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Sample records for affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

  1. Adenosinetriphosphate content and adenosinetriphosphatase activity in cell fractions of the liver and brain of chick embryos and birds treated with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, B.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are conducted on the level of ADP and the adenosinetriphosphatase in nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes taken from the brain and liver of singly gamma-irradiated (1000 rd) chick embryos and birds. As a result of the treatment the ADP content dropped, while the activity of ADP rose. These changes were more strongly expressed in the nuclei, than in the mitochondria, and to a lesser extent - in the microsomes. Twelve-day chick embryos showed more markedly expressed radiosensitivity than newly hatched chicks. This embryonal stage is characterized by intense growth, differentiation and metabolic processes in the liver, which substantiate not only the higher radiosensitivity of this age group but the more strongly expressed changes in the liver as compared with the brain. (author)

  2. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  3. Damage to adenosine-triphosphate induced by monochromatic X rays around the K shell absorption edge of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ritsuko; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Takakura, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1992-01-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) is well known to have an important role in the energy metabolism in biological systems. The purpose of this study is to clarify the radiation effects on ATP specific to inner shell ionization. ATP, in concentrated aqueous solution, was irradiated with monochromatic X rays having energies of the resonance absorption peak of the phosphorus K shell, 2.153 keV, and slightly below and above the peak, 2.145 keV and 2.160 keV, selected from synchrotron radiation. Adenine, Adenosine 5'monophosphate (5'AMP) and Adenosine 5'diphosphate (5'ADP) were obtained as radioproducts by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). G values of these products were calculated on the basis of the absorbed energy. When the ATP solution of 0.282 mol/l was irradiated with 2.160 keV X rays which can ionize the K shell of phosphorus, G values of Adenine, 5'AMP and 5'ADP were estimated to be 1.4, 0.40 and 0.46, respectively. These values were respectively 1.3, 2.9 and 3.8 times higher than those obtained upon irradiation with 2.146 keV X rays which cannot ionize the K shell of phosphorus. These energy dependent enhancements may reflect the difference in energy absorption processes, especially the Auger cascade in phosphorus may be suspected to play an important role in these enhancements

  4. Affective Activism and Political Secularism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2018-01-01

    The activist movement Femen is notorious for topless protests and the ideology ‘sextremism, atheism, and feminism’. The movement’s manifesto reads: ‘Our God is a woman! Our Mission is Protest! Our Weapon are [sic] bare breasts!’ (femen.org). The references to religion are evident in phrases...... are often the center of attention on Femen’s official webpage – www.femen.org – making it possible to study the way in which activism, atheism, and feminism are articulated in relation to the two religions. This is the background for this chapter in which I focus on three Femen protests: 1) Yana Zhdanova...

  5. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.; Ebert, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  6. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors (;diving; and ;fishing;). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  7. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  8. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  9. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the electoral process, including ballots.” The basic purpose of these requirements is to allow members... stages of the electoral process, from voter registration through activities related to conducting... registration, the time, places and subject matters of elections, and the absentee voting process. ...

  10. Ectomycorrhizal activity as affected by soil liming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Solbritt

    1996-05-01

    Acidification of the forest soils in southern Sweden due to atmospheric deposition has become evident during recent decades. To counteract further acidification, liming of forests in the most affected areas has been proposed. Most forest trees in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and their uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil is greatly influenced by the symbiosis. In this thesis effects of liming on ectomycorrhiza have been studied in relation to effects on root colonization, fungal growth and nitrogen uptake. In field experiments the effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal colonization of root tips were variable, possibly due to different soil types and climatic variations. However, a changed mycorrhizal community structure could be detected. Laboratory studies also showed that the substrate may influence the outcome of lime applications; the nutrient status of the substrate had a marked effect on how mycelial growth was affected by liming. Under the experimental conditions used in the studies presented in this thesis, liming reduced the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The amount of extractable nitrogen and phosphorus in the peat was also reduced by liming. The latter could be due to either microbial or chemical immobilization. The lime induced decrease in nitrogen uptake was stronger in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the mycorrhizal plants had a higher ability to deal with the negative effects of liming on nitrogen availability. This was not the case for phosphorus. The lime induced decrease in phosphorus uptake was stronger for mycorrhizal plants, and in the highest lime treatment there was no significant difference between the mycorrhizal and the non-mycorrhizal spruce plants. 76 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. Does solar activity affect human happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the direct influence of solar activity (represented by sunspot numbers) on human happiness (represented by the Twitter-based Happiness Index). We construct four models controlling for various statistical and dynamic effects of the analyzed series. The final model gives promising results. First, there is a statistically significant negative influence of solar activity on happiness which holds even after controlling for the other factors. Second, the final model, which is still rather simple, explains around 75% of variance of the Happiness Index. Third, our control variables contribute significantly as well: happiness is higher in no sunspots days, happiness is strongly persistent, there are strong intra-week cycles and happiness peaks during holidays. Our results strongly contribute to the topical literature and they provide evidence of unique utility of the online data.

  12. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  13. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  14. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  15. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3... in or affecting commerce. Section 7A(a)(1) is satisfied if any entity included within the acquiring person, or any entity included within the acquired person, is engaged in commerce or in any activity...

  16. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dunn, Andrea; Cooper, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 +/- 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

  17. Physical activity and negative affective reactivity in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Weiss, Jordan; Beauchamp, Mark R; Mogle, Jacqueline; Almeida, David M

    2017-12-01

    The results from experimental studies indicate that physically active individuals remain calmer and report less anxiety after the induction of a standardized stressor. The current study extends this research to real life, and examines whether daily physical activity attenuates negative affect that occurs in response to naturally occurring daily stressors. The current study used data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences, a sub-study of the second wave of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS-II) of 2,022 individuals aged 33-84 questioned nightly for eight consecutive days about their general affect and affective responses to stressful events and their engagement in physical activity. Results indicated that while negative affect is significantly elevated on days with stressful events compared to days free of events in all individuals, these effects are attenuated in those who remain physically active when compared to those who were underactive. This was also true for any day participants were physically active. Importantly, negative affect in response to any specific stressor was reduced the closer in time that the stressor occurred to the bout of exercise in underactive participants, while, in active participants, negative affect in response to any stressor remained low throughout the entire day that participants reported that they were active. Given the significant mental and physical health implications of elevated affective reactivity observed in previous studies, the current study sheds further light on the importance of remaining physically active in times of stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children's daily lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnhausen, Jan; Leonhardt, Anja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2013-01-01

    A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using sm...

  19. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  20. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  1. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  2. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticipated affective consequences of physical activity adoption and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Vaughan, Elaine

    2008-11-01

    The expected emotional consequences of future actions are thought to play an important role in health behavior change. This research examined whether anticipated affective consequences of success and failure vary across stages of physical activity change and differentially predict physical activity adoption as compared to maintenance. Using a prospective design over a 3-month period, a community sample of 329 healthy, middle-aged adults were assessed at 2 time points. Anticipated positive and negative emotions, stage of behavior change (precontemplation [PC], contemplation [C], preparation [P], action [A], maintenance [M]), and level of physical activity. At baseline, anticipated positive emotions were greater in C versus PC, whereas anticipated negative emotions were greater in M versus A and in M versus P. Higher anticipated positive but not negative emotions predicted physical activity adoption and maintenance after 3 months. Although the expected affective consequences of future success and failure differentiated among individuals in the early and later stages of physical activity change, respectively; only the anticipated affective consequences of success predicted future behavior.

  4. The role of affects and emotions in physical activity maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wienke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although previous research has shown that affective variables are consistently associated with physical activity behavior, the working mechanisms are not understood to the extent of creating an intervention. The aim of this study is to identify situations and aspects of physical activity, which lead to positive affective reactions in people taking part in regular and long-term exercise. In this study 24 adults (12 female, 12 male distributed over three age groups (young, middle, and late adulthood that took part in sport programs (individual or team sport for at least five years. Semi-structured in depth interviews with questions about physical activity, long term participation and affective response in a sporting environment were conducted in order to ascertain those situations and aspects of the exercise program triggering positive affective states. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and followed Grounded Theory principles. Emerging concepts were grouped and merged into different categories representing the key aspects of exercise. Four factors were identified which are associated with emergence of positive emotions in sport and exercise. Firstly, perceived competence is one of the major factors influencing affective states during physical activity representing individual and collective success and progress, competition and challenge. Secondly, perceived social interaction is another factor comprising of all sorts of peer-related aspects such as communication with others, being part of a group and creating close relationships or friendships. Thirdly, novelty experience in contrast to other none-sporting activities such as work, family or other leisure activities was another factor. The last factor found was the perceived physical exertion comprising the degree of exhaustion, a possibly delayed turnaround in the affective response and the aspect of sport being a physical compensation for everyday sedentary life. The results of this study

  5. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  6. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  7. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these

  8. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  10. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  11. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  12. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional brain activation and affective response to physical activity among healthy adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan; Grant, Arthur; King, Pamela; Cooper, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that frontal brain activation, assessed via electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts the post-exercise affective response to exercise among adults. Building on this evidence, the present study investigates the utility of resting cortical asymmetry for explaining variance in the affective response both during and after exercise at two different intensities among healthy adolescents. Resting EEG was obtained from 98 adolescents (55% male), who also completed two 30-m...

  14. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    OpenAIRE

    Christina eNiermann; Christian eHerrmann; Birte evon Haaren; Dave evan Kann; Alexander eWoll

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the...

  15. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these difficulties. However, there is a lack of studies on the influence of these cognitive-affective dimensions regarding female orgasm. To assess the role of automatic thoughts and affect during sexual activity in predicting female orgasm occurrence and to investigate the mediator role of these variables in the relation between sexual activity and orgasm occurrence. Nine hundred twenty-six sexually active heterosexual premenopausal women reported on frequency of sexual activities and frequency of orgasm occurrence, cognitive factors, and social desirability. Participants completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire-Automatic Thoughts Subscale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Socially Desirable Response Set. Multiple linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed, controlling for the effect of covariates such as social desirability, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and relationship factors. The main outcome measurement was orgasm frequency as predicted and mediated by automatic thoughts and affect experienced during sexual activities. The presence of failure thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity significantly and negatively predicted female orgasm, whereas positive affect experienced during sexual activity significantly and positively predicted female orgasm. Moreover, negative automatic thoughts and positive affect during sexual activity were found to mediate the relation between sexual activity and female orgasm occurrence. These data suggest that the cognitive aspects of sexual involvement are critical to enhancing female orgasm experience and can aid the development of strategies that contemplate the central role

  16. Momentary assessment of contextual influences on affective response during physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Higher positive and lower negative affective response during physical activity may reinforce motivation to engage in future activity. However, affective response during physical activity is typically examined under controlled laboratory conditions. This research used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine social and physical contextual influences on momentary affective response during physical activity in naturalistic settings. Participants included 116 adults (mean age = 40.3 years, 73% female) who completed 8 randomly prompted EMA surveys per day for 4 days across 3 semiannual waves. EMA surveys measured current activity level, social context, and physical context. Participants also rated their current positive and negative affect. Multilevel models assessed whether momentary physical activity level moderated differences in affective response across contexts controlling for day of the week, time of day, and activity intensity (measured by accelerometer). The Activity Level × Alone interaction was significant for predicting positive affect (β = -0.302, SE = 0.133, p = .024). Greater positive affect during physical activity was reported when with other people (vs. alone). The Activity Level × Outdoors interaction was significant for predicting negative affect (β = -0.206, SE = 0.097, p = .034). Lower negative affect during physical activity was reported outdoors (vs. indoors). Being with other people may enhance positive affective response during physical activity, and being outdoors may dampen negative affective response during physical activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  18. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  19. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  20. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  1. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  2. [The effect of goal framing on the activation of affective representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehashi, Hiroki; Karasawa, Kaori

    2007-10-01

    Guided by regulatory focus theory, this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective experience of affect and the accessibility of affective representations. Study I examined lay persons' beliefs concerning the relationship between goal framing and certain kinds of affective experiences. The results indicated that a promotion focus was associated with happiness and disappointment, whereas a prevention focus was associated with relaxation and tension. Study 2 examined the effect of goal framing on the activation of affective representations, and found that a promotion focus activated both gain-related representations (happy and disappointment) and loss-related representations (relaxation and tension), whereas a prevention focus activated only loss-related representations. These results suggest that goal framing activates particular affective representations, and the activated affective representations may influence the interpretation of positive or negative experiences. The discussion considered the function of the activation of affective representations as a mediator between goal framing and its cognitive and behavioral consequences.

  3. Factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absence of separate and well equipped laboratory for each science, absence of efforts made by science teacher to use local material for practice of basic activities and less attention of local government and school administrative to existing problem results in less student motivation to practical activity which have influence ...

  4. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Luc Budé; Raymond de Vries; Marianne J. Nieuwenhuijze

    2017-01-01

    Objective reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural

  5. Factors Affecting Number of Diabetes Management Activities Provided by Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Annie; Lorenz, Kathleen; Cor, Ken; Simpson, Scot H

    2016-12-01

    Legislative changes since 2007 have given Alberta pharmacists additional authorizations and new practice settings, which should enhance provision of clinical services to patients. This study examined whether these changes are related to the number of diabetes management activities provided by pharmacists. Cross-sectional surveys of Alberta pharmacists were conducted in 2006 and 2015. Both questionnaires contained 63 diabetes management activities, with response options to indicate how frequently the activity was provided. Respondents were grouped by survey year, practice setting, diabetes-specific training and additional authorizations. The number of diabetes management activities provided often or always were compared among groups by using analysis of variance. Data from 128 pharmacists participating in the 2006 survey were compared with 256 pharmacists participating in the 2015 survey; overall mean age was 41.6 (±10.9) years, 245 (64%) were women, mean duration of practice was 16.1 (±11.8) years, 280 (73%) were community pharmacists, 75 (20%) were certified diabetes educators (CDEs), and 100 (26%) had additional prescribing authorization (APA). Pharmacists provided a mean of 28.7 (95% CI 26.3 to 31.2) diabetes management activities in 2006 and 35.2 (95% CI 33.4-37.0) activities in 2015 (p<0.001). Pharmacists who were CDEs provided significantly more activities compared to other pharmacists (p<0.001). In 2015, working in a primary care network and having APA were also associated with provision of more activities (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Pharmacists provided more diabetes management activities in 2015 than in 2006. The number of diabetes management activities was also associated with being a CDE, working in a primary care network or having APA. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  7. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1995-01-01

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction

  8. Habitat degradation affects the summer activity of polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jasmine V; Rode, Karyn D; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F; Douglas, David C; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C; Durner, George M; Pagano, Anthony M; Olson, Jay; Robbins, Charles T; Jansen, Heiko T

    2017-05-01

    Understanding behavioral responses of species to environmental change is critical to forecasting population-level effects. Although climate change is significantly impacting species' distributions, few studies have examined associated changes in behavior. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations have varied in their near-term responses to sea ice decline. We examined behavioral responses of two adjacent subpopulations to changes in habitat availability during the annual sea ice minimum using activity data. Location and activity sensor data collected from 1989 to 2014 for 202 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SB) and Chukchi Sea (CS) subpopulations were used to compare activity in three habitat types varying in prey availability: (1) land; (2) ice over shallow, biologically productive waters; and (3) ice over deeper, less productive waters. Bears varied activity across and within habitats with the highest activity at 50-75% sea ice concentration over shallow waters. On land, SB bears exhibited variable but relatively high activity associated with the use of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale carcasses, whereas CS bears exhibited low activity consistent with minimal feeding. Both subpopulations had fewer observations in their preferred shallow-water sea ice habitats in recent years, corresponding with declines in availability of this substrate. The substantially higher use of marginal habitats by SB bears is an additional mechanism potentially explaining why this subpopulation has experienced negative effects of sea ice loss compared to the still-productive CS subpopulation. Variability in activity among, and within, habitats suggests that bears alter their behavior in response to habitat conditions, presumably in an attempt to balance prey availability with energy costs.

  9. Method of oocyte activation affects cloning efficiency in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Li, Rongfeng; Spate, Lee D; Wax, David M; Rieke, August; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Green, Jonathan A; Sutovsky, Peter; Prather, Randall S

    2009-05-01

    The following experiments compared the efficiency of three fusion/activation protocols following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with porcine somatic cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the chicken beta-actin/rabbit beta-globin hybrid promoter (pCAGG-EGFP). The three protocols included electrical fusion/activation (NT1), electrical fusion/activation followed by treatment with a reversible proteasomal inhibitor MG132 (NT2) and electrical fusion in low Ca(2+) followed by chemical activation with thimerosal/dithiothreitol (NT3). Data were collected at Days 6, 12, 14, 30, and 114 of gestation. Fusion rates, blastocyst-stage mean cell numbers, recovery rates, and pregnancy rates were calculated and compared between protocols. Fusion rates were significantly higher for NT1 and NT2 compared to NT3 (P NT1 (71.4%, n = 28; P 0.05). All fusion/activation treatments produced live, pCAGG-EGFP positive piglets from SCNT. Treatment with MG132 after fusion/activation of reconstructed porcine embryos was the most effective method when comparing the overall pregnancy rates. The beneficial effect of NT2 protocol may be due to the stimulation of proteasomes that infiltrate donor cell nucleus shortly after nuclear transfer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  12. Wnt activation affects proliferation, invasiveness and radiosensitivity in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Roberta; Ronchi, Alice; Buttarelli, Francesca Romana; Cortesi, Filippo; Marchese, Valeria; Della Bella, Elena; Renna, Cristiano; Baldi, Caterina; Giangaspero, Felice; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) associated with the Wnt activation represent a subgroup with a favorable prognosis, but it remains unclear whether Wnt activation confers a less aggressive phenotype and/or enhances radiosensitivity. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the biological behavior of an MB cell line, UW228-1, stably transfected with human β-catenin cDNA encoding a nondegradable form of β-catenin (UW-B) in standard culture conditions and after radiation treatment. We evaluated the expression, transcriptional activity, and localization of β-catenin in the stably transfected cells using immunofluorescence and WB. We performed morphological analysis using light and electron microscopy. We then analyzed changes in the invasiveness, growth, and mortality in standard culture conditions and after radiation. We demonstrated that (A) Wnt activation inhibited 97 % of the invasion capability of the cells, (B) the growth of the UW-B cells was statistically significantly lower than that of all the other control cells (p < 0.01), (C) the mortality of irradiated UW-B cells was statistically significantly higher than that of the controls and their nonirradiated counterparts (p < 0.05), and (D) morphological features of neuronal differentiation were observed in the Wnt-activated cells. In tissue samples, the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was lower in β-catenin-positive samples compared to non-β-catenin positive ones. The Ki-67 LI median (LI = 40) of the nuclear β-catenin-positive tumor samples was lower than that of non-nuclear β-catenin-positive samples (LI = 50), but the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, our data suggest that activation of the Wnt pathway reduces the proliferation and invasion of MBs and increases the tumor's radiosensitivity.

  13. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri Moghadam, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...

  14. DOES FAMILY SOCIAL SUPPORT AFFECT STARTUP BUSINESS ACTIVITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaily F.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.

  15. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to

  16. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  17. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herrero-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.

  18. Regulation of drugs affecting striatal cholinergic activity by corticostriatal projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladinsky, H.

    1986-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the chronic degeneration of the corticostriatal excitatory pathway makes the cholinergic neurons of the striatum insensitive to the neuropharmacological action of a number of different drugs. Female rats were used; they were killed and after the i.v. infusion of tritium-choline precursor, choline acetyltransferase activity was measured. Striatal noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin content was measured by electrochemical detection coupled with high pressure liquid chromatography. Uptake of tritium-glutamic acid was estimated. The data were analyzed statistically. It is shown that there is evidence that the effects of a number of drugs capable of depressing cholinergic activity through receptor-mediated responses are operative only if the corticostriatal pathway is integral. Neuropharmacological responses in the brain appear to be the result of an interaction between several major neurotransmitter systems

  19. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  20. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  1. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  2. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  3. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    that is normally performed at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz. With the ActiGraph model GT3X one has the option to select sample frequency from 30 to 100 Hz. This study investigated the effect of the sampling frequency on the ouput of the bandpass filter.Methods: A synthetic frequency sweep of 0-15 Hz was generated...... in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5......-15 Hz escaped the bandpass filter when sampled at 40, 50, 70, 80 and 100 Hz, while this was not the case when sampled at 30, 60 and 90 Hz. During the ambulatory activities this artifact resultet in different activity count output from the ActiLife software with different sampling frequency...

  4. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  5. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Might as well jump: sound affects muscle activation in skateboarding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cesari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal the role of sound in action anticipation and performance, and to test whether the level of precision in action planning and execution is related to the level of sensorimotor skills and experience that listeners possess about a specific action. Individuals ranging from 18 to 75 years of age--some of them without any skills in skateboarding and others experts in this sport--were compared in their ability to anticipate and simulate a skateboarding jump by listening to the sound it produces. Only skaters were able to modulate the forces underfoot and to apply muscle synergies that closely resembled the ones that a skater would use if actually jumping on a skateboard. More importantly we showed that only skaters were able to plan the action by activating anticipatory postural adjustments about 200 ms after the jump event. We conclude that expert patterns are guided by auditory events that trigger proper anticipations of the corresponding patterns of movements.

  7. Might as well jump: sound affects muscle activation in skateboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Paola; Camponogara, Ivan; Papetti, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Fontana, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the role of sound in action anticipation and performance, and to test whether the level of precision in action planning and execution is related to the level of sensorimotor skills and experience that listeners possess about a specific action. Individuals ranging from 18 to 75 years of age--some of them without any skills in skateboarding and others experts in this sport--were compared in their ability to anticipate and simulate a skateboarding jump by listening to the sound it produces. Only skaters were able to modulate the forces underfoot and to apply muscle synergies that closely resembled the ones that a skater would use if actually jumping on a skateboard. More importantly we showed that only skaters were able to plan the action by activating anticipatory postural adjustments about 200 ms after the jump event. We conclude that expert patterns are guided by auditory events that trigger proper anticipations of the corresponding patterns of movements.

  8. Turning lemonade into lemons: Dampening appraisals reduce positive affect and increase negative affect during positive activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Leigh-Anne; Javiad, Mahmood; Jell, Grace; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2017-04-01

    The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions. There was no difference between the two amplifying and control conditions, which all increased PA and reduced NA during the walks. However, the dampening condition significantly differed from all other conditions, reducing PA and increasing NA during the walk. Individual differences in anhedonia symptoms did not significantly moderate the pattern of findings. This evidence supports the view that dampening appraisals may be one mechanism driving anhedonia and may account for why positive activity scheduling can sometimes backfire when utilized in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Affective mediators of a physical activity intervention for depression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Ehde, Dawn M; Bombardier, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Previous analyses showed that a telephone-based intervention to increase physical activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and depression resulted in significantly improved depressive symptoms compared to a wait-list control group. The aim of this study was to test positive affect and negative affect as mediators of the effect of the physical activity counseling on depressive symptoms. Ninety-two adults with MS, who met diagnostic criteria for either major depression or dysthymia and who reported low levels of physical activity, were randomized 1:1 to a 12-week telephone-based motivational interviewing (MI) intervention to improve physical activity (n = 44) or to a 12-week wait-list control group (n = 48). Self-reported positive and negative affect, physical activity, and depressive symptoms were gathered at baseline and postintervention. Path-analysis was used to test whether positive affect and negative affect mediated the positive effects of the intervention on depressive symptoms. Both positive and negative affect were significant mediators of the effects of the intervention on depressive symptoms; however, only positive affect mediated the association between changes in physical activity and improved depressive symptoms. Findings support physical activity and positive affect as key mediators of the MI treatment effect on improved mood. Decreases in negative affect were also evident in the treatment group, but were not related to improved physical activity. Findings may suggest the use of exercise-based interventions in conjunction with treatments that specifically target negative affective mechanisms for depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  12. Temporal dynamics of physical activity and affect in depressed and nondepressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Booij, Sanne H; Roest, Annelieke M; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bos, Elisabeth H

    2015-12-01

    The association between physical activity and affect found in longitudinal observational studies is generally small to moderate. It is unknown how this association generalizes to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate interindividual differences in the bidirectional dynamic relationship between physical activity and affect, in depressed and nondepressed individuals, using time-series analysis. A pair-matched sample of 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed participants (mean age = 36.6, SD = 8.9, 30% males) wore accelerometers and completed electronic questionnaires 3 times a day for 30 days. Physical activity was operationalized as the total energy expenditure (EE) per day segment (i.e., 6 hr). The multivariate time series (T = 90) of every individual were analyzed using vector autoregressive modeling (VAR), with the aim to assess direct as well as lagged (i.e., over 1 day) effects of EE on positive and negative affect, and vice versa. Large interindividual differences in the strength, direction and temporal aspects of the relationship between physical activity and positive and negative affect were observed. An exception was the direct (but not the lagged) effect of physical activity on positive affect, which was positive in nearly all individuals. This study showed that the association between physical activity and affect varied considerably across individuals. Thus, while at the group level the effect of physical activity on affect may be small, in some individuals the effect may be clinically relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their phy...

  14. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  15. Imaging cortical activity following affective stimulation with a high temporal and spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catani Claudia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The affective and motivational relevance of a stimulus has a distinct impact on cortical processing, particularly in sensory areas. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of this affective modulation of brain activities remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was the development of a paradigm to investigate the affective modulation of cortical networks with a high temporal and spatial resolution. We assessed cortical activity with MEG using a visual steady-state paradigm with affective pictures. A combination of a complex demodulation procedure with a minimum norm estimation was applied to assess the temporal variation of the topography of cortical activity. Results Statistical permutation analyses of the results of the complex demodulation procedure revealed increased steady-state visual evoked field amplitudes over occipital areas following presentation of affective pictures compared to neutral pictures. This differentiation shifted in the time course from occipital regions to parietal and temporal regions. Conclusion It can be shown that stimulation with affective pictures leads to an enhanced activity in occipital region as compared to neutral pictures. However, the focus of differentiation is not stable over time but shifts into temporal and parietal regions within four seconds of stimulation. Thus, it can be crucial to carefully choose regions of interests and time intervals when analyzing the affective modulation of cortical activity.

  16. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  17. Walk on the bright side: physical activity and affect in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2012-05-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD.

  18. A time-lagged momentary assessment study on daily life physical activity and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Marieke; Peeters, Frenk; Rutten, Bart P F; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Novel study designs using within-subject methodology and frequent and prospective measurements are required to unravel direction of causality and dynamic processes of behavior over time. The current study examined the effects of physical activity on affective state. A primary and within-study replication sample was derived from twin pairs. Female twins (n = 504) participated in an experience sampling method study at baseline. Positive and negative affective changes were examined before and following daily life increases in physical activity. Neuroticism was measured at baseline and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and at each of four follow-up assessments. Diagnoses, derived by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health-IV axis I disorders, (A. P. A., 1994) were obtained at baseline. A significant increase in positive affect (PA) following the moment of increase in physical activity was replicated across both samples up to 180 min after physical activity. There was no effect of physical activity on negative affect (NA). Across the two samples, a history of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for depression at least once moderated the effect of physical activity on PA, in that the effect was lost more rapidly. The study supports a causal effect of physical activity on PA. However, people with past experience of clinical depression may benefit less from the PA-inducing effect of physical activity. These findings have implications for the use of physical exercise in clinical practice.

  19. Affective decision-making and externalizing behaviors: the role of autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jennifer L; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2008-08-01

    We tested a conceptual model involving the inter-relations among affective decision-making (indexed by a gambling task), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a largely impoverished, inner city sample of first through third grade children (N=63, 54% male). The present study hypothesized that impaired affective decision-making and decreased sympathetic and parasympathetic activation would be associated with higher levels of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and that low sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task would mediate the relation between affective decision-making and child externalizing symptoms. In support of our model, disadvantageous decision-making on a gambling task was associated with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms among boys, and attenuated sympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task mediated this relation. Support for the model was not found among girls.

  20. On the limits of Köhler activation theory: how do collision and coalescence affect the activation of aerosols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Fabian

    2017-07-01

    Activation is necessary to form a cloud droplet from an aerosol, and it is widely accepted that it occurs as soon as a wetted aerosol grows beyond its critical radius. Traditional Köhler theory assumes that this growth is driven by the diffusion of water vapor. However, if the wetted aerosols are large enough, the coalescence of two or more particles is an additional process for accumulating sufficient water for activation. This transition from diffusional to collectional growth marks the limit of traditional Köhler theory and it is studied using a Lagrangian cloud model in which aerosols and cloud droplets are represented by individually simulated particles within large-eddy simulations of shallow cumuli. It is shown that the activation of aerosols larger than 0. 1 µm in dry radius can be affected by collision and coalescence, and its contribution increases with a power-law relation toward larger radii and becomes the only process for the activation of aerosols larger than 0. 4-0. 8 µm depending on aerosol concentration. Due to the natural scarcity of the affected aerosols, the amount of aerosols that are activated by collection is small, with a maximum of 1 in 10 000 activations. The fraction increases as the aerosol concentration increases, but decreases again as the number of aerosols becomes too high and the particles too small to cause collections. Moreover, activation by collection is found to affect primarily aerosols that have been entrained above the cloud base.

  1. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  2. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  3. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Route of administration of pentobarbital affects activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik

    1986-01-01

    pentobarbital (5 mg/100 g body wt) either intraperitoneally, as a slow intravenous infusion, or as an intravenous or intracardial bolus. Times from administration of barbiturate to sampling of the liver were 10 min, 10 min, 85 +/- 32 s (mean +/- SE), and 53 +/- 10 s, respectively. Phosphorylase a activity...... in % of total phosphorylase activity was 40 +/- 2, 56 +/- 4, 82 +/- 3, and 92 +/- 2, respectively, all significantly different. Thus the route of administration of pentobarbital affects the phosphorylase a activity and should be considered when evaluating this activity. This fact can only be partially explained...

  5. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  6. THE HUMAN ACTIVITY AS AFFECTIVE-COGNITIVE UNIT: A HISTORIC-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Márcia Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts in question the affectional-cognitive unit which sustains the human activity, with the purpose to light incorrectness of approaches which dichotomize reason and emotion. It asserts that such dissociations are founded in theorical-methodological principles which set bounds for explanations about the human psychism, so that the overcoming of referred dualisms puts on as a method matter. For making explicit that assertion, it resorted to Historic-Cultural Psychology, based on that it explains about the psychism as subjective image of objective reality, of Vygotskyan criticisms to Cartesian dualism and the need of a historic-cultural approach on emotion studies, intend to analyzing the human activity as a affective-cognitive unit and the imbricated relations that are waged, within it, among affections, emotions, feelings and thoughts. Once presented the interrelations between emotions and cognitions this exhibition argues that the concepts are necessary as a minimum unit of analysis both of thought and feelings.

  7. Contrasting macrobenthic activities differentially affect nematode density and diversity in a shallow subtidal marine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; van Colen, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2011-01-01

    By bioturbating and bio-irrigating the sea floor, macrobenthic organisms transport organic matter and oxygen from the surface to deeper layers, thereby extending the habitat suitable for smaller infauna. Next to these engineering activities, competition, disturbance and predation may also affect the

  8. Elements of Design-Based Science Activities That Affect Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Chittum, Jessica R.; Akalin, Sehmuz; Schram, Asta B.; Fink, Jonathan; Schnittka, Christine; Evans, Michael A.; Brandt, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which a 12-week after-school science and engineering program affected middle school students' motivation to engage in science and engineering activities. We used current motivation research and theory as a conceptual framework to assess 14 students' motivation through questionnaires,…

  9. Glomalin in a mediterranean ecosystem affected by mining activities and its contribution to heavy metals sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, P.; Meier, F.; Borie, G.; Borie, F.

    2009-07-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and usually presents in high amounts in soil, may stabilize heavy metals such as Cu an Zn in soils affected by mining activities, as large areas of central Chile. (Author)

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Physical Activity and Affect in Depressed and Nondepressed Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Booij, Sanne H.; Roest, Annelieke M.; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The association between physical activity and affect found in longitudinal observational studies is generally small to moderate. It is unknown how this association generalizes to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate interindividual differences in the bidirectional

  11. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  12. Agar composition affects in vitro screening of biocontrol activity of antagonistic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Lien; De Bruijn, I.; de Mot, Rene; Readers, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Agar-based screening assays are the method of choice when evaluating antagonistic potential of bacterial biocontrol-candidates against pathogens.Weshowed thatwhen using the samemedium, but different agar compositions, the activity of a bacterial antagonist against Agrobacteriumwas strongly affected.

  13. ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AFFECTS THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS IN HIRUDO MEDICINALIS GANGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Traina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Was previously discovered that in the leech Hirudo medicinalis, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC affects forms of non-associative learning, such as sensitization and dishabituation, due to nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin in the swim induction behavioural paradigm, likely through modulating the activity of the mechanosensory tactile (T neurons, which initiate swimming. Since was found that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation, both of which are mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, the present study analyzed how ALC may interfere with the sensitizing response. Was already found that ALC reduced the activity of nociceptive (N neurons, which modulate T cell activity through serotonergic mediation.

  14. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children’s daily lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eKühnhausen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive influence of physical activity (PA on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses.

  15. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  16. Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting γ-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

    2012-01-01

    Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in Aβ production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in γ-secretase activity whereas β- and α-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected γ-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on γ-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease γ-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting γ-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: Aβ reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase γ-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of Aβ peptides. PMID:22547976

  17. Physical Activity, Mind Wandering, Affect, and Sleep: An Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mackenzie, Michael; Roberts, Sarah; Crato, Ines; Ehlers, Diane; McAuley, Edward

    2016-08-31

    A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations. College-aged adults (N=33) participated in a mobile phone-delivered ecological momentary assessment study for 1 week. Sixteen hourly prompts assessing mind wandering and affect were delivered daily via participants' mobile phones. Perceived sleep quality and duration was assessed during the first prompt each day, and participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer during waking hours throughout the study week. Study findings suggest present-moment mind wandering was positively associated with future MVPA (P=.03), and this relationship was moderated by affective state (P=.04). Moreover, excessive sleep the previous evening was related to less MVPA across the following day (P=.007). Further, mind wandering was positively related to activity only among those who did not oversleep (P=.007). Together, these results have implications for multiple health behavior interventions targeting physical activity, affect, and sleep. Researchers may also build on this work by studying these relationships in the context of other important behaviors and psychosocial factors (eg, tobacco use, depression, loneliness).

  18. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  19. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  20. How Gamification Affects Physical Activity: Large-scale Analysis of Walking Challenges in a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ali; Althoff, Tim; Saberi, Amin; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-04-01

    Gamification represents an effective way to incentivize user behavior across a number of computing applications. However, despite the fact that physical activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about how gamification and in particular competitions shape human physical activity. Here we study how competitions affect physical activity. We focus on walking challenges in a mobile activity tracking application where multiple users compete over who takes the most steps over a predefined number of days. We synthesize our findings in a series of game and app design implications. In particular, we analyze nearly 2,500 physical activity competitions over a period of one year capturing more than 800,000 person days of activity tracking. We observe that during walking competitions, the average user increases physical activity by 23%. Furthermore, there are large increases in activity for both men and women across all ages, and weight status, and even for users that were previously fairly inactive. We also find that the composition of participants greatly affects the dynamics of the game. In particular, if highly unequal participants get matched to each other, then competition suffers and the overall effect on the physical activity drops significantly. Furthermore, competitions with an equal mix of both men and women are more effective in increasing the level of activities. We leverage these insights to develop a statistical model to predict whether or not a competition will be particularly engaging with significant accuracy. Our models can serve as a guideline to help design more engaging competitions that lead to most beneficial behavioral changes.

  1. Factors affecting trip generation of motorcyclist for the purpose of non-mandatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Renni; Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Pramanda, Heru

    2017-11-01

    The inadequate facilities and limited access to public transport reflect many people using private vehicles, in particular, motorcycle. The motorcycle is most widely used in Indonesia, recently, including Aceh Province. As a result, the number of motorcycle ownership is increasing significantly. The increasing number of motorcycles leads to complex traffic problems. Several factors tend to affect the trip generation of the motorcyclist, i.e., the social demographics of individuals and families, accessibility, etc. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of motorcyclists for non-mandatory activities, i.e. activities other than to work and school. It also aims to determine the dominant factors that affect their trips through trip generation models. The required data consist of primary data and secondary data. Primary data consists of a home interview survey that collects individual's daily trips. It is conducted by distributing the questionnaires to 400 families residing in Lhokseumawe City. Modeling the trip generation of the motorcyclist is done by multiple linear regression analysis. Parameters calibration uses OLS (Ordinary Least Square) method. The results showed that the dominant variables that affect the trip generation of motorcyclist for non-mandatory activities are license ownership, housewife, school-age children, middle-income household, and lower education level. It can be concluded that some factors affecting trip generation to non-work activities were female motorcyclists from the middle-income household with lower education level. As their status is mostly as the housewife, escorting children to non-school activities seems to the mother's task, instead of the father. It is clear that, most female ride motorcycle for doing household tasks. However, it should be noted that the use of the motorcycle in long-term does not suit for sustainable transportation.

  2. A review and meta-analysis of affective judgments and physical activity in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Fiala, Bonnie; Conner, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Popular theories of health behavior have often been criticized for neglecting an affective component to behavioral engagement. This study reviewed affective judgment (AJ) constructs employed in physical activity research to assess the relationship with behavior. Studies were eligible if they included: (a) a measure of physical activity; (b) a distinct measure of AJ (e.g., affective attitude, enjoyment, intrinsic motivation); and (c) involved participants with a mean age of 18 years or older. Literature searches were concluded in September, 2009 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 10,631 potentially relevant records; of these, 102 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling and measurement bias were employed in the analysis. Articles were published between 1989 and 2009, with sample sizes ranging from 15 to 6,739. Of the studies included, 82 were correlational and 20 were experimental, yielding 114 independent samples. The majority of the correlational samples reported a significant positive correlation between AJ and physical activity (83 out of 85), with a summary r of 0.42 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.46) that was invariant across the measures employed, study quality, population sampled and cultural variables. Experimental studies demonstrated that persuasive, information-based, and self-regulatory interventions failed to change AJ; by contrast, environmental and experiential interventions showed promise in their capability to influence AJ. The results point to a medium-effect size relationship between AJ and physical activity. Interventions that change AJ are scarce despite their potential for changing physical activity. Future experimental work designed to evaluate the causal impact ofAJ on physical activity is required.

  3. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  4. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: Compassion and vagal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stellar, JE; Cohen, A; Oveis, C; Keltner, D

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Psychological Association. Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we r...

  5. How the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity?

    OpenAIRE

    石岡, 克; 河野, 正司; Ishioka, Masaru; Kohno, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity. Two groups of subjects were enlisted: sport-trained group and normal group. While electrodes of the electromyography (EMG) were attached to the surface of the masticatory muscles, each subject's back muscle force was recorded during upper body stretching using a back muscle force-measuring device. The task was performed under four different occlusal suppor...

  6. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  7. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  8. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  9. Starvation stress affects the interplay among shrimp gut microbiota, digestion and immune activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Qiu, Qiong-Fen; Chen, Jiong; Yang, Wen; Ni, Sui; Xiong, Jin-Bo

    2018-05-24

    Aquatic animals are frequently suffered from starvation due to restricted food availability or deprivation. It is currently known that gut microbiota assists host in nutrient acquisition. Thus, exploring the gut microbiota responses would improve our understanding on physiological adaptation to starvation. To achieve this, we investigated how the gut microbiota and shrimp digestion and immune activities were affected under starvation stress. The results showed that the measured digestion activities in starved shrimp were significantly lower than in normal cohorts; while the measured immune activities exhibited an opposite trend. A structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that changes in the gut bacterial community were directly related to digestive and immune enzyme activities, which in turn markedly affected shrimp growth traits. Notably, several gut bacterial indicators that characterized the shrimp nutrient status were identified, with more abundant opportunistic pathogens in starved shrimp, although there were no statistical differences in the overall diversity and the structures of gut bacterial communities between starved and normal shrimp. Starved shrimp exhibited less connected and cooperative interspecies interaction as compared with normal cohorts. Additionally, the functional pathways involved in carbohydrate and protein digestion, glycan biosynthesis, lipid and enzyme metabolism remarkably decreased in starved shrimp. These attenuations could increase the susceptibility of starved shrimp to pathogens infection. In summary, this study provides novel insights into the interplay among shrimp digestion, immune activities and gut microbiota in response to starvation stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2018-03-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  12. Cytokine Response to Diet and Exercise Affects Atheromatous Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 Activity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Soo-Min; Jang, Hee Jeong; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Jiwon; Park, Jin-Yong; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Jeong Wook; Je, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jung E; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Lee, Juneyoung; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Park, Jong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2017-09-25

    The aim of this study is to identify the principal circulating factors that modulate atheromatous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in response to diet and exercise.Methods and Results:Apolipoprotein-E knock-out (ApoE -/- ) mice (n=56) with pre-existing plaque, fed either a Western diet (WD) or normal diet (ND), underwent either 10 weeks of treadmill exercise or had no treatment. Atheromatous MMP activity was visualized using molecular imaging with a MMP-2/9 activatable near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe. Exercise did not significantly reduce body weight, visceral fat, and plaque size in either WD-fed animals or ND-fed animals. However, atheromatous MMP-activity was different; ND animals that did or did not exercise had similarly low MMP activities, WD animals that did not exercise had high MMP activity, and WD animals that did exercise had reduced levels of MMP activity, close to the levels of ND animals. Factor analysis and path analysis showed that soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was directly positively correlated to atheromatous MMP activity. Adiponectin was indirectly negatively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Resistin was indirectly positively related to atheromatous MMP activity by way of sVCAM-1. Visceral fat amount was indirectly positively associated with atheromatous MMP activity, by way of adiponectin reduction and resistin elevation. MMP-2/9 imaging of additional mice (n=18) supported the diet/exercise-related anti-atherosclerotic roles for sVCAM-1. Diet and exercise affect atheromatous MMP activity by modulating the systemic inflammatory milieu, with sVCAM-1, resistin, and adiponectin closely interacting with each other and with visceral fat.

  13. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Seze, Rene de

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats

  14. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  15. The role of sense of coherence and physical activity in positive and negative affect of Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceyda; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence and total physical activity in positive and negative affect. Participants were 376 (169 female, 206 male, and 1 missing value) student volunteers from different faculties of Middle East Technical University. Three questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to the students together with the demographic information sheet. Two separate stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive power of sense of coherence and total physical activity on positive and negative affect scores. Results revealed that both sense of coherence and total physical activity predicted the positive affect whereas only the sense of coherence predicted the negative affect on university students. Findings are discussed in light of sense of coherence, physical activity, and positive and negative affect literature.

  16. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  17. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  18. Emotionally laden impulsivity interacts with affect in predicting addictive use of online sexual activity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Aline; Deleuze, Jory; Canale, Natale; Billieux, Joël

    2018-01-01

    The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N=182; age, M=29.17, SD = 9.34), building upon a theoretically driven model that distinguishes the various facets of impulsivity. Results showed that negative urgency (an impulsivity trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in negative emotional states) and negative affect interact in predicting addictive OSA use. These results highlight the pivotal role played by negative urgency and negative affect in addictive OSA use, supporting the relevance of psychological interventions that focus on improving emotional regulation (e.g., to reduce negative affect and learn healthier coping strategies) to mitigate excessive use of OSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity and metabolic disease among people with affective disorders: Prevention, management and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-15

    One in ten and one in three of people with affective disorders experience diabetes and metabolic syndrome respectively. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) are key risk factors that can ameliorate the risk of metabolic disease among this population. However, PA is often seen as luxury and/or a secondary component within the management of people with affective disorders. The current article provides a non-systematic best-evidence synthesis of the available literature, detailing a number of suggestions for the implementation of PA into clinical practice. Whilst the evidence is unequivocal for the efficacy of PA to prevent and manage metabolic disease in the general population, it is in its infancy in this patient group. Nonetheless, action must be taken now to ensure that PA and reducing SB are given a priority to prevent and manage metabolic diseases and improve wider health outcomes. PA should be treated as a vital sign and all people with affective disorders asked about their activity levels and if appropriate advised to increase this. There is a need for investment in qualified exercise specialists in clinical practice such as physiotherapists to undertake and oversee PA in practice. Behavioural strategies such as the self-determined theory should be employed to encourage adherence. Funding is required to develop the evidence base and elucidate the optimal intervention characteristics. PA interventions should form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of people with affective disorders and our article outlines the evidence and strategies to implement this in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diadenosine pentaphosphate affects electrical activity in guinea pig atrium via activation of potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Karimova, Viktoria M; Filatova, Tatiana S; Kamkin, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) belongs to the family of diadenosine polyphosphates, endogenously produced compounds that affect vascular tone and cardiac performance when released from platelets. The previous findings indicate that Ap5A shortens action potentials (APs) in rat myocardium via activation of purine P2 receptors. The present study demonstrates alternative mechanism of Ap5A electrophysiological effects found in guinea pig myocardium. Ap5A (10 -4  M) shortens APs in guinea pig working atrial myocardium and slows down pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. P1 receptors antagonist DPCPX (10 -7  M) or selective GIRK channels blocker tertiapin (10 -6  M) completely abolished all Ap5A effects, while P2 blocker PPADS (10 -4  M) was ineffective. Patch-clamp experiments revealed potassium inward rectifier current activated by Ap5A in guinea pig atrial myocytes. The current was abolished by DPCPX or tertiapin and therefore was considered as potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier (I KACh ). Thus, unlike rat, in guinea pig atrium Ap5A produces activation of P1 receptors and subsequent opening of KACh channels leading to negative effects on cardiac electrical activity.

  1. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  2. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  3. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  5. Polymeric nanoparticles affect the intracellular delivery, antiretroviral activity and cytotoxicity of the microbicide drug candidate dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, José; Michiels, Johan; Ariën, Kevin K; Vanham, Guido; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    To assess the intracellular delivery, antiretroviral activity and cytotoxicity of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles containing the antiretroviral drug dapivirine. Dapivirine-loaded nanoparticles with different surface properties were produced using three surface modifiers: poloxamer 338 NF (PEO), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The ability of nanoparticles to promote intracellular drug delivery was assessed in different cell types relevant for vaginal HIV transmission/microbicide development. Also, antiretroviral activity of nanoparticles was determined in different cell models, as well as their cytotoxicity. Dapivirine-loaded nanoparticles were readily taken up by different cells, with particular kinetics depending on the cell type and nanoparticles, resulting in enhanced intracellular drug delivery in phagocytic cells. Different nanoparticles showed similar or improved antiviral activity compared to free drug. There was a correlation between increased antiviral activity and increased intracellular drug delivery, particularly when cell models were submitted to a single initial short-course treatment. PEO-PCL and SLS-PCL nanoparticles consistently showed higher selectivity index values than free drug, contrasting with high cytotoxicity of CTAB-PCL. These results provide evidence on the potential of PCL nanoparticles to affect in vitro toxicity and activity of dapivirine, depending on surface engineering. Thus, this formulation approach may be a promising strategy for the development of next generation microbicides.

  6. Type of sweet flavour carrier affects thyroid axis activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałkowska-Goździk, Ewelina; Bigos, Anna; Rosołowska-Huszcz, Danuta

    2018-03-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives worldwide. However, their metabolic outcomes are still a matter of controversy and their effect on the thyroid activity, a key regulator of metabolism, has not been previously studied. Therefore, we aim to determine the influence of the sweet type flavour carrier on selected parameters of thyroid axis activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 105) were divided into 3 groups fed ad libitum for three weeks isocaloric diets (3.76 ± 0.5 kcal/g): two with the same sweet flavour intensity responded to 10% of sucrose (with sucrose-SC-and sucralose-SU) and one non-sweet diet (NS). To evaluate the post-ingested effects, animals were euthanised at fast and 30, 60, 120, 180 min after meal. The results obtained indicate that both the presence and the type of sweet taste flavour carrier affect thyroid axis activity both at fasting and postprandial state. Compared to diet with sucrose which stimulates thyroid axis activity, sucralose addition diminishes thyroid hormone synthesis as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, plasma thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration was lower than in SC and NS while in non-sweet diet the lowest level of hepatic deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) and the highest reverse T3 (rT3) level indicate on altered thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Both the presence and the type of sweet flavour carrier have a significant impact on thyroid axis activity. Our findings suggest that this organochlorine sweetener is metabolically active and might exacerbate metabolic disorders via an adverse effect on thyroid hormone metabolism.

  7. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  8. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani, E-mail: arianiinaira@yahoo.com.br; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moraes, Rosana Nogueira [Pontifícia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ramos, Helton Estrela [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5{sup th} and 10{sup th} days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  9. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Objective Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Methods Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5th and 10th days of T3 treatment. Results In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Conclusions Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity. PMID:24676225

  10. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5 th and 10 th days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity

  11. Litter environment affects behavior and brain metabolic activity of adult knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crews

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s, the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual’s behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for Sex ratio and Genotype ratio (wild type pups vs. pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α. In both males and females the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks.

  12. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  13. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex mediates the affective component of visceral pain memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Cao, Bing; Xu, Jiahe; Hao, Chun; Zhang, Xu; Li, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the neural pathways mediating pain affect and sensation in nociceptive behavioral response is a challenge. In this study, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceromotor response (VMR) with the conditioning place avoidance (CPA), we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain. When CRD was paired with a distinct environment context, the rats spent significantly less time in this compartment on the post-conditioning test days as compared with the pre-conditioning day. Effects were lasted for 14 days. Bilateral pACC lesion significantly reduced CPA scores without reducing acute visceral pain behaviors (CRD-induced VMR). Bilateral administration of non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX or NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 into the pACC decreased the CPA scores. AP5 or CNQX at dose of 400 mM produced about 70% inhibition of CRD-CPA in the day 1, 4 and 7, and completely abolished the CPA in the day 14 after conditioning. We concluded that neurons in the pACC are necessary for the "aversiveness" of visceral nociceptor stimulation. pACC activation is critical for the memory processing involved in long-term negative affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-life exposure to caffeine affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Walid; Zappettini, Stefania; Marguet, Stephan Lawrence; Grendel, Jasper; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    The consumption of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy can have deleterious effects on newborns. It remains unclear whether early-life exposure to caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, alters brain development. We hypothesized that maternal caffeine ingestion during pregnancy and the early postnatal period in mice affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in offspring. To test this hypothesis, we focused on primary visual cortex (V1) as a model neocortical region. In a study design mimicking the daily consumption of approximately three cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine was added to the drinking water of female mice and their offspring were compared to control offspring. Caffeine altered the construction of GABAergic neuronal networks in V1, as reflected by a reduced number of somatostatin-containing GABA neurons at postnatal days 6-7, with the remaining ones showing poorly developed dendritic arbors. These findings were accompanied by increased synaptic activity in vitro and elevated network activity in vivo in V1. Similarly, in vivo hippocampal network activity was altered from the neonatal period until adulthood. Finally, caffeine-exposed offspring showed increased seizure susceptibility in a hyperthermia-induced seizure model. In summary, our results indicate detrimental effects of developmental caffeine exposure on mouse brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  17. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  18. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  19. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  20. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masahito

    2008-01-01

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R 2 =0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R 2 =0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R 2 =0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R 2 =0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of

  1. Neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, emotional-affective and auto-activation apathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Caruso, Giulia; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Augusto Giovanni

    2018-01-31

    Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy. Furthermore, whether there is an association in AD between E-aff apathy and theory of mind (ToM),the cognitive functions subsumed by the orbito-basal prefrontal cortex, has not been investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between C, E-Aff and auto-activation apathy and performance on tasks investigating executive and ToM cognitive functions in AD. For this purpose, 20 AD patients with apathy and 20 matched controls were submitted to an executive and ToM neuropsychological assessment. Apathy was assessed with a weekly diary (ApD) created specifically to assist caregivers in quantifying the C, E-Aff and auto-activation symptomatology of apathy. Correlational analyses showed that AD patients' scores on the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST) and Emotion Attribution tasks were correlated with most ApD scores. However, regression analyses showed that C diary scores were predicted by MCST performance, E-Aff diary scores by performance on the E-Attribution task and ApD scores measuring auto-activation apathy were predicted by both the MCST and the Emotion Attribution scores. These results confirm the co-occurrence of apathy and executive-function deficits in AD and suggest a specific association between AD patients' executive deficits and the cognitive component of apathy. Furthermore, they document, for the first time, an association between poor performance on tests assessing ToM abilities and the emotional-affective

  2. ERK pathway activation bidirectionally affects visual recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eSilingardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ERK 1,2 pathway mediates experience-dependent gene transcription in neurons and several studies have identified its pivotal role in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and in forms of long term memory involving hippocampus, amygdala or striatum. The perirhinal cortex (PRHC plays an essential role in familiarity-based object recognition memory. It is still unknown whether ERK activation in PRHC is necessary for recognition memory consolidation. Most important, it is unknown whether by modulating the gain of the ERK pathway it is possible to bidirectionally affect visual recognition memory and PRHC synaptic plasticity.We have first pharmacologically blocked ERK activation in the PRHC of adult mice and found that this was sufficient to impair long term recognition memory in a familiarity-based task, the Object Recognition Task (ORT. We have then tested performance in the ORT in Ras-GRF1 knock-out (KO mice, which exhibit a reduced activation of ERK by neuronal activity, and in ERK1 KO mice, which have an increased activation of ERK2 and exhibit enhanced striatal plasticity and striatal mediated memory. We found that Ras-GRF1 KO mice have normal short-term memory but display a long term memory deficit; memory reconsolidation is also impaired. On the contrary, ERK1 KO mice exhibit a better performance than WT mice at 72 hour retention interval, suggesting a longer lasting recognition memory. In parallel with behavioural data, LTD was strongly reduced and LTP was significantly smaller in PRHC slices from Ras-GRF1 KO than in WT mice while enhanced LTP and LTD were found in PRHC slices from ERK1 KO mice.

  3. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  4. Decreased enzymatic activity of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase affects the development of several diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of folates in human physiology is well known, as are various pathologies associated with low folate status. Folate deficiency can occur due to low dietary intake, genetic predisposition or treatment with medicines affecting the folate status. The aim of this paper is to explore the importance of determining genetic polymorphisms which influence the levels of biologically active folate. MTHFR is involved in the transformation of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. Polymorphisms of the MTHRF gene are associated with decreased enzymatic activity.Only 9.3 % of the population in Slovenia displays full activity of the MTHFR enzyme; these subjects are non-mutated homozygotes (wild-type alleles. In contrast, the average enzymatic activity in subjects with mutated alleles is between 50 and 60 %. MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and various types of cancer. There is also an increased risk for congenital malformations. Folic acid food fortification was introduced in some countries in order to assure an adequate folate status in the population. However, this approach does not address the decreased activity of MTHFR.Polymorphism in the key enzymes of the folate cycle is common. Determination of the genetic predisposition is therefore plausible in the most vulnerable groups of the population, such as pregnant women and patients receiving medicines influencing the folate cycle in various ways, e.g. 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. Genotyping would allow the identification of patients at high risk for suboptimal folate status.

  5. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Personality Traits and Cortical Activity Affect Gambling Behavior in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni; Angioletti, Laura

    2018-03-26

    Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only. Results indicates that gambling behavior in PD patients is strongly predictive of dysfunctional cognitive strategy; affecting anomalous cortical response with a left hemispheric unbalance in dorsal areas; and it is related to more reward sensitivity than impulsivity personality components. PDG patients differed from PDNG and CG from both behavioral and brain response to decision-making. Overall, these effects confirm a pathological condition related to cognitive and emotional aspects which makes the patients with PGD victims of their dysfunctional behavior.

  8. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  9. PROGRANULIN MUTATIONS AFFECTS BRAIN OSCILLATORY ACTIVITY IN FRONTO-TEMPORAL DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD. Progranulin (PGRN has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non carriers in patients with overt FTD. Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE. Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers.Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE LICENSED TOURIST GUIDES’ EVOLUTION OF ROMANIA AND CRITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING THEIR ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina TĂTAR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study refers to the licensed tourist guides of Romania during 1998-2016, namely their numerical evolution during this time series as well as an analysis of their numerical evolution by different types of tourist guides, be they national, local or specialized. The statistical analysis showed an increment from 24 tourist guides in the year 1998 to 4,335 licensed tour guides in 2016. The analysis is supplemented by current issues and shortcomings affecting the tourist guiding activity of Romania, as revealed by the tourist guides present at the annual tourist guides’ national conferences, various stringent problems raised and debated within these encounters and highlighted by this study as well as proposals for a better functioning for this segment of tourism entrepreneurs.

  11. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover...... the period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks...

  12. Perinatal exposure to methadone affects central cholinergic activity in the weanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S E; Mo, Q; Maher, J R; Wallace, M J; Kunko, P M

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (initial dose, 9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that they were exposed to methadone prenatally and/or postnatally. Perinatal methadone exposure disrupted cholinergic activity on postnatal day 21 as measured by the turnover rate of acetylcholine (TRACh) in both female and male rats, although there were some sexually-dimorphic responses. The most profoundly affected brain region was the striatum, where prenatal exposure to methadone increased ACh turnover, whether or not the rats continued to be exposed to methadone postnatally. It appears unlikely that neonatal withdrawal contributes to brain regional changes in ACh turnover, as continued postnatal exposure to methadone did not prevent the prenatal methadone induced changes.

  13. Polaprezinc reduces paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats without affecting anti-tumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Tsutsumi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of polaprezinc on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Polaprezinc (3 mg/kg, p.o., once daily inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel (4 mg/kg, i.p., on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 and suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in macrophage migration in dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, polaprezinc did not affect the anti-tumor activity of paclitaxel in cultured cell lines or tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest a clinical indication for polaprezinc in the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.

  14. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationships Between Positive-Negative Affectivity and Individual-Organizational Level Aggressiveness: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZDEVECİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to find out the relationships between, positive and negative affectivity, physical activity, personal level aggressiveness - organization level aggressiveness and mediation effect of physical activity. The universe of the research is employees of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone businesses in which physical activity is done. The size of the research is 273. According to the results, there is a significant and negative oriented relationship between positive affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between positive affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between negative affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between physical activity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between individual level aggressiveness and organization level aggressiveness. Separately physical activity has a significant mediation role between positive-negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness.

  16. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Daniel; Wallace, Karen; Boreham, Nicola; Shankar, Aparna; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening. Multilevel models examined within- and between-person associations of daily physical activity with positive and negative affect, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, education, and sleep duration. Within-person associations showed that a 1-hour increase in daily physical activity was associated with a decrease in negative affect over the same day (B = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.21 to -0.01). Between-person associations indicated a borderline significant association between higher average daily physical activity levels and higher positive affect (B = 1.85, 95% CI = -0.25 to 3.94). There were no between- or within-person associations between sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions with affect. Promoting physical activity may be a potential intervention strategy to acutely suppress negative affective states.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, A.S.; Kangas, J.L.; Denman, D.C.; Smits, J.A.J.; Yamada, T.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial

  18. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Libuse A

    2007-11-01

    60°C did not affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.

  19. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  20. Factor Affecting Textile Dye Removal Using Adsorbent From Activated Carbon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Razi Mohd Adib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial company such as textile, leather, cosmetics, paper and plastic generated wastewater containing large amount of dye colour. The removal of dye materials are importance as the presence of this kind of pollutant influence the quality of water and makes it aesthetically unpleasant. As their chemical structures are complicated, it is difficult to treat dyes with municipal waste treatment operations. Even a small quantity of dye does cause high visibility and undesirability. There have been various treatment technique reviewed for the removal of dye in wastewater. However, these treatment process has made it to another expensive treatment method. This review focus on the application of adsorbent in dye removal from textile wastewater as the most economical and effective method, adsorption has become the most preferred method to remove dye. The review provides literature information about different basis materials used to produce activated carbon like agricultural waste and industrial waste as well as the operational parameters factors in term of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH solution and initial dye concentration that will affect the process in removing textile dye. This review approach the low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for replacing conventional activated carbon.

  1. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self-esteem or cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F

    2018-04-01

    Self-esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self-esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self-esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self-words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self-esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self-esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self-esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self-esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self‐esteem or cardiovascular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self‐esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self‐esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self‐esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self‐words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self‐esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self‐esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self‐esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self‐esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost‐effective and evidence‐based interventions. PMID:28795525

  3. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  5. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H 2 S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm.

  6. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  7. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  8. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  9. Relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie A; Fisher, Thomas; Schmid, Arlene A; Crabtree, Jeffrey; Page, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke. Using a cross-sectional study design, this study correlated factors related to hand sensation and activity performance in individuals with chronic stroke. The Touch Test Evaluators and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used. Correlations were used to determine the relationships between touch sensation of the affected hand and individuals' performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities. There was a good to excellent relationship between sensation and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities for individuals with intact touch sensation of the affected hand who scored higher on the COPM. There was little to no relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities for individuals with impaired sensation. This is the first study to relate touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with stroke. The findings suggest that rehabilitation therapists need to continue to address sensory function in evaluation and intervention as it relates to performance in valued activities. This study serves as a foundation for future research in sensation and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

  10. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger.

  11. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  12. Activation of the cannabinoid system in the nucleus accumbens affects effort-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Zahra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-02-01

    Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits, and it has been previously shown that cannabis derivatives may affect such processes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to evaluate the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the entire NAc on effort-based decision making. Rats were trained in a T-maze cost-benefit decision making the task in which they could choose either to climb a barrier to obtain a large reward in one arm or run into the other arm without a barrier to obtaining a small reward. Following training, the animals were bilaterally implanted with guide cannulae in the NAc. On test day, rats received cannabinoid agonist (Win 55,212-2; 2, 10 and 50μM) and/or antagonist (AM251; 45μM), afterward percentage of large reward choice and latency of reward attainment were investigated. Results revealed that the administration of cannabinoid agonist led to decrease of large reward choice percentage such that the animals preferred to receive a small reward with low effort instead of receiving a large reward with high effort. The administration of antagonist solely did not affect effort-based decision making, but did attenuate the Win 55,212-2-induced impairments in effort allocation. In agonist-treated animals, the latency of reward collection increased. Moreover, when the effort was equated on both arms, the animals returned to choosing large reward showing that obtained results were not caused by spatial memory impairment. Our finding suggested that activation of the cannabinoid system in the NAc impaired effort-based decision making and led to rats were less willing to invest the physical effort to gain large reward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  14. Activation of the ALT pathway for telomere maintenance can affect other sequences in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Varley, Helen; Foxon, Jenny L; Pollock, Raphael E; Jeffreys, Alec J; Henson, Jeremy D; Reddel, Roger R; Royle, Nicola J

    2005-07-01

    Immortal human cells maintain telomere length by the expression of telomerase or through the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The ALT mechanism involves a recombination-like process that allows the rapid elongation of shortened telomeres. However, it is not known whether activation of the ALT pathway affects other sequences in the genome. To address this we have investigated, in ALT-expressing cell lines and tumours, the stability of tandem repeat sequences known to mutate via homologous recombination in the human germline. We have shown extraordinary somatic instability in the human minisatellite MS32 (D1S8) in ALT-expressing (ALT+) but not in normal or telomerase-expressing cell lines. The MS32 mutation frequency varied across 15 ALT+ cell lines and was on average 55-fold greater than in ALT- cell lines. The MS32 minisatellite was also highly unstable in three of eight ALT+ soft tissue sarcomas, indicating that somatic destabilization occurs in vivo. The MS32 mutation rates estimated for two ALT+ cell lines were similar to that seen in the germline. However, the internal structures of ALT and germline mutant alleles are very different, indicating differences in the underlying mutation mechanisms. Five other hypervariable minisatellites did not show elevated instability in ALT-expressing cell lines, indicating that minisatellite destabilization is not universal. The elevation of MS32 instability upon activation of the ALT pathway and telomere length maintenance suggests there is overlap between the underlying processes that may be tractable through analysis of the D1S8 locus.

  15. Physical activity, menopause, and quality of life: the role of affect and self-worth across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL); however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related QOL and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey 2 years after the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related QOL. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity-QOL relationship over time. At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (betas = 0.23 and -0.52, physical activity and menopausal symptoms, respectively) and, for symptoms, also to decreased positive affect (beta = -0.47), and both physical self-worth (beta = 0.34) and affect (beta = 0.43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R = 0.775). The findings support the position that the effects of physical activity on QOL are mediated, in part, by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition.

  16. The lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 maintain activity under physiological conditions and affects virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, LP5, is a lysine-peptoid hybrid, with antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacteria. Here, we investigated how various environmental conditions affect the antimicrobial activity of LP5 against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). We found that LP5 maintained...

  17. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  18. Resting Tension Affects eNOS Activity in a Calcium-Dependent Way in Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis-Adam Molyvdas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of resting tension (RT from 0.5 g to 2.5 g increased significantly airway smooth muscle contractions induced by acetylcholine (ACh in rabbit trachea. The decrease in extracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM reduced ACh-induced contractions only at 2.5 g RT with no effect at 0.5 g RT. The nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased ACh-induced contractions at 2.5 g RT. The inhibitor of inducible NOS, S-methylsothiourea or neuronal NOS, 7-nitroindazole had no effect. At 2.5 g RT, the reduction of [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM abolished the effect of L-NAME on ACh-induced contractions. The NO precursor L-arginine or the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erbstatin A and genistein had no effect on ACh-induced contractions obtained at 2.5 g RT. Our results suggest that in airways, RT affects ACh-induced contractions by modulating the activity of epithelial NOS in a calcium-dependent, tyrosine-phosphorylation-independent way.

  19. An appraisal of certain larval behavioural activities as affected by gamma irradiation of Spodoptera larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sehgal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their locomotor activity. The food perception range and feeding behaviour of the larvae were also impaired. Of various dosages tested, 4 Krad (the sterilizing dose for larvae) caused a decline in locomotor speed. The first instar larvae, for instance showed decline in a speed of 3.74 cm/min to 2.96 cm/min. Similarly at this dose, the third instar larvae exhibited a reduction in speed to the extent of 38 to 45 per cent, the normal speed being 8.02 cm/min. The reactive distances of the first and third instar normal larvae were 5.30 cm and 7.36, respectively. This reactive distance was reduced by about 25 per cent after irradiation at 4 Krad, thus decreasing the food perception capacity significantly. The feeding behaviour too was significantly affected whereas the dose range less than 4 Krad did not induce such a marked impact. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  20. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  1. How does network structure affect partnerships for promoting physical activity? Evidence from Brazil and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Dauti, Marsela; Harris, Jenine K; Reyes, Lissette; Malta, Deborah C; Brownson, Ross C; Quintero, Mario A; Pratt, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the network structure and factors associated with collaboration in two networks that promote physical activity (PA) in Brazil and Colombia. Organizations that focus on studying and promoting PA in Brazil (35) and Colombia (53) were identified using a modified one-step reputational snowball sampling process. Participants completed an on-line survey between December 2008 and March 2009 for the Brazil network, and between April and June 2009 for the Colombia network. Network stochastic modeling was used to investigate the likelihood of reported inter-organizational collaboration. While structural features of networks were significant predictors of collaboration within each network, the coefficients and other network characteristics differed. Brazil's PA network was decentralized with a larger number of shared partnerships. Colombia's PA network was centralized and collaboration was influenced by perceived importance of peer organizations. On average, organizations in the PA network of Colombia reported facing more barriers (1.5 vs. 2.5 barriers) for collaboration. Future studies should focus on how these different network structures affect the implementation and uptake of evidence-based PA interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental parameters altered by climate change affect the activity of soil microorganisms involved in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Itziar; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2017-10-16

    Bioremediation, based on the use of microorganisms to break down pollutants, can be very effective at reducing soil pollution. But the climate change we are now experiencing is bound to have an impact on bioremediation performance, since the activity and degrading abilities of soil microorganisms are dependent on a series of environmental parameters that are themselves being altered by climate change, such as soil temperature, moisture, amount of root exudates, etc. Many climate-induced effects on soil microorganisms occur indirectly through changes in plant growth and physiology derived from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures, the alteration of precipitation patterns, etc., with a concomitant effect on rhizoremediation performance (i.e. the plant-assisted microbial degradation of pollutants in the rhizosphere). But these effects are extremely complex and mediated by processes such as acclimation and adaptation. Besides, soil microorganisms form complex networks of interactions with a myriad of organisms from many taxonomic groups that will also be affected by climate change, further complicating data interpretation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Double blind comparative study of piroxicam and indomethacin in acute locomotor affections linked with sports activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandre, F

    1983-01-01

    181 patients suffering from acute locomotor affections linked with sports activities were included in a multi-center study. The indications most frequently seen were sprains and tendinitis. 92 patients received piroxicam in a daily dosage of 4 capsules (40 mg) during the first two days, then 20 mg during the following days. 89 patients received a daily dose of indomethacin in a daily dose of 6 capsules (150 mg) for the first two days, and then 100 mg daily thereafter. Treatment lasted from 5 to seven days. Efficacy was judged to be very good or good in 89% of the patients treated with piroxicam against 76% of those treated with indomethacin, a statistically significant difference. Tolerance was also judged better with piroxicam. 4 patients suffered side effects with piroxicam, of which one stopped treatment after the second administration due to allergic reaction. 18 patients treated with indomethacin suffered from side effects, of which 5 stopped the treatment. In total, the use of piroxicam seems particularly interesting in sports medicine in comparison with indomethacin.

  4. Kinetics, biocompounds, antioxidant activity, and sensory attributes of quinces as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychowski, Przemysław J; Lech, Krzysztof; Sendra-Nadal, Esther; Hernández, Francisca; Figiel, Adam; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-07-30

    Quinces are attracting interest due to their health and nutritional benefits. Drying kinetics, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and the main sensory parameters were determined in dried quinces, cultivar Leskovač, as affected by the drying method. The highest total polyphenols content was observed in dried samples obtained after freeze drying and convective drying at 50 °C. The best drying treatment, considering only sensory attributes, was vacuum-microwave drying at 480 W, because it led to intermediate dark color and high intensities of basic tastes and key flavor attributes. The studied parameters were finally used to recommend convective drying at 60 °C as the most appropriate drying method for quinces, because it had a high content of total phenolic compounds (2nd best treatment out of 10), a good sensory profile, was cheap, and caused no negative effects on nutritional or sensory parameters; the only disadvantage was its long drying time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leisure Activity Engagement and Positive Affect Partially Mediate the Relationship Between Positive Views on Aging and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    To examine leisure activity engagement and positive affect as potential mediators for the relationships between positive views on aging (PVA) and two health outcomes: subjective health and physical limitations. Data from 5,194 participants from the German Ageing Survey (aged 40-91 years) were used to examine relationships between PVA to subjective health (assessed by self-rated health and perceived health change from past) and physical limitations (assessed via self-reported limitations on 10 activities). Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were examined as potential mediators in latent variable path analyses. Age moderation among these relationships was also examined. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect separately and jointly served to partially mediate the relationships between PVA and the health outcomes. When entered as joint mediators, positive affect no longer significantly predicted physical limitations, indicating a shared variance with leisure activity engagement. Age moderated the relationship between PVA and physical limitations; the relationship was stronger among older adults than among middle-aged adults. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were shown to help explain the relationship between PVA and health, but differently for different health constructs and also among middle-aged and older adults. Findings provide further insight into ways in which PVA influence health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hiding from the moonlight: luminosity and temperature affect activity of Asian nocturnal primates in a highly seasonal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Starr

    Full Text Available The effect of moonlight and temperature on activity of slow lorises was previously little known and this knowledge might be useful for understanding many aspects of their behavioural ecology, and developing strategies to monitor and protect populations. In this study we aimed to determine if the activity of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus is affected by ambient temperature and/or moonlight in a mixed deciduous forest. We radio-collared five females and five males in the Seima Protection Forest, Cambodia, in February to May, 2008 and January to March, 2009 and recorded their behaviour at 5 minutes intervals, totalling 2736 observations. We classified each observation as either inactive (sleeping or alert or active behaviour (travel, feeding, grooming, or others. Moon luminosity (bright/dark and ambient temperature were recorded for each observation. The response variable, activity, was binary (active or inactive, and a logit link function was used. Ambient temperature alone did not significantly affect mean activity. Although mean activity was significantly affected by moonlight, the interaction between moonlight and temperature was also significant: on bright nights, studied animals were increasingly more active with higher temperature; and on dark nights they were consistently active regardless of temperature. The most plausible explanation is that on bright cold nights the combined risk of being seen and attacked by predators and heat loss outweigh the benefit of active behaviours.

  7. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  8. Need Satisfaction Moderates the Association Between Physical Activity and Affective States in Adults Aged 50+: an Activity-Triggered Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Hansen, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence shows that physical activities of daily living are positively correlated with affective states in middle-aged and older adults. However, people's physical activity decreases when they grow older, and conditions that enhance older individuals' physical activities of daily living are not well understood. This study investigated need satisfaction (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and its moderating effect on the within-subject relation between physical activities of daily living and three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, and calmness) based on an ambulatory assessment that used activity-triggered e-diaries. The physical activities of daily living of 68 adults aged 50+ (mean age = 60.1 ± 7.1) were measured objectively for three consecutive days, and need satisfaction and affective states were assessed as a function of the amount of physical activity during the preceding 10 min before the affect measurement (in activity-triggered e-diaries). Hierarchical multilevel analyses were performed. Need satisfaction was significantly and positively correlated with the three dimensions of affective states. Further, physical activities of daily living were significantly associated with energetic arousal and calmness, but not valence. However, when physical activities of daily living were more autonomously regulated, the association of physical activities of daily living and valence became significant and positive. The findings regarding the significant moderating effects of need satisfaction are crucial for interventions aiming to improve the health-enhancing effects of physical activity in adults aged 50+. Positive feelings owing to physical activities in daily living depend on the extent that psychological needs are satisfied.

  9. Positive and Negative Affect During Sexual Activity: Differences Between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-02

    Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.

  10. Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D; Wallace, K; Boreham, N; Shankar, A; Steptoe, A; Hamer, M

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Methods Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each e...

  11. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D.; Wallace, K.; Boreham, N.; Shankar, A.; Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. METHODS: Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening....

  12. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Marquez, David X; Hu, Liang; Jerome, Gerald J; Diener, Ed

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL (satisfaction with life) in older adults over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 174, M age = 66.7 years) completed a battery of psychosocial measures at 1 and 5 years following enrollment in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Panel analysis conducted within a covariance modeling framework indicated that physical activity was related to self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and positive affect at 1 year, and in turn, greater levels of self-efficacy and positive affect were associated with higher levels of QOL. Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over the 4-year period were related to increases in physical self-esteem and positive affect, but only positive affect directly influenced improvements in QOL. The findings lend support to the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term effects on well-being.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  14. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  15. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  16. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunsch K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathrin Wunsch, Nadine Kasten, Reinhard Fuchs Department of Sport Science, Sport Psychology Unit, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Abstract: The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline and T2–T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period. They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students. Keywords: examination stress, exercise, stress-buffering hypothesis

  17. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Kathrin; Kasten, Nadine; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic) stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline) and T2-T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period). They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA) and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students.

  18. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARγ Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARγ2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARγ, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARγ activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARγ activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARγ expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARγ activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARγ expression and activity. PMID:18274630

  19. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta; Mariotto, Sofia; Dal Bosco, Martina; Darra, Elena; Vaiana, Nadia; Shoji, Kazuo; Safwat, Abdel Azeim; Marechal, Jean Didier; Perahia, David; Suzuki, Hisanori; Romeo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins

  20. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  1. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  2. AgRP(83—132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M.J.H.; Hillebrand, J.J.G.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Adan, R.A.H.; Dijk, G. van

    2005-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and

  3. AgRP(83—132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J. G.; Kas, Martien J.H.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A. H.

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and

  4. Article Title: Physical activity in adolescents. Is there scientific evidence of how physical exercise affects sleep in the adolescent population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Reverter-Masia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.

  5. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is

  6. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  7. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water level regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, P.; Niemi, R. M.; Freeman, C.; Peltoniemi, K.; Toberman, H.; Heiskanen, I.; Fritze, H.; Laiho, R.

    2011-02-01

    Peatlands are carbon (C) storage ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL). High WL creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WL drawdown caused by land-use and/or climate change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WL drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine (undrained) to short-term (years) and long-term (decades) WL drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation, i.e., Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees. WL drawdown had a direct and positive effect on microbial activity. Enzyme allocation shifted towards C acquisition, which caused an increase in the rate of decomposition. However, litter type overruled the direct effects of WL drawdown and was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns. Our results imply that changes in plant community composition in response to persistent WL drawdown will strongly affect the C dynamics of peatlands.

  8. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luz (Ana); M. Guèze (Maximilien); J. Paneque-Gálvez (Jaime); J. Pino (Joan); M. MacIá (Manuel); M. Orta-Martínez (Martí); V. Reyes-Garciá (Victoria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife

  9. The Impact of the School-Based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) Program on Conflict-Affected Children in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention…

  10. Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, B; Parker, H E; Rose, E; Larkin, D

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of the effects of physical activity could facilitate or deter future participation. This study explored the differences between gender and motor competence at 14 years of age in the perceptions of likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes. The sample comprised 1582 14-year-old adolescents (769 girls) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Four motor competence groups were formed from a standardized Neuromuscular Developmental Index score (McCarron 1997). Perceptions of the likelihood and the importance of 15 physical activity outcomes were measured by a questionnaire developed for the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey (Booth et al. 1997). Gender (two) × motor competence (four) analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc were conducted on outcome scores (P importance of physical activity outcomes within competition, social friendships and injury domains. Motor competence was significant in the perceived likelihood of physical health (P importance was perceived for academic outcomes for 14 year olds categorized with low compared with high motor competence (P importance. Although level of motor competence at 14 years affected the perceived likelihood of health, social and fun outcomes from future participation in physical activity, adolescents highly valued these outcomes, whereas gender affected competition and winning, outcomes that were less valued. Physical activity that promotes these key and valued outcomes may encourage young people's ongoing involvement in physical activity, especially for those at risk of low participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  12. How Work Positions Affect the Research Activity and Information Behaviour of Laboratory Scientists in the Research Lifecycle: Applying Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…

  13. Lexical activation in bilinguals’ speech production is dynamic: How language ambiguous words can affect cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Ormel, E.A.; Besselaar, R. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1

  14. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR gamma is affected by alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods:

  15. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  16. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  17. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2018-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Montessori-Based Activities for Persons With Dementia:Effects on Engagement and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Gozali, Tsofit

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of activity as an intervention with persons with dementia. Continuity theory serves as a general guide, along with research on leisure in later life and the theory of personhood in dementia, to explain the importance of engaging persons with dementia in activities. Implementing purposeful activities with persons with dementia has been demonstrated to reduce boredom and agitated behavior and to maximize the functional abilities of the individual. The impo...

  19. ICG-001 affects DRP1 activity and ER stress correlative with its anti-proliferative effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zinecker, Heidi; Ouaret, Djamila; Ebner, Daniel; Gaidt, Moritz M.; Taylor, Steve; Aulicino, Anna; Jagielowicz, Marta; Hornung, Veit; Simmons, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria form a highly dynamic network driven by opposing scission and fusion events. DRP1 is an essential modulator of mitochondrial fission and dynamics within mammalian cells. Its fission activity is regulated by posttranslational modifications such as activating phosphorylation at serine 616. DRP1 activity has recently been implicated as being dysregulated in numerous human disorders such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe the development of a cell-based screen...

  20. How youths' profiles of extracurricular and leisure activity affect their social development

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerwein, Markus; Theis, Desiree; Fischer, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on adolescents' social behaviour and academic performance; however, the reciprocal influence of extracurricular activities and leisure on the development of adolescents' academic performance and social behaviour is unclear. In our study, we investigate the effect of school based and out-of-school leisure activities on adolescent's social and scholastic development. We also explore how students' gender, s...

  1. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J; Middleton, Kathryn R; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.

  2. Interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring to investigate the association between physical activity and affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich W. Ebner-Priemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a wealth of evidence that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, a large proportion of people are inactive. Data regarding counts, steps, and movement patterns are limited in their ability to explain why people remain inactive. We propose that multimodal ambulatory monitoring, which combines the assessment of physical activity with the assessment of psychological variables, helps to elucidate real world physical activity. Whereas physical activity can be monitored continuously, psychological variables can only be assessed at discrete intervals, such as every hour. Moreover, the assessment of psychological variables must be linked to the activity of interest. For example, if an inactive and overweight person is physically active once a week, psychological variables should be assessed during this episode. Linking the assessment of psychological variables to episodes of an activity of interest can be achieved with interactive monitoring. The primary aim of our interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring approach was to intentionally increase the number of e-diary assessments during active episodes.We developed and tested an interactive monitoring algorithm that continuously monitors physical activity in everyday life. When predefined thresholds are surpassed, the algorithm triggers a signal for participants to answer questions in their electronic diary.Using data from 70 participants wearing an accelerative device for 24 hours each, we found that our algorithm quadrupled the frequency of e-diary assessments during the activity episodes of interest compared to random sampling. Multimodal interactive ambulatory monitoring appears to be a promising approach to enhancing our understanding of real world physical activity and movement.

  3. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  4. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  5. Natural mediotrusive contact: does it affect the masticatory and neck EMG activity during tooth grinding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Aler D; Martin, Conchita; Bull, Ricardo; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario F; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2016-07-01

    There is scarce knowledge regarding the influence of a natural mediotrusive contact on mandibular and cervical muscular activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the EMG activity of the anterior temporalis (AT) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles during awake grinding in healthy subjects with or without a natural mediotrusive occlusal contact. Fifteen subjects with natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 1) and 15 subjects without natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 2) participated. Bilateral surface EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles was recorded during unilateral eccentric or concentric tooth grinding tasks. EMG activity was normalized against the activity recorded during maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position (IP) for AT muscles and during maximal intentional isometric head-neck rotation to each side, for SCM muscles. EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles showed no statistical difference between groups. EMG activity of AT muscle was higher in the working side (WS) than in the non-WS (NWS) in Group 1 during concentric grinding (0.492 vs 0.331, p = 0.047), whereas no difference was observed in Group 2. EMG activity of SCM was similar between working and NWSs in both groups and tasks. Asymmetry indexes (AIs) were not significantly different between groups. These findings in healthy subjects support the assumption that during awake tooth grinding, central nerve control predominates over peripheral inputs, and reinforce the idea of a functional link between the motor-neuron pools that control jaw and neck muscles.

  6. Awareness of wearing an accelerometer does not affect physical activity in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Vanhelst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate whether awareness of being monitored by an accelerometer has an effect on physical activity in young people. Methods Eighty healthy participants aged 10–18 years were randomized between blinded and nonblinded groups. The blinded participants were informed that we were testing the reliability of a new device for body posture assessment and these participants did not receive any information about physical activity. In contrast, the nonblinded participants were informed that the device was an accelerometer that assessed physical activity levels and patterns. The participants were instructed to wear the accelerometer for 4 consecutive days (2 school days and 2 school-free days. Results Missing data led to the exclusion of 2 participants assigned to the blinded group. When data from the blinded group were compared with these from the nonblinded group, no differences were found in the duration of any of the following items: (i wearing the accelerometer, (ii total physical activity, (iii sedentary activity, and (iv moderate-to-vigorous activity. Conclusions Our study shows that the awareness of wearing an accelerometer has no influence on physical activity patterns in young people. This study improves the understanding of physical activity assessment and underlines the objectivity of this method. Trial registration NCT02844101 (retrospectively registered at July 13th 2016.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  8. Growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes as affected from formaldehyde and methylformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, G; Margariti, N; Kralli, C; Flouri, F

    2000-06-23

    Formaldehyde and methylformate affect the growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes. The presence of both intermediates in the feeding medium caused an increase in biomass yield and productivity and a decrease in the specific rate of methanol consumption. In the presence of formaldehyde, the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase was essentially increased, whereas the activity of methanol oxidase was decreased. On the contrary, the presence of methylformate caused an increase of the activity of methanol oxidase and a decrease of the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. Interpretations concerning the yeast behavior in the presence of intermediate oxidation products were considered and discussed.

  9. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dike, Jude C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and Sout...

  11. Changes In Certain Enzymes Activities In Tribolium CONFUSUM As Affected By Vanillin Or GAMMA Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, S.A.; SHOMAN, A.A.; AHMED, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of 1 or 4 g vanillin/100 g whole wheat flour on the alkaline phosphatase of one day old larvae revealed that the mean enzyme activity was highly significantly increased in male and non-significant in female Triboluim confusum. As pupae were irradiated, the mean enzyme activity was significantly decreased in males and females (except at dose 300 Gy). Alanine transaminase (ALT or GPT) activity was decreased in males due to the effect of 4% vanillin and increased by irradiation while in female, the activity of ALT was increased when the larvae were reared on flour containing 1% or 4% vanillin and increased when pupae were irradiated at all doses used. There was a positive relationship between all treatments and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST or GOT) in both sexes. The activity of AST was increased when the male or female larvae were reared on wheat flour containing 1 or 4 % vanillin and when pupae of males or females were irradiated. The choline esterase enzyme in T. confusum adults of both sexes was inhibited according to the effect of treatments with vanillin or gamma irradiation. Treated larvae with 1 or 4 % vanillin or irradiated as pupae at 300, 600 and 800 Gy led to decrease in the activity of choline esterase enzyme with the same pattern in both sexes.

  12. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Helgadóttir

    Full Text Available Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9. Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  13. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Björg; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity. The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9). Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns. No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts. The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  14. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. PMID:27025242

  15. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Esteve

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Results. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. Conclusions. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  16. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  17. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  18. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, A W; de Gelder, B

    2016-08-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-29

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  20. Regulatory proteins (inhibitors or activators) affect estimates of Msub(r) of enzymes and receptors by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, M.; Giroux, S.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation-inactivation method allows the determination of the Msub(r) of enzymes and receptors by monitoring the decay of biological activity as a function of absorbed dose. The presence of regulatory or effector proteins (inhibitors or activators) associated with an enzyme or receptor, or released in the preparation after tissue homogenization, may affect the decay of biological activity. How the activity is affected, however, will depend on the type of inhibition (competitive or non-competitive), the inhibitor or activator concentration, the dissociation constant of the enzyme-effector system, and the effector Msub(r) relative to that of the enzyme. Since little is known on how effector proteins influence radiation inactivation of enzymes and receptors, we have considered a theoretical model in an effort to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimentally obtained data. Our model predicts that competitive and non-competitive inhibitors of enzymes could be distinguished by analysing irradiated samples with various substrate concentrations. Inhibitors will decrease whereas activators will increase the apparent target size of enzymes or receptors. (author)

  1. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance...... of activation tagging for functional analysis of novel genes involved in plant development....

  2. Analysis of the Retention and Affiliation Factors Affecting the Active and Reserve Naval Nurse Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Messmer, Scott J; Pizanti, Kimberly A

    2007-01-01

    ...) an empirical analysis to analyze characteristics of those who are retained in the active Naval Nurse Corps and those who affiliate with the reserve Naval Nurse Corps using multivariate logit regressions...

  3. Phosphoprotein levels, MAPK activities and NF kappa B expression are affected by fisetin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa, Roberta R. Ruela; Souza Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Santos Souza, Ana Carolina; Gurgueira, Sonia A.; Augusto, Amanda Cavallari; Miranda, Marcio Andre; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids, polyphenolic phytochemicals, are ubiquitous in plants and are commonly present in the human diet. They may exert diverse beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities. The present study was designed to evaluate three biomolecules that play important roles in

  4. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O.; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D.; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H.; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    Introduction In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data

  5. Activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes of bone marrow cells of rats affected by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Grinyuk, Yu.S.; Sibirnaya, N.A.; Starikovich, L.S.; Khmil', M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation (154.8 mC/kg on activity of some carbohydrate metabolism dehydrogenases in cells of the whole and fractionated rat bone marrow has been investigated. Different glucose metabolism units differently responded to radiation, the highest radiation response being exhibited by pentosophosphate cycle processes. The pattern of changes in the enzyme activity of different myelocaryocyte populations was shown to depend directly on the functional specilization of cells and the energy exchange types predominated in them

  6. Modulation of network excitability by persistent activity: how working memory affects the response to incoming stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Tartaglia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity and match effects are widely regarded as neuronal correlates of short-term storage and manipulation of information, with the first serving active maintenance and the latter supporting the comparison between memory contents and incoming sensory information. The mechanistic and functional relationship between these two basic neurophysiological signatures of working memory remains elusive. We propose that match signals are generated as a result of transient changes in local network excitability brought about by persistent activity. Neurons more active will be more excitable, and thus more responsive to external inputs. Accordingly, network responses are jointly determined by the incoming stimulus and the ongoing pattern of persistent activity. Using a spiking model network, we show that this mechanism is able to reproduce most of the experimental phenomenology of match effects as exposed by single-cell recordings during delayed-response tasks. The model provides a unified, parsimonious mechanistic account of the main neuronal correlates of working memory, makes several experimentally testable predictions, and demonstrates a new functional role for persistent activity.

  7. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  8. The reciprocal relationship between daily fatigue and catastrophizing following cancer treatment: Affect and physical activity as potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabiola; Stephenson, Ellen; DeLongis, Anita; Smink, Ans; Van Ginkel, Robert J; Tuinman, Marrit A; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue is a distressing symptom many cancer patients experience even after completion of treatment. Although theory and empirical evidence indicate that negative cognitions perpetuate fatigue after completion of treatment, insight into how this process unfolds in daily life is limited. This study used an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the reciprocal relationship between catastrophizing and fatigue in daily life and whether affective and behavioral processes mediate these relationships. Post-treatment colorectal cancer patients (n = 101) completed daily diaries (14 days, 3 times daily) regarding their fatigue, catastrophizing, positive and negative affect, and physical activity. Multilevel modeling was applied to investigate within-person associations within days. Analyses revealed a positive reciprocal relationship between fatigue and catastrophizing throughout the day. That is, high levels of catastrophizing were associated with increases in fatigue within patients. In turn, but to a lesser extent, high levels of fatigue predicted increases in catastrophizing at the next assessment. Low positive affect and high negative affect mediated the effect of catastrophizing on increases in fatigue. Only negative affect mediated the reverse relationship. Physical activity did not mediate either relationship. This study provides evidence for a mutually reinforcing relationship between catastrophizing and fatigue in daily life, which might explain the perpetuation of fatigue after completion of cancer treatment. Fatigue-specific cognitive behavior therapy could be improved by educating patients about this daily reciprocal relationship, train them to quickly replace catastrophizing thoughts in daily life, and help them to cope with affective changes induced by fatigue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S Moore

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans, depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist

  10. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  11. Lon protease affects the RdxA nitroreductase activity and metronidazole susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, I-Fan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    The lon gene of Helicobacter pylori strains is constitutively expressed during growth. However, virtually nothing is understood concerning the role of Lon in H. pylori. This study examined the function and physiological role of Lon in H. pylori (HpLon) using a trapping approach to identify putative Lon binding partners in the bacterium. Protease-deficient Lon was expressed and served as the bait in trapping approach to capture the interacting partners in H. pylori. The antibiotic susceptibility of wild-type and lon derivative mutants was determined by the E test trips and the disc diffusion assay. The effect of HpLon on RdxA activity was detected the change in NADPH oxidation and metronidazole reduction by spectrophotometer. Lon in Helicobacter pylori (HpLon) interacting partners are mostly associated with metronidazole activation. lon mutant presents more susceptible to metronidazole than that of the wild type, and this phenotype is recovered by complementation of the wild-type Lon. We found that the ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA(+) ) module of HpLon causes a decrease in both NADPH oxidase and Mtz reductase activity in RdxA, a major Mtz-activating enzyme in H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance of H. pylori causes the serious medical problem worldwide. In this study, HpLon is involved in metronidazole susceptibility among H. pylori strains. We provide the evidence that HpLon alters RdxA activity in vitro. The decrease in metronidazole activation caused by HpLon is possibly prior to accumulate mutation in rdxA gene before the metronidazole-resistant strains to be occurred. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  13. Cingulo-opercular activity affects incidental memory encoding for speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention. However, successful memory encoding of items for delayed recognition memory tasks is consistently associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity when perceptual difficulty is minimized. The current study used a delayed recognition memory task to test competing predictions that memory encoding for words is enhanced or limited by the engagement of cingulo-opercular activity during challenging listening conditions. An fMRI experiment was conducted with twenty healthy adult participants who performed a word identification in noise task that was immediately followed by a delayed recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings, word identification trials in the poorer signal-to-noise ratio condition were associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity and poorer recognition memory scores on average. However, cingulo-opercular activity decreased for correctly identified words in noise that were not recognized in the delayed memory test. These results suggest that memory encoding in difficult listening conditions is poorer when elevated cingulo-opercular activity is not sustained. Although increased attention to speech when presented in difficult conditions may detract from more active forms of memory maintenance (e.g., sub-vocal rehearsal), we conclude that task performance monitoring and/or elevated tonic attention supports incidental memory encoding in challenging listening conditions. Copyright © 2017

  14. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum

    1997-01-01

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  15. Polaprezinc reduces paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats without affecting anti-tumor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniaki Tsutsumi; Takanori Kaname; Haruka Shiraishi; Takehiro Kawashiri; Nobuaki Egashira

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of polaprezinc on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Polaprezinc (3 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel (4 mg/kg, i.p., on days 1, 3, 5 and 7) and suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in macrophage migration in dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, polaprezinc did not affect th...

  16. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  17. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  18. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  20. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects activation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ye, Z; Kijlstra, A; Zhou, Y; Yang, P

    2014-08-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known for mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-containing pollutants, but has also been shown to be involved in the natural regulation of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the differentiation, maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. In this study, we showed that AhR activation by FICZ and ITE down-regulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules including human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), CD80 and CD86, while it had no effect on the expression of CD83 and CD40 on DCs derived from BD patients and normal controls. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated dendritic cells (DCs) from active BD patients showed a higher level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. FICZ or ITE significantly inhibited the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α, but induced IL-10 production by DCs derived from active BD patients and normal controls. FICZ or ITE-treated DCs significantly inhibited the T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th1 cell response. Activation of AhR either by FICZ or ITE inhibits DC differentiation, maturation and function. Further studies are needed to investigate whether manipulation of the AhR pathway may be used to treat BD or other autoimmune diseases. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Laborda, F.; Garrido, F.

    2015-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks

  2. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  3. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by mining activities in Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Agudo, Inés; Recio, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waters have a meteoric origin even in samples located near the shore. • Marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers. • Sulfate enrichment was caused by oxidative dissolution of pyrite by ferric iron. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from Portman Bay by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. In addition, surface waters from Sierra Minera were examined for the purpose of determining if these waters are affected by similar processes. The results obtained indicate that Portman Bay waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe 3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred

  5. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Burmas; L. S. Fira; P. H. Lyhackyy

    2016-01-01

    Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin) affection and chromium (p...

  6. Precursor type affecting surface properties and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarubica Aleksandra R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium-hydroxide precursor samples are synthesized from Zr-hydroxide, Zr-nitrate, and Zr-alkoxide, by precipitation/impregnation, as well as by a modified sol-gel method. Precursor samples are further sulphated for the intended SO4 2- content of 4 wt.%, and calcined at 500-700oC. Differences in precursors’ origin and calcination temperature induce the incorporation of SO4 2- groups into ZrO2 matrices by various mechanisms. As a result, different amounts of residual sulphates are coupled with other structural, as well as surface properties, resulting in various catalytic activities of sulphated zirconia samples. Catalyst activity and selectivity are a complex synergistic function of tetragonal phase fraction, sulphates contents, textural and surface characteristics. Superior activity of SZ of alkoxide origin can be explained by a beneficial effect of meso-pores owing to a better accommodation of coke deposits.

  7. Quinolone resistance-associated amino acid substitutions affect enzymatic activity of Mycobacterium leprae DNA gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Quinolones are important antimicrobials for treatment of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although it is well known that mutations in DNA gyrase are responsible for quinolone resistance, the effect of those mutations on the enzymatic activity is yet to be studied in depth. Hence, we conducted in vitro assays to observe supercoiling reactions of wild type and mutated M. leprae DNA gyrases. DNA gyrase with amino acid substitution Ala91Val possessed the highest activity among the mutants. DNA gyrase with Gly89Cys showed the lowest level of activity despite being found in clinical strains, but it supercoiled DNA like the wild type does if applied at a sufficient concentration. In addition, patterns of time-dependent conversion from relaxed circular DNA into supercoiled DNA by DNA gyrases with clinically unreported Asp95Gly and Asp95Asn were observed to be distinct from those by the other DNA gyrases.

  8. How does the duration of active pushing in labor affect neonatal outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli, Branka M; Kro, Grete A Birkeland; Rasmussen, Svein; Khoury, Janette; Norèn, Håkan; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-11-19

    To assess the effect of time of active pushing (TAP) on neonatal outcome. The study population (n=36,432) was taken from a Swedish randomized control trial on intrapartum monitoring, a European Union fetal electrocardiogram trial, and from Mölndal Hospital. After validation of acid-base samples and TAP, 22,812 cases were accepted for analysis. The median active TAP was 36 min for P0 and 13 min for P≥1 (Ppushing for 15-29 min (n=6589) relative to pushing for 12 mmol/L to 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.0). The group with a cord artery pH of 15 min), while the probability of a spontaneous vaginal delivery decreased with the duration of pushing. We suggest active physiological evaluation of the labor progress together with continuous electronic fetal monitoring during pushing irrespective of guideline thresholds.

  9. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  10. Temperature and UV light affect the activity of marine cell-free enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thomson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter in the oceans. These extracellular enzymes exist in two forms: cell-bound, which are attached to the microbial cell wall, and cell-free, which are completely free of the cell. Contrary to previous understanding, cell-free extracellular enzymes make up a substantial proportion of the total marine EEA. Little is known about these abundant cell-free enzymes, including what factors control their activity once they are away from their sites (cells. Experiments were run to assess how cell-free enzymes (excluding microbes respond to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and temperature manipulations, previously suggested as potential control factors for these enzymes. The experiments were done with New Zealand coastal waters and the enzymes studied were alkaline phosphatase (APase, β-glucosidase, (BGase, and leucine aminopeptidase (LAPase. Environmentally relevant UVR (i.e. in situ UVR levels measured at our site reduced cell-free enzyme activities by up to 87 % when compared to controls, likely a consequence of photodegradation. This effect of UVR on cell-free enzymes differed depending on the UVR fraction. Ambient levels of UV radiation were shown to reduce the activity of cell-free enzymes for the first time. Elevated temperatures (15 °C increased the activity of cell-free enzymes by up to 53 % when compared to controls (10 °C, likely by enhancing the catalytic activity of the enzymes. Our results suggest the importance of both UVR and temperature as control mechanisms for cell-free enzymes. Given the projected warming ocean environment and the variable UVR light regime, it is possible that there could be major changes in the cell-free EEA and in the enzymes contribution to organic matter remineralization in the future.

  11. Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Serum Proteins Affects Their Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  12. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping

    2010-05-01

    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  13. Cesium 137 body activity in a group of children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.; Lopez, G.; Arado, O.; Jova, L.; Corripio, A.

    1994-01-01

    The implementation and calibration of two whole body counters for determination of Cs-137 body burden of children is describe. The results of measurements of 4506 children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident of the Republics of Ukrainian, Russian and Belaruss, and who received medical attention in Cuba is presented. Installations, equipment and calibration phantoms used are described. The values of measured activity is relationed whit the place of origin groups of age and the form of feeding. The measured activity values range from 1,5 to 565 Bq/kg, and have a long-normal character for each region

  14. Design criteria applicable to the environmental restoration of sites affected by uranium mining activities in the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneras, P.; Sanchez, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the basic aspects to be considered while evaluating different alternatives to perform environmental restoration of sites affected by naturally occurring radionuclides, enhanced by human actions, as is the case in some old uranium mining activities. The discussion is confined to sites where radiation hazards had existed forever (sites with uranium deposits) and where the mining activities have introduced several factors modifying the initial situation, leading to the now existing one, requiring intervention as decided by the relevant authorities, in accordance with recommendations of ICRP60

  15. Design criteria applicable to the environmental restoration of sites affected by uranium mining activities in the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneras, P. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, M. [INITEC, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the authors discuss the basic aspects to be considered while evaluating different alternatives to perform environmental restoration of sites affected by naturally occurring radionuclides, enhanced by human actions, as is the case in some old uranium mining activities. The discussion is confined to sites where radiation hazards had existed forever (sites with uranium deposits) and where the mining activities have introduced several factors modifying the initial situation, leading to the now existing one, requiring intervention as decided by the relevant authorities, in accordance with recommendations of ICRP60.

  16. Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diana; Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2016-11-23

    Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.

  17. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  18. Parameters affecting the degradation of benzothiazoles and benzimidazoles in activated sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, D de [Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Industrial Microbiology and Biochemistry; Wever, H de [Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Industrial Microbiology and Biochemistry; Verachtert, H [Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Industrial Microbiology and Biochemistry

    1993-07-01

    It was found that benzothiazole, 2-oxybenzothiazole and 2-benzothiazolesulphonate were degraded in activated sludge systems. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was more resistant, although the first step in MBT degradation seemed to be transformation to the sulphonate form. At higher MBT concentrations, it was transformed into a disulphide, which accumulated in the sludge. MBT was also found to be mainly responsible for the toxicity of rubber chemical waste-water towards activated sludges. It inhibited the degradation of the other heterocycles. Only at concentrations of around 20 ppm was MBT degraded. Mercaptobenzimidazole ranked second in resistance to degradation. (orig.)

  19. Preregistered Replication of "Affective Flexibility: Evaluative Processing Goals Shape Amygdala Activity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumian, Daniel S; McRae, Kateri

    2017-09-01

    The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only. We observed an interaction between condition and rating type, identified as the effect of interest in Cunningham et al. (2008). Specifically, postscan positivity, but not negativity, ratings predicted left amygdala activation when participants were asked to evaluate positive, but not negative, associations with the names. These results provide convergent evidence that cognitive framing, in the form of evaluative goals, can significantly alter whether amygdala activation indexes positivity or negativity.

  20. Activated carbon addition affects substrate pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.; Dam, van M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with

  1. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with

  2. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  3. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  4. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...

  5. BDNF val(66)met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; van der Wee, N. J. A.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Spinhoven, P.; Elzinga, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life

  6. Some aspects of socio-economic activities that affect biodiversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the socio-economic activities of man along the coastal wetlands of Lagos State with a view of assessing the resultant effect on the Biodiversity of the area. For the benefit of this study, the area was divided into three zones. The procedures adopted were preliminary interview, market survey and structural ...

  7. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Sevcikova, Anna; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed

  8. Match score affects activity profile and skill performance in professional Australian Football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-05-01

    To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: 19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all pProfessional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Trivalent Chromium Ions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Rubber Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia E. Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic gains are generally the outcome of industrialization and consequently urbanization. However, positive fiscal index generates a negative impact on natural environment sources heaving pollutant burden on soil, air and water. Industries throw tones of contaminated water into soil and water bodies without proper treatment and create a potential threat for both living and non-living species. Chromium in trivalent state (Cr3+ is added in water bodies and soil through waste water from tanneries, cooling water systems, chemical and pulp and paper industries. The present research work aims at the preparation of an inexpensive activated carbon prepared from non- degradable waste scrap rubber tyres. The carbon produced from scrap rubber tyres was activated by 5% solution of BaCl2 and 0.4 N solution of HCl and verified by ethylene blue solution. The adsorption capacity of the Tyre activated carbon (TAC was investigated for different parameters i.e., initial chromium (III ion concentration, activated carbon dosage, contact/ stirring time and pH. The adsorption capacity of TAC depends on the initial metal ion concentration and the TAC dose. pH of the chromium solution effects the adsorption capacity of TAC due to the formation of tetra hydroxochromate(III complexes,. The results show that TAC offers a cost effective reclamation process for the removal of Cr3+ from effluent waters.

  10. RCRA and CERCLA requirements affecting cleanup activities at a federal facility superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) achieved success on an integrated groundwater monitoring program which addressed both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. The integrated plan resulted in a cost savings of approximately $2.6 million. At present, the FEMP is also working on an integrated closure process to address Hazardous Waste Management Units (HWMUs) at the site. To date, Ohio EPA seems willing to discuss an integrated program with some stipulations. If an integrated program is implemented, a cost savings of several million dollars will be realized since the CERCLA documents can be used in place of a RCRA closure plan. The success of an integrated program at the FEMP is impossible without the support of DOE and the regulators. Since DOE is an owner/operator of the facility and Ohio EPA regulates hazardous waste management activities at the FEMP, both parties must be satisfied with the proposed integration activities. Similarly, US EPA retains CERCLA authority over the site along with a signed consent agreement with DOE, which dictates the schedule of the CERCLA activities. Another federal facility used RCRA closure plans to satisfy CERCLA activities. This federal facility was in a different US EPA Region than the FEMP. While this approach was successful for this site, an integrated approach was required at the FEMP because of the signed Consent Agreement and Consent Decree. For federal facilities which have a large number of HWMUs along with OUs, an integrated approach may result in a timely and cost-effective cleanup

  11. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  12. Does oxidative stress affect the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Joanna; Kedzierska, Karolina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Mazur, Olech; Staniewicz, Zdzisław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) takes place in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Oxidative stress causes disorders in the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE). Studies on NHE in CRF produced results that are discrepant and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that oxidative stress had an effect on the activity of NHE. We enrolled 87 subjects divided into 4 groups: patients with CRF treated conservatively; patients with CRF hemodialyzed without glucose--HD-g(-); patients with CRF hemodialyzed with glucose--HD-g(+); controls (C). The activity of NHE, the rate of proton efflux V(max), Michaelis constant (Km), and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an indicator of oxidative stress) in plasma, as well as the concentration of reduced glutathione in blood were determined. The concentration of TBARS was significantly higher in hemodialyzed patients before and after dialysis and in patients with CRF on conservative treatment in comparison with group C. TBARS in plasma correlated negatively with VpH(i)6.4 in group C and with V(max) and VpH(i)6.4 after HD in group HD-g(-). We found that the concentration of creatinine correlated with TBARS (p < 0.0001; r = +0.51) in the conservatively treated group. We observed a marked oxidative stress and decreased NHE activity when dialysis was done without glucose, whereas patients dialyzed with glucose demonstrated a relatively low intensity of oxidative stress.

  13. Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Liu, Xiwen; Dong, Sihao; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-03-01

    The Asian hive bee Apis cerana has similar queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) to the Western honey bee Apismellifera. However the effects of individual QMP components have never been tested to determine their effects on the reproductive physiology of A. cerana workers. We fed one queen equivalent of each of the major components of A. cerana QMP to groups of c.a. 500 day-old, caged, workers twice a day until the workers were 10 days old. Half of the cages were also provided with 10% royal jelly in the food. Workers were sampled each day and dissected to determine the number of ovarioles and the degree of ovary activation (egg development). In cages treated with 9-carbon fatty acids ovary activation was minimal, whereas the 10-carbon acids suppressed ovary activation very little. Royal jelly enhanced ovary activation, especially in cages treated with 10-carbon acids. The number of ovarioles declined with bee age, but the rate of decline was slowed by the 9-carbon acids in particular. The results show conservation of the composition and function of QMP between A. cerana and A. mellifera and support the hypothesis that QMP is an honest signal of queen fecundity rather than a chemical castrator of workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and disability affect the risk of serious infection events in RADIUS 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Arthur; Troum, Orrin; Hooper, Michele; Koenig, Andrew S; Chaudhari, Sandeep; Feng, Jingyuan; Wenkert, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether disease activity and disability independently correlate with serious infection event (SIE) risk in a large rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. The associations between SIE and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Intervention and Utilization Study (RADIUS 1) cohort were evaluated using the Andersen-Gill model (a proportional HR model allowing > 1 event per patient). Of 4084 patients with 347 SIE, 271 patients experienced ≥ 1 SIE. A 5-unit CDAI increase and 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase corresponded to an increase in SIE risk with and without covariate adjustments. A 5-unit CDAI increase corresponded with a 7.7% increased SIE risk (adjusted HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.044-1.112, p < 0.0001) and a 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase with a 30.1% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 1.225-1.381, p < 0.0001). Categorical analysis showed that more severe RA activity (even after controlling for disability) and disability were associated with an increased SIE risk. Increased RA disease activity and disability were each associated with a significantly increased SIE risk in the RADIUS 1 cohort, which could not be completely accounted for by disability.

  15. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  16. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  17. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senaratna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red light (RL marked higher weight gain (WG and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux, T2 = medium intensity (20 lux; T3 = dim intensity (5 lux, T4 = control/white light at (20 lux provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05 highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99 was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56 and FCR (1.34 were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05 influence giving the highest (56.2 g and the lowest (12.6 g values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05 higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1% was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2% was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI (4.87%±4% was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05 affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05 affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  18. Characterization of the activities of actin-affecting drugs on tumor cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayot, Caroline; Debeir, Olivier; Ham, Philippe van; Damme, Marc van; Kiss, Robert; Decaestecker, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Metastases kill 90% of cancer patients. It is thus a major challenge in cancer therapy to inhibit the spreading of tumor cells from primary tumor sites to those particular organs where metastases are likely to occur. Whereas the actin cytoskeleton is a key component involved in cell migration, agents targeting actin dynamics have been relatively poorly investigated. Consequently, valuable in vitro pharmacological tools are needed to selectively identify this type of agent. In response to the absence of any standardized process, the present work aims to develop a multi-assay strategy for screening actin-affecting drugs with anti-migratory potentials. To validate our approach, we used two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) and three actin-affecting drugs (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, and jasplakinolide). We quantified the effects of these drugs on the kinetics of actin polymerization in tubes (by means of spectrofluorimetry) and on the dynamics of actin cytoskeletons within whole cells (by means of fluorescence microscopy). Using quantitative videomicroscopy, we investigated the actual effects of the drugs on cell motility. Finally, the combined drug effects on cell motility and cell growth were evaluated by means of a scratch-wound assay. While our results showed concordant drug-induced effects on actin polymerization occurring in vitro in test tubes and within whole cells, the whole cell assay appeared more sensitive than the tube assay. The inhibition of actin polymerization induced by cytochalasin D was paralleled by a decrease in cell motility for both cell types. In the case of jasplakinolide, which induces actin polymerization, while it significantly enhanced the locomotion of the A549 cells, it significantly inhibited that of the MCF-7 ones. All these effects were confirmed by means of the scratch-wound assay except of the jasplakinolide-induced effects on MCF-7 cell motility. These later seemed compensated by an additional effect occurring during wound

  19. Does unconscious information affect cognitive activity?: a study using experimental priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Margarita G

    2011-05-01

    In a series of three experiments the influence that information unrecognised by the subjects has on the effectiveness of occurring cognitive activity is studied. With this aim 3 types of stimulus were compared which for one reason or another were not afforded sufficient attention, namely: unconscious meanings of polysemantic information, stimuli presented at the subliminal level, and intentionally ignored distractors. All the listed types of stimuli are united in that the subjects were not able to give an account of them, i.e., these stimuli were not processed attentively. It is assumed that each of the types of stimuli studied is in actuality perceived, which can be judged by the impact they have on occurring cognitive activity. The purpose of the present research is the comparison of this impact: apart from the determination of the impact of unperceived stimuli on the information directly associated with them (priming-effect registration), also identified is the presence/absence of an overall interference effect rendered by the unperceived stimuli on the performance of occurring cognitive activity. To this end, each experiment had a control condition the aim of which was the creation of the possibility for the subjects to perceive stimuli unnoticed under experimental conditions. An experimental priming paradigm was used in combination with image-classification and lexical-decision tasks. The results of the experiments conducted demonstrate that all types of stimuli 'slipping the attention' are assimilated, but their effect on occurring cognitive activity is varied. Thus, subliminally presented information aids, and distractors, on the contrary, hinder the solution of tasks associated with them, whereas unperceived meanings of polysemantic information hinder not only the solution of the tasks directly associated with them, but also the performance of any other cognitive activity for which they serve as a context. The effect of subliminal stimuli on occurring

  20. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  1. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, P.; Niemi, R. M.; Freeman, C.; Peltoniemi, K.; Toberman, H.; Heiskanen, I.; Fritze, H.; Laiho, R.

    2011-09-01

    Peatlands are carbon (C) storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT). High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years). We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years) and long-term (decades) WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen). The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees. Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition). Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period) summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P and N acquisition towards C

  2. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G

    1998-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. 1.6.2.4) NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. 2.3.1.21) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. 1.1.1.42) isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. 1.1.1.49) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  3. How active resisters and organizational constipators affect health care-acquired infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Kowalski, Christine P; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Forman, Jane; Damschroder, Laura; Krein, Sarah L

    2009-05-01

    As of October 2008, hospitals in the United States no longer receive Medicare reimbursement for certain types of health care-associated infection (HAI), thereby heightening the need for effective prevention efforts. The mere existence of evidence-based practices, however, does not always result in the use of such practices because of the complexities inherent in translating evidence into practice. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the barriers to implementing evidence-based practices to prevent HAI, with a specific focus on the role played by hospital personnel. In-depth phone and in-person interviews were conducted between October 2006 and September 2007 with 86 participants (31 physicians) including chief executive officers, chiefs of staff, hospital epidemiologists, infection control professionals, intensive care unit directors, nurse managers, and frontline physicians and nurses, in 14 hospitals. Active resistance to evidence-based practice change was pervasive. Successful efforts to overcome active resisters included benchmarking infection rates, identifying effective champions, and participating in collaborative efforts. Organizational constipators-mid- to high-level executives who act as insidious barriers to change-also increased the difficulty in implementing change. Recognizing the presence of constipators is often the first step in addressing the problem but can be followed with including the organizational constipator early in group discussions to improve communication and obtain buy-in, working around the individual, and terminating the constipator's employment. Two types of personnel-active resistors and organizational constipators-impeded HAI prevention activities, and several approaches were used to overcome those barriers. Hospital administrators and patient safety leaders can use the findings to more successfully structure activities that prevent HAI in their hospitals.

  4. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum [APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  6. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  7. Does a foreign subsidiary’s network status affect its innovation activity? Evidence from postsocialist economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Rojec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire survey among 809 foreign subsidiaries in five post-socialist economies (East Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Croatia is used to study determinants of innovation activity of foreign subsidiaries. Findings demonstrate that foreign subsidiaries are relatively independent as far as innovation activity is concerned, while at the same time subsidiaries with better access to foreign parent companies R&D results are more likely to innovate. Important differences are found in factors that determine product and process innovation: subsidiaries that invest more in R&D exhibit higher probability for product but not for process innovation; transfer of responsibilities from headquarters to subsidiaries is conducive to process innovation; market-seeking motivation of foreign investors has a negative impact on product innovation status.

  8. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  9. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - how break activity affects effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sammonds, GM; Mansfield, NJ; Fray, M

    2017-01-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmi...

  11. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  12. Nitrate reductase activity of Staphylococcus carnosus affecting the color formation in cured raw ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the nitrate reductase activity of two Staphylococcus carnosus strains used as starter cultures on the formation of nitrate, nitrite and color pigments in cured raw ham was investigated. In this context, microbiological, chemical and multivariate image analyses were carried out on cured raw hams, which were injected with different brines containing either nitrite or nitrate, with or without the S. carnosus starter cultures. During processing and storage, the viable counts of staphylococci remained constant at 6.5logcfu/g in the hams inoculated with starter cultures, while the background microbiota of the hams processed without the starter cultures developed after 14days. Those cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 7036 (high nitrate reductase activity) showed the highest decrease in nitrate and high nitrite concentrations in the end product, but were still in the range of the legal European level. The hams cured with nitrate and without starter culture or with the other strain, S. carnosus LTH 3838 (low nitrate reductase activity) showed higher residual nitrate levels and a lower nitrite content in the end product. The multivariate image analysis identified spatial and temporal differences in the meat pigment profiles of the differently cured hams. The cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 3838 showed an uncured core due to a delay in pigment formation. Therefore, the selection of starter cultures based on their nitrate reductase activity is a key point in the formation of curing compounds and color pigments in cured raw ham manufacture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dominant trees affect microbial community composition and activity in post-mining afforested soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Dobiášová, Petra; Urbanová, Michaela; Petránková, Mirka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 105-115 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10064; GA ČR GAP504/12/1288; GA MŠk 2B08023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Enzyme activity * Litter * Microbial biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2013

  14. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carment, Lo?c; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie; Lindberg, P?vel G; Bleton, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundFocal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues.MethodsNeck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-match...

  15. Factors affecting walking activity of older people from culturally diverse groups: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    OpenAIRE

    Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Kanai, Etsuko; Funakura, Masami; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fat...

  17. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jake E; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  18. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  19. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  20. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  1. Does mothers' employment affect adolescents' weight and activity levels? Improving our empirical estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A. Martin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s lives are marked by complex work and family routines — routines that have implications for their children’s health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children’s weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers’ work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents’ weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers’ social selection in to different work arrangements and children’s underlying preferences. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 10,518, we find that changes in mothers’ work arrangements are not significantly associated with adolescents’ weight gain or physical activity but are significantly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Adolescents’ sedentary behavior declines when mothers become more available after school and increases when mothers work more hours or become unemployed. In sum, after accounting for unobserved, stable traits, including mothers’ selection into jobs with more or less flexibility, mothers’ work arrangements are most strongly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Keywords: Obesity, Physical activity, Sedentary behavior, Adolescence, Maternal employment, Work arrangements

  2. Water diffusion closely reveals neural activity status in rat brain loci affected by anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Abe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI. Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs, especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status. Electrical stimulation of the central medial thalamus nucleus (CM exhibiting this anesthesia-induced ADC increase led the animals to transiently wake up. Infusion in the CM of furosemide, a specific neuronal swelling blocker, led the ADC to increase further locally, although LFP activity remained unchanged, and increased the current threshold awakening the animals under CM electrical stimulation. Oppositely, induction of cell swelling in the CM through infusion of a hypotonic solution (-80 milliosmole [mOsm] artificial cerebrospinal fluid [aCSF] led to a local ADC decrease and a lower current threshold to wake up the animals. Strikingly, the local ADC changes produced by blocking or enhancing cell swelling in the CM were also mirrored remotely in areas functionally connected to the CM, such as the cingulate and somatosensory cortex. Together, those results strongly suggest that neuronal swelling is a significant mechanism underlying DfMRI.

  3. Loss of Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack and FMRP Differentially Affect Social Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E; Ehinger, Rebekka; Straubinger, Julia; Zerfass, Patrick; Nann, Yvette; Lukowski, Robert

    2018-05-31

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Slo2.2) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it is supposed to shape firing properties important for neuronal excitability. Slack activity is enhanced by interaction with the Fragile-X-Mental-Retardation-Protein (FMRP) and loss of FMRP leads to decreased sodium-activated potassium currents in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body neurons of the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse representing a mouse model of the human Fragile-X-Syndrome (FXS) and autism. Autism is a frequent comorbidity of FXS, but it is unclear whether Slack is involved in autistic or related conditions of FXS in vivo. By applying a wide range of behavioral tests, we compared social and autism-related behaviors in Slack- and FMRP-deficient mice. In our hands, as expected, FMRP-deficiency causes autism-related behavioral changes in nesting and in a marble-burying test. In contrast, Slack-deficient males exhibited specific abnormalities in sociability in direct and indirect social interaction tests. Hence, we show for the first time that a proper Slack channel function is mandatory for normal social behavior in mice. Nevertheless, as deficits in social behaviors seem to occur independently from each other in FMRP and Slack null mutants, we conclude that Slack is not involved in the autistic phenotype of FMRP KO mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-hospital physical activity status affects in-hospital course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takamichi; Obayashi, Tohru; Hattori, Eijirou; Yamauchi, Yasuteru; Niwa, Akihiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2010-03-01

    The clinical course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can sometimes unexpectedly result in an adverse outcome even when therapy appears to be successful. We suspect that specific factors may characterize this worsening of status during hospitalization. This study examines whether the pre-hospital physical activity status of the elderly treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI affects their in-hospital course. We studied 110 consecutive patients, aged 80 or older, who had undergone emergent PCI for AMI. Patients were divided into two groups based on clinical presentation: Better Killip class (Killip classes I and II) and Worse Killip class (Killip classes III and IV). Patients were also divided into two groups based on pre-hospital physical activity status, determined retrospectively by review of medical records: Good physical activity (n=57) comprising those able to go out alone independently and Poor physical activity comprising those mainly confined to home (n=53). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9.1% for the study population. The Worse Killip class group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Better Killip class group (27.8% vs 5.4%, respectively; p=0.0102). In addition, the Poor physical activity group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Good physical activity group (15.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively; p=0.047). These data suggest that pre-hospital physical activity status in elderly patients with AMI may affect in-hospital mortality as well as Killip class.

  5. Factors affecting student participation in extra-curricular activities: A comparison between two Middle Eastern dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Asim; Al-Harbi, Fahad; AbdelAziz, Wafaa; AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha M; ElRefae, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of participation of dental undergraduate students in extracurricular activities (ECAs) and the factors affecting this participation. The study included dental students enrolled in undergraduate programs at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, and the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed to collect background information about students, their participation in ECAs, and time allocated for these activities. Students were asked about their perceptions of the relationship between ECAs and academic studies, and their reasons for participating in and satisfaction with ECAs. The study included 199 students from Alexandria and 146 students from Dammam, with response rates of 99.5% and 73%, respectively. The percentages of those reporting ECA participation were 27.1% and 43.8%, respectively, mostly in community service, sports, and social activities. About 60% of students did not think that ECAs affected their studies, although the perceived difficulty of balancing ECAs and academics was associated with lower odds of participation (odds ratio = 0.51). Most students participated in ECAs to socialize and make friends, and the majority was dissatisfied with school-organized ECAs (52% and 59%, respectively). Gender and/or perceived relation between ECAs and academic studies affected actual participation in ECAs in one school but not the other. ECA participation among these students was low. Gender and perception of ECAs in relation to academic studies affected ECA participation differently in the two schools. Better planning and management of ECAs that incorporate students' preferences and reasons for participation is needed. Gender issues and the relationship between ECAs and academic performance should be addressed in relation to school and social characteristics.

  6. Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs that Affect Their Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Stanišić Stojić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of teachers’ ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum University information system, and then analysed with SPSS statistical software. The parameters considered as potentially affecting teacher ratings are: number of teachers engaged in a particular course, total number of courses in which the teacher is engaged, teacher’s gender and age, total number of the available resources, and so forth. The results imply that scores assigned to individual teachers are consistent in both traditional and distance learning programs. The average rate was perceived to be lower when there were several teachers in a single course; such an effect was enhanced in cases where there was a significant age discrepancy among them. The other factors considered did not show a significant association with teacher ratings. Students’ main remarks about the work of the teachers have been summarised at the end of this paper. Possible explanations and implications of the results are discussed and recommendations are given.

  7. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; Murphy, Enda E; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  8. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Shen

    Full Text Available Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L. field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition. The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological

  9. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monedero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses.Participants (N = 23 were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX, (ii moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX, (iii entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG and (iv fitness-themed video game (FT-VG. Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial.All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9% and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05. No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively. The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05 and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05.AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  10. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  11. Previous motor activity affects the transition from uncertainty to decision making in snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, Tatiana A; Vorontsov, Dmitry D; Dyakonova, Varvara E

    2016-11-15

    One of the most widely accepted benefits of enhanced physical activity is an improvement in the symptoms of depression, including the facilitation of decision making. Up until now, these effects have been shown in rodents and humans only. Little is known about their evolutionary origin or biological basis, and the underlying cellular mechanisms also remain relatively elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that preceding motor activity accelerates decision making in an invertebrate, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis To investigate decision making in a novel environment, snails, which normally live in water, were placed on a flat dry surface to simulate the potentially threatening consequence of being in an arid environment. This stimulus initiated two distinct phases in snail behaviour: slow circular movements, followed by intense locomotion in a chosen direction. The first phase was prolonged when the test arena was symmetrically lit, compared with one with an apparent gradient of light. However, forced muscular locomotion for 2 h prior to the test promoted the transition from random circular motions to a directional crawl, accompanied by an increase in crawling speed but with no effect on the choice of direction. Intense locomotion for 2 h also produced a strong excitatory effect on the activity of serotonergic neurons in L. stagnalis Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive performance in mammals might have deep roots in evolution, granting the opportunity to unravel the origins of such effects at the single-neuron and network levels. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah Galen

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through...... prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training, and suggest that optimal application of MT may differ depending...

  13. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  14. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...

  15. Primary care nursing activities with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Ariane; Hudon, Catherine; Poitras, Marie-Eve; Roberge, Pasquale; Chouinard, Maud-Christine

    2017-05-01

    To describe nursing activities in primary care with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Patients in primary care who are affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression require care and follow-up based on their physical and mental health condition. Primary care nurses are increasingly expected to contribute to the care and follow-up of this growing clientele. However, little is known about the actual activities carried out by primary care nurses in providing this service in the Province of Quebec (Canada). A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were obtained through semistructured individual interviews with 13 nurses practising among patients with physical chronic disease in seven Family Medicine Groups in Quebec (Canada). Participants described five activity domains: assessment of physical and mental health condition, care planning, interprofessional collaboration, therapeutic relationship and health promotion. The full potential of primary care nurses is not always exploited, and some activities could be improved. Evidence for including nurses in collaborative care for patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders has been shown but is not fully implemented in Family Medicine Groups. Future research should emphasise collaboration among mental health professionals, primary care nurses and family physicians in the care of patients with physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Primary care nurses would benefit from gaining more knowledge about common mental disorders and from identifying the resources they need to contribute to managing them in an interdisciplinary team. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neural activity during affect labeling predicts expressive writing effects on well-being: GLM and SVM approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Torre, Jared B; Haltom, Kate E; Stanton, Annette L; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2017-09-01

    Affect labeling (putting feelings into words) is a form of incidental emotion regulation that could underpin some benefits of expressive writing (i.e. writing about negative experiences). Here, we show that neural responses during affect labeling predicted changes in psychological and physical well-being outcome measures 3 months later. Furthermore, neural activity of specific frontal regions and amygdala predicted those outcomes as a function of expressive writing. Using supervised learning (support vector machines regression), improvements in four measures of psychological and physical health (physical symptoms, depression, anxiety and life satisfaction) after an expressive writing intervention were predicted with an average of 0.85% prediction error [root mean square error (RMSE) %]. The predictions were significantly more accurate with machine learning than with the conventional generalized linear model method (average RMSE: 1.3%). Consistent with affect labeling research, right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC) and amygdalae were top predictors of improvement in the four outcomes. Moreover, RVLPFC and left amygdala predicted benefits due to expressive writing in satisfaction with life and depression outcome measures, respectively. This study demonstrates the substantial merit of supervised machine learning for real-world outcome prediction in social and affective neuroscience. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - How break activity affects effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, George M; Mansfield, Neil J; Fray, Mike

    2017-11-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken. Remaining seated in the vehicle provided some improvement in comfort, but more was experienced after leaving the simulator and sitting in an adjacent room. The most effective break occurred when the driver walked for 10 min on a treadmill. The benefits from taking a break continued until the end of the study (after a further hour of driving), such that comfort remained the best after taking a walk and worst for those who remained seated. It is concluded that taking a break and taking a walk is an effective method for relieving driving discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observations of inertial oscillations affected by mesoscale activity in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, B.; Hormazábal, S.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Cisneros-Aguirre, J.; Martínez-Marrero, A.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of surface drifters launched over the continental slope of Portugal (Bay of Setúbal) are analyzed with the Rotary Wavelet Spectrum Method to study the contribution of mesoscale activity to near-inertial variability. Drifter data used here are part of the MREA04 (Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment 2004) sea trial carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) off the west coast of Portugal. Altimetry data from AVISO on a 1/3° Mercator grid are used to compute vertical relative vorticity (ζ) maps and track near-inertial variability along the drifter records. Subsequently, the local Coriolis (f) and effective Coriolis (feff = f + 1/2ζ) frequencies are estimated for every drifter position. In this work we take a special interest in the area of Cape St. Vicent where a remarkable blue shift of near-inertial oscillations is observed in association with a cyclonic eddy migrating northward along the Portuguese coast. Results of the Rotary Wavelet Method highlight the consistency of near-inertial variability observed in the drifter records with the subinertial geostrophic activity computed with altimetry data.

  19. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition 'and' extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS- comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Does mothers' employment affect adolescents' weight and activity levels? Improving our empirical estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M; Chandler, Kelly D; Lemmon, Megan

    2018-04-01

    Women's lives are marked by complex work and family routines - routines that have implications for their children's health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children's weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers' work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents' weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers' social selection in to different work arrangements and children's underlying preferences. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health ( N = 10,518), we find that changes in mothers' work arrangements are not significantly associated with adolescents' weight gain or physical activity but are significantly associated with adolescents' sedentary behavior. Adolescents' sedentary behavior declines when mothers become more available after school and increases when mothers work more hours or become unemployed. In sum, after accounting for unobserved, stable traits, including mothers' selection into jobs with more or less flexibility, mothers' work arrangements are most strongly associated with adolescents' sedentary behavior.

  1. Innovative development and factors affecting the innovative activity of industrial enterprises in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirova Asya Olegova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovations are a necessity, innovations are a factor, innovations are the moving force of the companies in the 21st century. Every modern manager should recognize the role of innovations for the existence of the enterprises and to aim at innovative development. The novelties in various areas are to be followed up. It is necessary to look for the options and to overcome the obstacles standing in the way of innovations. The major objective of this article is to establish the state of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in Bulgaria and to identify the factors exercising the largest influence on their innovative development. The major results to be achieved are the establishment of the basic internal and external factors that support innovations, the deduction of the major problems occurring during the innovation process and the establishment of some directives to activation. The major methods of study used in this work are statistical methods for evaluation, method of analysis and synthesis, method of comparison. Information of literature sources has been studied and systematized within the process of research, as well as analytical reports of Bulgaria and the European Union, and results from an inquiry held are used, as well as statistical data of the National Statistical Institute of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  2. A High-Content Assay for Biosensor Validation and for Examining Stimuli that Affect Biosensor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Scott D; Hahn, Klaus M

    2014-12-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor's maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. We describe here a method for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays, allows visual inspection (e.g., for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single-chain and dual-chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for effects of upstream molecules. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Compartmentalized Epidermal Activation of β-Catenin Differentially Affects Lineage Reprogramming and Underlies Tumor Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kretzschmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult epidermis can induce new hair follicle formation and tumor development. We used lineage tracing to uncover the relative contribution of different stem cell populations. LGR6+ and LRIG1+ stem cells contributed to ectopic hair follicles formed in the sebaceous gland upon β-catenin activation, whereas LGR5+ cells did not. Lgr6, but not Lrig1 or Lgr5, was expressed in a subpopulation of interfollicular epidermal cells that were competent to form new hair follicles. Oncogenic β-catenin expression in LGR5+ cells led to formation of pilomatricomas, while LRIG1+ cells formed trichoadenomas and LGR6+ cells formed dermatofibromas. Tumor formation was always accompanied by a local increase in dermal fibroblast density and transient extracellular matrix remodeling. However, each tumor had a distinct stromal signature in terms of immune cell infiltrate and expression of CD26 and CD44. We conclude that compartmentalization of epidermal stem cells underlies different responses to β-catenin and skin tumor heterogeneity.

  4. Factors Affecting the Structural Features of Dairy Farming Organizations in Yalova: Determining the Breeding Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip BAKIR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been performed to determine dairy farms’ breeders’ social conditions, presence of animals, care, milk production, happiness with animal farming, problems and situation of being organized in Yalova. The data that obtained from 324 randomly chosen dairy farms around the city by the means of the survey comprised the material of research. The obtained data has been analyzed in SPSS package program by taking animal numbers, age and educational background of breeders as factors affecting the structural condition of farm. In the analysis of race distribution it was determined that breeders having primary education preferred to use crossbred animals, whereas breeders having secondary, high school and higher education tended to use culture breeds. For determining the heat in animals, breeders who have primary school education take bellowing and mounting of animals into consideration. All breeders at any education level considered the 15-18 months of age as age at fist insemination for heifers. As the age of breeders increased, contrary to education level, the ratio for 15-18 month age criterion decreased. In the farms producing less than 10 kg milk the ratio of farmers having primary school education is 68.9%. This ratio is 8.5% for high school and higher graduates. 61.2% of breeders who have middle school education level obtain 11-20 kg milk yield in their farms. While 48.6% of breeders who have less than 5 animals obtain 10 kg milk yield, as the number of animals rises, this rate declined to 23.1%. In the farms having less than 5 animals the proportion of obtaining 10-21 kg milk yield is 48.4%. As the animals numbers increased this proportion increased up to 63.5%.

  5. Shear-driven redistribution of surfactant affects enzyme activity in well-mixed femtoliter droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Jung, Seung-Yong; Collier, C Patrick

    2009-06-15

    We developed a microfluidic platform for splitting well-mixed, femtoliter-volume droplets from larger water-in-oil plugs, where the sizes of the daughter droplets were not limited by channel width. These droplets were separated from mother plugs at a microfabricated T-junction, which enabled the study of how increased confinement affected enzyme kinetics in droplets 4-10 microm in diameter. Initial rates for enzyme catalysis in the mother plugs and the largest daughter drops were close to the average bulk rate, while the rates in smaller droplets decreased linearly with increasing surface to volume ratio. Rates in the smallest droplets decreased by a factor of 4 compared to the bulk rate. Traditional methods for detecting nonspecific adsorption at the water-oil interface were unable to detect evidence of enzyme adsorption, including pendant drop tensiometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy of drops containing labeled proteins in microemulsions, and epifluorescence microscopy of plugs and drops generated on-chip. We propose the slowing of enzyme reaction kinetics in the smaller droplets was the result of increased adsorption and inactivation of enzymes at the water-oil interface arising from transient interfacial shear stresses imparted on the daughter droplets as they split from the mother plugs and passed through the constricted opening of the T-junction. Such stresses are known to modulate the interfacial area and density of surfactant molecules that can passivate the interface. Bright field images of the splitting processes at the junction indicate that these stresses scaled with increasing surface to volume ratios of the droplets but were relatively insensitive to the average flow rate of plugs upstream of the junction.

  6. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Ševčikova, Anna; Žežula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed in 2013, with data collected from Slovak (n = 258) and Czech (n = 406) 11- and 15-year-old children. The effects of age, gender, availability of a TV or computer in the bedroom, parental rules on time spent watching TV or working on a computer, parental rules on the content of TV programmes and computer work and watching TV together with parents on excessive time spent with screen-based activities were explored using logistic regression models. Two-thirds of respondents watch TV or play computer games at least two hours a day. Older children have a 1.80-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.30-2.51) and a 3.91-times higher chance of excessive computer use (CI: 2.82-5.43) in comparison with younger children. More than half of children have a TV (53%) and a computer (73%) available in their bedroom, which increases the chance of excessive TV watching by 1.59 times (CI: 1.17-2.16) and of computer use by 2.25 times (CI: 1.59-3.20). More than half of parents rarely or never apply rules on the length of TV watching (64%) or time spent on computer work (56%), and their children have a 1.76-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.26-2.46) and a 1.50-times greater chance of excessive computer use (CI: 1.07-2.08). A quarter of children reported that they are used to watching TV together with their parents every day, and these have a 1.84-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (1.25-2.70). Reducing time spent watching TV by applying parental rules or a parental role model might help prevent excessive time spent on screen-based activities.

  8. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  9. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kemmerer

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload.

  10. Altered gravity affects ventral root activity during fictive swimming and the static vestibuloocular reflex in young tadpoles (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böser, S; Dournon, C; Gualandris-Parisot, L; Horn, E

    2008-03-01

    During early periods of life, modifications of the gravitational environment affect the development of sensory, neuronal and motor systems. The vestibular system exerts significant effects on motor networks that control eye and body posture as well as swimming. The objective of the present study was to study whether altered gravity (AG) affects vestibuloocular and spinal motor systems in a correlated manner. During the French Soyuz taxi flight Andromède to the International Space Station ISS (launch: October 21, 2001; landing: October 31, 2001) Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed for 10 days to microgravity (microg). In addition, a similar experiment with 3g-hypergravity (3g) was performed in the laboratory. At onset of AG, embryos had reached developmental stages 24 to 27. After exposure to AG, each tadpole was tested for its roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) and 3 hours later it was tested for the neuronal activity recorded from the ventral roots (VR) during fictive swimming. During the post-AG recording periods tadpoles had reached developmental stages 45 to 47. It was observed that microgravity affected VR activity during fictive swimming and rVOR. In particular, VR activity changes included a significant decrease of the rostrocaudal delay and a significant increase of episode duration. The rVOR-amplitude was transiently depressed. Hypergravity was less effective on the locomotor pattern; occurring effects on fictive swimming were the opposite of microg effects. As after microgravity, the rVOR was depressed after 3g-exposure. All modifications of the rVOR and VR-activity recovered to normal levels within 4 to 7 days after termination of AG. Significant correlations between the rVOR amplitude and VR activity of respective tadpoles during the recording period have been observed in both tadpoles with or without AG experience. The data are consistent with the assumptions that during this period of life which is characterized by a progressive development

  11. Inoculum pretreatment affects bacterial survival, activity and catabolic gene expression during phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumia; Afzal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Samina; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad; Khan, Qaiser M

    2013-04-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising approach for remediating soil contaminated with organic pollutants. The colonization and metabolic activity of an inoculated microorganism depend not only on environmental conditions but also on the physiological condition of the applied microorganisms. This study assessed the influence of different inoculum pretreatments on survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of an applied strain (Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soil. Maximum bacterium survival, gene abundance and expression were observed in the soil inoculated with bacterial cells that had been pregrown on complex medium, and hydrocarbon degradation and genotoxicity reduction were also high in this soil. These findings propose that use of complex media for growing plant inocula may enhance bacterial survival and colonization and subsequently the efficiency of pollutant degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole-Body Vibration Does Not Seem to Affect Postural Control in Healthy Active Older Women

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    P. S. C. Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the acute residual effects induced by different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV on postural control of elderly women. Design. Thirty physically active elderly women (67±5 years were randomly divided into three groups: two experimental groups (high WBV frequency: 45 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10; low WBV frequency: 30 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10 and one control group (n=10, with no treatment. The participants were first subjected to stabilometry tests and were then guided through three sets of isometric partial squats for 60 s while the WBV stimulation was applied. The control group was subjected to the same conditions but without the WBV stimulation. The participants were again subjected to body balance tests immediately following the end of the intervention period and again at 8, 16, and 24 min. To measure body sway control, three 60 s tests were performed at 10 s intervals for each of the following experimental conditions: (1 eyes opened and (2 eyes closed. The following variables were investigated: the average velocity of the displacement of the centre of pressure in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes as well as in the elliptical area. Results. A 3 (condition × 5 (test two-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not identify significant differences in the stabilometric variables, regardless of group, time, or experimental condition. Conclusions. The effect of WBV, regardless of the stimulation frequency, did not have a significant effect immediately after or up to 24 minutes after vibration cessation, on the variables involved in the control of postural stability in physically active elderly women.

  13. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, "1"3"4Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide "1"3"4Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg"-"1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of "1"3"4Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small "1"3"4Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of "1"3"4C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that "1"3"4Cs activity, but not that of "1"3"7Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  14. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.O. [Thuenen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, {sup 134}Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide {sup 134}Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of {sup 134}Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small {sup 134}Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of {sup 134}C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that {sup 134}Cs activity, but not that of {sup 137}Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  15. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  16. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

    2013-08-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  17. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanisch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC and from the Baltic Sea (BS have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg−1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150–400 m of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1% pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  18. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin affection and chromium (potassium dichromate intoxication. Methods. The experimental affection of rats of different ages was performed by combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (a solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg. On the 7th and 14th days the rats were injected with enterosorbent Sorbex (150 mg/kg. Enzyme markers activity of the liver was evaluated due to alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP rates. Bile formation function of the liver was evaluated by total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood. Results. The disorders in hepatocytes plasma membranes permeability were defined by the increased rates of ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum which were decreased in the liver. It was determined that total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood serum of the affected animals increased. It influenced hepatocytes excretion in bile capillaries and caused cholestasis and revenues decrease in bile. Conclusions. The most significant metabolic disorders in cases of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection were defined in immature and senior animals in comparison with mature animals.

  19. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Čapek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID

  1. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  2. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  3. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca 2+ -dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  4. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  5. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maria Ruggero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w had a mean size Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies.

  6. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  7. Hip Arthroscopy for Femoral-Acetabular Impingement: Do Active Claims Affect Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigi, Roy; Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Shimonovich, Shachar; Ronen, Itai; Amar, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To compare outcomes of 3 patient groups undergoing hip arthroscopy. This study included 138 consecutive hip arthroscopies (106 analyzed) for femoral-acetabular impingement (FAI) with or without labral tear in patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria included patients older than 18 with clinical or radiologic manifestation of FAI with or without labral tear. Exclusion criteria included previous hip surgery and various hip pathologies. Patients were classified into 3 study groups. Group 1 included work-related injuries with active claims ACs (n = 33); mean age, 32 (range, 19 to 63); group 2 included sports injuries with no ACs (n = 35); mean age, 32 (range, 18 to 69); and group 3 included non-sports-related injuries without pending ACs (NAS; n = 38); mean age, 45 (range, 20 to 68). Outcomes were assessed using modified Harris hip scores (mHHS) and hip outcome scores (HOS) preoperatively and during the final evaluation. Baseline score for all groups did not significantly differ (P = .210 for mHHS, P = .176 for HOS). All groups significantly improved from preoperative to final evaluation (group 1: mHHS P = .42, HOS P = .001; group 2: mHHS P arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy as an intervention in patients with ACs provided positive outcomes, corroborating that an AC is not a contraindication for this procedure. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Change in activity of serine palmitoyltransferase affects sensitivity to syringomycin E in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2014-09-01

    Syringomycin E is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide produced by strains of the plant bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Genetic studies involving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that complex sphingolipids play important roles in the action of syringomycin E. Here, we found a novel mutation that confers resistance to syringomycin E on yeast; that is, a deletion mutant of ORM1 and ORM2, which encode negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, exhibited resistance to syringomycin E. On the contrary, overexpression of Orm2 resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. Moreover, overexpression of Lcb1 and Lcb2, catalytic subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase, causes resistance to the toxin, whereas partial repression of expression of Lcb1 had the opposite effect. Partial reduction of complex sphingolipids by repression of expression of Aur1, an inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, also resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. These results suggested that an increase in sphingolipid biosynthesis caused by a change in the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase causes resistance to syringomycin E. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene affects cognitive flexibility and brain activation during reversal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eVotinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the opioid system plays a role in the ability to flexibly adapt behavior is still unclear. We used fMRI to investigate the effect of a nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin gene on cerebral activation during a reversal learning task in which participants had to flexibly adapt stimulus-response associations. Past studies suggested that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype of this polymorphism are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype. On the behavioral level, the HH group made more perseverative errors than the LL group. On the neural level, the HH group demonstrated less engagement of left orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC and cortico-striatal circuitry, and lower effective connectivity of lOFC with anterior midcingulate cortex and anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during reversal learning and processing negative feedback. This points to a lower ability of the HH genotype to monitor or adapt to changes in reward contingencies. These findings provide first evidence that dynorphins may contribute to individual differences in reversal learning, and that considering the opioid system may shed new light on the neurochemical correlates of decision-making and behavioral regulation.

  10. Thyroid hormone affects secretory activity and uncoupling protein-3 expression in rat harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Monteforte, Rossella; de Lange, Pieter; Raucci, Franca; Farina, Paola; Lanni, Antonia

    2004-07-01

    The effects of T(3) administration on the rat Harderian gland were examined at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. T(3) induced hypertrophy of the two cell types (A and B) present in the glandular epithelium. In type A cells, the hypertrophy was mainly due to an increase in the size of the lipid compartment. The acinar lumina were filled with lipoproteic substances, and the cells often showed an olocrine secretory pattern. In type B cells, the hypertrophy largely consisted of a marked proliferation of mitochondria endowed with tightly packed cristae, the mitochondrial number being nearly doubled (from 62 to 101/100 microm(2)). Although the average area of individual mitochondria decreased by about 50%, the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased by about 80% (from 11 to 19/100 microm(2)). This could be ascribed to T(3)-induced mitochondrial proliferation. The morphological and morphometric data correlated well with our biochemical results, which indicated that mitochondrial respiratory activity is increased in hyperthyroid rats. T(3), by influencing the metabolic function of the mitochondrial compartment, induces lipogenesis and the release of secretory product by type A cells. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the euthyroid rat Harderian gland. T(3) treatment increased the mRNA levels of both uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and UCP3, but the protein level only of UCP3. A possible role for these proteins in the Harderian gland is discussed.

  11. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 7 CFR 4290.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the RBIC and the Portfolio Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the RBIC and the Portfolio Concern. 4290.760 Section 4290.760 Agriculture Regulations of... size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the RBIC and the Portfolio Concern. (a) Effect on RBIC...

  13. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: the PACE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. In a large worksite randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95 % CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95 % CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95 % CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m(2)). This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity.

  14. miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  16. Paraquat affects mitochondrial bioenergetics, dopamine system expression, and locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H; Souders, Christopher L; Zhao, Yuan H; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    The dipyridyl herbicide paraquat induces oxidative stress in cells and is implicated in adult neurodegenerative diseases. However, less is known about paraquat toxicity in early stages of vertebrate development. To address this gap, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μM paraquat for 96 h. Paraquat did not induce significant mortality nor deformity in embryos and larvae, but it did accelerate time to hatch. To evaluate whether mitochondrial respiration was related to earlier hatch times, oxygen consumption rate was measured in whole embryos. Maximal respiration of embryos exposed to 100 μM paraquat for 24 h was reduced by more than 70%, suggesting that paraquat negatively impacts mitochondrial bioenergetics in early development. Based upon this evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional responses of oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related genes were measured. Fish exposed to 1 μM paraquat showed higher expression levels of superoxide dismutase 2, heat shock protein 70, Bcl-2-associated X protein, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2a compared to control fish. No differences among groups were detected in larvae exposed to 10 and 100 μM paraquat, suggesting a non-monotonic response. We also measured endpoints related to larval behavior and dopaminergic signaling as paraquat is associated with degeneration of dopamine neurons. Locomotor activity was stimulated with 100 μM paraquat and dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor 3 mRNA levels were increased in larvae exposed to 1 μM paraquat, interpreted to be a compensatory response at lower concentrations. This study improves mechanistic understanding into the toxic actions of paraquat on early developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave processing of honey negatively affects honey antibacterial activity by inactivation of bee-derived glucose oxidase and defensin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Juricova, Valeria; Monton, Enrique; Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Majtan, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    Microwave (MW) thermal heating has been proposed as an efficient method for honey liquefaction, while maintaining honey quality criteria. However, little is known about the effects of MW thermal heating on honey antibacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of MW heating on the antibacterial activity of raw rapeseed honeys against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, with a particular focus on two major bee-derived antibacterial components, defensin-1 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Our results demonstrated that MW thermal heating completely abolished honey antibacterial activity whereas conventional thermal treatment at 45 and 55°C did not affect the antibacterial activity of honey samples. A significant decrease in both glucose oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production as well as defensin-1 amount was observed in MW-treated samples. Given that defensin-1 and H 2 O 2 are regular antibacterial components of all honeys, MW heating may have similar negative effects on every type of crystallized/liquid honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  19. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  20. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  1. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal association of delta activity at sleep onset with cognitive and affective function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Hantke, Nathan C; Cotto, Isabelle; Jordan, Josh T; Hirst, Rayna B; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    This investigation sought to determine whether delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in the sleep electroencephalography of older adults represents normal variation or is associated with clinical pathology. To this end, we examined its longitudinal associations with cognitive and affective function in older adults without dementia. Participants were 153 community-dwelling older adults without dementia. We evaluated polysomnography (PSG), cognitive performance, and affective function at four time points: baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. All participants completed PSG and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, visuospatial ability, and measures of anxiety and depression. DASO was defined as sequences of rhythmic anterior delta activity on PSG in the transition from awake to sleep during the baseline assessment (Figure ). At the baseline, 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 years participated and 19.6% of participants exhibited DASO. Age, years of education, gender, and body mass index did not differ according to DASO status. Linear mixed modeling showed that the presence of DASO was actually associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Further, participants with DASO, versus those without DASO, exhibited a trend towards better cognitive performance over time, although none of these associations reached statistical significance. Whereas DASO was associated with better affective function, no significant association was found between DASO and cognitive change over time. These longitudinal findings support the view that the presence of DASO in healthy older adults represents normal variation rather than pathological aging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study Among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.

  4. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier; Shane N. Sweet

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Rating...

  5. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material.

  6. Oleuropein potentiates anti-tumor activity of cisplatin against HepG2 through affecting proNGF/NGF balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Iman O; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2018-04-01

    Oleuropein is considered as a new chemotherapeutic agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while, its exact underlying molecular mechanism still not yet explored. In addition, cisplatin is a standard anticancer drug against solid tumors with toxic side effects. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess antitumor activity of oleuropein either alone or in combination with cisplatin against HepG2, human HCC cell lines, via targeting pro-NGF/NGF signaling pathway. HepG2 cells were treated with cisplatin (20, 50, 100 μM) and oleuropein (100, 200, 300 and 400 μM) as well as some of the cells were treated with 50 μM cisplatin and different concentrations of oleuropein. Gene expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and caspase-3 were evaluated by real time-PCR. In addition, protein levels of NGF and pro-form of NGF (pro-NGF) were measured by ELISA while, nitric oxide (NO) content was determined colorimetrically. Cisplatin treatment showed a significant elevation of NO content and pro-NGF protein level with a marked reduction of NGF protein level in addition to the upregulation of caspase-3 along with downregulation of MMP-7 gene expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, the combination of 50 μM cisplatin and 200 μM oleuropein showed the most potent effect on the molecular level when compared with oleuropein or cisplatin alone. Our results showed for the first time that the anti-tumor activity of oleuropein against HCC could be attributed to influencing the pro-NGF/NGF balance via affecting MMP-7 activity without affecting the gene expression of NGF. Concurrent treatment with both oleuropein and cisplatin could lead to more effective chemotherapeutic combination against HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Nichino, Daniela; Iacometti, Camillo; Ferrando, Sara; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -5  M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these exposure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were investigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localization. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, followed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  9. Functional MRI examination of empathy for pain in people with schizophrenia reveals abnormal activation related to cognitive perspective-taking but typical activation linked to affective sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistoli, Damien; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Sutliff, Stephanie; Jackson, Philip L.; Achim, Amélie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others’ emotions) and cognitive (taking others’ cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a pain empathy task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Participants observed pictures of hands in either painful or nonpainful situations and rated the level of pain while imagining either themselves (self) or an unknown person (other) in these situations. Results We included 27 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls in our analyses. For the pain versus no pain contrast, patients showed overall typical activation patterns in the aMCC and AI, with only a small part of the aMCC showing reduced activation compared with controls. For the other versus self contrast, patients showed an abnormal modulation of activation in the TPJ bilaterally (extending to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, referred to as the TPJ/pSTS). Limitations The design included an unnecessary manipulation of the visual perspective that reduced the number of trials for analysis. The sample size may not account for the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Conclusion People with schizophrenia showed relatively intact brain activation when observing others’ pain, but showed abnormalities when asked to take the cognitive perspectives of others. PMID:28556774

  10. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Mira; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Klemen, Jane; Smolka, Michael N

    2008-07-22

    Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Brain activation differed depending on design type in only 10% of the voxels showing task related brain activity. Differences between blocked and event-related stimulus presentation were found in occipitotemporal and temporal regions (Brodmann Area (BA) 19, 37, 48), parietal areas (BA 7, 40) and areas in the frontal lobe (BA 6, 44). Our results suggest that event-related designs might be a potential alternative when the core interest is the detection of networks associated with immediate processing of erotic stimuli.Additionally, blocked, compared to event-related, stimulus presentation allows the emergence and detection of non-specific secondary processes, such as sustained attention, motor imagery and inhibition of sexual arousal.

  11. Low Operational Stability of Enzymes in Dry Organic Solvents: Changes in the Active Site Might Affect Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Barletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of enzyme catalysis in organic solvents for synthetic applications has been overshadowed by the fact that their catalytic properties are affected by organic solvents. In addition, it has recently been shown that an enzyme’s initial activity diminishes considerably after prolonged exposure to organic media. Studies geared towards understanding this last drawback have yielded unclear results. In the present work we decided to use electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR to study the motion of an active site spin label (a nitroxide free radical during 96 h of exposure of the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg to four different organic solvents. Our EPR data shows a typical two component spectra that was quantified by the ratio of the anisotropic and isotropic signals. The isotropic component, associated with a mobile nitroxide free radical, increases during prolonged exposure to all solvents used in the study. The maximum increase (of 43% was observed in 1,4-dioxane. Based on these and previous studies we suggest that prolonged exposure of the enzyme to these solvents provokes a cascade of events that could induce substrates to adopt different binding conformations. This is the first EPR study of the motion of an active-site spin label during prolonged exposure of an enzyme to organic solvents ever reported.

  12. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  13. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  14. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Jane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. Methods To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Results Brain activation differed depending on design type in only 10% of the voxels showing task related brain activity. Differences between blocked and event-related stimulus presentation were found in occipitotemporal and temporal regions (Brodmann Area (BA 19, 37, 48, parietal areas (BA 7, 40 and areas in the frontal lobe (BA 6, 44. Conclusion Our results suggest that event-related designs might be a potential alternative when the core interest is the detection of networks associated with immediate processing of erotic stimuli. Additionally, blocked, compared to event-related, stimulus presentation allows the emergence and detection of non-specific secondary processes, such as sustained attention, motor imagery and inhibition of sexual arousal.

  15. Secondary structure changes induced by pulsed electric field affect antioxidant activity of pentapeptides from pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xiuying

    2018-07-15

    We used a pulsed electric field (PEF) to treat four pentapeptides with similar amino acid sequences (KCHKP, KCHQP, QCHKP, and QCHQP). We then evaluated antioxidant activity of the pentapeptides according to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Structures of the peptides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that antioxidant activities of KCHQP and QCHKP were increased by PEF, whereas those of KCHKP and QCHQP were reduced. The basic structures and functional groups of peptides were unaffected. PEF treatment reduced the α-helix contents of KCHQP and QCHKP, but increased those of KCHKP and QCHQP. Moreover, the chemical shifts at 14.46 ppm, 8.22 ppm, 7.87 ppm, 7.24 ppm, and 6.13 ppm attributable to hydrogen atoms of QCHKP shifted to the right, but the active hydrogens of QCHQP were not affected by PEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ONSET OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN HIV/AIDS-AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica A; Uchudi, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of orphanhood and HIV status of adults in a household on onset of sexual activity among adolescent girls and boys aged 15-17 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from nineteen countries of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV test data were collected during 2003-2008 from nationally representative samples of men and women of reproductive age. The results highlight increased vulnerability among adolescent boys and girls living in households where an adult is infected with HIV, and adolescent boys who are paternal orphans. On average, adolescent boys and girls living in households where at least one adult is HIV-positive have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity compared with their counterparts of similar characteristics in households where no adult is HIV-positive. Furthermore, adolescent boys who are paternal orphans have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity than their non-orphan counterparts of similar individual characteristics. Further analysis reveals that household circumstances relating to living arrangements and poverty are important pathways through which household HIV/AIDS status is linked to adolescent sexual debut. The findings underscore the importance of international efforts in the sub-Saharan Africa region to address the plight of other children in HIV/AIDS-affected households, beyond orphans.

  17. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Jackson, Matthew I; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Combs, Gerald F

    2011-11-01

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability at nutritional doses. In this study, we found that two sources of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-enriched yeast each increased intracellular Se content more effectively than selenite or methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Interestingly, SeMSC, SeMet, and digested Se-enriched yeast were transported at comparable efficacy from the apical to basolateral sides, each being about 3-fold that of selenite. In addition, these forms of Se, whether before or after traversing from apical side to basolateral side, did not change the potential to support glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Although selenoprotein P has been postulated to be a key Se transport protein, its intracellular expression did not differ when selenite, SeMSC, SeMet, or digested Se-enriched yeast was added to serum-contained media. Taken together, our data show, for the first time, that the chemical form of Se at nutritional doses can affect the absorptive (apical to basolateral side) efficacy and retention of Se by intestinal cells; but that, these effects are not directly correlated to the potential to support GPx activity.

  18. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  19. Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies on the Affective Network of Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Jung, Tae Woon; Park, In Hui; Han, Doug Hyun

    2018-04-26

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been suggested to be a mental health disorder. Attachment and emotional status in IGD patients are important for understanding the etiology and progression of IGD because both parameters are considered to be associated with the affective network. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) have been reported to improve emotional status and attachment in subjects. We hypothesized that EAAT would improve attachment in IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and increase functional connectivity (FC) within the affective network. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Korean Experiences in Close Relationships Scale Revised version (K-ECRS), the Child Depression Inventory, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline at the end of EAAT. Fifteen IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and 15 healthy comparison adolescents with secure attachment agreed to participate in this study. After 7 days of EAAT, K-ECRS avoidance and anxiety scores improved in all adolescents. K-ECRS avoidance scores of the IGD group showed marked improvement compared with those of the healthy group. In all participants, FC from the left amygdala to the left parahippocampal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as from the right amygdala to the left caudate, right claustrum, and left inferior frontal gyrus increased. In IGD adolescents, FC from the left amygdala to the left frontal orbital gyrus, as well as from the right amygdala to the right corpus callosum also increased. These findings suggested that EAAT improves attachment, which could lead to a decrease in the severity of IGD symptoms in IGD patients with insecure attachment issues. In addition, EAAT increases FC within the affective network, which was associated with attachment not only in healthy adolescents but

  20. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  1. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Paven K; Bogdanovic, Vedran; Naratadam, George T; Raetzman, Lori T

    2015-08-01

    As the pituitary gland develops, signals from the hypothalamus are necessary for pituitary induction and expansion. Little is known about the control of cues that regulate early signaling between the two structures. Ligands and receptors of the Notch signaling pathway are found in both the hypothalamus and Rathke's pouch. The downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 is required for proper pituitary formation; however, these effects could be due to the action of Hes1 in the hypothalamus, Rathke's pouch, or both. To determine the contribution of hypothalamic Notch signaling to pituitary organogenesis, we used mice with loss and gain of Notch function within the developing hypothalamus. We demonstrate that loss of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the hypothalamus does not affect expression of Hes1 within the posterior hypothalamus or expression of Hes5. In contrast, expression of activated Notch within the hypothalamus results in ectopic Hes5 expression and increased Hes1 expression, which is sufficient to disrupt pituitary development and postnatal expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that Rbpj-dependent Notch signaling within the developing hypothalamus is not necessary for pituitary development, but persistent Notch signaling and ectopic Hes5 expression in hypothalamic progenitors affects pituitary induction and expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and risk management applied to an active industrial site affected by fuel spill in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pablo, J.; Marti, V.; Rovira, M.; Vinolas, C.; Navarro, O.

    2005-01-01

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) applied to sites were groundwater have been affected by a fuel spill from an Industrial Underground Storage Tank (UST) is economically viable and a reliable methodology to achieve remediation goals. MNA process consists in the control of naturally occurring physical, chemical , and biological processes and is based in the knowledge of the processes that take place and reduce the charge of compounds derived from fuel in the site of study. Because the risk for Human Health and Ecosystem define the concept of contaminant, during MNA special attention has to be taken on concentration diminution of that are or could become contaminants and in this way is possible to perform Risk-Based Land Management (RBLM) by measuring both, the primary lines of evidence (shrinking or stable plume of contaminants) and secondary lines of evidence (given by geochemical indicators in the plume). Once, evidences have been gathered, is possible to calculate the rate of attenuation of contaminants and evaluate if admissible risk is reached an in a reasonable time framework, in order to propose MNA as a unique remediation or combined with other procedures to apply to an affected site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of MNA to an active industrial site in order to develop a RBLM able to assess that the risk for Human Health and ecosystem are acceptable. The added attractive of this methodology is the non-intrusiveness that allows not to stop the industrial activity. The site considered in our study is in an active company located about 15 Km to NW from Barcelona, Spain.The company has a buried UST containing heavy fuel oil for energetic use. During 2002 a general soil impact study revealed that subsoil and groundwater close to the UST were affected by hydrocarbon losses from the tank and in January 2003 the fuel of the tank was emptied by pumping. The free phase of fuel floating on groundwater remained on the aquifer. As a

  3. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 μM P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  5. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eLissek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA or in the acquisition context (AAA. In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC. However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.

  6. Expression and activity of Rac1 is negatively affected in the dehydroepiandrosterone induced polycystic ovary of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Vineet Kumar; Sangappa, Chadchan; Kumar, Vijay; Mahfooz, Sahil; Singh, Archana; Rajender, Singh; Jha, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-03-14

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of multiple follicular cysts, giving rise to infertility due to anovulation. This syndrome affects about 10% of women, worldwide. The exact molecular mechanism leading to PCOS remains obscure. RhoGTPase has been associated with oogenesis, but its role in PCOS remains unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the Vav-Rac1 signaling in PCOS mice model. We generated a PCOS mice model by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for a period of 20 days. The expression levels of Rac1, pRac1, Vav, pVav and Caveolin1 were analyzed by employing immuno-blotting and densitometry. The association between Vav and Rac1 proteins were studied by immuno-precipitation. Furthermore, we analyzed the activity of Rac1 and levels of inhibin B and 17β-estradiol in ovary using biochemical assays. The presence of multiple follicular cysts in ovary were confirmed by histology. The activity of Rac1 (GTP bound state) was significantly reduced in the PCOS ovary. Similarly, the expression levels of Rac1 and its phosphorylated form (pRac1) were decreased in PCOS in comparison to the sham ovary. The expression level and activity (phosphorylated form) of guanine nucleotide exchanger of Rac1, Vav, was moderately down-regulated. We observed comparatively increased expressions of Caveolin1, 17β-estradiol, and inhibin B in the polycystic ovary. We conclude that hyperandrogenization (PCOS) by DHEA diminishes ovarian Rac1 and Vav expression and activity along with an increase in expression of Caveolin1. This is accompanied by an increase in the intra-ovarian level of '17 β-estradiol and inhibin B.

  7. 13 CFR 107.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio Concern. 107.760 Section 107.760... § 107.760 How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio Concern. (a) Effect on Licensee of a change in size of a Portfolio Concern. If a Portfolio Concern no...

  8. Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the relationship of physical activity with acute affective and physical feeling states is informed largely by lab-based studies, which have limited generalizability to the natural ecology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to assess subjective affective and physical feeling states in free-living settings across 4 days from 110 non-physically active adults (Age M = 40.4, SD = 9.7). Light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by an accelerometer. Multilevel modeling was used to test the bi-directional associations between affective and physical feeling states and LPA/MVPA minutes. Higher positive affect, lower negative affect and fatigue were associated with more MVPA over the subsequent 15 min, while higher negative affect and energy were associated with more LPA over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Additionally, more LPA and MVPA were associated with feeling more energetic over the subsequent 15 and 30 min, and more LPA was additionally associated with feeling more negative and less tired over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Positive and negative affective states might serve as antecedents to but not consequences of MVPA in adults' daily lives. Changes in LPA may be predicted and followed by negative affective states. Physical feeling states appear to lead up to and follow changes in both LPA and MVPA.

  9. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women’s well-being.

  10. An Experience Sampling Study of Physical Activity and Positive Affect: Investigating the Role of Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S; Sweet, Shane N

    2013-04-18

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity). The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women's well-being.

  11. Novel somatic mutations in large granular lymphocytic leukemia affecting the STAT-pathway and T-cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E I; Rajala, H L M; Eldfors, S; Ellonen, P; Olson, T; Jerez, A; Clemente, M J; Kallioniemi, O; Porkka, K; Heckman, C; Loughran, T P Jr; Maciejewski, J P; Mustjoki, S

    2013-01-01

    T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a clonal disease characterized by the expansion of mature CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders and immune-mediated cytopenias. Our recent findings suggest that up to 40% of T-LGL patients harbor mutations in the STAT3 gene, whereas STAT5 mutations are present in 2% of patients. In order to identify putative disease-causing genetic alterations in the remaining T-LGL patients, we performed exome sequencing from three STAT mutation-negative patients and validated the findings in 113 large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia patients. On average, 11 CD8+ LGL leukemia cell-specific high-confidence nonsynonymous somatic mutations were discovered in each patient. Interestingly, all patients had at least one mutation that affects either directly the STAT3-pathway (such as PTPRT) or T-cell activation (BCL11B, SLIT2 and NRP1). In all three patients, the STAT3 pathway was activated when studied by RNA expression or pSTAT3 analysis. Screening of the remaining 113 LGL leukemia patients did not reveal additional patients with same mutations. These novel mutations are potentially biologically relevant and represent rare genetic triggers for T-LGL leukemia, and are associated with similar disease phenotype as observed in patients with mutations in the STAT3 gene

  12. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly.

  14. Estimation of Symptom Severity Scores for Patients with Schizophrenia Using ERP Source Activations during a Facial Affect Discrimination Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Precise diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and a comprehensive assessment of a patient's symptom severity are important in order to establish a successful treatment strategy for each patient. Although great efforts have been devoted to searching for diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia over the past several decades, no study has yet investigated how accurately these biomarkers are able to estimate an individual patient's symptom severity. In this study, we applied electrophysiological biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) analyses to an estimation of symptom severity scores of patients with schizophrenia. EEG signals were recorded from 23 patients while they performed a facial affect discrimination task. Based on the source current density analysis results, we extracted voxels that showed a strong correlation between source activity and symptom scores. We then built a prediction model to estimate the symptom severity scores of each patient using the source activations of the selected voxels. The symptom scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were estimated using the linear prediction model. The results of leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) showed that the mean errors of the estimated symptom scores were 3.34 ± 2.40 and 3.90 ± 3.01 for the Positive and Negative PANSS scores, respectively. The current pilot study is the first attempt to estimate symptom severity scores in schizophrenia using quantitative EEG features. It is expected that the present method can be extended to other cognitive paradigms or other psychological illnesses.

  15. Estimation of Symptom Severity Scores for Patients with Schizophrenia Using ERP Source Activations during a Facial Affect Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and a comprehensive assessment of a patient's symptom severity are important in order to establish a successful treatment strategy for each patient. Although great efforts have been devoted to searching for diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia over the past several decades, no study has yet investigated how accurately these biomarkers are able to estimate an individual patient's symptom severity. In this study, we applied electrophysiological biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG analyses to an estimation of symptom severity scores of patients with schizophrenia. EEG signals were recorded from 23 patients while they performed a facial affect discrimination task. Based on the source current density analysis results, we extracted voxels that showed a strong correlation between source activity and symptom scores. We then built a prediction model to estimate the symptom severity scores of each patient using the source activations of the selected voxels. The symptom scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS were estimated using the linear prediction model. The results of leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV showed that the mean errors of the estimated symptom scores were 3.34 ± 2.40 and 3.90 ± 3.01 for the Positive and Negative PANSS scores, respectively. The current pilot study is the first attempt to estimate symptom severity scores in schizophrenia using quantitative EEG features. It is expected that the present method can be extended to other cognitive paradigms or other psychological illnesses.

  16. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  17. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  18. Sex steroids, insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity in relation to affective symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedel, Elizabeth; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa Bergmann; Landén, Mikael; Janson, Per Olof; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2011-11-01

    Affective symptoms are poorly understood in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and high serum androgens are key features in PCOS, and women with PCOS are more likely to be overweight or obese, as well as insulin resistant. Further, PCOS is associated with high sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate if self-reported hirsutism, body mass index (BMI) and waistline, circulating sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with depression and anxiety-related symptoms in women with PCOS. Seventy-two women with PCOS, aged 21-37 years, were recruited from the community. Hirsutism was self-reported using the Ferriman-Gallway score. Serum estrogens, sex steroid precursors, androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS/LC-MS/MS) and SHBG by chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Insulin sensitivity was measured with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Sympathetic nerve activity was measured with microneurography. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were self-reported using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S). Circulating concentrations of testosterone (T) (P=0.026), free T (FT) (P=0.025), and androstane-3α 17β-diol-3glucuronide (3G) (P=0.029) were lower in women with depression symptoms of potential clinical relevance (MADR-S≥11). The odds of having a MADRS-S score ≥11 were higher with lower FT and 3G. No associations with BSA-S were noted. Lower circulating FT and 3G were associated with worse self-reported depression symptoms. The relationship between mental health, sex steroids and corresponding metabolites in PCOS requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  20. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Cêtre-Sossah, C; Mathieu, B; Meiswinkel, R; Gerbier, G

    2008-10-15

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with livestock were collected and an attempt was made to identify the vector(s) involved in BTV transmission by means of virus detection in wild-caught biting midges. Weekly sampling using standardized Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were performed simultaneously both outdoors and indoors in one BTV-free and three BTV-affected farms between September and December 2006. Culicoides were sorted according to farm, location (outdoors vs. indoors), time point (in weeks), species and physiological stage. BTV detection was conducted by RT-PCR on monospecific pools of non-bloodfed parous female Culicoides. The principal results showed: (i) the absence of the Mediterranean vector, C. imicola, (ii) the relatively low abundance of C. dewulfi and C. pulicaris, (iii) the widespread occurrence and abundance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus with longevity and behaviour compatible with BTV transmission, and (iv) all Culicoides pools tested for BTV were negative. In France, the very low levels of BTV-8 circulation were probably due to the limited introduction of the virus from affected neighbouring countries, and not due to the absence of local vector populations. A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C. dewulfi, can be active at night inside livestock buildings and not only outside, as originally believed. The endophagic tendencies of members of the Obsoletus group are discussed in light of the prolonged period of BTV transmission during the autumn of 2006 and the risk of BTV overwintering and

  1. Stilbene Glucoside, a Putative Sleep Promoting Constituent from Polygonum multiflorum Affects Sleep Homeostasis by Affecting the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Salivary Alpha Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (palpha amylase (palpha amylase (pamylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (palpha amylase.

  2. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  4. How Does Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Affect Methane Production from the Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Bond, Philip L; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-10-20

    Recent studies demonstrate that, besides being used for production of biodegradable plastics, poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) that is accumulated in heterotrophic microorganisms during wastewater treatment has another novel application direction, i.e., being utilized for enhancing methane yield during the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS). To date, however, the underlying mechanism of how PHA affects methane production remains largely unknown, and this limits optimization and application of the strategy. This study therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA levels from 21 to 184 mg/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) the methane yield linearly increased from 168.0 to 246.1 mL/g of VSS (R(2) = 0.9834). Compared with protein and carbohydrate (the main components of a cell), PHA exhibited a higher biochemical methane potential on a unit VSS basis. It was also found that the increased PHA not only enhanced cell disruption of PHA cells but also benefited the soluble protein conversion of both PHA- and non-PHA cells. Moreover, the reactor fed with higher PHA sludge showed greater sludge hydrolysis and acidification than those fed with the lower PHA sludges. Further investigations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and enzyme analysis revealed that the increased PHA enhanced the abundance of methanogenic Archaea and increased the activities of protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, which were consistent with the observed methane yield. This work provides insights into PHA-involved WAS digestion systems and may have important implications for future operation of wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Children's Cognitive and Affective Responses About a Narrative Versus a Non-Narrative Cartoon Designed for an Active Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Davies, Vanessa; Mafra, Rafaella; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Thomas; Lu, Amy Shirong

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Twenty children (8-11 years old of mixed gender) watched two cartoons (narrative and non-narrative) and were subsequently interviewed. A thematic matrix was used to analyze the interviews. The narrative cartoon (n = 11) was only slightly preferred compared with the non-narrative one (n = 9), with little difference among the participants. The theme categories identified during the analyses were plot, characters, and suggestions. The fight scenes were mentioned by the children as a likeable aspect of the narrative cartoon. In the non-narrative cartoon, the vast majority (n = 17) liked the information about physical activity that was provided. The children enjoyed the appearance and personalities of the characters in both cartoons. A discrepancy in the data about the fight scenes (narrative cartoon) and characters (both cartoons) was found among the female participants (i.e., some girls did not like the fight and thought the characters were too aggressive). However, most of the children wanted to see more action in the story, an increase in the number of fight scenes (narrative cartoon), or more information about exercise and examples of exercises they could do (non-narrative cartoon). They also suggested adding a game to the non-narrative cartoon, including more characters, and improving the animation in both cartoons. The children preferred the narrative cartoon because of the story and the fight. Some gender differences were found, which further studies should investigate.

  6. PCCE-A Predictive Code for Calorimetric Estimates in actively cooled components affected by pulsed power loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Palma, M. Dalla; Fantini, F.; Fellin, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical interpretative models for calorimetric measurements currently available in the literature can consider close systems in steady-state and transient conditions, or open systems but only in steady-state conditions. The PCCE code (Predictive Code for Calorimetric Estimations), here presented, introduces some novelties. In fact, it can simulate with an analytical approach both the heated component and the cooling circuit, evaluating the heat fluxes due to conductive and convective processes both in steady-state and transient conditions. The main goal of this code is to model heating and cooling processes in actively cooled components of fusion experiments affected by high pulsed power loads, that are not easily analyzed with purely numerical approaches (like Finite Element Method or Computational Fluid Dynamics). A dedicated mathematical formulation, based on concentrated parameters, has been developed and is here described in detail. After a comparison and benchmark with the ANSYS commercial code, the PCCE code is applied to predict the calorimetric parameters in simple scenarios of the SPIDER experiment.

  7. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tenascin-C enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth and motility and affects cell adhesion through activation of the integrin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Paron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in Tenascin-C (TNC, a large ECM glycoprotein mainly synthesized by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs. In human pancreatic tissues, TNC expression increases in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer. Aim of this study was the functional characterization of the effects of TNC on biologic relevant properties of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Proliferation, migration and adhesion assays were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with TNC or grown on a TNC-rich matrix. Stable transfectants expressing the large TNC splice variant were generated to test the effects of endogenous TNC. TNC-dependent integrin signaling was investigated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition. RESULTS: Endogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. A TNC-rich matrix also enhanced migration as well as the adhesion to the uncoated growth surface of poorly differentiated cell lines. In contrast, adhesion to fibronectin was significantly decreased in the presence of TNC. The effects of TNC on cell adhesion were paralleled by changes in the activation state of paxillin and Akt. CONCLUSION: TNC affects proliferation, migration and adhesion of poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell lines and might therefore play a role in PDAC spreading and metastasis in vivo.

  9. The impact of the school-based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program on conflict-affected children in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-11-01

    Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention comprised a series of 15 class sessions designed to progressively increase children's resilience through structured activities involving drama, movement, music and art (with additional components addressing parental support and community involvement). Eight schools were selected by random quota sampling from those schools receiving the PSSA intervention. Two hundred and three children were identified in these schools as being scheduled to receive intervention, and were followed up 12 months later following engagement with PSSA activities. A comparison group comprised 200 children selected from schools that had met inclusion criteria for receipt of intervention, but were not scheduled for intervention coverage until later. Preliminary research used participatory focus group methodology to determine local indicators of child well-being as viewed by parents, teachers, and children respectively. Pre- and post- assessments focused on ratings for each child - by parents, teachers and children - with respect to these indicators. Significant increases in ratings of child well-being were observed in both intervention and comparison groups over a 12-month period. However, the well-being of children who had received the PSSA intervention increased significantly more than for children in the comparison group, as judged by child and parent (but not teacher) report. This effect was evident despite considerable loss-to-follow-up at post-testing as a result of return of many households to communities of origin. General improvement in child well-being over a 12-month period suggests that recovery and reconstruction efforts in Northern Uganda following

  10. Do dopaminergic gene polymorphisms affect mesolimbic reward activation of music listening response? Therapeutic impact on Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas J H; Chen, Amanda L H; Madigan, Margaret; Downs, B William; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Henshaw, Harry; Gold, Mark S

    2010-03-01

    affected by an individual's D2 density in the VTA mediated interaction of the NAc. It is therefore hypothesized that carriers of DRD2 A1 allele may respond significantly differently to carriers of the DRD2 A2 genotype. In this regard, carriers of the D2 A1 allele have a blunted response to glucose and monetary rewards. In contrast powerful D2 agonists like bromocryptine show a heightened activation of the reward circuitry only in DRD2 A1 allele carriers. If music causes a powerful activation in spite of the DRD2 A1 allele due to a strong DA neuronal release which subsequently impinges on existing D2 receptors, then it is reasonable to assume that music is a strong indirect D2 agonist (by virtue of DA neuronal release in the NAc) and may have important therapeutic applicability in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) related behaviors including Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Ross et al. [18] found that music therapy appears to be a novel motivational tool in a severely impaired inpatient sample of patients with co-occurring mental illness and addiction. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of intracellular adenosine-triphosphate concentration of yeast cells on survival following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, R.D.; Pohlit, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and starvation in buffer on the ATP-concentration of yeast cells has been studied. In both the wild-type and a respiratory-deficient mutant strain 2-deoxy-D-glucose decreases the value for ATP, while it is enhanced by glucose only in the mutant strain. Populations with different ATP-concentrations have been irradiated. The results suggest that ATP may be an essential factor in the system that determines the length of the shoulder of the dose effect curves. (orig.) [de

  12. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  13. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isotherm and kinetic studies on adsorption of oil sands process-affected water organic compounds using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; McPhedran, Kerry N; Messele, Selamawit A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2018-07-01

    The production of oil from oil sands in northern Alberta has led to the generation of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that was reported to be toxic to aquatic and other living organisms. The toxicity of OSPW has been attributed to the complex nature of OSPW matrix including the inorganic and organic compounds primarily naphthenic acids (NAs: C n H 2n+Z O x ). In the present study, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption was investigated for its potential use to treat raw and ozonated OSPW. The results indicated that NA species removal increased with carbon number (n) for a fixed Z number; however, the NA species removal decreased with Z number for a fixed carbon number. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm based on acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and NAs were 98.5 mg and 60.9 mg AEF/g GAC and 60 mg and 37 mg NA/g GAC for raw and ozonated OSPW, respectively. It was found that the Freundlich isotherm model best fits the AEF and NA equilibrium data (r 2  ≥ 0.88). The adsorption kinetics showed that the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were both appropriate in modeling the adsorption kinetics of AEF and NAs to GAC (r 2  ≥ 0.97). Although pore diffusion was the rate limiting step, film diffusion was still significant for assessing the rate of diffusion of NAs. This study could be helpful to model, design and optimize the adsorption treatment technologies of OSPW and to assess the performance of other adsorbents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting microbial activity in compacted clay-based sealing materials proposed for use in a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C.J.; Dixon, D.A.; Kjartanson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial activity in clay-based barriers immediately adjacent to metal used-fuel containers in a repository could affect the longevity of such containers. The current emphasis is, therefore, on reducing or minimizing microbial activity in such clay-based barriers through material composition design. Factors affecting microbial activity in clay-based materials were studied in large-scale and smaller-scale experiments. Results suggested that keeping water activity (a w ) values below ∼0.95 may minimize microbial activity in clay-based barrier materials. A considerably higher effective montmorillonite dry density (EMDD), which partially controls a w , is achievable for 100% bentonite than for previously proposed reference buffer materials, which contain only 50% bentonite. (author)

  16. Bodily activity measurements and estimation of dose by inner contamination during 1993-1994 in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arado Lopez, Orquidea; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo; Valdes Ramos, Maryzury

    1996-01-01

    At the whole body counter laboratory installed at the Jose Marti Pioneers City, measurements to determine inner contamination with Cesium 137 were taken of 463 Ukrainian children from areas affected by The Chernobyl accident. Starting from the measured activity, both the incorporated activity and the inner dose were estimated according to the ICRP latest recommendations, which take age into account. The results obtained showed that a 46,9 % of the measured children presented a bodily activity of cesium 137 higher to the minimal detectable activity. The highest valve that was calculated for the effective dose in this group of children was 9,2 mSv

  17. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chin A Paw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled

  18. Retention of Viability of Salmonella in Sucrose as Affected by Type of Inoculum, Water Activity, and Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A; Kelly, Christine A; Ortega, Ynes R

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (a w ) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at a w 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C. Retention of viability was clearly favored in sucrose stored at 5°C compared with 25°C, regardless of level or type of inoculum or a w . Survival at 5°C was not affected by a w . Initial high-inoculum counts of 5.18 and 5.25 log CFU/g of dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 and 0.54, respectively) stored for 52 weeks at 5°C decreased by 0.56 and 0.53 log CFU/g; counts decreased by >4.18 and >4.25 log CFU/g in samples stored at 25°C. Inactivation rates in wet-inoculated sucrose were similar to those in dry-inoculated sucrose; however, a trend toward higher persistence of Salmonella in dry- versus wet-inoculated sucrose suggests there was a higher proportion of cells in the wet inoculum with low tolerance to osmotic stress. Survival patterns were similar in sucrose initially containing a low level of Salmonella (2.26 to 2.91 log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from low-inoculated sucrose stored at 5°C for 52 weeks regardless of type of inoculum or a w and from dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.54) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24) stored at 25°C for 12 and 26 weeks, respectively. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of sucrose intended for use as an ingredient in foods not subjected to a treatment that would be lethal to Salmonella.

  19. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by

  20. The role of Patient Health Engagement Model (PHE-model in affecting patient activation and medication adherence: A structural equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    Full Text Available Increasing bodies of scientific research today examines the factors and interventions affecting patients' ability to self-manage and adhere to treatment. Patient activation is considered the most reliable indicator of patients' ability to manage health autonomously. Only a few studies have tried to assess the role of psychosocial factors in promoting patient activation. A more systematic modeling of the psychosocial factors explaining the variance of patient activation is needed.To test the hypothesized effect of patient activation on medication adherence; to test the the hypothesized effects of positive emotions and of the quality of the patient/doctor relationship on patient activation; and to test the hypothesized mediating effect of Patient Health Engagement (PHE-model in this pathway.This cross-sectional study involved 352 Italian-speaking adult chronic patients. The survey included measures of i patient activation (Patient Activation Measure 13 -short form; ii Patient Health Engagement model (Patient Health Engagement Scale; iii patient adherence (4 item-Morinsky Medication Adherence Scale; iv the quality of the patients' emotional feelings (Manikin Self Assessment Scale; v the quality of the patient/doctor relationship (Health Care Climate Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses proposed.According to the theoretical model we hypothesized, research results confirmed that patients' activation significantly affects their reported medication adherence. Moreover, psychosocial factors, such as the patients' quality of the emotional feelings and the quality of the patient/doctor relationship were demonstrated to be factors affecting the level of patient activation. Finally, the mediation effect of the Patient Health Engagement model was confirmed by the analysis.Consistently with the results of previous studies, these findings demonstrate that the Patient Health Engagement Model is a critical factor in

  1. The role of Patient Health Engagement Model (PHE-model) in affecting patient activation and medication adherence: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Increasing bodies of scientific research today examines the factors and interventions affecting patients' ability to self-manage and adhere to treatment. Patient activation is considered the most reliable indicator of patients' ability to manage health autonomously. Only a few studies have tried to assess the role of psychosocial factors in promoting patient activation. A more systematic modeling of the psychosocial factors explaining the variance of patient activation is needed. To test the hypothesized effect of patient activation on medication adherence; to test the the hypothesized effects of positive emotions and of the quality of the patient/doctor relationship on patient activation; and to test the hypothesized mediating effect of Patient Health Engagement (PHE-model) in this pathway. This cross-sectional study involved 352 Italian-speaking adult chronic patients. The survey included measures of i) patient activation (Patient Activation Measure 13 -short form); ii) Patient Health Engagement model (Patient Health Engagement Scale); iii) patient adherence (4 item-Morinsky Medication Adherence Scale); iv) the quality of the patients' emotional feelings (Manikin Self Assessment Scale); v) the quality of the patient/doctor relationship (Health Care Climate Questionnaire). Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses proposed. According to the theoretical model we hypothesized, research results confirmed that patients' activation significantly affects their reported medication adherence. Moreover, psychosocial factors, such as the patients' quality of the emotional feelings and the quality of the patient/doctor relationship were demonstrated to be factors affecting the level of patient activation. Finally, the mediation effect of the Patient Health Engagement model was confirmed by the analysis. Consistently with the results of previous studies, these findings demonstrate that the Patient Health Engagement Model is a critical factor in enhancing

  2. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Altena, E.; Vis, J.C.; Koene, T.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy

  3. Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Royse, Kathryn E; Benitez, Tanya J; Pekmezi, Dorothy W

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL) in older adults. Findings from these studies indicate that the relationship between PA and QOL is indirect and likely mediated by variables such as physical self-esteem, exercise self-efficacy, and affect. As PA varies greatly by age, the purpose of the current study is to extend this area of research to young adults and explore the complex relationship between PA and QOL in this target population. Data were collected via anonymous questionnaire from N = 590 undergraduate students. PA was assessed with the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and QOL was assessed by the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Path analysis was used to test the relationship between PA and QOL, with mediators of exercise self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and affect. The PA model (RMSEA = .03, CFI = .99) accounted for 25 % of the variance in QOL. PA had positive direct effects on exercise self-efficacy (β = .28, P physical self-esteem (β = .10, P positive affect (β = .10, P affect (β = .08, P Physical self-esteem was found to be the most powerful mediating variable on QOL (β = .30, P positive affect (β = .27, P affect (β = .14, P Physical self-esteem and, to a lesser extent, positive affect emerged as integral components in the link between PA and QOL. Findings suggest that health education programs designed to promote regular PA and increase physical self-esteem may be effective in improving QOL in young adults.

  4. Activity of retinene palmitasynthetase and retinene palmitatehydrolase in the small intestine mucosa and membranes of its cells in white rats affected by A-avitaminosis and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutskij, K.M.; Sovtysik, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    A combined action of A-avitaminosis and ionizing radiation on the activity of retinenepalmitatesynthetase and retinenepalmitatehydrolase in the small intestine mucosa and cell membranes of white rats has been investigated. The activity of retinenepalmitatehydrolase has been shown to decrease in the irradiated animals deficient in vitamin A as compared to the control nonirradiated animals. The activity of retinenepalmitatesynthetase affected by a combination of A-avitaminosis and irradiation increases as compared to the control nonirradiated rats both in the small intestine mucosa and its cell membranes

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Vergeer, M.; de Vries, R.; Kappelle, P. J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dullaart RPF, Vergeer M, de Vries R, Kappelle PJWH, Dallinga-Thie GM (University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen; and Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam; The Netherlands). Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect

  6. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the

  7. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles

  8. Dietary Linoleic and a-Linolenic Acid Affect Anxiety-Related Responses and Exploratory Activity in Growing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, C.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kerkhof, van I.; Smink, W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that the dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to a-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursors of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, may affect behavior in mammals. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary LA and

  9. Constraints imposed by transmembrane domains affect enzymatic activity of membrane-associated human CD39/NTPDase1 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Elgilda; Islam, Naziba; Drosopoulos, Joan H F

    2007-05-01

    Human CD39/NTPDase1 is an endothelial cell membrane-associated nucleotidase. Its large extracellular domain rapidly metabolizes nucleotides, especially ADP released from activated platelets, inhibiting further platelet activation/recruitment. Previous studies using our recombinant soluble CD39 demonstrated the importance of residues S57, D54, and D213 for enzymatic/biological activity. We now report effects of S57A, D54A, and D213A mutations on full-length (FL)CD39 function. Enzymatic activity of alanine modified FLCD39s was less than wild-type, contrasting the enhanced activity of their soluble counterparts. Furthermore, conservative substitutions D54E and D213E led to enzymes with activities greater than the alanine modified FLCD39s, but less than wild-type. Reductions in mutant activities were primarily associated with reduced catalytic rates. Differences in enzymatic activity were not attributable to gross changes in the nucleotide binding pocket or the enzyme's ability to multimerize. Thus, composition of the active site of wild-type CD39 appears optimized for ADPase function in the context of the transmembrane domains.

  10. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  11. Towards needs-based work environments : Psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Gerard Hoendervanger

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  12. Towards needs-based work environments: psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  13. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nima, Ali; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants' (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  14. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect.Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule.Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27.Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  15. The fMRI analysis of brain activation in response to face image affected by background images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Takamasa; Fukami, Tadanori; Saito, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The stimuli of a face images expressing fear induce the activation in the medial temporal lobe was reported in previous studies. In particular, it was reported that face image expressing fear activated the amygdala and hippo-campus area of brain. In these studies, no background images were used with facial stimuli. However, normal day-to-day images always have a background. We investigated the effect of combining face images expressing fear and different background images. As a result, strong activation was detected in the amygdala and hippocampus area when the lightning background image was used. But strong activation was not detected when the fire background image was used. From the results of questionnaire rating the impression of possibility of experiencing the situation of shown images, it is thought that this difference of impression of possibility made the difference of empathy and caused the difference of brain activation. (author)

  16. Neurodevelopmental disease-associated de novo mutations and rare sequence variants affect TRIO GDP/GTP exchange factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Sara M; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Minsheng; Eipper, Betty A; Koleske, Anthony J; Mains, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability are complex neurodevelopmental disorders, debilitating millions of people. Therapeutic progress is limited by poor understanding of underlying molecular pathways. Using a targeted search, we identified an enrichment of de novo mutations in the gene encoding the 330-kDa triple functional domain (TRIO) protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. By generating multiple TRIO antibodies, we show that the smaller TRIO9 isoform is the major brain protein product, and its levels decrease after birth. TRIO9 contains two guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains with distinct specificities: GEF1 activates both Rac1 and RhoG; GEF2 activates RhoA. To understand the impact of disease-associated de novo mutations and other rare sequence variants on TRIO function, we utilized two FRET-based biosensors: a Rac1 biosensor to study mutations in TRIO (T)GEF1, and a RhoA biosensor to study mutations in TGEF2. We discovered that one autism-associated de novo mutation in TGEF1 (K1431M), at the TGEF1/Rac1 interface, markedly decreased its overall activity toward Rac1. A schizophrenia-associated rare sequence variant in TGEF1 (F1538Intron) was substantially less active, normalized to protein level and expressed poorly. Overall, mutations in TGEF1 decreased GEF1 activity toward Rac1. One bipolar disorder-associated rare variant (M2145T) in TGEF2 impaired inhibition by the TGEF2 pleckstrin-homology domain, resulting in dramatically increased TGEF2 activity. Overall, genetic damage to both TGEF domains altered TRIO catalytic activity, decreasing TGEF1 activity and increasing TGEF2 activity. Importantly, both GEF changes are expected to decrease neurite outgrowth, perhaps consistent with their association with neurodevelopmental disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed.

  19. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N.; Andrade Junior, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

  20. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1999-11-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

  1. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Malik, A.; Varik, S.; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V.K.; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially...

  3. Busy boards: How does the simultaneous participation of directors in multiple companies affect the board’s activities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Guerra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the simultaneous participation of directors in multiple companies and its effects on boards’ roles and activities. By sitting in multiple boards, directors may face time scarcity and they may be too busy to adequately perform their tasks. Using survey questionnaires about board’s activities, which were directly sent to firms and their directors, this paper founds that busy boards are considered to be less active, less independent and less relevant to firms. Additionally, these boards are less committed to their responsibilities, such as hiring/firing the CEO and evaluating executives’ performance. They also do not monitor the firm’s risk properly. Our results present an insider perception of the board’s roles and activities, which can be useful for market regulators and policy-makers.

  4. An investigation of the parameters affecting continuous on-line neutron activation analysis and its application to process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, C.

    1977-03-01

    A system analysis was made and a description was given of on-line continuous activation analysis. The suitability of the various languages available on the Burroughs B6700 computer for simulation of such systems was assessed. A programme was written in the selected languages to incorporate facilities for specifying the geometry of both activation and detector cells and of the delay line linking the two

  5. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  6. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, Ana L.; Faller, Douglas V.; Ghosh, Sajal K.

    2003-01-01

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  7. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  8. How do microlocal environmental variations affect microbial activities of a Pinus halepensis litter in a Mediterranean coastal area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemian, Leila; Guiral, Daniel; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2014-10-15

    Mediterranean coastal ecosystems suffer many different types of natural and anthropogenic environmental pressure. Microbial communities, major conductors of organic matter decomposition are also subject to these environmental constraints. In this study, our aim was to understand how microbial activities vary at a small spatio-temporal scale in a Mediterranean coastal environment. Microbial activities were monitored in a Pinus halepensis litter collected from two areas, one close to (10 m) and one far from (300 m) the French Mediterranean coast. Litters were transferred from one area to the other using litterbags and studied via different microbial indicators after 2, 5 and 13 months. Microbial Basal Respiration, qCO₂, certain enzyme activities (laccase, cellulase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and functional diversity via Biolog microplates were assayed in litterbags left in the area of origin as well as in litterbags transferred from one area to the other. Results highlight that microbial activities differ significantly in this short spatial scale over time. The influence of microlocal conditions more intensified for litters situated close to the sea, especially during summer seems to have a stressful effect on microbial communities, leading to less efficient functional activities. However, microbial activities were more strongly influenced by temporal variations linked to seasonality than by location. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ring structure amino acids affect the suppressor activity of melon aphid-borne yellows virus P0 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Qi; Han, Cheng-Gui; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin

    2010-10-10

    Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) is a newly identified polerovirus occurring in China. Here, we demonstrate that the MABYV encoded P0 (P0(MA)) protein is a strong suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) with activity comparable to tobacco etch virus (TEV) HC-Pro. In addition we have shown that the LP F-box motif present at the N-terminus of P0(MA) is required for suppressor activity. Detailed mutational analyses on P0(MA) revealed that changing the conserved Trp 212 with non-ring structured amino acids altered silencing suppressor functions. Ala substitutions at positions 12 and 211 for Phe had no effect on P0 suppression-activity, whereas Arg and Glu substitutions had greatly decreased suppressor activity. Furthermore, substitutions targeting Phe at position 30 also resulted in reduced P0 suppression-activity. Altogether, these results suggest that ring structured Trp/Phe residues in P0 have important roles in suppressor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. pH-Dependent Binding of Chloride to a Marine Alkaline Phosphatase Affects the Catalysis, Active Site Stability, and Dimer Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjörleifsson, Jens G; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2017-09-26

    The effect of ionic strength on enzyme activity and stability varies considerably between enzymes. Ionic strength is known to affect the catalytic activity of some alkaline phosphatases (APs), such as Escherichia coli AP, but how ions affect APs is debated. Here, we studied the effect of various ions on a cold-adapted AP from Vibrio splendidus (VAP). Previously, we have found that the active form of VAP is extremely unstable at low ionic strengths. Here we show that NaCl increased the activity and stability of VAP and that the effect was pH-dependent in the range of pH 7-10. The activity profile as a function of pH formed two maxima, indicating a possible conformational change. Bringing the pH from the neutral to the alkaline range was accompanied by a large increase in both the K i for inorganic phosphate (product inhibition) and the K M for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The activity transitions observed as the pH was varied correlated with structural changes as monitored by tryptophan fluorescence. Thermal and urea-induced inactivation was shown to be accompanied by neither dissociation of the active site metal ions nor dimer dissociation. This would suggest that the inactivation involved subtle changes in active site conformation. Furthermore, the VAP dimer equilibrium was studied for the first time and shown to highly favor dimerization, which was dependent on pH and NaCl concentration. Taken together, the data support a model in which anions bind to some specific acceptor in the active site of VAP, resulting in great stabilization and catalytic rate enhancement, presumably through a different mechanism.

  12. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy [Bioreclamation In Vitro Technologies, Baltimore, MD 21227 (United States); Swaan, Peter W. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Hongbing, E-mail: hwang@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  13. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  14. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  15. PPARα activation differently affects microparticle content in atherosclerotic lesions and liver of a mouse model of atherosclerosis and NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Morgane; Leroyer, Aurélie S; Majd, Zouher; Lalloyer, Fanny; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Delerive, Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal M; Staels, Bart; Tailleux, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are complex pathologies characterized by lipid accumulation, chronic inflammation and extensive tissue remodelling. Microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, might not only be biomarkers, but also functional actors in these pathologies. The apoE2-KI mouse is a model of atherosclerosis and NAFLD. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARα decreases atherosclerosis and components of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the apoE2-KI mouse. (1) To determine whether MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions, liver and plasma during atherosclerosis and NASH progression in apoE2-KI mice, and (2) to study whether PPARα activation modulates MP concentrations. ApoE2-KI mice were fed a Western diet to induce atherosclerosis and NASH. MPs were isolated from atherosclerotic lesions, liver and blood and quantified by flow cytometry. An increase of MPs was observed in the atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice upon Western diet feeding. PPARα activation with fenofibrate decreased MP levels in the atherosclerotic lesions in a PPARα-dependent manner, but did not influence MP concentrations in the liver. Here we report that MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice. Their concentration increased during atherosclerosis and NASH development. PPARα activation differentially modulates MP levels in a tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker,