the angle of ball-hinges on the moving platform was established, in order to analyze the attitude adjustment ability of the hybrid parallel mask exchange robot. The proposed conceptual design has some guiding significance for the design of mask exchange system of the MOBIE on TMT.

  5. Only pre-cueing but no retro-cueing effects emerge with masked arrow cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Markus; Reuss, Heiko

    2016-05-01

    The impact of masked stimulation on cognitive control processes is investigated with much interest. In many cases, masked stimulation suffices to initiate and employ control processes. Shifts of attention either happen in the external environment or internally, for example, in working memory. In the former, even masked cues (i.e., cues that are presented for a period too short to allow strategic use) were shown efficient for shifting attention to particular locations in pre-cue paradigms. Internal attention shifting can be investigated using retro-cues: long after encoding, a valid cue indicates the location to-be-tested via change detection, and this improves performance (retro-cue effect). In the present experiment, participants performed in both a pre- and a retro-cue task with masked and normally presented cues. While the masked cues benefitted performance in the pre-cue task, they did not in the retro-cue task. These results inform about limits of masked stimulation. PMID:26998561

  6. SPM characterizaton of anomalies in phase-shift mask and their effect on wafer features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhirn, Sylvain; Meyyappan, A.; Walch, Kelvin; Maslow, Mark J.; Vandenberghe, Geert; van Wingerden, Johannes

    2001-08-01

    As dimensions get smaller and circuits get more complex, the demand for comprehensive measurements of reticule geometries increases. 3D characterization of phase shift mask (PSM) is required to understand the quality of the transferred image. To avoid anomalies between the measurements, the structures on both mask/reticule and wafer should be measured using the same technique. The technique used should be insensitive to differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the materials (chromium on quartz, resist on conductive or non-conductive layers). Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is ideally suited to make these characterizations on both masks/reticule and wafers. It quantitatively profiles lines and trenches in three dimensions. SPM is a nondestructive technique, allowing for the preservation of the integrity of mask and wafers. The profiles of features on a phase shift mask (PSM) are measured with SPM. Some undesirable effects such as micro loading versus structure size during quartz etch, positive slope of the quartz sidewall, and CD differential between chromium and quartz are characterized. Some of the corresponding features on the wafer are measured with SPM and the correlation between the mask anomalies and their effect on wafer features are established.

  7. Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds: Masking, Propagation and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, Karl

    2009-05-15

    turbine noise and natural ambient noise. Two loudness models overestimate the masking from two psychoacoustic tests. The wind turbine noise is completely concealed when the ambient sound level (A-weighed) is around 10 dB higher than the wind turbine noise level. Wind turbine noise and ambient noise were presented simultaneously at the same A-weighed sound level. The subjects then perceived the loudness of the wind turbine noise as 5 dB lower than if heard alone

  8. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  9. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As ...

  10. Dry etched SiO2 Mask for HgCdTe Etching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Deng, L. G.; Zhang, S.; Xing, W.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2016-09-01

    A highly anisotropic etching process with low etch-induced damage is indispensable for advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) enhanced reactive ion etching technique has been widely adopted in manufacturing HgCdTe IRFPA devices. An accurately patterned mask with sharp edges is decisive to accomplish pattern duplication. It has been reported by our group that the SiO2 mask functions well in etching HgCdTe with high selectivity. However, the wet process in defining the SiO2 mask is limited by ambiguous edges and nonuniform patterns. In this report, we patterned SiO2 with a mature ICP etching technique, prior to which a thin ZnS film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The SiO2 film etching can be terminated at the auto-stopping point of the ZnS layer thanks to the high selectivity of SiO2/ZnS in SF6 based etchant. Consequently, MCT etching was directly performed without any other treatment. This mask showed acceptable profile due to the maturity of the SiO2 etching process. The well-defined SiO2 pattern and the etched smooth surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. This new mask process could transfer the patterns exactly with very small etch-bias. A cavity with aspect-ratio (AR) of 1.2 and root mean square roughness of 1.77 nm was achieved first, slightly higher AR of 1.67 was also get with better mask profile. This masking process ensures good uniformity and surely benefits the delineation of shrinking pixels with its high resolution.

  11. Automatic Masking for Robust 3D-2D Image Registration in Image-Guided Spine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies.

  12. Dry etched SiO2 Mask for HgCdTe Etching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Deng, L. G.; Zhang, S.; Xing, W.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2016-04-01

    A highly anisotropic etching process with low etch-induced damage is indispensable for advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) enhanced reactive ion etching technique has been widely adopted in manufacturing HgCdTe IRFPA devices. An accurately patterned mask with sharp edges is decisive to accomplish pattern duplication. It has been reported by our group that the SiO2 mask functions well in etching HgCdTe with high selectivity. However, the wet process in defining the SiO2 mask is limited by ambiguous edges and nonuniform patterns. In this report, we patterned SiO2 with a mature ICP etching technique, prior to which a thin ZnS film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The SiO2 film etching can be terminated at the auto-stopping point of the ZnS layer thanks to the high selectivity of SiO2/ZnS in SF6 based etchant. Consequently, MCT etching was directly performed without any other treatment. This mask showed acceptable profile due to the maturity of the SiO2 etching process. The well-defined SiO2 pattern and the etched smooth surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. This new mask process could transfer the patterns exactly with very small etch-bias. A cavity with aspect-ratio (AR) of 1.2 and root mean square roughness of 1.77 nm was achieved first, slightly higher AR of 1.67 was also get with better mask profile. This masking process ensures good uniformity and surely benefits the delineation of shrinking pixels with its high resolution.

  13. Exploring the impact of mask making constraints on double patterning design rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Thuc; Sinn, Robert; Rissman, Paul; Gleason, Bob

    2011-11-01

    In order to achieve an economical design-to-mask (DTM) development cycle in the low k1 domain, designers, lithographers, and mask makers needed to move away from many sequentially isolated developmental activities onto one collaborative environment managed by a computational lithography platform that integrates their respective ecosystems. 1,2 A successful development cycle used to be achievable by designers providing designs to lithographers, who then provided RET/OPC solutions to realize designs, but once k1 fell below a certain level, the lithographers could not provide solutions to realize some critical designs, which then required feedback to designers for further redesigns requiring further lithographic evaluation cycles. So collaboration and automations between lithographers and designers became necessary to reduce feedback loops and development cycle time. RET and design solutions also were impacted by mask making, and so mask maker's feedback on MRC and other constraints needed to be integrated for all three groups to achieve an economical DTM. As many lithographers attempted to print sub-80 nm pitches with 193 nm wavelength, it became necessary to use double patterning to achieve feature resolution. With the effective pitch doubling on each split layer, there could be significant increased design rule freedom for certain complex design situations. Using an integrated computational lithographic platform, one could find design space sweet spots that could further achieve optimal lithographic performance. In this paper, the optimization of design rules (DRD) for double pattern designs (~60 nm pitch) was explored with the mask maker's perspective. The experiment to be presented started with a 2x nm design set of clips. Each set of clips underwent size/width/space/pitch variations to generate a design space, and then each design space underwent SMO with an inverse lithography technology (ILT) engine using various mask MRC's and manhattan segmentations. The

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masud Sarmad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility for elective anterior cruciate ligament repair. He had no background history of any significant medical problems. He opted for general anesthesia over a regional technique. He was induced with fentanyl and propofol and a size 4 laryngeal mask airway was inserted without any problems. His head was in a neutral position during the surgery. After surgery in the recovery room, he complained of numbness in his lower lip. He also developed extensive scabbing of the lower lip on the second day after surgery. The numbness and scabbing started improving after a week, with complete recovery after two weeks. Conclusion We report the first case of vascular occlusion and injury to the inferior alveolar nerve, causing scabbing and numbness of the lower lip, resulting from laryngeal mask airway use. This is an original case report mostly of interest for anesthetists who use the laryngeal mask airway in day-to-day practice. Excessive inflation of the laryngeal mask airway cuff could have led to this complication. Despite the low incidence of cranial nerve injury associated with the use of the laryngeal mask airway, vigilant adherence to evidence-based medicine techniques and recommendations from the manufacturer's instructions can prevent such complications.

  15. Evaluating Printability of Buried Native EUV Mask Phase Defects through a Modeling and Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2015-03-16

    The availability of defect-free masks is considered to be a critical issue for enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as the next generation technology. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native EUV mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability caused by them. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a novel level-set multilayer growth model was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. The same tool was used for performing the actual deposition of the multilayer stack over the characterized native defects, thus ensuring a fair comparison between the actual multilayer growth over native defects, and modeled multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied with the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect’s width and height, irrespective of its shape. This would allow us to predict printability of the arbitrarily-shaped native EUV mask defects in a systematic and robust manner.

  16. Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0% of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5% subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49] and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72], but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76], wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]. The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.

  17. Transfer of Direct and Moiré Patterns by Reactive Ion Etching Through Ex Situ Fabricated Nanoporous Polymer Masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta; Hentschel, Thomas; Schulte, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    the cylinder axis. Finally, we demonstrate the first transfer of moire patterns from block copolymer masks to substrate. The nanoporous masks prepared ex situ show outstanding long-range order and can be applied directly onto any flat substrate, eliminating the need for topographic and chemical...... substrates' surface properties. The masks are prepared by microtoming of prealigned nanoporous polymer monoliths of hexagonal morphology at controlled angles; they appear as 30-60 nm thick films of typical dimensions 100 mu m x 200 mu m. Masks cut perpendicular to the cylindrical axis show monocrystalline...... hexagonal packing of 10 nm pores with a principal period of 20 nm. We demonstrate the transfer of the hexagonal pattern onto silicon by means of reactive ion etching through the masks. In addition, patterns elliptic and slit-like holes on silicon are obtained by utilizing masks cut at 45 degrees relative to...

  18. Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penconek, Agata; Drążyk, Paulina; Moskal, Arkadiusz

    2013-04-01

    Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To

  19. Contact lens wear with the USAF Protective Integrated Hood/Mask chemical defense ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R J; Miller, R E; Peterson, R D; Jackson, W G

    1992-07-01

    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, 6 rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and 5 nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the 3 Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3%), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. PMID:1616430

  20. Experimental and analytical studies on fixed mask assembly for APS with enhanced cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixed mask assembly is the first component which interacts with the photon beam emanating from Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion devices. Two sets of masks, one horizontal and another vertical pair, contain the beam, limiting its excursion from its present center line. Conventional construction of these masks, such as those used in NSLS X-17 beam line, has been two water cooled heavy copper channels configured in a open-quote vclose quotes arrangement and set at grazing angles to the beam. A comparative investigation of the conventionally achievable heat transfer coefficient open-quote hclose quotes with water and the wall conductance of the copper structure reveals that major resistance is on the coolant side. Therefore, there exists a significant opportunity to improve heat transfer in the masks by enhancement of the coolant side. To this end a variety of enhanced copper tubes were subjected to laboratory tests with water and conventional heating to assess the resulting heat transfer improvement. This was followed by an analytical study of the candidate mask design for APS using the heat transfer data from the laboratory tests but subject to APS beam heating. Design improvements using enhanced cooling are discussed in terms of structural weight, controls, grazing angles, the operational reliability, and safety

  1. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai B

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  2. Study for compensation of unexpected image placement error caused by VSB mask writer deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-joo; Choi, Min-kyu; Moon, Seong-yong; Cho, Han-Ku; Doh, Jonggul; Ahn, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    The Electron Optical System (EOS) is designed for the electron beam machine employing a vector scanned variable shaped beam (VSB) with the deflector. Most VSB systems utilize multi stage deflection architecture to obtain a high precision and a high-speed deflection at the same time. Many companies use the VSB mask writer and they have a lot of experiences about Image Placement (IP) error suffering from contaminated EOS deflector. And also most of VSB mask writer users are having already this error. In order to use old VSB mask writer, we introduce the method how to compensate unexpected IP error from VSB mask writer. There are two methods to improve this error due to contaminated deflector. The one is the usage of 2nd stage grid correction in addition to the original stage grid. And the other is the usage of uncontaminated area in the deflector. According to the results of this paper, 30% of IP error can be reduced by 2nd stage grid correction and the change of deflection area in deflector. It is the effective method to reduce the deflector error at the VSB mask writer. And it can be the one of the solution for the long-term production of photomask.

  3. Effectiveness of mask ventilation performed by hospital doctors in an Irish tertiary referral teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mask ventilation performed by 112 doctors with clinical responsibilities at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. Participant doctors were asked to perform mask ventilation for three minutes on a Resusci Anne mannequin using a facemask and a two litre self inflating bag. The tidal volumes generated were quantified using a Laerdal skillmeter computer as grades 0-5, corresponding to 0, 334, 434, 561, 673 and > 800 ml respectively. The effectiveness of mask ventilation (i.e. the proportion of ventilation attempts which achieved a volume delivery of > 434 mls) was greater for anaesthetists [78.0 (29.5)%] than for non anaesthetists [54.6 (40.0)%] (P = 0.012). Doctors who had attended one or more resuscitation courses where no more effective at mask ventilation than their colleagues who had not undertaken such courses. It is likely that first responders to in-hospital cardiac arrests are commonly unable to perform adequate mask ventilation.

  4. Informational masking of speech produced by speech-like sounds without linguistic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Huahui; Li, Liang; Wu, Xihong; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated whether speech-like maskers without linguistic content produce informational masking of speech. The target stimuli were nonsense Chinese Mandarin sentences. In experiment I, the masker contained harmonics the fundamental frequency (F0) of which was sinusoidally modulated and the mean F0 of which was varied. The magnitude of informational masking was evaluated by measuring the change in intelligibility (releasing effect) produced by inducing a perceived spatial separation of the target speech and masker via the precedence effect. The releasing effect was small and was only clear when the target and masker had the same mean F0, suggesting that informational masking was small. Performance with the harmonic maskers was better than with a steady speech-shaped noise (SSN) masker. In experiments II and III, the maskers were speech-like synthesized signals, alternating between segments with harmonic structure and segments composed of SSN. Performance was much worse than for experiment I, and worse than when an SSN masker was used, suggesting that substantial informational masking occurred. The similarity of the F0 contours of the target and masker had little effect. The informational masking effect was not influenced by whether or not the noise-like segments of the masker were synchronous with the unvoiced segments of the target speech. PMID:22501069

  5. Considering mask pellicle effect for more accurate OPC model at 45nm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo

    2008-11-01

    Now it comes to the 45nm technology node, which should be the first generation of the immersion micro-lithography. And the brand-new lithography tool makes many optical effects, which can be ignored at 90nm and 65nm nodes, now have significant impact on the pattern transmission process from design to silicon. Among all the effects, one that needs to be pay attention to is the mask pellicle effect's impact on the critical dimension variation. With the implement of hyper-NA lithography tools, light transmits the mask pellicle vertically is not a good approximation now, and the image blurring induced by the mask pellicle should be taken into account in the computational microlithography. In this works, we investigate how the mask pellicle impacts the accuracy of the OPC model. And we will show that considering the extremely tight critical dimension control spec for 45nm generation node, to take the mask pellicle effect into the OPC model now becomes necessary.

  6. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  7. Deep SiO2 etching with Al and AlN masks for MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Mao Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue Jia; Johnson, David

    2015-08-01

    Silicon oxide-based materials such as quartz and silica are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). One way to enhance the capability of their deep plasma etching is to increase selectivity by the use of hard masks. Although this approach was studied previously, information on the use of hard masks for the etching of silicon-oxide based materials on 200 mm substrates is scarce. We present the results of etching process development for amorphous silicon oxide using Al and AlN masks with a view of the application of the results for the etching of silica and quartz. Three gas chemistries (C4F8/O2, CF4 and SF6) and their mixtures were compared in an industrial reactive ion etch (RIE) chamber with two plasma sources. It was established that pure SF6 is the best etchant and AlN is a better mask than Al for providing higher selectivity and a sidewall angle close to vertical. A range of etching parameters for micromasking-free etching was established and etched structures of up to a 4 : 1 aspect ratio were created in 21 μm-thick oxide using the process with an etch rate of 0.32-0.36 μm min-1 and a selectivity to AlN mask of (38-49) : 1.

  8. Serial robot for the trajectory optimization and error compensation of TMT mask exchange system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Feifan; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Mask exchange system is the main part of Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). According to the conception of the TMT mask exchange system, the pre-design was introduced in the paper which was based on IRB 140 robot. The stiffness model of IRB 140 in SolidWorks was analyzed under different gravity vectors for further error compensation. In order to find the right location and path planning, the robot and the mask cassette model was imported into MOBIE model to perform different schemes simulation. And obtained the initial installation position and routing. Based on these initial parameters, IRB 140 robot was operated to simulate the path and estimate the mask exchange time. Meanwhile, MATLAB and ADAMS software were used to perform simulation analysis and optimize the route to acquire the kinematics parameters and compare with the experiment results. After simulation and experimental research mentioned in the paper, the theoretical reference was acquired which could high efficient improve the structure of the mask exchange system parameters optimization of the path and precision of the robot position.

  9. Contact lens wear with the USAF protective integrated hood/mask chemical defense ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, R.J.; Miller, R.E. II; Peterson, R.D.; Jackson, W.G. Jr. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, six rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and five nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the three Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3 percent), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant effects. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. 19 refs.

  10. Masking the Auditory Evoked Potential in TMS-EEG: A Comparison of Various Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Braack, Esther M; de Vos, Cecile C; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG). Because TMS pulses are accompanied by a clicking sound, it is very likely that part of the response in the EEG consists of an auditory evoked potential (AEP). Different methods have been applied to mask the sound of TMS. However, it is unclear which masking method is most effective in reducing the AEP. In this study we explore the presumed contribution of the AEP to the response and evaluate different ways to mask the TMS clicking sound. Twelve healthy subjects and one completely deaf subject participated in this study. Eight different masking conditions were evaluated in nine hearing subjects. The amplitude of the N100-P180 complex was compared between the different masking conditions. We were not able to completely suppress the N100-P180 when the coil was placed on top of the head. Using an earmuff or exposing the subjects to white or adapted noise caused a small but significant reduction in N100-P180 amplitude, but the largest reduction was achieved when combining a layer of foam, placed between coil and head, with white or adapted noise. The deaf subject also showed a N100-P180 complex. We conclude that both the TMS clicking sound and cortical activation by the magnetic pulse contribute to the N100-P180 amplitude. PMID:23996091

  11. A Patch-Based Structural Masking Model with an Application to Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon M. Chandler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an image region to hide or mask a given target signal continues to play a key role in the design of numerous image processing and vision systems. However, current state-of-the-art models of visual masking have been optimized for artificial targets placed upon unnatural backgrounds. In this paper, we (1 measure the ability of natural-image patches in masking distortion; (2 analyze the performance of a widely accepted standard masking model in predicting these data; and (3 report optimal model parameters for different patch types (textures, structures, and edges. Our results reveal that the standard model of masking does not generalize across image type; rather, a proper model should be coupled with a classification scheme which can adapt the model parameters based on the type of content contained in local image patches. The utility of this adaptive approach is demonstrated via a spatially adaptive compression algorithm which employs patch-based classification. Despite the addition of extra side information and the high degree of spatial adaptivity, this approach yields an efficient wavelet compression strategy that can be combined with very accurate rate-control procedures.

  12. A Patch-Based Structural Masking Model with an Application to Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaubatz MatthewD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability of an image region to hide or mask a given target signal continues to play a key role in the design of numerous image processing and vision systems. However, current state-of-the-art models of visual masking have been optimized for artificial targets placed upon unnatural backgrounds. In this paper, we (1 measure the ability of natural-image patches in masking distortion; (2 analyze the performance of a widely accepted standard masking model in predicting these data; and (3 report optimal model parameters for different patch types (textures, structures, and edges. Our results reveal that the standard model of masking does not generalize across image type; rather, a proper model should be coupled with a classification scheme which can adapt the model parameters based on the type of content contained in local image patches. The utility of this adaptive approach is demonstrated via a spatially adaptive compression algorithm which employs patch-based classification. Despite the addition of extra side information and the high degree of spatial adaptivity, this approach yields an efficient wavelet compression strategy that can be combined with very accurate rate-control procedures.

  13. PMJ panel discussion overview on mask complexities, cost, and cycle time in 32-nm system LSI generation: conflict or concurrent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Kunihiro; Kato, Kokoro

    2008-10-01

    This is a report on a panel discussion organized in Photomask Japan 2008, where the challenges about "Mask Complexities, Cost, and Cycle Time in 32-nm System LSI Generation" were addressed to have a look over the possible solutions from the standpoints of chipmaker, commercial mask shop, DA tool vendor and equipments makers. The wrap-up is as follows: Mask complexities justify the mask cost, while the acceptable increase rate of 32nm-mask cost significantly differs between mask suppliers or users side. The efficiency progress by new tools or DFM has driven their cycle-time reductions. Mask complexities and cost will be crucial issues prior to cycle time, and there seems to be linear correlation between them. Controlling complexity and cycle time requires developing a mix of advanced technologies, and especially for cost reduction, shot prices in writers and processing rates in inspection tools have been improved remarkably by tool makers. In addition, activities of consortium in Japan (Mask D2I) are expected to enhance the total optimization of mask design, writing and inspection. The cycle-time reduction potentially drives the lowering of mask cost, and, on the other, the pattern complexities and tighter mask specifications get in the way to 32nm generation as well as the nano-economics and market challenges. There are still many difficult problems in mask manufacturing now, and we are sure to go ahead to overcome a 32nm hurdle with the advances of technologies and collaborations by not only technologies but also finance.

  14. Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects reaction times, but not priming effects, in a masked prime task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaghecken, F.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Rothwell, J.C.; Eimer, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces motor cortex excitability, but it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences in healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined the effects of 1 Hz rTMS (train of 20 min; stimulus intensity 80% of active motor thr

  15. Neonatal resuscitation 1: a model to measure inspired and expired tidal volumes and assess leakage at the face mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, C; Kamlin, C; Davis, P; Morley, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Neonatal resuscitation is a common and important intervention, and adequate ventilation is the key to success. In the delivery room, positive pressure ventilation is given with manual ventilation devices using face masks. Mannequins are widely used to teach and practise this technique. During both simulated and real neonatal resuscitation, chest excursion is used to assess tidal volume delivery, and leakage from the mask is not measured. Objective: To describe a system that allows measurement of mask leakage and estimation of tidal volume delivery. Methods: Respiratory function monitors, a modified resuscitation mannequin, and a computer were used to measure leakage from the mask and to assess tidal volume delivery in a model of neonatal resuscitation. Results: The volume of gas passing through a flow sensor was measured at the face mask. This was a good estimate of the tidal volume entering and leaving the lung in this model. Gas leakage between the mask and mannequin was also measured. This occurred principally during inflation, although gas leakage during deflation was seen when the total leakage was large. A volume of gas that distended the mask but did not enter the lung was also measured. Conclusion: This system can be used to assess the effectiveness of positive pressure ventilation given using a face mask during simulated neonatal resuscitation. It could be useful for teaching neonatal resuscitation and assessing ventilation through a face mask. PMID:15871990

  16. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of the mammalian germinal center kinase III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M;

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  17. Evaluation of Setup Uncertainties for Single-Fraction SRS by Comparing the Two Different Mask-Creation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Jong Geun; Oh, Young Kee; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Eng Chan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the setup uncertainties for single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) based on the clinical data with the two different mask-creation methods using pretreatment CBCT imaging guidance. Dedicated frameless fixation BrainLAB masks for 23 patients were created as a routine mask (R-mask) making method, as explained in the BrainLAB user manual. The alternative masks (A-mask) which were created by modifying the cover range of the R-mask for the patient head were used for 23 patients. The systematic errors including the each mask and stereotactic target localizer were analyzed and the errors were calculated as the mean and standard deviation (SD) from the LR, SI, AP, and yaw setup corrections. In addition, the frequency of three-dimensional (3D) vector length were also analyzed. The values of the mean setup corrections for the R-mask in all directions were small; < 0.7 mm and < 0.1 degree, whereas the magnitudes of the SDs were relatively large compared to the ...

  18. A Coronagraph with a Band-Limited Mask for Finding Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J; Kuchner, Marc J.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2002-01-01

    Several recent designs for planet-finding telescopes use coronagraphs operating at visible wavelengths to suppress starlight along the telescope's optical axis while transmitting any off-axis light from circumstellar material. We describe a class of graded coronagraphic image masks that can, in principle, provide perfect elimination of on-axis light, while simultaneously maximizing the Lyot stop throughput and angular resolution. These ``band-limited'' masks operate on the intensity of light in the image plane, not the phase. They can work with almost any entrance pupil shape, provided that the entrance pupil transmissivity is uniform, and can be combined with an apodized Lyot stop to reduce the sensitivity of the coronagraph to imperfections in the image mask. We discuss some practical limitations on the dynamic range of coronagraphs in the context of a space-based terrestrial planet finder (TPF) telescope, and emphasize that fundamentally, the optical problem of imaging planets around nearby stars is a matt...

  19. Assessing breast cancer masking risk with automated texture analysis in full field digital mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenberg, Michiel Gijsbertus J; Lilholm, Martin; Diao, Pengfei;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this work is to develop a method to assess the risk of breast cancer masking, based on image characteristics beyond breast density. METHOD AND MATERIALS From the Dutch breast cancer screening program we collected 285 screen detected cancers, and 109 cancers that were screen...... (Quartile 1/2) versus high (Quartile 3/4) texture risk score. We computed odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer masking risk (i.e. interval versus screen detected cancer) for each of the subgroups. The OR was 1.63 (1.04-2.53 95%CI) for the high dense group (as compared to the low dense group), whereas for the...... assessing the risk that a breast cancer is masked in regular mammography, independently of breast density. As such it offers opportunities to further enhance personalized breast cancer screening, beyond breast density....

  20. A novel approach to reconstructing signals of isotropy violation from a masked CMB sky

    CERN Document Server

    Aluri, Pavan K; Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Statistical isotropy (SI) is one of the fundamental assumptions made in cosmological model building. This assumption is now being rigorously tested using the almost full sky measurements of the CMB anisotropies. A major hurdle in any such analysis is to handle the large biases induced due to the process of masking. We have developed a new method of analysis, using the bipolar spherical harmonic basis functions, in which we semi-analytically evaluate the modifications to SI violation induced by the mask. The method developed here is generic and can be potentially used to search for any arbitrary form of SI violation. We specifically demonstrate the working of this method by recovering the Doppler boost signal from a set of simulated, masked CMB skies.