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Sample records for affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

  1. Mg spin affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

    CERN Document Server

    Tulub, Alexander A

    2009-01-01

    The Schlegel-Frisch ab initio molecular dynamics (ADMP) (DFT:B3LYP), T = 310 K, is used to study complexation between adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), ATP subsystem, and magnesium cofactor [Mg(H2O)6]2+, Mg subsystem, in a water pool, modeled with 78 water molecules, in singlet (S) and triplet (T) states. The computations prove that the way of ATP cleavage is governed by the electron spin of Mg. In the S state Mg prefers chelation of \\gamma-\\beta-phosphate oxygens (O1-O2), whereas in the T state it chelates \\beta-\\alpha-phosphate oxygens (O2-O3) or produces a single-bonded intermediate. Unlike the chelates, which initiate ionic reaction paths, the single-bonded intermediate starts off a free-radical path of ATP cleavage, yielding a highly reactive adenosinemonophosphate ion-radical, .AMP-, earlier observed in the CIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) experiment (A.A. Tulub, 2006). The free-radical path is highly sensitive to Mg nuclear spin, which through a hyperfine interaction favors the produc...

  2. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  3. Diagnostic value of adenosine-triphosphate radionuclide ventriculography in coronary artery disease. Comparison with conventional exercise stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) on hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) function, and to examine the value of ATP radionuclide-ventriculography (RNVG) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with standard exercise RNVG. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with suspected CAD underwent ATP (0.18 mg/Kg/min) RNVG and symptom-limited exercise RNVG. Coronary angiography revealed 27 patients with CAD (Group S) and 11 without CAD (Group N). In group S, exercise induced an increase in LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and a decrease in LV ejection fraction (LVEF). In contrast, ATP infusion caused LVESV to decrease in both groups, improving LVEF. Only 14 of 39 segments whose wall motion was deteriorated by exercise showed worsening regional wall motion during ATP infusion. The sensitivity and specificity of ATP RNVG for detecting CAD were 22. 2% and 100%, while those of exercise RNVG were 77.8% and 81.8%, respectively. Although ATP induced a depression of peak filling rate in group S as compared with group N, the deterioration of systolic function was not apparent with this method. ATP RNVG was not adequate for detecting CAD because of its lower sensitivity compared with exercise RNVG. (author)

  4. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  5. Whence Induced Demand: How Access Affects Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, David; Kanchi, Seshasai

    2000-01-01

    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other), some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering questions of what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced. This pa...

  6. Active Affective Learning for Accelerated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robert B.

    This paper provides the groundwork for Active Affective Learning and teaching adapted to the needs of the disadvantaged, at-risk students served by the Accelerated Schools Movement. One of the "golden rules" for the practice of Accelerated Learning, according to psychiatrist Georgi Lozanov, has been to maintain an "up-beat" classroom presentation…

  7. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H;

    2015-01-01

    skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  8. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  9. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  10. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  11. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  12. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  13. How do oil prices affect oilrig activity? : an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Resume "How do oil prices affect oilrig activity? An empirical investigation" by Guro Børnes Ringlund. Supervisors: Knut Einar Rosendahl and Terje Skjerpen. In this thesis, I analyse the relationship between oilrig activity and oil price changes for several oil-producing regions in the world. Rig activity is a preparation for future production of oil, through exploration for new fields or development of existing fields, and is thus an indicator for the future level of oil production. ...

  14. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  15. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  16. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  17. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  18. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  20. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  1. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  2. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  3. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect androgen receptor activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hnida, Christina; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    of certain PAHs to activate the Ah receptor was assessed in H4IIE liver cancer cells, stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system. The positive control 2, 3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) caused a 13-14-fold induction of luciferase activity reaching maximum activity at 0.1 nM. DB[a,h]A, B...

  4. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  5. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  6. Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-01-18

    Salivary alpha-Amylase (sAA) is a starch digesting enzyme. In addition to its function in the context of nutrition, sAA has also turned out to be useful for monitoring sympathetic nervous system activity. Recent studies on humans have found a relationship between intra-individual changes in sAA activity and physical and psychological stress. In studies on primates and other vertebrates, non-invasive monitoring of short-term stress responses is usually based on measurements of cortisol levels, which are indicative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. The few studies that have used both cortisol levels and sAA activity indicate that these two markers may respond differently and independently to different types of stress such that variation in the degree of the activation of different stress response systems might reflect alternative coping mechanisms or individual traits. Here, we present the first data on intra- and inter-individual variation of sAA activity in captive bonobos and compare the results with information from other ape species and humans. Our results indicate that sAA activity in the bonobo samples was significantly lower than in the human samples but within the range of other great ape species. In addition, sAA activity was significantly higher in samples collected at times when subjects had been exposed to stressors (judged by changes in behavioral patterns and cortisol levels) than in samples collected at other times. Our results indicate that bonobos possess functioning sAA and, as in other species, sAA activity is influenced by autonomic nervous system activity. Monitoring sAA activity could therefore be a useful tool for evaluating stress in bonobos. PMID:21945369

  7. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5....... The difference increased with increasing activity intensity, with up to 1000 counts per minute at fast running.Discussion & conclusions: Activity counts from vigorous physical activity is highly attenuated with the ActiLife software. High frequency movement and noise information escape the bandpass filter...... depending on the sampling frequency of data collection, adding unexplained variation in activity counts. Therefore, the choice of sampling frequency may be an additional source of error with large impact on phsyical activty research as many investigators are using the ActiGraph with the ActiLife software...

  8. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, A; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; M. Cifra; Pokorný, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of ...

  9. Toward understanding how the lactone moiety of discodermolide affects activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Simon J; Sundermann, Kurt F; Burlingame, Mark A; Myles, David C; Freeze, B Scott; Xian, Ming; Brouard, Ignacio; Smith, Amos B

    2005-05-11

    A series of simplified discodermolide analogues have been designed and synthesized in an attempt to understand the role of the lactone ring. These synthetic efforts have led to an unsubstituted butyrolactone 9 being generated, which shows improved activity over the natural product.

  10. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to co

  11. Inhibition of Nek2 by Small Molecules Affects Proteasome Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyao Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nek2 is a serine/threonine kinase localized to the centrosome. It promotes cell cycle progression from G2 to M by inducing centrosome separation. Recent studies have shown that high Nek2 expression is correlated with drug resistance in multiple myeloma patients. Materials and Methods. To investigate the role of Nek2 in bortezomib resistance, we ectopically overexpressed Nek2 in several cancer cell lines, including multiple myeloma lines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Nek2 were discovered using an in-house library of compounds. We tested the inhibitors on proteasome and cell cycle activity in several cell lines. Results. Proteasome activity was elevated in Nek2-overexpressing cell lines. The Nek2 inhibitors inhibited proteasome activity in these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these inhibitors resulted in inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation of several cell cycle regulators in HeLa cells, leaving them arrested in G2/M. Combining these Nek2 inhibitors with bortezomib increased the efficacy of bortezomib in decreasing proteasome activity in vitro. Treatment with these novel Nek2 inhibitors successfully mitigated drug resistance in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. Conclusion. Nek2 plays a central role in proteasome-mediated cell cycle regulation and in conferring resistance to bortezomib in cancer cells. Taken together, our results introduce Nek2 as a therapeutic target in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma.

  12. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  13. New thiazolidinediones affect endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, Martina; Tripodi, Gustavo L; Ferrer, Renila; Boscá, Lisardo; Pitta, Marina G R; Pitta, Ivan R; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2016-07-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists used in treating type 2 diabetes that may exhibit beneficial pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we characterized the effects of three new TZDs [GQ-32 (3-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-5-(4-nitro-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), GQ-169 (5-(4-chloro-benzylidene)-3-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), and LYSO-7 (5-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione)] on endothelial cells. The effects of the new TZDs were evaluated on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell migration, tube formation and the gene expression of adhesion molecules and angiogenic mediators in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PPARγ activation by new TZDs was addressed with a reporter gene assay. The three new TZDs activated PPARγ and suppressed the tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. GQ-169 and LYSO-7 also inhibited the glucose-induced ROS production. Although NO production assessed with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein-FM probe indicated that all tested TZDs enhanced intracellular levels of NO, only LYSO-7 treatment significantly increased the release of NO from HUVEC measured by chemiluminescence analysis of culture media. Additionally, GQ-32 and GQ-169 induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation by the up-regulation of angiogenic molecules expression, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and interleukin 8. GQ-169 also increased the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, and GQ-32 enhanced transforming growth factor-β expression. Together, the results of this study reveal that these new TZDs act as partial agonists of PPARγ and modulate endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction besides to stimulate migration and tube formation. PMID:27108791

  14. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  15. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  16. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  17. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalova, M.; Jandova, A.; Dohnalova, A.

    2011-12-01

    A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.

  18. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.

  19. Human immunodeficiency syndromes affecting human natural killer cell cytolytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Denis Billadeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T-cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with SNARE-dependent fusion promotes lytic granule release into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process.

  20. Cobalt in alluvial Egyptian soils as affected by industrial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Co content in alluvial soils of Delta in Egypt using the delayed Neturen activation analysis technique (DNAA). The two prominent gamma ray lines at 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV was efficiently used for 60Co determination. Co content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 13.12 to 23.20 ppm Co with an average of 18.16*4.38 ppm. Cobalt content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 26.5 to 30.00 ppm with an average of 28.3*1.3 ppm. The highest Co levels (ranged from 36 to 64.69 ppm with an average of 51.9*9.5); were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils due to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  1. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  2. Youth perceptions of how neighborhood physical environment and peers affect physical activity: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alan L.; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is need for a youth-informed conceptualization of how environmental and social neighborhood contexts influence physical activity. We assessed youths’ perceptions of their neighborhood physical and peer environments as affecting physical activity. Methods Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity. Results Inducti...

  3. Momentary affective states are associated with momentary volume, prospective trends and fluctuation of daily physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina K. Kanning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57% participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 hours. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 minute periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-minute assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 minutes. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 minutes, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported

  4. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  5. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  6. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  7. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  8. Alteration of membrane phospholipid methylation by adenosine analogs does not affect T lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane phospholipid methylation has been described during activation of various immune cells. Moreover recent data indicated modulation of immune cells functions by adenosine. As S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine are adenosine analogs and modulators of transmethylation reactions, the effects of SAH and SAM were investigated on membrane phospholipid methylation and lymphocyte activation. SAM was shown to induce the membrane phospholipid methylation as assessed by the 3Hmethyl-incorporation in membrane extract. This effect was inhibited by SAH. In contrast SAM and SAH did not affect the phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. SAH neither modified the early internalization of membrane CD3 antigens nor did it prevent the late expression of HLA-DR antigens on lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin. These results indicate that in vitro alteration of phospholipid methylation does not affect subsequent steps of human T lymphocyte activation and proliferation

  9. Affect and achievement goals in physical activity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S J

    1999-12-01

    Achievement goal orientation theory has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. In view of the importance of identifying the motivational antecedents of affect in physical activity, this study examined through meta-analysis the conflicting evidence regarding the links between different achievement goals and emotions. Using the formulas of Hunter and Schmidt (1), correlations were gathered from 41 independent samples and were corrected for both sampling and measurement errors. The results showed that task orientation and positive affect were moderately-to-highly correlated and in a positive fashion, whereas the relationship between task orientation and negative affect was negative and moderate to small. Both correlations were found to be heterogeneous, and so moderators were sought. The relationships between ego orientation and positive and negative affect were positive but very small, with the former being heterogeneous. Moderators coded were the time frame of affect (independent of context vs. after an athletic event), the physical activity setting (school physical education vs. recreation vs. competitive sport), age (university vs. school students), nationality (British vs. American), nature of negative affect (high vs. low arousal), and the publication status of the studies (published vs. unpublished). Lastly, a subset of the corrected correlations were inserted into a structural equation modelling analysis in order to look concurrently at the relationships among all the variables.

  10. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  11. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of public hospitals in Scandinavia are reimbursed through a mixture of two prospective reimbursement schemes, block grants (a fixed amount independent of the number of patients treated) and activity-based financing (ABF). This article contributes theoretically to the existing...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover...

  12. CES1 genetic variation affects the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wang, G; Shi, J; Aa, J; Comas, R; Liang, Y; Zhu, H-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) genetic variation on the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) prodrugs. In vitro incubation study of human liver, intestine and kidney s9 fractions demonstrated that the ACEI prodrugs enalapril, ramipril, perindopril, moexipril and fosinopril are selectively activated by CES1 in the liver. The impact of CES1/CES1VAR and CES1P1/CES1P1VAR genotypes and diplotypes on CES1 expression and activity on enalapril activation was investigated in 102 normal human liver samples. Neither the genotypes nor the diplotypes affected hepatic CES1 expression and activity. Moreover, among several CES1 nonsynonymous variants studied in transfected cell lines, the G143E (rs71647871) was a loss-of-function variant for the activation of all ACEIs tested. The CES1 activity on enalapril activation in human livers with the 143G/E genotype was approximately one-third of that carrying the 143G/G. Thus, some functional CES1 genetic variants (for example, G143E) may impair ACEI activation, and consequently affect therapeutic outcomes of ACEI prodrugs. PMID:26076923

  13. Elements of Design-Based Science Activities That Affect Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Chittum, Jessica R.; Akalin, Sehmuz; Schram, Asta B.; Fink, Jonathan; Schnittka, Christine; Evans, Michael A.; Brandt, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which a 12-week after-school science and engineering program affected middle school students' motivation to engage in science and engineering activities. We used current motivation research and theory as a conceptual framework to assess 14 students' motivation through questionnaires,…

  14. Agar composition affects in vitro screening of biocontrol activity of antagonistic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Lien; De Bruijn, I.; de Mot, Rene; Readers, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Agar-based screening assays are the method of choice when evaluating antagonistic potential of bacterial biocontrol-candidates against pathogens.Weshowed thatwhen using the samemedium, but different agar compositions, the activity of a bacterial antagonist against Agrobacteriumwas strongly affected.

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Physical Activity and Affect in Depressed and Nondepressed Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Booij, Sanne H.; Roest, Annelieke M.; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The association between physical activity and affect found in longitudinal observational studies is generally small to moderate. It is unknown how this association generalizes to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate interindividual differences in the bidirectional

  16. Glomalin in a mediterranean ecosystem affected by mining activities and its contribution to heavy metals sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, P.; Meier, F.; Borie, G.; Borie, F.

    2009-07-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and usually presents in high amounts in soil, may stabilize heavy metals such as Cu an Zn in soils affected by mining activities, as large areas of central Chile. (Author)

  17. Watered depressions as ecological phenomena in regions affected by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the importance of mine watered depressions in a landscape affected by mining activities (model localities - Louky nad Olsi, Orlova and Horni Sucha, Karvina district) from an ecological point of view - conservation and formation of wetland and water ecosystems, genetic resources and biodiversity conservation

  18. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  19. Antifungal activity of different natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Mari selvam; AJA Ranjit Singh; K Kalirajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study to evaluate the anti fungal activity of natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens. Methods: Many traditional craft products affected fungal pathogens were isolated using potato dextrose agar medium. The isolated fungus were identified by morphological and microscopically characterization using Alexopolus manual. 50μl of Turmeric, Terminalli, Guava and Henna natural dyes were poured into the wells of the culture plates. If antifungal activity was present on the plates, it was indicated by an inhibition zone surrounding the well containing the natural dye. Result: At a dose level of 50μl of terminalli dye was able to inhibit the growth of all the fungi tested. The absorbance rate of natural dyes analyzed by UV Spectrophotometer. The absorbance rate is high in terminalli (2.266) and turmeric (2.255). Conclusions: Natural dyes were bound with traditional products to give good colour and good antimicrobial activity against isolated fungal pathogens.

  20. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  1. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  2. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can ...

  3. Sex differences in how stress affects brain activity during face viewing

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Mara; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Nga, Lin; Marissa A Gorlick

    2010-01-01

    Under stress, men tend to withdraw socially while women seek social support. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates that stress also affects brain activity while viewing emotional faces differently for men and women. Fusiform face area (FFA) response to faces was diminished by acute stress in males but increased by stress in females. Furthermore, among stressed males viewing angry faces, brain regions involved in interpreting and understanding others' emotions (the ...

  4. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  5. Factors affecting hospital stay in psychiatric patients: the role of active comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Douzenis, Athanassios; Seretis, Dionysios; Nika, Stella; Nikolaidou, Paraskevi; Papadopoulou, Athanassia; Rizos, Emmanouil N; Christodoulou, Christos; Tsopelas, Christos; Mitchell, Dominic; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on length of stay (LOS) of psychiatric inpatients is an under-investigated issue. In this naturalistic study factors which affect LOS of two groups of patients were investigated, focusing on the impact on LOS of medical comorbidity severe enough to require referral. Methods Active medical comorbidity was quantified using referral as the criterion. The study sample consisted of 200 inpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and 228 inpatients suffering from bipolar diso...

  6. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils.The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA),in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1).The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system.The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 kev was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination.Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 + 5.1 ppm.Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 + 32.6 ppm.The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 + 54.4 ppm,were observed in soil samples collected from,either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  7. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  8. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. PMID:27030953

  9. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity.

  10. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  11. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  12. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  13. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  14. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  15. Story understanding of a nonexplanatory film affects viewers' premotor activity and empathy for fictional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Ogawa,1 Sotaro Shimada2 1Faculty of Social Sciences, Hosei University, Tokyo, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan Objective: The present study aimed to examine whether the story understanding of a nonexplanatory film affects mirror neuron system (MNS activity and to discuss the interactive process involved in generating empathy for fictional characters during participants’ viewing of the film under natural viewing conditions.Methods: The material of the experiment was a Japanese film entitled Dolls. It is a nonexplanatory fiction film, in which the two (male and female main characters show only minimal actions or facial expressions; therefore, the viewers hardly understand the story until it has been developed to some extent. We measured twelve participants’ MNS activity by using near-infrared spectroscopy during the viewing of the first 20 minutes of the film. Additionally, we measured the brain activity while performing their own hand and leg motions after viewing the film to identify their motor cortices.Results: The results showed that the viewer’s MNS activity increased gradually as the introductory part of the story developed. Subsequent analyses revealed a significant increase in MNS activity in the later chapters of the film at the right premotor and supplementary motor cortices (P<0.05. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the MNS activity and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scores (P<0.05.Conclusion: These results indicate that the viewer’s MNS activity was enhanced by the story understanding of a fiction film. We suggest that MNS activity during viewing fiction films can be used as a measure of how much the story, and rhetoric of a narrative, induces empathy in the viewers even if characters show only minimal actions or facial expressions. Keywords: mirror neuron system, MNS, empathy, nonexplanatory film, story

  16. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Brzezinska, Zofia; Klapcinska, Barbara; Galbo, Henrik; Gorski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  17. Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects the activity of a generalist predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Nacho; Lambin, Xavier; Evans, Darren; Pakeman, Robin; Redpath, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Grazing by domestic ungulates has substantial impacts on ecosystem structure and composition. In grasslands of the northern hemisphere, livestock grazing limits populations of small mammals, which are a main food source for a variety of vertebrate predators. However, no experimental studies have described the impact of livestock grazing on vertebrate predators. We experimentally manipulated sheep and cattle grazing intensity in the Scottish uplands to test its impact on a relatively abundant small mammal, the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and its archetypal generalist predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We demonstrate that ungulate grazing had a strong consistent negative impact on both vole densities and indices of fox activity. Ungulate grazing did not substantially affect the relationship between fox activity and vole densities. However, the data suggested that, as grazing intensity increased i) fox activity indices tended to be higher when vole densities were low, and ii) the relationship between fox activity and vole density was weaker. All these patterns are surprising given the relative small scale of our experiment compared to large red fox territories in upland habitats of Britain, and suggest that domestic grazing intensity causes a strong response in the activity of generalist predators important for their conservation in grassland ecosystems.

  18. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  19. Dietary fatty acid composition affects aminopeptidase activities in the testes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechaga, Garbiñe; Prieto, Isabel; Segarra, Ana B; Alba, Francisco; Ruiz-Larrea, María B; Ruiz-Sanz, José I; de Gasparo, Marc; Ramirez, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    The autocrine/paracrine control mechanisms of local factors, such as the renin-angiotensin system and the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), seem to play a relevant role in testicular physiology. It has been proposed that dietary fat composition influences male reproductive function modifying the cholesterol-phospholipid composition of testicular plasma membranes. Modifications in the composition and physical properties of the membranes may lead to alterations in the activities of membrane-bound (M-B) enzymes. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol and steroid hormones affect aminopeptidase (AP) activities. Dietary fatty acids with different degrees of saturation modified AP activities in the serum of mice and an olive oil supplemented diet influenced the AP activities in the testes of mice. We hypothesized that the modification of dietary fat composition may affect angiotensin- [glutamyl-AP (GluAP), aspartyl-AP (AspAP)] and TRH- [pyroglutamyl-AP (pGluAP)] degrading activities in the testis. In this study, we investigated the effect of diets supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO), fish oil (FO), olive oil (OO), lard (L) or coconut oil (CO) on soluble (Sol) and M-B GluAP, AspAP and pGluAP in mice testis, using arylamides as substrates. Sol GluAP activity did not show differences among groups. However, Sol AspAP and Sol pGluAP progressively decreased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. In contrast, M-B GluAP progressively increased with the degree of saturation of the fatty acid used in the diet. For M-B AspAP activity, mice fed diets containing FO showed significantly higher levels than those fed diets containing SFO, OO and L but not those containing CO. For M-B pGluAP activity, the highest levels were observed for mice fed diets containing FO and OO. The present data suggest that the type of fat used in the diet may influence the autocrine/paracrine functions of locally synthesized angiotensin peptides and TRH in the testis

  20. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani, E-mail: arianiinaira@yahoo.com.br; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moraes, Rosana Nogueira [Pontifícia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ramos, Helton Estrela [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5{sup th} and 10{sup th} days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  1. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

  2. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality. PMID:25977015

  3. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah Galen

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through...... for cognitive and treatment effects with an active control group. We measured behavioral metacognition and whole-brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals using functional MRI during an affective Stroop task before and after intervention in healthy human subjects. Although both groups improved...... prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training, and suggest that optimal application of MT may differ depending...

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Indirectly Regulates ERK Activity by Affecting Raf Protein Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei DOU; Liu-Di YUAN; Jing-Jing ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nerve system diseases. As more and more kinases have been discovered to be the client proteins of the molecular chaperone Hsp90, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors to reduce abnormal kinase activity is a new treatment strategy for nerve system diseases. This study investigated the regulation of the ERK pathway by Hsp90. We showed that Hsp90 inhibitors reduce ERK phosphorylation without affecting the total ERK protein level. Further investigation showed that Raf, the upstream kinase in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway,forms a complex with Hsp90 and Hsp70. Treating cells with Hsp90 inhibitors facilitates Raf degradation,thereby down-regulating the activity of ERK.

  5. Procyanidins Negatively Affect the Activity of the Phosphatases of Regenerating Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols like oligomeric catechins (procyanidins derived from green tea and herbal medicines are interesting compounds for pharmaceutical research due to their ability to protect against carcinogenesis in animal models. It is nevertheless still unclear how intracellular pathways are modulated by polyphenols. Monomeric polyphenols were shown to affect the activity of some protein phosphatases (PPs. The three phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs are close relatives and promising therapeutic targets in cancer. In the present study we show that several procyanidins inhibit the activity of all three members of the PRL family in the low micromolar range, whereas monomeric epicatechins show weak inhibitory activity. Increasing the number of catechin units in procyanidins to more than three does not further enhance the potency. Remarkably, the tested procyanidins showed selectivity in vitro when compared to other PPs, and over 10-fold selectivity toward PRL-1 over PRL-2 and PRL-3. As PRL overexpression induces cell migration compared to control cells, the effect of procyanidins on this phenotype was studied. Treatment with procyanidin C2 led to a decrease in cell migration of PRL-1- and PRL-3-overexpressing cells, suggesting the compound-dependent inhibition of PRL-promoted cell migration. Treatment with procyanidin B3 led to selective suppression of PRL-1 overexpressing cells, thereby corroborating the selectivity toward PRL-1- over PRL-3 in vitro. Together, our results show that procyanidins negatively affect PRL activity, suggesting that PRLs could be targets in the polypharmacology of natural polyphenols. Furthermore, they are interesting candidates for the development of PRL-1 inhibitors due to their low cellular toxicity and the selectivity within the PRL family.

  6. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  7. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  8. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  9. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  10. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates. PMID:27041309

  11. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates.

  12. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  13. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  14. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R2=0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R2=0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R2=0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R2=0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of lower limb

  15. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  16. Investigation of factors affecting xylanase activity from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyis Isil

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some physiological conditions affecting the activity of xylanase enzyme produced from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 were determined. In addition, stabilization of pH and temperature in liquid and semi-solid state cultivation media were investigated. It was concluded that for maximum xylanase activity, incubation at 60°C in an enzyme incubation medium with pH 5 that contained 1 % xylan was appropriate. The stability studies showed that the enzyme was relatively stable in the pH range 3-7 and retained more than 50 % of its original activity after four months.Neste estudo algumas condições que afetam a atividade da enzima xylanase produzida a partir de Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 foram determinadas. A estabilização do pH e temperatura em cultivo líquido e semi-sólido foram avaliados. Foi concluído que para o máximo de atividade xylanase foi obtida com 1% de xylano a temperatura de 60ºC e pH 5.0. Estudos de estabilidade demonstraram que a enzima foi relativamente estável na faixa de pH entre 3-7 e retém mais do que 50% de sua atividade original após 4 meses.

  17. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (Erucin) from rocket plant dichotomously affects the activity of human immunocompetent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Carsten; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Lamy, Evelyn; Hanschen, Franziska S; Huber, Roman

    2015-03-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITC) from the Brassicaceae plant family are regarded as promising for prevention and treatment of cancer. However, experimental settings consider their therapeutic action without taking into account the risk of unwanted effects on healthy tissues. In the present study we investigated the effects of Eruca sativa seed extract containing MTBITC (Erucin) and pure Erucin from rocket plant on healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Hereby, high doses of the plant extract as well as of Erucin inhibited cell viability of human lymphocytes via induction of apoptosis to comparable amounts. Non-toxic low concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin altered the expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor but did not affect further T cell activation, proliferation and the release of the effector molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 of T-lymphocytes. However, the activity of NK-cells was significantly reduced by non-toxic concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin. These results indicate that the plant extract and pure Erucin interfere with the function of human T lymphocytes and decreases the activity of NK-cells in comparable concentrations. Long-term clinical studies with ITC-enriched plant extracts from Brassicaceae should take this into account.

  18. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  19. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

  20. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  1. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  2. Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, J O

    1979-10-01

    A mutation affecting alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity has been shown to be cotransducible with ilv gene cluster. The transaminase deficiency results in conditional isoleucine auxotrophy in the presence of alanine. PMID:396446

  3. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Libuse A

    2007-11-01

    60°C did not affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.

  4. Negative core affect and employee silence: How differences in activation, cognitive rumination, and problem-solving demands matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Hector P; Patterson, Malcolm G; Leiva, Pedro I

    2015-11-01

    Employees can help to improve organizational performance by sharing ideas, suggestions, or concerns about practices, but sometimes they keep silent because of the experience of negative affect. Drawing and expanding on this stream of research, this article builds a theoretical rationale based on core affect and cognitive appraisal theories to describe how differences in affect activation and boundary conditions associated with cognitive rumination and cognitive problem-solving demands can explain employee silence. Results of a diary study conducted with professionals from diverse organizations indicated that within-person low-activated negative core affect increased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive rumination was high. Furthermore, within-person high-activated negative core affect decreased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive problem-solving demand was high. Thus, organizations should manage conditions to reduce experiences of low-activated negative core affect because these feelings increase silence in individuals high in rumination. In turn, effective management of experiences of high-activated negative core affect can reduce silence for individuals working under high problem-solving demand situations.

  5. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities.

  6. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis. PMID:26993237

  7. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions.

  8. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis.

  9. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  10. Interfering with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex via TMS affects social impressions updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Todorov, Alexander; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2016-08-01

    In our everyday social interactions we often need to deal with others' unpredictable behaviors. Integrating unexpected information in a consistent representation of another agent is a cognitively demanding process. Several neuroimaging studies point to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a critical structure in mediating social evaluations. Our aim here was to shed light on the possible causal role of the mPFC in the dynamic process of forming and updating social impressions about others. We addressed this issue by suppressing activity in the mPFC by means of 1 Hz offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to a task requiring participants to evaluate other agents' trustworthiness after reading about their social behavior. In two different experiments, we found that inhibiting activity in the mPFC increased perceived trustworthiness when inconsistent information about one agent's behavior was provided. In turn, when only negative or positive behaviors of a person were described, TMS over the mPFC did not affect judgments. Our results indicate that the mPFC is causally involved in mediating social impressions updating-at least in cases in which judgment is uncertain due to conflicting information to be processed. PMID:27012713

  11. Novel function of perforin in negatively regulating CD4+T cell activation by affecting calcium signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enguang Bi; Kairui Mao; Jia Zou; Yuhan Zheng; Bing Sun; Chunjian Huang; Yu Hu; Xiaodong Wu; Weiwen Deng; Guomei Lin; Zhiduo Liu; Lin Tian; Shuhui Sun

    2009-01-01

    Perforin is a pore-forming protein engaged mainly in mediating target T cell death and is employed by cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. However, whether it also plays a role in conventional CD4+ T cell func-tion remains unclear. Here we report that in perforin-deficient (PKO) mice, CD4+ T cells are hyperproliferative in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. This feature of hyperproliferation is accompanied by the enhancement both in cell division and in IL-2 secretion. It seems that the perforin deficiency does not influence T cell development in thymus spleen and lymph node. In vivo, perforin deficiency results in increased antigen-specific T cell prolifera-tion and antibody production. Furthermore, PKO mice are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune uveitis. To address the molecular mechanism, we found that after TCR stimulation, CD44 T cells from PKO mice display an increased intracellular calcium flux and subsequently enhance activation of transcription factor NFATI. Our results indicate that perforin plays a negative role in regulating CD4+ T cell activation and immune response by affecting TCR-dependent Ca2+ signaling.

  12. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  13. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  14. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  15. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  16. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  17. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  18. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  19. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  20. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  1. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  2. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW.

  3. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes. PMID:24796872

  4. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used.

  5. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  6. Hiding from the moonlight: luminosity and temperature affect activity of Asian nocturnal primates in a highly seasonal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Starr

    Full Text Available The effect of moonlight and temperature on activity of slow lorises was previously little known and this knowledge might be useful for understanding many aspects of their behavioural ecology, and developing strategies to monitor and protect populations. In this study we aimed to determine if the activity of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus is affected by ambient temperature and/or moonlight in a mixed deciduous forest. We radio-collared five females and five males in the Seima Protection Forest, Cambodia, in February to May, 2008 and January to March, 2009 and recorded their behaviour at 5 minutes intervals, totalling 2736 observations. We classified each observation as either inactive (sleeping or alert or active behaviour (travel, feeding, grooming, or others. Moon luminosity (bright/dark and ambient temperature were recorded for each observation. The response variable, activity, was binary (active or inactive, and a logit link function was used. Ambient temperature alone did not significantly affect mean activity. Although mean activity was significantly affected by moonlight, the interaction between moonlight and temperature was also significant: on bright nights, studied animals were increasingly more active with higher temperature; and on dark nights they were consistently active regardless of temperature. The most plausible explanation is that on bright cold nights the combined risk of being seen and attacked by predators and heat loss outweigh the benefit of active behaviours.

  7. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  8. CO2-induced shift in microbial activity affects carbon trapping and water quality in anoxic bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Santillan, Eugenio F. U.; Sanford, Robert A.; Altman, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity is a potentially important yet poorly understood control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. In this study we examine how variation in CO2 abundance affected competition between Fe(III) and SO42--reducers in anoxic bioreactors inoculated with a mixed-microbial community from a freshwater aquifer. We performed two sets of experiments: one with low CO2 partial pressure (∼0.02 atm) in the headspace of the reactors and one with high CO2 partial pressure (∼1 atm). A fluid residence time of 35 days was maintained in the reactors by replacing one-fifth of the aqueous volume with fresh medium every seven days. The aqueous medium was composed of groundwater amended with small amounts of acetate (250 μM), phosphate (1 μM), and ammonium (50 μM) to stimulate microbial activity. Synthetic goethite (1 mmol) and SO42- (500 μM influent concentration) were also available in each reactor to serve as electron acceptors. Results of this study show that higher CO2 abundance increased the ability of Fe(III) reducers to compete with SO42- reducers, leading to significant shifts in CO2 trapping and water quality. Mass-balance calculations and pyrosequencing results demonstrate that SO42- reducers were dominant in reactors with low CO2 content. They consumed 85% of the acetate after acetate consumption reached steady state while Fe(III) reducers consumed only 15% on average. In contrast, Fe(III) reducers were dominant during that same interval in reactors with high CO2 content, consuming at least 90% of the acetate while SO42- reducers consumed a negligible amount (bioreactors enhanced CO2 solubility trapping relative to the low-CO2 bioreactors by increasing alkalinity generation (6X). Hence, the shift in microbial activity we observed was a positive feedback on CO2 trapping. More rapid Fe(III) reduction degraded water quality, however, by leading to high Fe(II) concentration.

  9. Factors affecting hospital stay in psychiatric patients: the role of active comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douzenis Athanassios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on length of stay (LOS of psychiatric inpatients is an under-investigated issue. In this naturalistic study factors which affect LOS of two groups of patients were investigated, focusing on the impact on LOS of medical comorbidity severe enough to require referral. Methods Active medical comorbidity was quantified using referral as the criterion. The study sample consisted of 200 inpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and 228 inpatients suffering from bipolar disorder (type I or II. Jonckheere and Mann–Whitney tests were used to estimate the influence of referrals on LOS, and regression analyses isolated variables associated with LOS separately for each group. Results Half of the patients needed one or more referrals for a non-psychiatric problem. The most common medical condition of patients with bipolar disorder was arterial hypertension. Inpatients with schizophrenia suffered mostly from an endocrine/metabolic disease - 12% of referrals were for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. A positive linear trend was found between LOS and number of referrals; the effect was greater for schizophrenia patients. The effect of referrals on LOS was verified by regression in both groups. Overall, referred patients showed greater improvement in GAF compared to controls. Conclusions To our knowledge this was the first study to investigate physical comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients using the criterion of referral to medical subspecialties. Comorbidity severe enough to warrant referral is a significant determinant of hospital stay. This insight may prove useful in health care planning. The results show lack of effective community care in the case of schizophrenia and negative symptoms may be the cause of this. Our findings call for more attention to be paid to the general medical needs of inpatients with severe mental health and concurrent severe medical comorbidity.

  10. The Identification of Novel Protein-Protein Interactions in Liver that Affect Glucagon Receptor Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Han

    Full Text Available Glucagon regulates glucose homeostasis by controlling glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Exaggerated and dysregulated glucagon secretion can exacerbate hyperglycemia contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Thus, it is important to understand how glucagon receptor (GCGR activity and signaling is controlled in hepatocytes. To better understand this, we sought to identify proteins that interact with the GCGR to affect ligand-dependent receptor activation. A Flag-tagged human GCGR was recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, and GCGR complexes were isolated by affinity purification (AP. Complexes were then analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS, and protein-GCGR interactions were validated by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP and Western blot. This was followed by studies in primary hepatocytes to assess the effects of each interactor on glucagon-dependent glucose production and intracellular cAMP accumulation, and then in immortalized CHO and liver cell lines to further examine cell signaling. Thirty-three unique interactors were identified from the AP-MS screening of GCGR expressing CHO cells in both glucagon liganded and unliganded states. These studies revealed a particularly robust interaction between GCGR and 5 proteins, further validated by Co-IP, Western blot and qPCR. Overexpression of selected interactors in mouse hepatocytes indicated that two interactors, LDLR and TMED2, significantly enhanced glucagon-stimulated glucose production, while YWHAB inhibited glucose production. This was mirrored with glucagon-stimulated cAMP production, with LDLR and TMED2 enhancing and YWHAB inhibiting cAMP accumulation. To further link these interactors to glucose production, key gluconeogenic genes were assessed. Both LDLR and TMED2 stimulated while YWHAB inhibited PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression. In the present study, we have probed the GCGR interactome and found three novel GCGR interactors that control glucagon

  11. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

  12. How Effective Are Affective Activities? Relative Benefits of Two Types of Structured Input Activities as Part of a Computer-Delivered Lesson on the Spanish Subjunctive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Processing Instruction (VanPatten, 2005) claim that learners benefit most when presented with both referential and affective structured input activities. Following a classic pretest-posttest design, the present study investigates the role of these two types of activities on the learning of the Spanish subjunctive. Groups differed…

  13. STUDY ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING REDUCTION CAPACITIES OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reduction adsorption of silver diamminonitrate on different kinds of activated carbonfibers (ACF) has been studied in this paper. The effect of different parameters, including adsorptiontemperature, concentrations of activation agents, and activation time on the silver adsorptioncapacities of activated carbon fibers has been investigated The results show that higher temperaturein which the silver complex interacts with ACF. or higher concentration of activation agent, will makehigher reduction adsorption capacities of ACFs. More over, ACFs activated with phosphoric acidhave higher reduction capacities than those activated with zinc chloride or steam.

  14. Reduction in delta activity predicted improved negative affect in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Goldschmied, Jennifer; Casement, Melynda; Kim, Hyang Sook; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia

    2015-08-30

    While prior research has demonstrated a paradoxical antidepressant effect of slow-wave disruption (SWD), the specific dimensions of depression affected is still unclear. The current study aimed to extend this research by utilizing a dimensional approach in examining the antidepressant effects of SWD. Of particular interest is the affective dimension, as negative affect in depression is arguably the most salient characteristic of depression. This sample included 16 individuals with depression (10 female) recruited from the community. Participants slept in the lab for three nights (adaptation, baseline night, and SWD) with polysomnography, and completed measures of negative affect and depression severity the following morning. Results show that reduction in delta power was linearly associated with improved negative affect. Comparison of individual change scores revealed that half of the individuals showed improved negative affect, which is comparable to the reported 40-60% antidepressant response rate to sleep deprivation. Results suggest that vulnerability in the sleep homeostatic system may be a contributing individual differences factor in response to slow-wave disruption in depression. PMID:26123231

  15. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    extracts affects their antioxidant capacity. For example, the results suggested that trans-resveratrol, gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, coumaric acid and kaempferol may be essential for the antioxidant activity of grape stem extracts. PMID:26300227

  16. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula as affected by composition, water activity, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-07-01

    A study was done to determine survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in four milk-based and two soybean-based powdered infant formulas. A 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into the six infant formulas at water activity (aw) 0.25 to 0.30, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.43 to 0.50 to give low (0.80 log CFU/g) and high (4.66 to 4.86 log CFU/g) populations. At an initial population of 0.80 log CFU/g, E. sakazakii was detected by enrichment in six of six, four of six, and one of six formulas stored for 12 months at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C, respectively. In four of six formulas at aw values of 0.25 to 0.30, initially high populations decreased significantly (P aw range of 0.25 to 0.50 during storage for 1 month at 21 or 30 degrees C and again between 1 and 6 months in most formulas. Significant reductions occurred between 6 and 12 months in some formulas. At all storage temperatures, reductions in populations tended to be greater in formulas at aw 0.43 to 0.50 than in formulas at aw 0.25 to 0.30. The rate of inactivation of E. sakazakii in formulas was not markedly influenced by formula composition. Cells from mucoid and nonmucoid colonies formed by two strains on violet red bile glucose agar supplemented with pyruvate were inoculated into a milk-based powdered infant formula and a soybean-based powdered infant formula having a high aw range of 0.43 to 0.86 and stored at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C for up to 36 weeks. With few exceptions, populations of both strains decreased significantly in both formulas within 2 weeks at all temperatures; rates of death increased with increased aw and storage temperature. The presence of mucoidal extracellular materials on the surface of E. sakazakii cells was not associated with protection against death. This study shows that the retention of viability of E. sakazakii in powdered infant formula is affected by a, and temperature. Increases in both parameters cause an increase in the rate of death. PMID:17685328

  17. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employabil...

  18. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Jane; Vollstädt-Klein Sabine; Bühler Mira; Smolka Michael N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. Methods To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Results Brain activation differed...

  19. Acid Phosphatase Activity May Affect the Tuber Swelling by Partially Regulating Sucrose-mediated Sugar Resorption in Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Yong Lian; De-Wei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    APase activity is involved in regulating many physiological and developmental events by affecting the resorption process.In this study, we investigate the role of APase activity in tuber development in potato. APase activities were mainly localized in cytoplasm, gaps among cells and stroma of amyloplasts of parenchyma cells at the stage of tuber swelling. AP1, encoding a putative APase, was also highly expressed in swelling tubers and a low level of expression was observed in elongated stolons and matured tubers. Inhibition of APase activity by applying Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of APase production and secretion, significantly suppressed the tuber swelling and moderately affected the stolon elongation and the tuberization frequency. During tuber development, sucrose serves as the main soluble sugar for long-distance transportation and resorption. Moreover, Inhibition of APase activity by Brefeldin A markedly reduced the sucrose content in tubers and further decreased the starch accumulation, suggesting that the function of APase in regulating the tuber swelling might be at least artially mediated by the sugar resorption. Exogenous sucrose treatments further indicate the important role of sucrose-mediated sugar resorption in tuber swelling. These results suggest that the APase activity might affect the tuber swelling by partially regulating the sucrose-mediated sugar resorption.

  20. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  2. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  3. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inf

  4. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  5. AgRP(83-132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Kas, Martien J H; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A H

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and pr

  6. AgRP(83—132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J. G.; Kas, Martien J.H.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and pr

  7. Study on factors of affecting sedimentation performance of activated sludge in A-step of AB process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUJian; TIANWenlong; LONGTengrui

    2003-01-01

    The factors including inflow SS, pythogenous sewage, loading rate Ns, dissolved oxygen which affect sedimentation performance of A-step activated sludge were studied in the paper. The experimental results indicated: the inflow SS distinctly improve sedimentation performance of activated sludge; the pythogenous sewage easily worsen sedimentation performance of activated sludge, and canceling primary sedimentation tank and cesspool would avail to stable running of sewage treatment plant. The effect of loading rate Ns on EPS is highly remarkable, and EPS and polysaccharide are correlated evidently with sedimentation performance of activated sludge. When high loading rate Ns is 3.0 kgBOD5/kgMLSS·d, EPS is 17.15mgEPS/gVSS and polysaccharide is 8.15mg/g VSS, which is less 40% than activated sludge of 0.3 kgBOD5/kgMLSS·d loading rate Ns; meanwhile the effect of dissolved oxygen on EPS is less, and dissolved oxygen does not affect sedimentation performance of activated sludge in high loading rate; the polysaccharide content of activated sludge in high loading rate does not benefit the growth of filament, and furthermore the hydrophobicity of activated sludge is good, which cause good sedimentation performance of sludge in high loading rate.

  8. The Effects of Worry and Rumination on Affect States and Cognitive Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Sibrava, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of worry and rumination on affective states and mentation type were examined in an unselected undergraduate sample in Study 1 and in a sample of individuals with high trait worry and rumination, high rumination, and low worry/rumination in Study 2. Participants engaged in worry and rumination inductions, counterbalanced in order across…

  9. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  10. Allitridi induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity in human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LAN; You-yong LU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of allitridi-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823.METHODS: Growth inhibition by allitridi was analyzed using cell growth curve and MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected using staining with Hoechst 33342, and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation analysis. The protein expression affected by allitridi was determined using Western blot. The activity of caspase-3 was measured using a fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Allitridi induced apoptosis, and then inhibited cells proliferation in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823. The protein level of Bcl-2 was decreased dramatically,while Bax and p53 were not significantly affected by allitridi. The expression and activity of caspase-3 started to increase after allitridi treatment for 72 h. CONCLUSION: Allitridi induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bcl-2, and increased caspase-3 expression and its activity.

  11. [Factors Affecting the Dynamics of Circadian Activity of Frit Flies Meromyza saltatrix (L) (Diptera: Chloropidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkin, A F; Triselyova, T A; Yazchuk, A A; Akent'eva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of circadian activity in adult frit flies of the Holarctic species Meromyza saltatrix (L) from Mongolian, Moscow, and Polish populations was studied. Synchronous peaks of activity were revealed with the periodicity multiple of three-four hours, which may depend on the level of light. The direct effect of temperature and humidity on the activity of flies outside the optimal values of these factors was found. It was detected that the peak of adult emergence falls on the beginning of a general increase in the abundance of flies, which indicates constant rejuvenation of the population. The sex ratio is close to 1, but the emergence of males and females is in antiphase. The synchronization of peaks of circadian activity in the populations from different regions confirms the presence of a circadian rhythm of activity. The rhythm synchronizing the reproductive activity of adults was found to be modified by the photoperiod under the optimum conditions of temperature and humidity. PMID:26852486

  12. Nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase activities as affected by inorganic phosphate in corn roots

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kummerova; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    The deficieny of inorganic phosphate in nutrient solution reduces by about 50 per cent NO3- absorption in corn seedlings, it decreases both in vitro and in vivo nitrate reductase (NR) activity, as well the potential and actual NR level and has a very weak effect on NR induction. Acid phosphatases activities increase in corn roots when the plants are grown in nutrient solution without phosphorus. We suggest that inorganic phosphate is required mainly for maintenance of NR activity rather, than...

  13. Route of administration of pentobarbital affects activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik;

    1986-01-01

    Liver phosphorylase a activity in intact animals is mostly determined during anesthesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of administering pentobarbital by different routes on activity of liver phosphorylase a. Rats had chronically implanted venous catheters and received pentob...... by differences in duration before the drug takes effect. It is proposed that intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital may anesthetize hepatic sympathetic nerves or have a direct inhibiting effect on phosphorylase a activity....

  14. Interactive Multimodal Ambulatory Monitoring to Investigate the Association between Physical Activity and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    UlrichW.Ebner-Priemer; MartinaK.Kanning; GerhardMutz

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a wealth of evidence that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, a large proportion of people are inactive. Data regarding counts, steps, and movement patterns are limited in their ability to explain why people remain inactive. We propose that multimodal ambulatory monitoring, which combines the assessment of physical activity with the assessment of psychological variables, helps to elucidate real world physical activity. Whereas physical activit...

  15. A Possible Mechanism of the Impact of Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction on the Activity of Tropical Cyclones Affecting China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fumin; BAI Lina; WU Guoxiong; WANG Zaizhi; WANG Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this study,tropical cyclone data from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the ECMWF reanalysis data for the period 1958 2001 was used to propose a possible mechanism for the impacts of airsea interaction on the activity of tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting China.The frequency of TCs affecting China over past 40 years has trended downward,while during the same period,the air sea interaction in the two key areas of the Pacific region has significantly weakened.Our diagnoses and simulations suggest that air sea interactions in the central North Pacific tropics and subtropics (Area 1) have an important role in adjusting typhoon activities in the Northwest Pacific in general,and especially in TC activity affecting China.On the contrary,impacts of the air-sea interaction in the eastern part of the South Pacific tropics (Area 2) were found to be rather limited.As both observational analysis and modeling studies show that,in the past four decades and beyond,the weakening trend of the latent heat released from Area 1 matched well with the decreasing Northwest Pacific TC frequency derived from CMA datasets.Results also showed that the weakening trend of latent heat flux in the area was most likely due to the decreasing TC frequency over the Northwest Pacific,including those affecting China.Although our preliminary analysis revealed a possible mechanism through which the air sea interaction may adjust the genesis conditions for TCs,which eventually affect China,other relevant questions,such as how TC tracks and impacts are affected by these trends,remain unanswered.Further in-depth investigations are required.

  16. Lexical Activation in Bilinguals' Speech Production Is Dynamic: How Language Ambiguous Words Can Affect Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Daan; Ormel, E.; van Besselaar, Ria; van Hell, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1 Dutch-L2 English bilinguals decided whether or not a…

  17. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  18. Leaf Associated Microbial Activities in a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlief, Jeanette

    2004-11-01

    Microbial activity was assessed on birch leaves and plastic strips during 140 days of exposure at three sites in an acidic stream of the Lusatian post-mining landscape, Germany. The sites differed in their degrees of ochre deposition and acidification. The aim of the study was (1) to follow the microbial activities during leaf colonization, (2) to compare the effect of different environmental conditions on leaf associated microbial activities, and (3) to test the microbial availability of leaf litter in acidic mining waters. The activity peaked after 49 days and subsequently decreased gradually at all sites. A formation of iron plaques on leaf surfaces influenced associated microbial activity. It seemed that these plaques inhibit the microbial availability of leaf litter and serve as a microbial habitat by itself. (

  19. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  20. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individua...

  1. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  2. Phencyclidine affects firing activity of ventral tegmental area neurons that are related to reward and social behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, T; Okamoto, M; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Jodo, E

    2013-06-14

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in motivation and affect, which suggests an impairment in the reward system. The psychotomimetic drug, phencyclidine (PCP), also induces schizophrenia-like negative symptoms, such as reduced motivation, blunted affect, and social withdrawal in both humans and animals. Previous studies have indicated that the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a pivotal role in the development of reward-associated learning and motivation. However, how PCP affects the activity of VTA neurons during performance of a reward-related task and social interaction with others in unanesthetized animals remains unclear. Here, we recorded the unit activity of VTA neurons in freely moving rats before and after systemic administration of PCP in a classical conditioning paradigm, and during social interaction with an unfamiliar partner. In the classical conditioning task, two different tones were sequentially presented, one of which accompanied electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle as an unconditioned stimulus. After identifying the response properties of recorded neurons in the classical conditioning task and social interaction, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PCP. Our study demonstrated that most VTA neurons responsive to reward-associated stimuli were also activated during social interaction. Such activation of neurons was considerably suppressed by systemic administration of PCP, thus, PCP may affect the firing activity of VTA neurons that are involved in motivation, learning, and social interaction. Disruption of the response of VTA neurons to reward stimuli and socially interactive situations may be involved in PCP-induced impairments similar to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  3. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  4. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  5. Changes In Certain Enzymes Activities In Tribolium CONFUSUM As Affected By Vanillin Or GAMMA Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 1 or 4 g vanillin/100 g whole wheat flour on the alkaline phosphatase of one day old larvae revealed that the mean enzyme activity was highly significantly increased in male and non-significant in female Triboluim confusum. As pupae were irradiated, the mean enzyme activity was significantly decreased in males and females (except at dose 300 Gy). Alanine transaminase (ALT or GPT) activity was decreased in males due to the effect of 4% vanillin and increased by irradiation while in female, the activity of ALT was increased when the larvae were reared on flour containing 1% or 4% vanillin and increased when pupae were irradiated at all doses used. There was a positive relationship between all treatments and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST or GOT) in both sexes. The activity of AST was increased when the male or female larvae were reared on wheat flour containing 1 or 4 % vanillin and when pupae of males or females were irradiated. The choline esterase enzyme in T. confusum adults of both sexes was inhibited according to the effect of treatments with vanillin or gamma irradiation. Treated larvae with 1 or 4 % vanillin or irradiated as pupae at 300, 600 and 800 Gy led to decrease in the activity of choline esterase enzyme with the same pattern in both sexes.

  6. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  7. CDK2 Activation in Mouse Epidermis Induces Keratinocyte Proliferation but Does Not Affect Skin Tumor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Everardo; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; De Siervi, Adriana; Conti, Claudio J.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that elevated CDK2 kinase activity plays a contributory role in tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that mice overexpressing CDK4 under control of the keratin 5 promoter (K5CDK4 mice) develop epidermal hyperplasia and increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinomas. In this model, CDK4 overexpression results in increased CDK2 activity associated with the noncatalytic function of CDK4, sequestration of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Furthermore, we have shown that ablation of Cdk2 reduces Ras-Cdk4 tumorigenesis, suggesting that increased CDK2 activity plays an important role in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated two transgenic mouse models of elevated CDK2 kinase activity, K5Cdk2 and K5Cdk4D158N mice. The D158N mutation blocks CDK4 kinase activity without interfering with its binding capability. CDK2 activation via overexpression of CDK4D158N, but not of CDK2, resulted in epidermal hyperplasia. We observed elevated levels of p21Cip1 in K5Cdk2, but not in K5Cdk4D158N, epidermis, suggesting that CDK2 overexpression elicits a p21Cip1 response to maintain keratinocyte homeostasis. Surprisingly, we found that neither CDK2 overexpression nor the indirect activation of CDK2 enhanced skin tumor development. Thus, although the indirect activation of CDK2 is sufficient to induce keratinocyte hyperproliferation, activation of CDK2 alone does not induce malignant progression in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:18599613

  8. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-12-15

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser(696) and Ser(698) in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser(886) and/or Ser(893) in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser(717) in the JM, and at Ser(733), Thr(752), Ser(783), Ser(864), Ser(911), Ser(958) and Thr(998) in the kinase domain. The LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr(890), Ser(893) and Thr(894)) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr(890), Ser(893), Thr(894) and Thr(899), differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  9. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Cláudio F.; Neto Gabriel R.; Araújo Adenilson T.; Sousa Maria S. C.; Sousa Juliana B. C.; Batista Gilmário R.; Reis Victor M. M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness tr...

  10. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR...... TISSUE SIZE (VAS) and LEP. These genes are closely linked and arranged in tandem. Activation tagging of LEP only caused a specific increase in the number of xylem cells. This increased xylem cell number, together with the ectopic leaf blade formation, indicates that LEP functions as a cell division......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance...

  11. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima;

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc......), the activities of SOD under dry conditions (33%ETc) increased significantly by 39 and 90%, in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Under rainfed conditions, the activities of SOD increased by 178.71 and 322.42 %. The CAT activity in rainfed treatment increased significantly by 103.15% (2011) and 87.4% (2012) compared...

  12. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  13. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel;

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...

  14. The transcription factor DBP affects circadian sleep consolidation and rhythmic EEG activity

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Paulus; Lopez Molina, Luis; Marcacci, Lysiane; Schibler, Ulrich; Tafti, Mehdi

    2000-01-01

    Albumin D-binding protein (DBP) is a PAR leucine zipper transcription factor that is expressed according to a robust circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, harboring the circadian master clock, and in most peripheral tissues. Mice lacking DBP display a shorter circadian period in locomotor activity and are less active. Thus, although DBP is not essential for circadian rhythm generation, it does modulate important clock outputs. We studied the role of DBP in the circadian and homeosta...

  15. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias eHofmann; Ulf eElbelt; Anne eAhnis; Peter eKobelt; Matthias eRose; Andreas eStengel

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high a...

  16. Spinal muscle activity in simulated rugby union scrummaging is affected by different engagement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, D; Stone, B; Holsgrove, T P; Trewartha, G; Preatoni, E

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of rugby union scrummaging have focused on kinetic and kinematic analyses, while muscle activation strategies employed by front-row players during scrummaging are still unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the activity of spinal muscles during machine and live scrums. Nine male front-row forwards scrummaged as individuals against a scrum machine under "crouch-touch-set" and "crouch-bind-set" conditions, and against a two-player opposition in a simulated live condition. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and erector spinae were measured over the pre-engagement, engagement, and sustained-push phases. The "crouch-bind-set" condition increased muscle activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid before and during the engagement phase in machine scrummaging. During the sustained-push phase, live scrummaging generated higher activities of the erector spinae than either machine conditions. These results suggest that the pre-bind, prior to engagement, may effectively prepare the cervical spine by stiffening joints before the impact phase. Additionally, machine scrummaging does not replicate the muscular demands of live scrummaging for the erector spinae, and for this reason, we advise rugby union forwards to ensure scrummaging is practiced in live situations to improve the specificity of their neuromuscular activation strategies in relation to resisting external loads. PMID:25818526

  17. Modulation of network excitability by persistent activity: how working memory affects the response to incoming stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Tartaglia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity and match effects are widely regarded as neuronal correlates of short-term storage and manipulation of information, with the first serving active maintenance and the latter supporting the comparison between memory contents and incoming sensory information. The mechanistic and functional relationship between these two basic neurophysiological signatures of working memory remains elusive. We propose that match signals are generated as a result of transient changes in local network excitability brought about by persistent activity. Neurons more active will be more excitable, and thus more responsive to external inputs. Accordingly, network responses are jointly determined by the incoming stimulus and the ongoing pattern of persistent activity. Using a spiking model network, we show that this mechanism is able to reproduce most of the experimental phenomenology of match effects as exposed by single-cell recordings during delayed-response tasks. The model provides a unified, parsimonious mechanistic account of the main neuronal correlates of working memory, makes several experimentally testable predictions, and demonstrates a new functional role for persistent activity.

  18. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  19. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  20. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  1. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  2. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m‑2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m‑2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher

  3. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  4. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  5. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. PMID:26675866

  6. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  7. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  8. Ssh4, Rcr2 and Rcr1 affect plasma membrane transporter activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Jhansi; Melin-Larsson, Monika; Ljungdahl, Per O; Forsberg, Hanna

    2007-04-01

    Nutrient uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process. Cells adjust levels of nutrient transporters within the plasma membrane at multiple stages of the secretory and endosomal pathways. In the absence of the ER-membrane-localized chaperone Shr3, amino acid permeases (AAP) inefficiently fold and are largely retained in the ER. Consequently, shr3 null mutants exhibit greatly reduced rates of amino acid uptake due to lower levels of AAPs in their plasma membranes. To further our understanding of mechanisms affecting AAP localization, we identified SSH4 and RCR2 as high-copy suppressors of shr3 null mutations. The overexpression of SSH4, RCR2, or the RCR2 homolog RCR1 increases steady-state AAP levels, whereas the genetic inactivation of these genes reduces steady-state AAP levels. Additionally, the overexpression of any of these suppressor genes exerts a positive effect on phosphate and uracil uptake systems. Ssh4 and Rcr2 primarily localize to structures associated with the vacuole; however, Rcr2 also localizes to endosome-like vesicles. Our findings are consistent with a model in which Ssh4, Rcr2, and presumably Rcr1, function within the endosome-vacuole trafficking pathway, where they affect events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane.

  9. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system.

  10. Measurement of Affective and Activity Pain Interference Using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI): Cancer and Leukemia Group B 70903*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Halabi, Susan; Bennett, Antonia V.; Rogak, Lauren; Sit, Laura; Li, Yuelin; Kaplan, Ellen; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was designed to yield separate scores for pain intensity and interference. It has been proposed that the pain interference factor can be further broken down into unique factors of affective (e.g., mood) and activity (e.g., work) interference. The purpose of this analysis was to confirm this affective/activity interference dichotomy. Patients and Methods A retrospective confirmatory factor analysis was completed for a sample of 184 individuals diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (Age 40–86, M = 65.46, 77% White Non-Hispanic) who had been administered the BPI as part of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 9480. A one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models that were developed based on the design of the instrument. Results Root mean squared error of approximation (0.075), comparative fit index (0.971), and change in chi-square, given the corresponding change in degrees of freedom (13.33, p < .05) values for the three-factor model (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) were statistically superior in comparison to the one- and two-factor models. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across age, mean PSA and hemoglobin levels. Conclusions These results confirm that the BPI can be used to quantify the degree to which pain separately interferes with affective and activity aspects of a patient's everyday life. These findings will provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the flexibility of the BPI as they consider the use of this instrument to assist with understanding the patient experience as it relates to treatment. PMID:23110676

  11. Metformin revisited: Does this regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase secondarily affect bone metabolism and prevent diabetic osteopathy

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María; Sedlinsky, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can develop skeletal complications or “diabetic osteopathy”. These include osteopenia, osteoporosis and an increased incidence of low-stress fractures. In this context, it is important to evaluate whether current anti-diabetic treatments can secondarily affect bone metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates multiple metabolic pathways and acts as a sensor of the cellular energy status; recent e...

  12. Precursor type affecting surface properties and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarubica Aleksandra R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium-hydroxide precursor samples are synthesized from Zr-hydroxide, Zr-nitrate, and Zr-alkoxide, by precipitation/impregnation, as well as by a modified sol-gel method. Precursor samples are further sulphated for the intended SO4 2- content of 4 wt.%, and calcined at 500-700oC. Differences in precursors’ origin and calcination temperature induce the incorporation of SO4 2- groups into ZrO2 matrices by various mechanisms. As a result, different amounts of residual sulphates are coupled with other structural, as well as surface properties, resulting in various catalytic activities of sulphated zirconia samples. Catalyst activity and selectivity are a complex synergistic function of tetragonal phase fraction, sulphates contents, textural and surface characteristics. Superior activity of SZ of alkoxide origin can be explained by a beneficial effect of meso-pores owing to a better accommodation of coke deposits.

  13. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  14. Factors affecting carbon-14 activity of unsaturated zone CO2 and implications for groundwater dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Harrington, Glenn A.; Meredith, Karina; Kipfer, Rolf

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated zone processes may influence the carbon-14 (14C) activity of infiltrating groundwater and thus introduce error in derived groundwater residence times. However unsaturated zone 14C activities are rarely measured and there is little understanding of how they may vary spatially in a groundwater basin. In this study we measured 14C activity in unsaturated zone gas at five sites with different watertable depths (8.2-31.5 m) in the arid Ti Tree Basin, central Australia. We observed a relatively uniform decrease in 14C activity of unsaturated zone gas with depth at most sites, with variation in unsaturated zone depths leading to variation in 14C activities directly above the watertable at each site (ranging from 54 to 106 percent Modern Carbon (pMC)). Through modelling we show that the profiles are influenced by CO2 production at different depths from sources with different isotopic ratios, including production of ‘modern' CO2 in the root zone and production of ‘old' CO2 above the watertable. Scenario modelling showed that these processes are independent of recharge when recharge is low (0-10 mm y-1) but that higher recharge rates (>100 mm y-1) result in more advective transport of atmospheric CO2 to the watertable. The variation in 14C above the watertable was more sensitive to watertable depth and shallow and deep CO2 production rates. These findings offer insight into how unsaturated zone 14C activities may vary spatially and provide guidance as to when 14C depletion in unsaturated zone CO2 may become important for groundwater dating, particularly in arid settings.

  15. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: identification and characterisation of cyclophilin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Eriksen, E F

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells metastasise to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has previously been shown that PC3 cells secrete factors which stimulate the mitogenic activity of human bone marrow stromal (hBMS) cells. Some of these mitogens have been found to be proteins...... with a molecular weight between 20 and 30 kDa. Even though a number of investigations have been performed to identify the osteoblastic mitogenic factor or factors produced by prostate cancer cells, it is still unknown what causes the mitogenic activation of osteoblasts. Therefore, the aim of this study...... effects seen when prostate cancer metastasises to bone....

  16. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects activation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ye, Z; Kijlstra, A; Zhou, Y; Yang, P

    2014-08-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known for mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-containing pollutants, but has also been shown to be involved in the natural regulation of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the differentiation, maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. In this study, we showed that AhR activation by FICZ and ITE down-regulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules including human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), CD80 and CD86, while it had no effect on the expression of CD83 and CD40 on DCs derived from BD patients and normal controls. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated dendritic cells (DCs) from active BD patients showed a higher level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. FICZ or ITE significantly inhibited the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α, but induced IL-10 production by DCs derived from active BD patients and normal controls. FICZ or ITE-treated DCs significantly inhibited the T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th1 cell response. Activation of AhR either by FICZ or ITE inhibits DC differentiation, maturation and function. Further studies are needed to investigate whether manipulation of the AhR pathway may be used to treat BD or other autoimmune diseases.

  17. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Sevcikova, Anna; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed i

  18. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of high-pressure (HP) treatment and two different methods of brine addition (important for lysosomal membrane destabilisation) on lysosomal enzymes activity and protein degradation, pork semitendinosus muscle was brine enhanced by injection or tumbling, and HP treated...

  19. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  20. AIR QUALITY AFFECTED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES GORJ COUNTY, IN THE YEAR 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana - Gabriela POPA; Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main industrial activities pollution the air, at the level of Gorj County, in the year 2010. There are mentioned gases with greenhouse effect, acid effect gases, their graphical representation and pollution produced by the main polluting agents of the county: depositing dusts and dusts in suspension.

  1. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; J. E. Olesen; Porter, J R

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage.Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold storage warming-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

  2. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup;

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  3. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  4. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  5. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  6. Activated carbon addition affects substrate pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.; Dam, van M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  7. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  8. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John

    2005-01-01

    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  9. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been a

  10. Ability, Affect, and Children's Out of School Activity and Interest Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Fredric M.; Chandler, Theodore A.

    This study examined the relationships between fourth graders' performance on two intelligence, eight achievement, three creative thinking, three attitude, and two locus of responsibility scales and their self-reported out of school preferences for activities involving (1) peers, (2) television, (3) radio, (4) adults or parents, (5) reading, and…

  11. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  12. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  13. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  14. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. PMID:27451179

  15. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  16. MiR-16 regulates mouse peritoneal macrophage polarization and affects T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoqin; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Yating; Miao, Junjun; Liu, Hao; Li, Guoli; Wang, Zhengbing

    2016-10-01

    MiR-16 is a tumour suppressor that is down-regulated in certain human cancers. However, little is known on its activity in other cell types. In this study, we examined the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of miR-16 on macrophage polarization and subsequent T-cell activation. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and induced to undergo either M1 polarization with 100 ng/ml of interferon-γ and 20 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide, or M2 polarization with 20 ng/ml of interleukin (IL)-4. The identity of polarized macrophages was determined by profiling cell-surface markers by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Macrophages were infected with lentivirus-expressing miR-16 to assess the effects of miR-16. Effects on macrophage-T cell interactions were analysed by co-culturing purified CD4(+) T cells with miR-16-expressing peritoneal macrophages, and measuring activation marker CD69 by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion by ELISA. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to search for potential miR-16 targets and understand its underlying mechanisms. MiR-16-induced M1 differentiation of mouse peritoneal macrophages from either the basal M0- or M2-polarized state is indicated by the significant up-regulation of M1 marker CD16/32, repression of M2 marker CD206 and Dectin-1, and increased secretion of M1 cytokine IL-12 and nitric oxide. Consistently, miR-16-expressing macrophages stimulate the activation of purified CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, miR-16 significantly down-regulates the expression of PD-L1, a critical immune suppressor that controls macrophage-T cell interaction and T-cell activation. MiR-16 plays an important role in shifting macrophage polarization from M2 to M1 status, and functionally activating CD4(+) T cells. This effect is potentially mediated through the down-regulation of immune suppressor PD-L1.

  17. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  18. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Gioia, Magda; Ciaccio, Chiara; Tarantino, Umberto; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE) is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism.

  19. Proteasome Activity Is Affected by Fluctuations in Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sbardella

    Full Text Available Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme (IDE is a Zn2+-dependent peptidase highly conserved throughout evolution and ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues wherein it displays a prevalent cytosolic localization. We have recently demonstrated a novel Heat Shock Protein-like behaviour of IDE and its association with the 26S proteasome. In the present study, we examine the mechanistic and molecular features of IDE-26S proteasome interaction in a cell experimental model, extending the investigation also to the effect of IDE on the enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome. Further, kinetic investigations indicate that the 26S proteasome activity undergoes a functional modulation by IDE through an extra-catalytic mechanism. The IDE-26S proteasome interaction was analyzed during the Heat Shock Response and we report novel findings on IDE intracellular distribution that might be of critical relevance for cell metabolism.

  20. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  1. Detecting land use changes affected by human activities using remote sensing (Case study: Karkheh River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Maddah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and abundant activities in order to achieve maximum well-being has forced human to make a lot of changes in the nature. These changes will be cost-effective when they have the minimum damage on the landscape. One of the activities that human did for obtaining the water and preventing flood was making the dam in the track of running water. Since the dam is established until its impoundment and after impoundment, the condition of ecosystem and the appearance of the upstream and downstream of the dam will undergo changes. In this study, using satellite data and remote sensing, these changes have been studied and the landuse changes in vegetation, arid land, water level and residential and non-residential lands is measured in 1998 and 2014 using Maximum Likelihood method and support vector machine.

  2. Citral exerts its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum by affecting the mitochondrial morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiju; Jing, Guoxing; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Qiuli; Jia, Lei; Tao, Nengguo

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the effect of citral on the mitochondrial morphology and function of Penicillium digitatum. Citral at concentrations of 2.0 or 4.0 μL/mL strongly damaged mitochondria of test pathogen by causing the loss of matrix and increase of irregular mitochondria. The deformation extent of the mitochondria of P. digitatum enhanced with increasing concentrations of citral, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular ATP content and an increase in extracellular ATP content of P. digitatum cells. Oxygen consumption showed that citral resulted in an inhibition in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway of P. digitatum cells, induced a decrease in activities of citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinodehydrogenase and the content of citric acid, while enhancing the activity of malic dehydrogenase in P. digitatum cells. Our present results indicated that citral could damage the mitochondrial membrane permeability and disrupt the TCA pathway of P. digitatum.

  3. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods.

  4. Brassica spp cover crop affects soil microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen nutrient dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marinari, S.; Papp, R.; Marabottini, R.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    A general positive effect of Brassica on soil microbial biomass and its activity was observed at all European sites in no tilled soil at both sampling date. Conversely, Brassica under tillage may produce a negative effect on biochemical properties after CC suppression. The effect of Brassica on C and N dynamics differed among the european sites when soil was tilled. These preliminary results establish the bases for the evaluation of the interaction between the pedoclimatic conditions and Bras...

  5. A high content assay for biosensor validation and for examining stimuli that affect biosensor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Scott D.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the differenc...

  6. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods. PMID:26184398

  7. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  8. Factors, affecting on the psyche of sportsmen - single combat in the process of competition activity

    OpenAIRE

    Popichev M.I.; Mullashirov R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Factors which render the most meaningful influence on the psyche of sportsman in precontest and competition periods are considered. In organization researches were involved sportsmen in an amount 20 persons in age from 17 to 21 year with the identical level of physical preparation (sport masters). It is set that a key value has a psychological factor in all spheres of activity of sportsman. It is recommended at all levels of preparation of sportsmen to use and inculcate methods and methods of...

  9. How Are Representations Affected by Scene Statistics in an Adaptive Active Vision System?

    OpenAIRE

    Ognibene, D.; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the main claims of active vision (Ballard, 1991) is that finding data on demand, based on the requirements of the task, is more efficient than reconstructing the whole scene by performing a complete visual scan of it. This aids generalisation and a dramatic reduction of the needed visual computations. Using this strategy, however, generates the need to learn complex gaze control strategies dependent on the pursued goals and the properties of scenes and objects. For exam...

  10. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsanul Kabir; Sharmila Ray; Ki-Hyun Kim; Hye-On Yoon; Eui-Chan Jeon; Yoon Shin Kim; Yong-Sung Cho; Seong-Taek Yun; Richard J. C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration obs...

  11. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...

  12. Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities. Affecting the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Figure 1.1) constitute a unique ecosystem with high biological diversity. Their natural resources provide a substantial economic support for the region: in addition to the fishery industry, which has ensured food security to many people of the region and created jobs for others, tourism is an ever growing and increasingly important industry for commerce and other economic activities. Hence, the marine environment should be well protecte...

  13. Seismic surveys negatively affect humpback whale singing activity off northern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cerchio

    Full Text Available Passive acoustic monitoring was used to document the presence of singing humpback whales off the coast of Northern Angola, and opportunistically test for the effect of seismic survey activity in the vicinity on the number of singing whales. Two Marine Autonomous Recording Units (MARUs were deployed between March and December 2008 in the offshore environment. Song was first heard in mid June and continued through the remaining duration of the study. Seismic survey activity was heard regularly during two separate periods, consistently throughout July and intermittently in mid-October/November. Numbers of singers were counted during the first ten minutes of every hour for the period from 24 May to 1 December, and Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs were used to assess the effect of survey day (seasonality, hour (diel variation, moon phase and received levels of seismic survey pulses (measured from a single pulse during each ten-minute sampled period on singer number. Application of GAMMs indicated significant seasonal variation, which was the most pronounced effect when assessing the full dataset across the entire season (p<0.001; however seasonality almost entirely dropped out of top-ranked models when applied to a reduced dataset during the July period of seismic survey activity. Diel variation was significant in both the full and reduced datasets (from p<0.01 to p<0.05 and often included in the top-ranked models. The number of singers significantly decreased with increasing received level of seismic survey pulses (from p<0.01 to p<0.05; this explanatory variable was included among the top ranked models for one MARU in the full dataset and both MARUs in the reduced dataset. This suggests that the breeding display of humpback whales is disrupted by seismic survey activity, and thus merits further attention and study, and potentially conservation action in the case of sensitive breeding populations.

  14. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  15. Mutagenesis of Ser24 of cytochrome b559 α subunit affects PSⅡ activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA JingJing; LI LiangBi; JING YuXiang; KUANG TingYun

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the functions of cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) in photosystem two (PSⅡ) activity, mutant S24F of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was constructed using site directed mutagenesis, in which Serine24 (Ser24) locating downstream of Histidine23 (His23) in c subunit of Cyt b559 was replaced by Phenylalanine (Phe). Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that mutant S24F could be grown photoautotrophically or photoheterotrophically. However, their growth rate was slower either on HSM or TAP medium than that of the control; Analysis of PSⅡ activity revealed that its oxygen evolution was about 71% of wild type (WT); The Photochemical efficiency of PSll (Fv/Fm) of S24F was reduced 0.23 compared with WT; S24F was more sensitive to strong light irradiance than the wild type; Furthermore,SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting analysis indicated that the expression levels of c subunit of Cyt b559,LHCⅡ and PsbO of S24F were a little less than those of the wild type. Overall, these data suggests that Ser24 plays a significant role in making Cyt b559 structure maintain PSⅡ complex activity of oxygen evolution although it is not directly bound to heme group.

  16. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  17. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta José L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C. We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  19. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr9...

  20. Low-level microwave irradiations affect central cholinergic activity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake was measured in various regions of the brains of rats irradiated for 45 min with either pulsed or continuous-wave low-level microwaves (2,450 MHz; power density, 1 mW/cm2; average whole-body specific absorption rate, 0.6 W/kg). Pulsed microwave irradiation (2-microseconds pulses, 500 pulses/s) decreased choline uptake in the hippocampus and frontal cortex but had no significant effect on the hypothalamus, striatum, and inferior colliculus. Pretreatment with a narcotic antagonist (naloxone or naltrexone; 1 mg/kg i.p.) blocked the effect of pulsed microwaves on hippocampal choline uptake but did not significantly alter the effect on the frontal cortex. Irradiation with continuous-wave microwaves did not significantly affect choline uptake in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus but decreased the uptake in the frontal cortex. The effect on the frontal cortex was not altered by pretreatment with narcotic antagonist. These data suggest that exposure to low-level pulsed or continuous-wave microwaves leads to changes in cholinergic functions in the brain.

  1. Vancomycin and maltodextrin affect structure and activity of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiamco, Mia Mae; Atci, Erhan; Khan, Qaiser Farid; Mohamed, Abdelrhman; Renslow, Ryan S; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Fransson, Boel A; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-12-01

    Hyperosmotic agents such as maltodextrin negatively impact bacterial growth through osmotic stress without contributing to drug resistance. We hypothesized that a combination of maltodextrin (osmotic agent) and vancomycin (antibiotic) would be more effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms than either alone. To test our hypothesis, S. aureus was grown in a flat plate flow cell reactor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images were analyzed to quantify changes in biofilm structure. We used dissolved oxygen microelectrodes to quantify how vancomycin and maltodextrin affected the respiration rate and oxygen penetration into the biofilm. We found that treatment with vancomycin or maltodextrin altered biofilm structure. The effect on the structure was significant when they were used simultaneously to treat S. aureus biofilms. In addition, vancomycin treatment increased the oxygen respiration rate, while maltodextrin treatment caused an increase and then a decrease. An increased maltodextrin concentration decreased the diffusivity of the antibiotic. Overall, we conclude that (1) an increased maltodextrin concentration decreases vancomycin diffusion but increases the osmotic effect, leading to the optimum treatment condition, and (2) the combination of vancomycin and maltodextrin is more effective against S. aureus biofilms than either alone. Vancomycin and maltodextrin act together to increase the effectiveness of treatment against S. aureus biofilm growth.

  2. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  3. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  4. Expertise affects representation structure and categorical activation of grasp postures in climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In indoor rock climbing, the perception of object properties and the adequate execution of grasping actions highly determine climbers’ performance. In two consecutive experiments, effects of climbing expertise on the cognitive activation of grasping actions following the presentation of climbing holds was investigated. Experiment 1 evaluated the representation of climbing holds in the long-term memory of climbers and non-climbers with the help of a psychometric measurement method. Within a hierarchical splitting procedure subjects had to decide about the similarity of required grasping postures. For the group of climbers, representation structures corresponded clearly to four grip types. In the group of non-climbers, representation structures differed more strongly than in climbers and did not clearly refer to grip types. To learn about categorical knowledge activation in Experiment 2, a priming paradigm was applied. Images of hands in grasping postures were presented as targets and images of congruent, neutral, or incongruent climbing holds were used as primes. Only in climbers, reaction times were shorter and error rates were smaller for the congruent condition than for the incongruent condition. The neutral condition resulted in intermediate performance. The findings suggest that perception of climbing holds activates the commonly associated grasping postures in climbers but not in non-climbers. The findings of this study give evidence that the categorization of visually perceived objects is fundamentally influenced by the cognitive-motor potential for interaction, which depends on the observer’s experience and expertise. Thus, motor expertise not only facilitates precise action perception, but also benefits the perception of action-relevant objects.

  5. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  6. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Shen

    Full Text Available Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L. field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition. The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological

  7. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  8. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  9. Factors, affecting on the psyche of sportsmen - single combat in the process of competition activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popichev M.I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors which render the most meaningful influence on the psyche of sportsman in precontest and competition periods are considered. In organization researches were involved sportsmen in an amount 20 persons in age from 17 to 21 year with the identical level of physical preparation (sport masters. It is set that a key value has a psychological factor in all spheres of activity of sportsman. It is recommended at all levels of preparation of sportsmen to use and inculcate methods and methods of psychological preparation and diagnostics.

  10. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  11. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  12. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  13. The adsorption of oil sands naphthenic acids from process-affected tailings water using activated petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, C.C.; Hashisho, Z.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Eighty percent of the organic acids in the Athabasca oil sands region are comprised of naphthenic acids that are toxic to a variety of aquatic life-forms as well as being highly corrosive. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of adsorbing naphthenic acids from process-affected water. Activated petroleum coke was studied in order to investigate optimal physical activation conditions for adsorbing oil sands naphthenic acids. Experimental tests were conducted in a centrifuge and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometry. The study demonstrated that delayed and fluid petroleum cokes can be turned into high surface area carbons with increased activation time, temperature, and steam rate. The coke can be used as an adsorbent to remove oil sands naphthenic acids. tabs., figs.

  14. [Changes in prostaglandin systhetase activity in mouse tissues as affected by S-[N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-aminoethyl] thiophosphoric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prianishnikova, E N; Zhulanova, Z I; Romantsev, E F

    1980-01-01

    Effect of various concentrations of a radioprotector S-[N-(3 aminopropyl)-2-aminoethyl] thiophosphoric acid on the activity of prostaglandine synthetase was studied in mouse liver microsomes as well as in the soluble fractions of testicules and brain in vitro. The activity of prostaglandine synthetase was estimated by monitoring the formation of labelled PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from I-14C-arachidonic acid. The radioprotector at concentration 1.66 mg/ml stimulated formation of PGF2 alpha in all the tissues studied. At the lower concentrations of the radioprotector only slight stimulation of the biosynthesis of prostaglandines in testicules was noted. No effect on their synthesis in the brain soluble fraction could be observed while in the liver microsomes it was inhibited. The radioprotective substance studied apparently affected the cyclooxygenase activity, which is a key enzyme in the prostaglandine-synthesizing system.

  15. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gittel, Antje; Barta, Jiri; Kohoutova, Iva;

    2014-01-01

    on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen......Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions......, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried...

  16. Adolescents’ Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAVIN, JAMES; MCBREARTY, MADELEINE; MALO, KIT; ABRAVANEL, MICHAEL; MOUDRAKOVSKI, TATIANA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents’ perceptions of psychosocial influences – personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings – influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their ‘parents’ or ‘guardians’ participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents’ PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.

  17. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  18. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  19. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  20. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. PMID:27178902

  1. Shear-driven redistribution of surfactant affects enzyme activity in well-mixed femtoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic platform for splitting well-mixed, femtoliter-volume droplets from larger water-in-oil plugs, where the sizes of the daughter droplets were not limited by channel width. These droplets were separated from mother plugs at a microfabricated T-junction, which enabled the study of how increased confinement affected enzyme kinetics in droplets 4-10 {mu}m in diameter. Initial rates for enzyme catalysis in the mother plugs and the largest daughter drops were close to the average bulk rate, while the rates in smaller droplets decreased linearly with increasing surface to volume ratio. Rates in the smallest droplets decreased by a factor of 4 compared to the bulk rate. Traditional methods for detecting nonspecific adsorption at the water-oil interface were unable to detect evidence of enzyme adsorption, including pendant drop tensiometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy of drops containing labeled proteins in microemulsions, and epifluorescence microscopy of plugs and drops generated on-chip. We propose the slowing of enzyme reaction kinetics in the smaller droplets was the result of increased adsorption and inactivation of enzymes at the water-oil interface arising from transient interfacial shear stresses imparted on the daughter droplets as they split from the mother plugs and passed through the constricted opening of the T-junction. Such stresses are known to modulate the interfacial area and density of surfactant molecules that can passivate the interface. Bright field images of the splitting processes at the junction indicate that these stresses scaled with increasing surface to volume ratios of the droplets but were relatively insensitive to the average flow rate of plugs upstream of the junction.

  2. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug.

  3. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (pwalking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (pwalking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (pwalking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based lighting regimen that favors for both production and welfare of Broilers. PMID:26954120

  4. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  5. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  6. Sex, season and melatonin administration affects daily activity rhythms in a marsupial, the brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, B M; Westman, W; Körtner, G; Cairns, S C

    2008-01-28

    The carnivorous marsupial Antechinus stuartii relies on photoperiodic changes to time reproductive activities, including behaviour, in spring. Similar to other mammals, the administration of the hormone melatonin is known to affect the synchronisation of reproduction in A. stuartii. The present study sought to explore the alterations in locomotor activity from the winter solstice in both males (body mass 35 g) and females (body mass 20 g) as a result of the influences of the changes in the natural photocycle and also of melatonin administration while under the natural photocycle. The total daily activity was found to differ between sexes, with males more active than females, irrespective of melatonin or control treatments. Daily activity patterns were significantly different between male groups but not female treatment groups. Activity patterns were also found to differ between males and females. The significance of these differences is discussed with relation to the profound physiological differences between the sexes, in this mammal where an irreversible stress response is part of the complete post-mating mortality of all males, but not females. PMID:17884113

  7. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R;

    2007-01-01

    reorganization in mature osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is actively involved in the regulation of important cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and migration. It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express u...... with other osteoblasts markers. On the resorptive side, the number of osteoclasts formed in vitro from uPAR KO monocytes was decreased. Podosome imaging in uPAR KO osteoclasts revealed a defect in actin ring formation. CONCLUSIONS: The defective proliferation and differentiation of bone cells, coincident......The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal...

  8. In vitro evaluation of the activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives against mycotoxigenic fungi affecting cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degola, Francesca; Morcia, Caterina; Bisceglie, Franco; Mussi, Francesca; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Pelosi, Giorgio; Terzi, Valeria; Buschini, Annamaria; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Lodi, Tiziana

    2015-05-01

    With a steadily increasing world population, a more efficient system of food production is of paramount importance. One of the major causes of food spoilage is the presence of fungal pathogens and the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. In the present work we report a study on the activity of a series of functionalized thiosemicarbazones (namely cuminaldehyde, trans-cinnamaldehyde, quinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde, 5-fluoroisatin thiosemicarbazone and 5-fluoroisatin N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone), as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents, against the two major genera of cereal mycotoxigenic fungi, i.e. Fusarium and Aspergillus. These thiosemicarbazones display different patterns of efficacy on fungal growth and on mycotoxin accumulation depending on the fungal species. Some of the molecules display a greater effect on mycotoxin synthesis than on fungal growth. PMID:25702884

  9. Neural progenitor cell apoptosis and differentiation were affected by activated microglia in spinal cord slice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Su, Huanxing; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2014-03-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation offers great potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). NPCs may replace lost neurons or oligodendrocytes and act as a source of neurotrophic factors to support survival of remaining cells. However, their efficiency was limited by poor survival after transplantation, and they tended more to differentiate into astrocytes, but not neurons and oligodendrocytes. This study investigated whether activated microglia is a factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Organotypic spinal cord slice (SCS) culture was used to mimic the local environment after SCI, and NPCs were co-cultured with them to share the culture medium. After specific depletion of microglia in the SCSs with clodronate loaded liposome, the apoptotic rate of NPCs decreased, more NPCs differentiated into neurons, and glial differentiation was impaired. This suggested that microglia may impair NPC survival, and neuronal differentiation, but improve astrocyte differentiation. In NPC transplantation strategy for SCI, microglia would be manipulated to improve the survival and neuronal differentiation of NPCs.

  10. Pharmacological activation of the GABAergic system does not affect GH and PRL release in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Iovino, M; Monteleone, P; Agrusta, M; Steardo, L; Lombardi, G

    1988-11-01

    An extensive hypothalamic neurotransmitter impairment has been proposed in acromegaly. However, at the moment, the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been little investigated in this disorder. Since GABA has been shown to modulate growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion in human subjects, it seemed reasonable to investigate hypothalamic GABAergic functioning through the assessment of basal GH and PRL responses to pharmacological activation of this system. 800 mg of sodium valproate (SV), a drug with GABA facilitating properties, were administered orally to 7 acromegalic patients and 9 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected before and after the drug administration for the measurement of plasma GH and PRL levels. SV induced a clear-cut rise in basal GH and a decrease in basal PRL in healthy subjects, but it did not induce any change in the basal levels of these hormones in acromegalics. These results suggest that the response of GH and PRL to SV in acromegaly is qualitatively different from normal controls.

  11. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R;

    2007-01-01

    The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal reorganizat......The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal...... to mechanical tests. UPAR KO calvaria osteoblasts were characterized by proliferation assays, RT-PCR for important proteins secreted during differentiation, and immunoblot for activator protein 1 (AP-1) family members. In vitro osteoclast formation was tested with uPAR KO bone marrow monocytes in the presence...

  12. ARRHYTHMOGENIC CALMODULIN MUTATIONS AFFECT THE ACTIVATION AND TERMINATION OF CARDIAC RYANODINE RECEPTOR MEDIATED CA2+ RELEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mads Toft; Chazin, Walter J.; Chen, Wayne S.R.;

    We recently identified the first two human missense mutations in a calmodulin (CaM) gene (CALM1) and linked these to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and sudden cardiac death in young individuals1. More CaM mutations have since been identified in CALM1 and also...... in the other two CaM genes (CALM2 and CALM3). All CaM mutations are associated with severe ventricular arrhythmias. CaM regulates several key proteins governing cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), including the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) Ca2+ release channel. RyR2 mutations also dominantly...... cause CPVT, where the mutations increase the channel sensitivity to activation and enhance the propensity for pro-arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca2+ release. Here we investigated the effect of CPVT-linked CaM mutations (N53I and N97S) and two CaM mutations identified in individuals with early onset severe...

  13. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (Putilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  14. Proteolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi as affected by incorporation of some food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; El-Said, A H M

    2009-12-01

    Screening of thirty-one fungal isolates (representing 16 genera, 28 species and 3 varieties) collected from beef luncheon meat for their abilities to produce protease enzyme revealed that eleven isolates (35.48%) exhibited high protease production. However, fifteen isolates (48.39%) had moderate ability and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most active producers of protease. The incorporation of five chemical substances used as food preservatives (disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium for protease production exhibited depressive effect on protease production as well as on mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum , except in few cases the mycelial growth of A. flavus and G. fujikuroi was increased by the lowest concentration (100 ppm) of sodium benzoate, citric acid and disodium phosphate.

  15. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells. PMID:25820126

  16. Light Stable Isotopes in Aquifers Affected by Mining Activities in a Brazilian Mining Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R. M.; de Carvalho, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    Iron ore is presently a main item in the Brazilian commercial agenda. Large reserves have converted this utility into an important source of export earnings and, secondarily, of raw materials for the domestic industry. Parallel to a boom in mining activities in the last years environmental impacts and a stress on natural resources have soared. A region exhibiting pronouncedly intensive mining activities lies in the central part of the State of Minas Gerais, the third economy of the federation. Mines are sited right beside the capital and neighbor towns amounting to nearly five million inhabitants and a pronounced dependence on groundwater resources. Besides, this region is a water divide enclosing the sources of main contributors to the most strategic fluvial basins in the country. Iron ore is by large the main mineral but other metals (including gold and uranium), as well as non-metals such as limestone, quartz and granite, also occur. Given the significance of this commodity in the country's trade balance and the demand of water resources with acceptable quality for human consumption, the scale of ensuing water use conflicts caused by its exploration is wide ranging and has to be coped with well grounded environmental assessment approaches. Tracer hydrology techniques might be a valuable tool in this context. The characteristics of the area being impacted have been surveyed, including climate and pluviometry, stratigraphic litology, geological structure, use of soil, mineral resources and their exploration, surface and ground water hydrology and their sundry uses. Data to be processed have been procured at local public agencies but as regard local hydrological features, particularly isotopic compositions, ad hoc surveys and methodologies were required. One instance concerns pluviometric isotopy due to the alpine character of the surveyed region altitude and temperature effects might take place. Hence different sites were monitored; cumulative pluviometer samples

  17. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella. PMID:27019124

  18. Change in activity of serine palmitoyltransferase affects sensitivity to syringomycin E in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2014-09-01

    Syringomycin E is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide produced by strains of the plant bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Genetic studies involving the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that complex sphingolipids play important roles in the action of syringomycin E. Here, we found a novel mutation that confers resistance to syringomycin E on yeast; that is, a deletion mutant of ORM1 and ORM2, which encode negative regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, exhibited resistance to syringomycin E. On the contrary, overexpression of Orm2 resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. Moreover, overexpression of Lcb1 and Lcb2, catalytic subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase, causes resistance to the toxin, whereas partial repression of expression of Lcb1 had the opposite effect. Partial reduction of complex sphingolipids by repression of expression of Aur1, an inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, also resulted in high sensitivity to the toxin. These results suggested that an increase in sphingolipid biosynthesis caused by a change in the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase causes resistance to syringomycin E.

  19. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  20. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maria Ruggero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w had a mean size Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies.

  1. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  2. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

  3. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase activity affects tumor development during the maize-Ustilago maydis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Robles, Francisco Ignacio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; García de la Cruz, Ramón Fernando; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic plant pathogenic fungus that leads to tumor development in the aerial tissues of its host, Zea mays. These tumors are the result of cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and are accompanied by the reprograming of primary and secondary metabolism of infected plants. Up to now, little is known regarding key plant actors and their role in tumor development during the interaction with U. maydis. Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. In a previous study, we found substantial increases of polyamine levels in tumors. In the present work, we describe the maize polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene family, its contribution to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and its possible role in tumor development induced by U. maydis. Histochemical analysis revealed that chlorotic lesions and maize tumors induced by U. maydis accumulate H2O2 to significant levels. Maize plants inoculated with U. maydis and treated with the PAO inhibitor 1,8-diaminooctane exhibit a notable reduction of H2O2 accumulation in infected tissues and a significant drop in PAO activity. This treatment also reduced disease symptoms in infected plants. Finally, among six maize PAO genes only the ZmPAO1, which encodes an extracellular enzyme, is up-regulated in tumors. Our data suggest that H2O2 produced through PA catabolism by ZmPAO1 plays an important role in tumor development during the maize-U. maydis interaction.

  4. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept.

  5. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  6. Factors Affecting the Estimation of Indoor Radon Using Passive Activated Charcoal Canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore Charles

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption studies of 20 activated charcoals were conducted in a monolayer and a packed bed utilizing tracer gases. Kinetic studies, using xenon-133, demonstrate the existence of a two-compartment micropore volume with entrance capillaries which together determine the response characteristics of the charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two -compartment model adequately describes the adsorption and desorption dynamics of radon in the presence of water vapor. Measurements with charcoal exposed to water vapor and Rn-222 in a monolayer and packed bed for exposure intervals of 1-7 days demonstrate that the uptake rate and total quantity of adsorbed Rn-222 are highly dependent upon the amount of water adsorbed. The effect of CO_2 on radon adsorption is small in any charcoal. The measured effective diffusion coefficient of radon in a packed bed of a peat based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25^circC is 7.97 times 10^{-6} cm^2/s. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries reduces the effective pore radius, increasing the diffusion half-time, both into and out of the charcoal. The amount of adsorbed water per gram of charcoal required to block the entrance capillaries varies with the charcoal type. The proposed term for this quantity is the "break-point". A two-stage diffusion barrier charcoal monitor with a long diffusion path length was developed. This design inhibits passive airflow while maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary charcoal adsorbent below the break-point. Water removal at the entry port allows for longer exposure times improving the integrating capability necessary for indoor exposure assessment. The long diffusion path length increases the integration time -constant for radon adsorption normally 24 hours for conventional open-faced canisters to 50 hours for the improved canister. The increased integration time-constant allows for a 7 day sample to be measured at 70% humidity and 23

  7. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  8. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  9. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the flight activity of Fopius arisanus, an egg-pupal parasitoid of fruit fly pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousse, P; Gourdon, F; Roubaud, M; Chiroleu, F; Quilici, S

    2009-06-01

    Climatic conditions and the physiological state of a parasitoid may alter its host selection behavior and thus its efficiency as a biological control agent. We studied the influence of these parameters on the behavior of Fopius arisanus (Sonan), an egg-pupal parasitoid of many Tephritidae. In the first experiment, we assessed in field cage assays the influence of temperature, humidity, light intensity, barometric pressure, and wind speed. Both flight and parasitism were mainly affected by temperature and humidity. However, because these two factors were strongly correlated in our experiments, the direct influence of each one cannot be specified. Flight activity was affected by variations in barometric pressure. In a second set of experiments, we conducted release and recapture assays with dyed insects to determine the influence of sex, mating status, egg load, age, and starvation on attraction toward infested fruit. Males were not attracted, suggesting that fruit are not a mating site. The egg load seemed to be a major parameter of foraging motivation. Finally, we showed that flight activity strongly decreased after 48 h of starvation. We observed a possible switch to food in the foraging motivation of starved females, but this result was impaired by poor recoveries: <10% of released females were recaptured after 96 h of starvation. We finally discuss the importance of these observations on the efficiency of F. arisanus as a biological control agent in tropical humid areas. PMID:19508801

  10. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiencies affect expression of lipolytic activities in mouse adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patterns of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (-/-) and HSL (-/-) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-recognition probes possessing the same substrate analogous structure but carrying different fluorophores for specific detection of the enzyme patterns of two different tissues in one electrophoresis gel. We found that ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue had a profound effect on the expression levels of other lipolytic and esterolytic enzymes in this tissue, whereas HSL-deficiency hardly showed any effect in brown adipose tissue. Neither ATGL- nor HSL-deficiency greatly influenced the lipase patterns in white adipose tissue. Enzyme activities of mouse tissues on acylglycerol substrates were analyzed as well, showing that ATGL-and HSL-deficiencies can be compensated for at least in part by other enzymes. The proteins that responded to ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue were overexpressed and their activities on acylglycerols were analyzed. Among these enzymes, Es1, Es10, and Es31-like represent lipase candidates as they catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain acylglycerols.

  11. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  12. Emotion Recognition with Eigen Features of Frequency Band Activities Embedded in Induced Brain Oscillations Mediated by Affective Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Serap; Demirtaş, Serdar; Ateş, Kahraman; Tunga, M Alper

    2016-05-01

    In this study, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has been used for the first time in order to extract emotional features from well-defined electroencephalography (EEG) frequency band activities (BAs) so-called delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-16 Hz), beta (16-32 Hz), gamma (32-64 Hz). These five BAs were estimated by applying sixth-level multi-resolution wavelet decomposition (MRWD) with Daubechies wavelets (db-8) to single channel nonaveraged emotional EEG oscillations of 6 s for each scalp location over 16 recording sites (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7, F8, C3, C4, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5, T6, O1, O2). Every trial was mediated by different emotional stimuli which were selected from international affective picture system (IAPS) to induce emotional states such as pleasant (P), neutral (N), and unpleasant (UP). Largest principal components (PCs) of BAs were considered as emotional features and data mining approaches were used for the first time in order to classify both three different (P, N, UP) and two contrasting (P and UP) emotional states for 30 healthy controls. Emotional features extracted from gamma BAs (GBAs) for 16 recording sites provided the high classification accuracies of 87.1% and 100% for classification of three emotional states and two contrasting emotional states, respectively. In conclusion, we found the followings: (1) Eigenspectra of high frequency BAs in EEG are highly sensitive to emotional hemispheric activations, (2) emotional states are mostly mediated by GBA, (3) pleasant pictures induce the higher cortical activation in contrast to unpleasant pictures, (4) contrasting emotions induce opposite cortical activations, (5) cognitive activities are necessary for an emotion to occur. PMID:26971786

  13. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  14. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  15. Electric stimulation of the tuberomamillary nucleus affects epileptic activity and sleep-wake cycle in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blik, Vitaliya

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach for epilepsy treatment, but the optimal targets and parameters of stimulation are yet to be investigated. Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is involved in EEG desynchronization-one of the proposed mechanisms for DBS action. We studied whether TMN stimulation could interfere with epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats with inherited absence epilepsy and whether such stimulation would affect sleep-wake cycle. EEG and video registration were used to determine SWD occurrence and stages of sleep and wake during three-hours recording sessions. Stimulation (100Hz) was applied in two modes: closed-loop (with previously determined interruption threshold intensity) or open-loop mode (with 50% or 70% threshold intensity). Closed-loop stimulation successfully interrupted SWDs but elevated their number by 148 ± 54% compared to baseline. It was accompanied by increase in number of episodes but not total duration of both active and passive wakefulness. Open-loop stimulation with amplitude 50% threshold did not change measured parameters, though 70% threshold stimulation reduced SWDs number by 40 ± 9%, significantly raised the amount of active wakefulness and decreased the amount of both slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that the TMN is unfavorable as a target for DBS as its stimulation may cause alterations in sleep-wake cycle. A careful choosing of parameters and control of sleep-wake activity is necessary when applying DBS in epilepsy.

  16. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  17. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Jackson, Matthew I; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Combs, Gerald F

    2011-11-01

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability at nutritional doses. In this study, we found that two sources of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-enriched yeast each increased intracellular Se content more effectively than selenite or methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Interestingly, SeMSC, SeMet, and digested Se-enriched yeast were transported at comparable efficacy from the apical to basolateral sides, each being about 3-fold that of selenite. In addition, these forms of Se, whether before or after traversing from apical side to basolateral side, did not change the potential to support glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Although selenoprotein P has been postulated to be a key Se transport protein, its intracellular expression did not differ when selenite, SeMSC, SeMet, or digested Se-enriched yeast was added to serum-contained media. Taken together, our data show, for the first time, that the chemical form of Se at nutritional doses can affect the absorptive (apical to basolateral side) efficacy and retention of Se by intestinal cells; but that, these effects are not directly correlated to the potential to support GPx activity.

  18. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  19. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  20. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonini Chiara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases p44ERK1 and p42ERK2 are crucial components of the regulatory machinery underlying normal and malignant cell proliferation. A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of substrates, both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Results Here, we show that ablation of ERK1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells by gene targeting and RNA interference results in an enhancement of ERK2-dependent signaling and in a significant growth advantage. By contrast, knockdown of ERK2 almost completely abolishes normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of ERK1 but not of ERK2 in NIH 3T3 cells inhibits oncogenic Ras-mediated proliferation and colony formation. These phenotypes are independent of the kinase activity of ERK1, as expression of a catalytically inactive form of ERK1 is equally effective. Finally, ectopic expression of ERK1 but not ERK2 is sufficient to attenuate Ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice. Conclusion These results reveal an unexpected interplay between ERK1 and ERK2 in transducing Ras-dependent cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas ERK2 seems to have a positive role in controlling normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation, ERK1 probably affects the overall signaling output of the cell by antagonizing ERK2 activity.

  1. [Changes in the intragastric contents during sleep affect the statistical characteristics of the neuronal activity in cerebral cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarev, I N; Bibikov, N G; Busygina, I I

    2014-06-01

    Firing activity in somatosensory cortical area was analyzed in cats during slow wave sleep. Statistical characteristics of the background activity were calculated before and after changes of the intragastric contents (introduction of 50 ml of water into stomach). This procedure did not affect the depth of sleep. There were no changes of the mean firing frequency and the local variation coefficients. To evaluate the degree of chaos in neuronal firing before and after changes of the intragastric contents, the dependence of the Fano factor from the length of the intervals of analysis was calculated. This dependence before water infusion for 40 neurons expressed as a power function with index of power > 0.2 what indicated on fractal nature of the background activity. The changes of the gastric contents in 18 neurons lead to considerable changes of the indexes of power of this function. It is known that in wakefulness for cortical neurons these indexes are dependent on the specific sensory stimulation. Thus, our results can be considered as an indication that during slow wave sleep signals from stomach are included in the afferent flow to the cortical areas, which in wakefulness are involved in somatosensory functions. PMID:25665397

  2. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  3. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  4. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  5. Limbic system activation is affected by prenatal predator exposure and postnatal environmental enrichment and further moderated by dam and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgan, Austin C; Green, Amanda D; Perrot, Tara S; Esser, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a relatively common and chronic neurological condition, affecting 1-2% of the population. However, understanding of the underlying pathophysiology remains incomplete. To identify potential factors in the early environment that may increase the risk for experiencing seizures, maternal stress and environmental enrichment (EE) were utilized. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to an ethologically relevant predator stress (PS) and maternal glucocorticoid (GC) response was assessed across the exposure period. At birth, litters were divided into standard care (SC) and EE groups until postnatal day 14 (PD14) when a model of febrile convulsions was used to determine seizure susceptibility of the various groups. Pup brains were then processed for immunohistochemical detection of FosB from several structures in the limbic system as a measure of neuronal activation. Maternal PS-induced GC levels were elevated early in the exposure period, and pup birth weights, in both sexes, were lower in litters from dams exposed to PS. Seizure scores at PD14 were highly individualized and litter dependent, suggesting a dam-dependent and variable effect of controlled pre- and postnatal environmental factors. Further, analysis of FosB-immunoreactive (-ir) patterns revealed an activity dependent distribution, reflecting individual seizure susceptibility. EE had a varying effect on FosB-ir that was dependent on region. In the hippocampus FosB-ir levels were greater in the EE groups while extra-hippocampal regions showed lower levels of FosB-ir. Our results support the concept that pre- and postnatal environmental influences affect fetal programming and neurodevelopment of processes that could underlie seizure susceptibility, but that the magnitude of these effects appears to be dam- or litter-dependent.

  6. Natural Radiation for Identification and Evaluation of Risk Zones for Affectation of Activated Faults in Aquifer Overexploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Leal, J.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Carbajal-Perez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In basins as Mexico, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi, the existence of faults and fractures have affected the urban infrastructure, lines of conduction of drinkable water, pipelines, etc., that when not being identified and considered, they don't reflect the real impact that these cause also to the aquifer system, modifying the permeability of the means and in occasions they work as preferential conduits that communicate hydraulically potentially to the aquifer with substances pollutants (metals, fertilizers, hydrocarbons, waste waters, etc.) located in the surface. In the Valley of San Luis Potosi, Villa of Reyes, Arista, Ahualulco and recently The Huizache-Matehuala is being strongly affected by faulting and supposedly due cracking to subsidence, however, the regional tectonic could also be the origin of this phenomenon. To know the origin of the faults and affectation to the vulnerability of the aquifer few works they have been carried out in the area. A preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible that a tectonic component is affecting the area and that the vulnerability of the aquifer in that area you this increasing. Before such a situation, it is necessary to carry out the isotopic study of the same one, for this way to know among other things, isotopic characterization, recharge places and addresses of flow of the groundwater; quality of waters and the behavior hydrochemistry with relationship to the faults. High radon values were measured in San Luis Potosi Valley, the natural source of radon could be the riolites and however, these are located to almost a once thousand meters deep for what the migration of the gas is not very probable. The anomalies radiometrics was not correlation with the faults in this case. In some areas like the Valley of Celaya, the origin of the structures and the tectonic activity in the area was confirmed, identifying the structural arrangement of the faulting, the space relationships

  7. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology.

  8. Pro198Leu polymorphism affects the selenium status and GPx activity in response to Brazil nut intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Bárbara R; Busse, Alexandre L; Hare, Dominic J; Cominetti, Cristiane; Horst, Maria A; McColl, Gawain; Magaldi, Regina M; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2016-02-01

    Selenoproteins play important roles in antioxidant mechanisms, and are thus hypothesised to have some involvement in the pathology of certain types of dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both thought to involve impaired biological activity of certain selenoproteins. Previously, supplementation with a selenium-rich Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has shown potential in reducing cognitive decline in MCI patients, and could prove to be a safe and effective nutritional approach early in the disease process to slow decline. Here, we have conducted a pilot study that examined the effects of a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and selenoprotein P (SEPP) in response to selenium supplementation via dietary Brazil nuts, including selenium status, oxidative stress parameters and GPX1 and SEPP gene expression. Our data suggest that GPX1 Pro198Leu rs1050450 genotypes may differentially affect the selenium status and GPx activity. Moreover, rs7579 and rs3877899 SNPs in SEPP gene, as well as GPX1 rs1050450 genotypes can influence the expression of GPX1 and SEPP mRNA in response to Brazil nuts intake. This small study gives cause for larger investigations into the role of these SNPs in both the selenium status and response to selenium dietary intake, especially in chronic degenerative conditions like MCI and AD. PMID:26661784

  9. Autonomous regulation mode moderates the effect of actual physical activity on affective states : an ambulant assessment approach to the role of self-determination

    OpenAIRE

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university...

  10. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  11. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  12. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size

  13. Genes associated with honey bee behavioral maturation affect clock-dependent and -independent aspects of daily rhythmic activity in fruit flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the honey bee, the age-related and socially regulated transition of workers from in-hive task performance (e.g., caring for young to foraging (provisioning the hive is associated with changes in many behaviors including the 24-hour pattern of rhythmic activity. We have previously shown that the hive-bee to forager transition is associated with extensive changes in brain gene expression. In this study, we test the possible function of a subset of these genes in daily rhythmic activity pattern using neural-targeted RNA interference (RNAi of an orthologous gene set in Drosophila melanogaster. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 10 genes tested, knockdown of six affected some aspect of locomotor activity under a 12 h:h light:dark regime (LD. Inos affected anticipatory activity preceding lights-off, suggesting a possible clock-dependent function. BM-40-SPARC, U2af50 and fax affected peak activity at dawn without affecting anticipation or overall inactivity (proportion of 15-min intervals without activity, suggesting that these effects may depend on the day-night light cycle. CAH1 affected overall inactivity. The remaining gene, abl, affected peak activity levels but was not clearly time-of-day-specific. No gene tested affected length of period or strength of rhythmicity in constant dark (DD, suggesting that these genes do not act in the core clock. SIGNIFICANCE: Taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetic tools, our study provides an important step in understanding the large set of gene expression changes that occur in the honey bee transition from hive bee to forager. We show that orthologs of many of these genes influence locomotor activity in Drosophila, possibly through both clock-dependent and -independent pathways. Our results support the importance of both circadian clock and direct environmental stimuli (apart from entrainment in shaping the bee's 24-hour pattern of activity. Our study also outlines a new approach to dissecting complex

  14. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  15. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly. PMID:19464754

  16. Density of Helicobacter pylorimay affect the efficacy of eradication therapy and ulcer healing in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Teh-Hong Wang; Shih-Hung Huang; Sien-Sing Yang; Chi-Hwa Wu; Tzen-Kwan Chen; Chia-Long Lee

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) density with bacterial eradication and ulcer healing rates in patients with active duodenal ulcer.METHODS: One hundred and four consecutive duodenal ulcer outpatients with H, pylori infection ascertained by gastric histopathology and 13C-urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this study. H. pylori density was graded histologically according to the Sydney system (normal, mild,moderate, and marked). In each patient, lansoprazole (30rng b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1g b.i.d.) were used for 1 week, then 30 mg lansoprazole once daily was continued for an additional 3 weeks. Followup endoscopy was performed at 4 weeks after completion of the therapy, and UBT was done at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of the therapy.RESULTS: The H. pylorieradication rates were 88.9 %/100.0 %, 94.3 %/100.0 %, and 69.7 %/85.2 %; and the ulcer healing rates were 88.9 %/100.0 %, 94.3 %/100.0 %,and 63.6 %/77.8 % (intention-to-treat/per protocol analysis)in the mild, moderate, and marked H. pyloridensity groups,respectively. The association of pretreatment H. pyloridensity with the eradication rate and ulcer healing rate was both statistically significant (P=0.013/0.006 and 0.002/<0.001,respectively; using results of intention-to-treat/per protocol analysis).CONCLUSION: Intragastric bacterial load may affect both the outcome of eradication treatment and ulcer healing in patients with active duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type. PMID:25638294

  18. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  19. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  20. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  1. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Serena; Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog), one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e., either "meow" or "woof" sound). These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials). The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone). The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task associations

  2. ROCK activity affects IL-1-induced signaling possibly through MKK4 and p38 MAPK in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sayantan; McGee, Dennis W

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) accompany inflammatory bowel disease. IL-1-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells can secrete potent chemokines like CXCL8 to exacerbate inflammation. Previously, we found that inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) could inhibit IL-1- or TNF-α-induced CXCL8 secretion by the Caco-2 colonic epithelial cell line. This ROCK inhibition did not affect IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, but suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Therefore, ROCK must play an important role in epithelial cell CXCL8 responses through an effect on the JNK signaling pathway. Here, we extend these studies by showing that inhibiting ROCK suppressed the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of MKK4, a known activator of JNK, but not MKK7. Yet, ROCK inhibition had no significant effect on the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Inhibiting ROCK also suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK after IL-1 stimulation, but this inhibition had no significant effect on the stability of CXCL8 messenger RNA (mRNA) after IL-1 stimulation. These results suggest that ROCK may be important in IL-1-induced signaling through MKK4 to JNK and the activation of p38 MAPK. Finally, inhibiting ROCK in IL-1 and TNF-α co-stimulated Caco-2 cells also resulted in a significant suppression of CXCL8 secretion and mRNA levels suggesting that inhibiting ROCK may be a mechanism to inhibit the overall response of epithelial cells to both cytokines. These studies indicate a novel signaling event, which could provide a target for suppressing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) chemokine responses involved in mucosal inflammation. PMID:27173611

  3. 13 CFR 108.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Financing § 108.760 How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the NMVC Company and the Portfolio Concern. (a) Effect on NMVC Company of a change in size of a Portfolio Concern. If a Portfolio...) Effect of a change in business activity occurring within one year of NMVC Company's initial...

  4. Immediate effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on the balance and trunk mobility of hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Dong; Lee, Kyoung-Bo; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on balance and the trunk hemiplegic mobility of stroke patients. [Subjects] The gait group (GG) consisted of 6 subjects with hemiplegia and the non-gait group (NGG) consisted of 6 hemiplegic subjects. [Methods] The subjects in both groups were given foot facilitation training once for 30 min. The Spinal Mouse was used to measure the spinal alignment and the Berg balance scale (BBS) and sensory tests were also performed. [Results] In the GG, the sacral hip in upright to flexion, the lumbar spine in upright to extension, and the sacral hip and lumbar spine in flexion to extension showed significant increases in their angles after the intervention. In addition, there was a significant increase in the angle of the lumbar spine during extension from an upright position in the NGG. The BBS scores of both groups also increased significantly. [Conclusion] The intervention resulted in improvements in the angle of anterior pelvic tilt in the GG, and subjects in the NGG showed more extension of the thorax, which was regarded as compensation to avoid falling forward when flexing from an upright position. However, when extending backward from an upright position, both groups tended to control balance by using more lumbar flexion to keep the center of mass (COM) within the base of support (BOS). Both groups had better BBS scores.

  5. Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-li SHENTU; Zhen-li HE; Xiao-e YANG; Ting-qiang LI

    2008-01-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on microbial biomass, activity and community diversity were assessed in a representative variable charge soil (Typic Aquult) using an incubation study. Cadmium was added as Cd(NO3)2> to reach a concentration range of 0~16 mg Cd/kg soil. Soil extractable Cd generally increased with Cd loading rate, but decreased with incubation time. Soil mi-crobial biomass was enhanced at low Cd levels (0.5~1 mg/kg), but was inhibited consistently with increasing Cd rate. The ratio of microbial biomass C/N varied with Cd treatment levels, decreasing at low Cd rate (<0.7 mg/kg available Cd), but increasing progressively with Cd loading. Soil respiration was restrained at low Cd loading (<1 mg/kg), and enhanced at higher Cd levels. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (MMQ) was generally greater at high Cd loading (1~16 mg/kg). However, the MMQ is also affected by other factors. Cd contamination reduces species diversity of soil microbial communities and their ability to metabolize different C substrates. Soils with higher levels of Cd contamination showed decreases in indicator phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) for Gram-negative bacteria and actinomycetes, while the indicator PLFAs for Gram-positive bacteria and fungi increased with increasing levels of Cd contamination.

  6. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  8. MicroRNA controlled adenovirus mediates anti-cancer efficacy without affecting endogenous microRNA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Cawood

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate mRNA translation and stability by binding to complementary sequences usually within the 3' un-translated region (UTR. We have previously shown that the hepatic toxicity caused by wild-type Adenovirus 5 (Ad5WT in mice can be prevented by incorporating 4 binding sites for the liver-specific microRNA, mir122, into the 3' UTR of E1A mRNA. This virus, termed Ad5mir122, is a promising virotherapy candidate and causes no obvious liver pathology. Herein we show that Ad5mir122 maintains wild-type lytic activity in cancer cells not expressing mir122 and assess any effects of possible mir122 depletion in host cells. Repeat administration of 2×10(10 viral particles of Admir122 to HepG2 tumour bearing mice showed significant anti-cancer efficacy. RT-QPCR showed that E1A mRNA was down-regulated 29-fold in liver when compared to Ad5WT. Western blot for E1A confirmed that all protein variants were knocked down. RT-QPCR for mature mir122 in infected livers showed that quantity of mir122 remained unaffected. Genome wide mRNA microarray profiling of infected livers showed that although the transcript level of >3900 different mRNAs changed more than 2-fold following Ad5WT infection, less than 600 were changed by Ad5mir122. These were then filtered to select mRNAs that were only altered by Ad5mir122 and the remaining 21 mRNAs were compared to predicted mir122 targets. No mir122 target mRNAs were affected by Ad5 mir122. These results demonstrate that the exploitation of microRNA regulation to control virus replication does not necessarily affect the level of the microRNA or the endogenous mRNA targets.

  9. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  10. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  11. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  12. Snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) affects the redistribution of soil organic matter and hormone‐like activity in the alpine ecosystem: ecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzeghello, Diego; Cocco, Stefania; Francioso, Ornella; Ferrari, Erika; Cardinali, Alessandra; Nardi, Serenella; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In alpine environments, colonies of snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) cause strong pedoturbation, which may affect humification process and soil organic matter (SOM) cycling, with repercussions on the hormone‐like activity of organics. We investigated the effect of snow vole pedoturbation on the chemical and spectroscopic features of soil organic fractions, and the potential hormone‐like activity of humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). The study site was located on the high‐mountain ...

  13. Land Based Sources and Activities Affecting the Quality and Uses of the Marine Coastal and Associated Fresh Water Environments Along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaguni, S.; Munga, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report updates an earlier report whose exercise was conducted in 1992 to assess pollution loads into the marine environment from land based activities along the Kenya coast. Like the previous one this new report presents the current picture of the same problem but is now widened to include how the activities affect the quality and uses of the marine coastal and associated fresh water environments. Output of this rapid assessment exercise is expected to provide an indication of the pollut...

  14. THE IMPACT OF MINING ACTIVITIES ON THE WEST OF PETROŞANI DEPRESSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AFFECTED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL RESOURCES. CASE STUDY: ANINOASA-VULCAN-LUPENI SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    N. NIMARĂ; G. B. TOFAN

    2015-01-01

    The Impact of Mining Activities on the West of Petroşani Depression and Identification of Affected Geomorphological Resources. Case Study: Aninoasa- Vulcan-Lupeni Sector. The west region of Petroşani Depression, like the whole depression, suffered some changes in the geomorphologic environment as a result of coal mining activities. Following displacement processes of mass materials and relocation of it, changes in shape are brought to the original territory that contrast with the natural land...

  15. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers’ transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’

  16. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes CZECH REPUBLIC (Dvorak, Zdenek) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-08-22 Revised: 2006-11-16 Accepted: 2007-01-02

  17. Segmental overgrowth syndrome due to an activating PIK3CA mutation identified in affected muscle tissue by exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Weigert, Karen Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA-associated......Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA...

  18. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P < .001). The activity of caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin. PMID:26543157

  19. Affecting Girls' Activity and Job Interests through Play: The Moderating Roles of Personal Gender Salience and Game Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Emily F.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF--tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool…

  20. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled st

  1. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of Northern france during autumn 2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldet, T.; Delecolle, J.C.; Cetre-Sossah, C.; Mathieu, B.; Meiswinkel, R.; Gerbier, G.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data

  2. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the develo

  3. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  4. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles we

  5. Factors affecting student participation in extra-curricular activities: A comparison between two Middle Eastern dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Al-Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: ECA participation among these students was low. Gender and perception of ECAs in relation to academic studies affected ECA participation differently in the two schools. Better planning and management of ECAs that incorporate students’ preferences and reasons for participation is needed. Gender issues and the relationship between ECAs and academic performance should be addressed in relation to school and social characteristics.

  6. Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: the effect of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie; Beauchamp, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program. PMID:20479476

  7. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin.

  8. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27. Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  9. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  10. The fMRI analysis of brain activation in response to face image affected by background images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimuli of a face images expressing fear induce the activation in the medial temporal lobe was reported in previous studies. In particular, it was reported that face image expressing fear activated the amygdala and hippo-campus area of brain. In these studies, no background images were used with facial stimuli. However, normal day-to-day images always have a background. We investigated the effect of combining face images expressing fear and different background images. As a result, strong activation was detected in the amygdala and hippocampus area when the lightning background image was used. But strong activation was not detected when the fire background image was used. From the results of questionnaire rating the impression of possibility of experiencing the situation of shown images, it is thought that this difference of impression of possibility made the difference of empathy and caused the difference of brain activation. (author)

  11. Enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants differentially affects Rubisco activity during low temperature treatment in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Grzesiak, Maciej; Kalita, Katarzyna; Rapacz, Marcin

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene was shown to be a point for optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It can be expected to be a stress-regulated event that depends on plant freezing tolerance. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among Rubisco activity, the expression of two Rubisco activase splicing variants and photoacclimation to low temperature. The experiment was performed on two Lolium perenne genotypes with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. The study investigated the effect of pre-hardening (15°C) and cold acclimation (4°C) on net photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical activity, Rubisco activity and the expression of two splicing variants of the Rubisco activase gene. The results showed an induction of Rubisco activity at both 15°C and 4°C only in a highly freezing-tolerant genotype. The enhanced Rubisco activity after pre-hardening corresponded to increased expression of the splicing variant representing the large isoform, while the increase in Rubisco activity during cold acclimation was due to the activation of both transcript variants. These boosts in Rubisco activity also corresponded to an activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation induced at low temperature exclusively in the highly freezing-tolerant genotype. In conclusion, enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants caused an increase in Rubisco activity during pre-hardening and cold acclimation in the more freezing-tolerant Lolium perenne genotype. The induction of the transcript variant representing the large isoform may be an important element of increasing the carbon assimilation rate supporting the photochemical mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to cold. PMID:27152456

  12. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coor...

  13. Differences in Cortical Activity between Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy Individuals Performing a Facial Affect Matching Task

    OpenAIRE

    Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Monterosso, John R.; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W.; London, Edythe D.

    2007-01-01

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the ...

  14. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the development of psychopathologies such as depression and social anxiety in adulthood. In the first experiment, we examined long-term effects of repeated social stress during adolescence on adult social ap...

  15. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: Species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E.; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we fo...

  16. High Temperature at Grain-filling Stage Affects Nitrogen Metabolism Enzyme Activities in Grains and Grain Nutritional Quality in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng-gang; CHEN Li-ping; WANG Yan; LIU Jia; Xu Guang-li; LI Tian

    2011-01-01

    Rice plants would more frequently suffer from high temperature (HT) stress at the grain-filling stage in future.A japonica rice variety Koshihikari and an indica rice variety IR72 were used to study the effect of high temperature on dynamic changes of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity,glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity,glutamic oxalo-acetic transminase (GOT) activity,glutamate pyruvate transminase (GPT) activity in grains and grain nutritional quality at the grain-filling stage.Under HT,the activities of GOGAT,GOT,GPT and soluble protein content in grains significantly increased,whereas GS activity significantly decreased at the grain-filling stage.In addition to the increase of protein and amino acids contents,it was suggested that GOGAT,GOT and GPT in grains played important roles in nitrogen metabolism at the grain-filling stage.Since the decrease of GS activity in grains did not influence the accumulations of amino acids and protein,it is implied that GS might not be the key enzyme in regulating glutamine content in grains.

  17. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed. PMID:10750318

  18. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  19. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Martina; Paar, Margret; Eder, Christina; Brandis, Janina; Moser, Elena; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Grond, Susanne; Radner, Franz P. W.; Cerk, Ines; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Kersten, Sander; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 switch gene-2 (G0S2). CGI-58 activates and G0S2 inhibits ATGL activity. In contrast to mice, the functional role of G0S2 in human adipocyte lipolysis is poorly characterized. Here we show that overexp...

  20. Jiawei Wendan decoction affects mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in the hippocampus of depression rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhang; Man Zhang; Li Wu; Meng Xia; Guangbin Li

    2011-01-01

    A previous study from our group showed that Jiawei Wendan decoction inhibits protein expression of interleukin-1β, 2, and 6, as well as plasma neuropeptide Y, P substance and somatostatin in the hippocampus of depression rat models. The present study analyzed the influence of Jiawei Wendan decoction on the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus. Results demonstrated that Jiawei Wendan decoction effectively upregulated expression of small molecular G proteins, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, and activated ribosomal S6 kinase protein in the rat hippocampus. In addition, Jiawei Wendan decoction exhibits antidepressant effects similar to fluoxetine. The underlying mechanisms were shown to be dependent on increased mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway activity.

  1. Actimetric evidence that CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP influences sleep and activity patterns in patients affected by bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Dallaspezia, Sara; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Lorenzi, Cristina; Serretti, Alessandro; Barbini, Barbara; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Depressive insomnia and diurnal fluctuations of mood and activity are core clinical features of mood disorders. Here we studied the effect of CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP (rs1801260) on the actimetric recorded diurnal activity and nocturnal sleep of 39 bipolar depressed inpatients. Compared to T/T homozygotes, carriers of the C allele had a similar degree of severity of depression, but showed higher activity levels in the evening, a delayed sleep onset (mean 79 min later), and a reduced amount of sleep during the night (mean 75 min less). Ongoing lithium treatment significantly interacted with rs1801260 by enhancing activity levels in the evening and reducing the differences among genotype groups. Individual characteristics of the molecular clock can influence sleep symptoms in mood disorders.

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcushornemanni (C. hornemanni) on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrioalginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonashydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract.Conclusion:Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  4. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    levels in the cvs Burlat and Saco. Phenolic cherry extracts inhibited low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts of freshly harvested cherries exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities than extracts of stored samples. The cv Summit samples had the highest...... antioxidant activity. Differences in the antioxidant effects of the cherry samples were positively correlated with their levels of p-coumaroylquinic acid (p

  5. Mutations in the fourth EGF-like domain affect thrombomodulin-induced changes in the active site of thrombin

    OpenAIRE

    Koeppe, Julia R.; Beach, Muneera A.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel; Jordan Kerns, S.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of alanine and more conservative mutants of residues in the fourth domain of thrombomodulin (TM) were prepared and assayed for protein C activation and for thrombin binding. Several of the alanine mutations appeared to cause misfolding or structural defects as assessed by poor expression and/or NMR HSQC experiments, while more conservative mutations at the same site appeared to fold correctly and retain activity. Several of the conservative mutants bound more weakly to thrombin despi...

  6. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  7. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’ in their final year of their pre-service preparation program. Transfer of learning was proposed as characteristic of (i) the professional development program,(ii) beginning teachers and...

  8. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

  9. Soil properties and enzyme activities as affected by biogas slurry irrigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiling; Yu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Surong

    2015-03-01

    Biogas slurry, as a quality organic fertilizer, is widely used on large scale livestock farmland in Southwest China. In the present study, slurry collected from anaerobic tank of dairy farm was used to irrigate farmland having typical purple soil in Chongquing, China. The study revealed that irrigation with biogasslurry increased soil ammonium nitrogen and soil nitrate by 47.8 and 19% respectively as compared to control check. The average soil available phosphorus and soil phosphorus absorption co-efficient changed slightly. Relative enzyme activities of N and P transformation were indicated by catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase activity. Irrigation period and irrigation quantity were selected as variable factor Catalase, invertase and urease activity was highest when irrigation period and irrigation quantitiy was 4 days and 500 ml; whereas highest phosphatase activity increased significantly in purple irrigated by biogas slurry. The result of the present study is helpful in finding optimum irrigation conditions required for enzyme activity within defined range. It further reveals that biogas slurry enriches soil with various nutrients by enhancing N, P content and enzyme activities as well as it also deals with large number of biogas slurry for protecting the environment. PMID:25895278

  10. Hyaluronan Does Not Affect Bupivacaine’s Inhibitory Action on Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Activities in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    William Hester; Jinnan Yang; Guo-Yong Wang; Sen Liu; Michael J O'Brien; Savoie, Felix H.; Zongbing You

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this paper is to determine if hyaluronan affects bupivacaine's anesthetic function. Methods. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in 60 mm dishes. The chondrocytes were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (control group), 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan (Orthovisc), 0.25% bupivacaine, or a mixture of 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan and 0.25% bupivacaine. Outward currents were elicited by step depolarization from −90 mV to 150 mV ...

  11. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  12. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy [Bioreclamation In Vitro Technologies, Baltimore, MD 21227 (United States); Swaan, Peter W. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Hongbing, E-mail: hwang@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  13. Rosiglitazone stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and directly affects in vitro steroidogenesis in porcine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Karpeta, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) synthetic activator from the group of thiazolidinediones often used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other forms of insulin resistance. The present in vitro study assessed the direct effects of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50 μM doses on PPARγ gene expression, steroid secretion (progesterone [P4], androstenedione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol), and protein expression of PPARγ, 3βHSD, CYP17, 17βHSD, CYP19 by porcine ovarian follicles from prepubertal and cycling animals. We analyzed also steroid enzymatic activity by conversion of pregnen-3β-ol-20-one to P4, P4 to A4, and A4 to T. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone increased significantly PPARγ expression, P4 secretion, 3βHSD activity, and protein expression. Rosiglitazone decreased A4 and T secretion by reducing the expression and activity of CYP17 and 17βHSD and did not change estradiol secretion and CYP19. Similarly results was observed both in prepubertal and cycling pigs. Our results indicate that these direct effects of rosiglitazone on ovarian steroidogenesis provide a framework for testing several potential new mechanisms of PPAR-γ actions on porcine ovarian function. PMID:24681211

  14. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  15. PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Tyr28 in the N-terminus of Fyn affects Fyn activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Alonso, G; Courtneidge, S A;

    1997-01-01

    Binding of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to its receptors leads to the activation of members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. We show here that Fyn, a member of the Src family, is phosphorylated on Tyr28 in the unique N-terminal part of the molecule after interaction...... with the intracellular domain of the PDGF beta-receptor. Activated Fyn furthermore undergoes autophosphorylation on Tyr30, Tyr39 and Tyr420. When Fyn mutants with Tyr28, Tyr30 or Tyr39 replaced with phenylalanine residues were transfected into NIH3T3 cells a decreased activation after PDGF stimulation was seen......, suggesting a functional importance of the N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn....

  16. Functional assignment by Chimera construction of the domain affecting heterotropic activation of deoxyadenosine kinase from Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Ives, D H

    1998-10-01

    The heterodimeric subunits of deoxyadenosine kinase (dAK)-deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) from Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26 exhibit contrasting conformations manifested in the nearly unidirectional heterotropic activation of dAK when dGK binds deoxyguanosine. This is mediated, in part, by the conserved Ras switch I-like sequence (residues 153-161) [Guo et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6890-6897]. In an attempt to identify domains differentiating the specificities of dAK and dGK, we constructed several chimeras splicing heterodimeric dAK within this region. In Chimera-III, dAK residues 120-170 were replaced by the homologous section of dGK. dAK activity was elevated 40%, but although it retained its original specificity and Km values, it could no longer be activated by deoxyguanosine. Moreover, both the activated dAK and the "dAK" of Chimera-III exhibited (i) an increased Ks for the leading substrate ATP-Mg2+, suggesting the formation of intermediate enzyme species along their respective kinetic pathways, and (ii) broadened and lower pH optima for the dAK activities. These observations further indicate the importance of dAK residues 120-170, including the Ras-like segment, in catalysis and heterotropic activation. The other conformational properties of dAK (e.g. self-inactivity and MgATP being the leading substrate) were unaltered by this substitution, thus localizing the responsible domains even further upstream.

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [3H]2O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. - Highlights:

  18. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [(3)H](2)O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks.

  19. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  20. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P packaging.

  2. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  3. How Cognitive Styles Affect the Learning Behaviors of Online Problem-Solving Based Discussion Activity: A Lag Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…

  4. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  5. Disease-causing missense mutations affect enzymatic activity, stability and oligomerization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, B.; Muhlhausen, C.; Dickmanns, A.;

    2008-01-01

    revealed that all mutants were enzymatically inactive with the exception of p.Met263Val which showed 10% activity of the expressed wild-type enzyme. Western blot and pulse-chase analyses demonstrated that the amount of expressed p.Arg402Trp protein was significantly reduced compared with cells expressing...

  6. Range of motion and leg rotation affect electromyography activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen M; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-09-01

    Leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed 8 LE REP at their 8 repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP × ROM interaction was detected (p EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 (p ≤ 0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p EMG increased across REP (p EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO, the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  7. Caffeine supplementation does not affect match activities and fatigue resistance during match play in young football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Svein Arne; Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on match activities and development of fatigue during a football match. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over design, two experimental football games separated by 7 days were organised between the junior teams of two professional football...

  8. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  9. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 sw

  10. Relationship between malt qualities and p-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; DAI Fei; WEI Kang; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain β-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain β-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand,grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with β-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain β-amylase activity.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  12. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richie Erickson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO, Kansas (KS and Kentucky (KY, USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling, α-galactosidase (C cycling, β-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling and phosphomonoesterases (P cycling. The treatments were as follows: (i two years of beef manure applications to a fine sandy loam at different rates (control: 0, low: 34 kg N ha−1 and high: 96 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in CO; (ii three years of beef manure applications to a silt loam at different rates (0, low: 67 kg N ha−1 and high: 134 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in KS and; (iii three years of poultry and dairy manure applications to a silt loam with different tillage practices at the same rate (403 kg N ha−1 in KY. Tillage practices (none vs. conventional had no effect on the enzyme activities. Principal Component Analyses (PCA grouped all enzyme activities with the high beef manure application rate after the first year in CO at 0–5 cm. By the second year, the low and high beef manure rates differed in enzyme activities for the KS soil with no difference between the low rate and control in CO. Since the first year of the KY study, acid phosphatase activity was greater in the poultry treated soil compared to dairy or the control; whereas, C cycling enzyme activities were similar in soil treated with dairy or poultry manure. For all studies, PCAs for soil samples from 5–10 cm depth did not reveal treatment separation until the second year, i.e., only high application rate differed from the other treatments. Results of the study indicated significant responses in C and P

  13. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  14. Salinity and Salicylic Acid Interactions in Affecting Nitrogen Assimilation, Enzyme Activity, Ions Content and Translocation Rate of Maize Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, ions concentration as well as the translocation rate (TR) of carbohydrates and salicylic acid (SA) in salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L). Salicylic acid plus salinity treatment highly significantly increased: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), protein content, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibited nucleases (DNase and RNase) activities compared with Na CI-treated plants. In addition, the ionic levels of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3) and the translocation rate of the labelled photo assimilates have also been stimulated while sodium (Na) ions content was decreased. It is concluded that, salinazid maize plants might show an enhancement in their growth pattern upon salicylic acid application

  15. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Malik, A.; Varik, S.; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V.K.; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    nearshore to offshore Trivandrum, the pattern is more patchy. However, we could discern an increase in activity at station 5 and beyond, synchronizing with the decrease in Chl a. Access to DOP data would have clarified these aspects better... for their comments and suggestions which significantly improved the content of the manuscript. This is NIO contribution no. is xxxx. References Ahmed, N., Shahab, S., 2011. Phosphate Solubilization: Their Mechanism Genetics and Application. The Internet. J...

  16. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Richie Erickson; Vigil, Merle F.; Benjamin, Joseph G.; Phillip W. Stahlman; Karamat R. Sistani; Veronica Acosta-Martinez; Mikha, Maysoon M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO), Kansas (KS) and Kentucky (KY), USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling), α-...

  17. Extracurricular activities: Investigating the affects of participation-nonparticipation on the Georgia High School Science Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ray A.

    Student achievement research suggests that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive impact on the academic and developmental outcomes for adolescents. Specifically, several studies reported that adolescents who participate in extra-curricular activities are more likely to experience increases in academic achievement, self-esteem, high school graduation rates, and pro-social behaviors. On the other hand, there is research suggesting that participation in extracurricular activities may distract students from their academic pursuits. The state of Georgia requires all eleventh grade students to participate in the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT). The GHSGT consists of five separate tests that include (a) English/language arts, (b) math, (c) writing, (d) social studies, and (e) science. Each comprehensive exam is worth 600 points. A high school diploma will be awarded if the student scores at least 500 points on each individual exam. Further, review of student outcomes on the GHSGT revealed that first-time test takers were failing the science portion of the test at a greater percentage than any other subject on the GHSGT. Specifically, the Governor's Office of Student Achievement (GOSA) reported that from 2002 through 2004, a total of 70,451 students or 30.3% of students that were first-time test takers failed the science portion of the GHSGT. As a result, investigating factors that potentially could increase student achievement in science became the impetus for this study. In particular, this study examined the relationships between the levels of student participation in school sponsored extracurricular activities in relation to the level of student achievement in the area of science.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE REMOVAL OF A BASIC AND AN AZO DYE FROM ARTIFICIAL SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON

    OpenAIRE

    Albroomi, H I; ElSayed, Mohamed; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M A

    2014-01-01

    Decolourisation of wastewater, particularly from textile industries, is one of the major environmental concerns these days. Current methods for removing dyes from wastewater are costly and cannot effectively be used to treat wide range of such wastewater. This work describes the use of commercial available granular activated carbon (GAC) as an efficient adsorbent material for dyes removal. Aqueous solutions of various basic dye Methylene Blue (MB) and azo-dye Tartrazine with concentrations 5-...

  19. Do cholesterol-lowering agents affect brain activity? A comparison of simvastatin, pravastatin, and placebo in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. W.; Ashton, C H

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on measures of central nervous system activity were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover study. 2. Twenty-five healthy volunteers sequentially took 40 mg day-1 simvastatin, 40 mg day-1 pravastatin or placebo for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-6 week washout phase. 3. CNS measures included EEG evoked potentials, power spectral analysis, Leeds Sleep Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale, and Digit Symb...

  20. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  1. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  2. The Factors Affecting Individuals’ Participation in Cycling, Mountaineering and Trekking Activities: An Application of Probit Analysis for Turkey Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ardahan, Faik; MERT, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and explain the impacts of the independent variables as gender, marital status, income, education level, age, Life Satisfaction (LS) level, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) level and Ecological values and behavior level on participating in outdoor activities as cycling, trekking and mountaineering by using Probit Model, as Turkey case. To determine the EQ level, Ecological values and behavior level, and LS levels of participants, EQ, LS and New Ecological Paradi...

  3. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

  4. Foliar Application of Potassium Nitrate Affects the Growth and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Sunflower and Safflower Leaves under Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat JABEEN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of foliar application of KNO3 on growth and the activity of nitrate reductase were studied in the leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. plants growing under different levels of salinity. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water (i.e. 0.3% and 0.6%, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively were made by dissolving sea salt per litre of tap water. Nutrient solution of KNO3 was sprayed at the rate of 250 ppm. The concentration of Na+ and Cl- rapidly increased in the leaves of both the plants under salinity stress. In contrast the nitrate (NO3- and soluble protein concentration were decreased with the increasing salinity. Salinity reduced leaf area, its fresh and dry weight per plant and also inhibited the activity of Nitrate reductase (NRA enzyme. The application of KNO3 significantly reduced the increasing tendency of Na+ and Cl- and increased leaf area, its fresh and dry weight per plant, NO3- and soluble protein concentration and NR activity in leaves irrespective to the growth of plant under non saline or saline conditions.

  5. Melanoma Expressed-CD70 Is Regulated by RhoA and MAPK Pathways without Affecting Vemurafenib Treatment Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pich

    Full Text Available CD70 is a costimulatory molecule member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor family that is expressed on activated immune cells. Its ectopic expression has been described in several types of cancer cells including lymphomas, renal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. We have recently described its expression in a part of tumor cells from the vast majority of melanoma biopsies and human melanoma cell lines, and found that CD70 expression decreased over time as the disease progressed. Here, we show that RhoA, BRAF and Mitogen Activating Protein Kinase pathways are involved in the positive transcriptional regulation of CD70 expression in melanomas. Interestingly, the clinical inhibitor of the common BRAF V600E/D variants, Vemurafenib (PLX-4032, which is currently used to treat melanoma patients with BRAF V600E/D-mutated metastatic melanomas, decreased CD70 expression in human CD70+ melanoma cell lines. This decrease was seen in melanoma cells both with and without the BRAFV600E/D mutation, although was less efficient in those lacking the mutation. But interestingly, by silencing CD70 in CD70+ melanoma cell lines we show that PLX-4032-induced melanoma cell killing and its inhibitory effect on MAPK pathway activation are unaffected by CD70 expression. Consequently, our work demonstrates that CD70 ectopic expression in melanomas is not a valuable biomarker to predict tumor cells sensitivity to BRAF V600 inhibitors.

  6. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  7. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production. PMID:26428244

  8. Characterization of conserved arginine residues on Cdt1 that affect licensing activity and interaction with Geminin or Mcm complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Ode, Koji L; Shindo, Mayumi; Takisawa, Haruhiko; Masai, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    All organisms ensure once and only once replication during S phase through a process called replication licensing. Cdt1 is a key component and crucial loading factor of Mcm complex, which is a central component for the eukaryotic replicative helicase. In higher eukaryotes, timely inhibition of Cdt1 by Geminin is essential to prevent rereplication. Here, we address the mechanism of DNA licensing using purified Cdt1, Mcm and Geminin proteins in combination with replication in Xenopus egg extracts. We mutagenized the 223th arginine of mouse Cdt1 (mCdt1) to cysteine or serine (R-S or R-C, respectively) and 342nd and 346th arginines constituting an arginine finger-like structure to alanine (RR-AA). The RR-AA mutant of Cdt1 could not only rescue the DNA replication activity in Cdt1-depleted extracts but also its specific activity for DNA replication and licensing was significantly increased compared to the wild-type protein. In contrast, the R223 mutants were partially defective in rescue of DNA replication and licensing. Biochemical analyses of these mutant Cdt1 proteins indicated that the RR-AA mutation disabled its functional interaction with Geminin, while R223 mutations resulted in ablation in interaction with the Mcm2∼7 complex. Intriguingly, the R223 mutants are more susceptible to the phosphorylation-induced inactivation or chromatin dissociation. Our results show that conserved arginine residues play critical roles in interaction with Geminin and Mcm that are crucial for proper conformation of the complexes and its licensing activity. PMID:26940553

  9. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  10. D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of D-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and D-serine. D-DOPA is converted to L-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas D-serine participates in...... dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans....

  11. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Hyldahl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells. To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC or concentric contractions (CON. Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n=7 or CON (n=7 of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p<0.05 but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (P<0.01 following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively. There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p<0.05, but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise.

  12. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V;

    2016-01-01

    in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post......-risk individuals. METHODS: We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire...... brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response...

  13. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V;

    2015-01-01

    in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post......-risk individuals. METHODS: We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire...... brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response...

  14. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region. PMID:25779694

  15. Heavy Metals Affect Nematocysts Discharge Response and Biological Activity of Crude Venom in the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution of marine ecosystems and, specifically, heavy metals contamination may compromise the physiology of marine animals with events occurring on a cellular and molecular level. The present study focuses on the effect of short-term exposure to heavy metals like Zinc, Cadmium, Cobalt and Lanthanum (2-10 mM on the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, a jellyfish abundant in the Mediterranean sea. This species possesses stinging organoids, termed nematocysts, whose discharge and concomitant delivery of venom underlie the survival of all Cnidaria. Methods: Nematocysts discharge response, elicited by combined chemico-physical stimulation, was verified on excised oral arms exposed to heavy metals for 20 min. In addition, the hemolytic activity of toxins, contained in the crude venom extracted from nematocysts isolated from oral arms, was tested on human erythrocytes, in the presence of heavy metals or their mixture. Results: Treatment with heavy metals significantly inhibited both nematocysts discharge response and hemolytic activity of crude venom, in a dose-dependent manner, not involving oxidative events, that was irreversible in the case of Lanthanum. Conclusion: Our findings show that the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca, in terms of nematocysts discharge capability and effectiveness of venom toxins, is dramatically and rapidly compromised by heavy metals and confirm that this jellyfish is eligible as a model for ecotoxicological investigations.

  16. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax™) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P D; Barclay, T G; Ginic-Markovic, M; Petrovsky, N

    2014-01-23

    We earlier identified a developmental series of seven isoforms/polymorphs of microparticulate inulin by comparing non-covalent bonding strengths. Their pharmaceutical utility lies in the modulation of cellular immunity, exploited as vaccine adjuvants (Advax™) especially for delta inulin (DI). As such particles cannot be sterilized by filtration we explore the effect of (60)Co gamma radiation (GR) on inulin isoforms, particularly DI. Its adjuvant activity and overt physical properties were unaffected by normal GR sterilizing doses (up to 25kGy). Heating irradiated isoform suspensions near their critical dissolution temperature revealed increased solubility deduced to reflect a single lethal event in one component of a multi-component structure. Local oxidative effects of GR on DI were not found. The observed DI loss was almost halved by re-annealing at the critical temperature: surviving inulin chains apparently reassemble into smaller amounts of the original type of structure. Colorimetric tetrazolium assay revealed increases in reducing activity after GR of raw inulin powder, which yielded DI with normal physical properties but only 25% normal recovery yet 4× normal reducing ability, implying final retention of some GR-changed inulin chains. These findings suggest minimal inulin chain cleavage and confirm that GR may be a viable strategy for terminal sterilization of microparticulate inulin adjuvants.

  17. Human SOD2 modification by dopamine quinones affects enzymatic activity by promoting its aggregation: possible implications for Parkinson's disease.

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    Elisa Belluzzi

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are considered central in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD. Oxidative stress occurs when the endogenous antioxidant systems are overcome by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. A plausible source of oxidative stress, which could account for the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, is the redox chemistry of dopamine (DA and leads to the formation of ROS and reactive dopamine-quinones (DAQs. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, providing a first line of defense against ROS. We investigated the possible interplay between DA and SOD2 in the pathogenesis of PD using enzymatic essays, site-specific mutagenesis, and optical and high-field-cw-EPR spectroscopies. Using radioactive DA, we demonstrated that SOD2 is a target of DAQs. Exposure to micromolar DAQ concentrations induces a loss of up to 50% of SOD2 enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is correlated to the concomitant formation of protein aggregates, while the coordination geometry of the active site appears unaffected by DAQ modifications. Our findings support a model in which DAQ-mediated SOD2 inactivation increases mitochondrial ROS production, suggesting a link between oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

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    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  19. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  20. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-12-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510

  1. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  2. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

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    Tzu-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX high capacity (HCR and low capacity running (LCR rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX or without (sedentary, SED running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05 line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026 in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05 with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially

  3. Interaction between mercury (Hg, arsenic (As and selenium (Se affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk: possible relationship with fish and shellfish intake

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    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg and arsenic (As could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se, an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women.

  4. A dimeric peptide with erythropoiesis-stimulating activity uniquely affects erythropoietin receptor ligation and cell surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Green, Jennifer M; Schatz, Peter J; Wojchowski, Don M

    2016-08-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) that exert long-acting antianemia effects have been developed recently, but their mechanisms are poorly understood. Analyses reveal unique erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)-binding properties for one such ESA, the synthetic EPOR agonist peginesatide. Compared with recombinant human EPO and darbepoietin, peginesatide exhibited a slow on rate, but sustained EPOR residency and resistant displacement. In EPO-dependent human erythroid progenitor UT7epo cells, culture in peginesatide unexpectedly upmodulated endogenous cell surface EPOR levels with parallel increases in full-length EPOR-68K levels. These unique properties are suggested to contribute to the durable activity of this (and perhaps additional) dimeric peptide hematopoietic growth factor receptor agonist. PMID:27174804

  5. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises......). In this study, we use a sample consisting of 119 Danish business units that are located in China. We set out to investigate the relationship between local factors (the local business unit’s Chinese values and internal employee relations in the unit) and CSR outcomes (internal and external CSR engagement as well...... as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding outcomes...

  6. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  7. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

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    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  8. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  9. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  10. Distinct structures of the α-fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfates do not affect their anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gustavo R C; Glauser, Bianca F; Parreiras, Luane A; Vilanova, Eduardo; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2015-10-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) is a glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumbers. It has a backbone like that of mammalian chondroitin sulfate (4-β-d-GlcA-1→3-β-d-GalNAc-1)n but substituted at the 3rd position of the β-d-glururonic acid residues with α-fucose branches. The structure of these branches varies among FCSs extracted from different species of sea cucumbers, as revealed by solution NMR spectroscopy. Some species (Isostichopus badionotus and Patalus mollis) contain branches formed by single α-fucose residues but with variable sulfation patterns (2,4-, 3,4- and 4-sulfation). FCS from Ludwigothurea grisea is distinguished because it contains preponderant branches formed by disaccharide units containing non-sulfated and 3-sulfated α-fucose units at the reducing and non-reducing ends, respectively. Despite the structural variability on their α-fucose branches, these FCSs have similar anticoagulant action on assays using purified reagents. They have serpin-dependent and serpin-independent effects. Pharmacological assays using experimental animals showed that the three types of FCSs have similar antithrombotic effect and bleeding tendency. They also activate factor XII on the same range of concentration. Based on these observations, we proposed that only few sulfated α-fucose branches along the FCS chain are enough to assure the binding of this glycosaminoglycan to proteins of the coagulation system. Substitution with additional sulfated α-fucose does not increase further the activity. Overall, the use of FCSs with marked variability on their branches of α-fucose allowed us to establish correlations between structures vs biological effects of these glycosaminoglycans on a more refined basis. It opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention using FCSs.

  11. Heparin-disaccharide affects T cells: inhibition of NF-kappaB activation, cell migration, and modulation of intracellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Iris; Hershkoviz, Rami; Shivtiel, Shoham; Lapidot, Tzvi; Cohen, Irun R; Lider, Ofer; Cahalon, Liora

    2004-06-01

    We previously reported that disaccharides (DS), generated by enzymatic degradation of heparin or heparan sulfate, inhibit T cell-mediated immune reactions in rodents and regulate cytokine [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-1beta] secretion by T cells, macrophages, or intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the effects of a trisulfated heparin DS (3S-DS) on two aspects of T cell function: secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and migration to an inflamed site. 3S-DS down-regulated nuclear factor-kappaB activity and reduced the secretion of TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by anti-CD3-activated T cells. In addition, 3S-DS inhibited CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12; stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha)-dependent migration in vitro and in vivo and decreased CXCL12-induced T cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein, fibronectin (FN). This inhibition was accompanied by attenuation of CXCL12-induced Pyk2 phosphorylation but did not involve internalization of the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, or phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase. Despite inhibiting CXCL12-induced adhesion, 3S-DS, on its own, induced T cell adhesion to FN, which was accompanied by phosphorylation of Pyk2. A monosulfated DS showed no effect. Taken together, these data provide evidence that 3S-DS can regulate inflammation by inducing and modulating T cell-signaling events, desensitizing CXCR4, and modulating T cell receptor-induced responses. PMID:15020655

  12. The repeated drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles affect only the active pool of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Vyacheslav; Zinyakova, Natalya; Tulina, Anastasiya

    2016-04-01

    The decrease in the content of soil organic carbon, particularly in active form, is one of the major problems of the 21st century, which is closely related to the disturbance of the biogeochemical carbon cycle and to the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The main reasons for the SOM losses are the surplus of the SOM active pool losses due to mineralization, erosion, and infiltration over the input of fresh organic matter to the soil, as well as the changes in the soil conditions and processes due to natural and anthropogenic disturbing impacts. Experiments were carried out with mixed samples from the upper layers of soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and typical chernozems. Soil samples as controls were incubated after wetting for 150 days. The dynamics and cumulative production of C-CO2 under stable temperature (22°C) and moisture conditions were determined; the initial content of potentially mineralizable organic matter (C0) in the soil at the beginning of the incubation was then calculated to use these data as the control. Other soil samples were exposed in flasks to the following successive treatments: wetting →incubation → freezing → thawing → incubation →drying. Six repeated cycles of disturbing impacts were performed for 140 days of the experiment. After six cycles, the soil samples were incubated under stable temperature and moisture conditions for 150 days. The wetting of dried soils and the thawing of frozen soils are accompanied by the pulsed dynamics of the C-CO2 production with an abrupt increase in the rate of the C-CO2 emission within several days by 2.7-12.4 and 1.6-2.7 times, respectively, compared to the stable incubation conditions. The rate of the C-CO2 production pulses under each subsequent impact decreased compared to the preceding one similarly for all studied soils, which could be due to the depletion in potentially mineralizable soil organic matter (C0). The cumulative extra C-CO2 production by

  13. Secreted aspartic protease cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 activates Cek1 MAPK signaling affecting biofilm formation and oropharyngeal candidiasis.

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    Sumant Puri

    Full Text Available Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1 phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA, a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps. Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence.

  14. In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odagiri Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 μg DEP/m3 for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased

  15. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan de Almeida Freires

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis, as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide affects exploratory behaviors toward novel objects by impairing cognition and/or motivation in mice: Possible role of activation of the central amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Ryota; Shintani, Norihito; Onaka, Yusuke; Wang, Hyper; Takenaga, Risa; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-03-17

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a series of systemic and psychiatric changes called sickness behavior. In the present study, we characterized the LPS-induced decrease in novel object exploratory behaviors in BALB/c mice. As already reported, LPS (0.3-5 μg/mouse) induced dose- and time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity, food intake, social interaction, and exploration for novel objects, and an increase in immobility in the forced-swim test. Although the decrease in locomotor activity was ameliorated by 10h postinjection, novel object exploratory behaviors remained decreased at 24h and were observed even with the lowest dose of LPS. In an object exploration test, LPS shortened object exploration time but did not affect moving time or the frequency of object exploration. Although pre-exposure to the same object markedly decreased the duration of exploration and LPS did not change this reduction, LPS significantly impaired the exploration of a novel object that replaced the familiar one. LPS did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. An LPS-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in several brain regions within 6h of LPS administration, but the number of cells quickly returned to control levels, except in the central amygdala where the increase continued for 24h. These results suggest that LPS most prominently affects object exploratory behaviors by impairing cognition and/or motivation including continuous attention and curiosity toward objects, and that this may be associated with activation of brain nuclei such as the central amygdala.

  17. Pharmacological activation/inhibition of the cannabinoid system affects alcohol withdrawal-induced neuronal hypersensitivity to excitotoxic insults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rubio

    Full Text Available Cessation of chronic ethanol consumption can increase the sensitivity of the brain to excitotoxic damages. Cannabinoids have been proposed as neuroprotectants in different models of neuronal injury, but their effect have never been investigated in a context of excitotoxicity after alcohol cessation. Here we examined the effects of the pharmacological activation/inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in an in vitro model of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal followed by an excitotoxic challenge. Ethanol withdrawal increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-evoked neuronal death, probably by altering the ratio between GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. The stimulation of the endocannabinoid system with the cannabinoid agonist HU-210 decreased NMDA-induced neuronal death exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. This neuroprotection could be explained by a decrease in NMDA-stimulated calcium influx after the administration of HU-210, found exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. By contrast, the inhibition of the cannabinoid system with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716 during ethanol withdrawal increased death of ethanol-withdrawn neurons without any modification of NMDA-stimulated calcium influx. Moreover, chronic administration of rimonabant increased NMDA-stimulated toxicity not only in withdrawn neurons, but also in control neurons. In summary, we show for the first time that the stimulation of the endocannabinoid system is protective against the hyperexcitability developed during alcohol withdrawal. By contrast, the blockade of the endocannabinoid system is highly counterproductive during alcohol withdrawal.

  18. Solar regeneration of powdered activated carbon impregnated with visible-light responsive photocatalyst: factors affecting performances and predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pow-Seng; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated a green technique to regenerate spent powdered activated carbon (AC) using solar photocatalysis. The AC was impregnated with a photocatalyst photoexcitable under visible-light irradiation to yield a solar regenerable composite, namely nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO(2)/AC). This composite exhibited bifunctional adsorptive-photocatalytic characteristics. Contaminants of emerging environmental concern, i.e. bisphenol-A (BPA), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and clofibric acid (CFA) which exhibited varying affinities for AC were chosen as target pollutants. The adsorption of BPA and SMZ by the N-TiO(2)/AC was significantly higher than that of CFA. The performance of solar photocatalytic regeneration (SPR) of the spent N-TiO(2)/AC composite generally increased with light intensity, N-TiO(2) loading and temperature. The regeneration efficiency (RE) for CFA-loaded spent composite was the highest compared to the other pollutant-loaded spent composites, achieving 77% within 8h of solar irradiation (765 W m(-2)). The rate-limiting process was pollutant desorption from the interior AC sorption sites. A kinetic model was developed to predict the transient concentration of the sorbate remaining in the spent composite during SPR. Comparison studies using solvent extraction technique indicated a different order of RE for the three pollutants, attributable to their varying solubilities in the aqueous and organic solvents. PMID:22464146

  19. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  20. Aromatic Amino Acid Mutagenesis at the Substrate Binding Pocket of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase Lip2 Affects Its Activity and Thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipase2 from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLip2 is a yeast lipase exhibiting high homologous to filamentous fungal lipase family. Though its crystal structure has been resolved, its structure-function relationship has rarely been reported. By contrast, there are two amino acid residues (V94 and I100 with significant difference in the substrate binding pocket of YLLip2; they were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis (SDM to introduce aromatic amino acid mutations. Two mutants (V94W and I100F were created. The enzymatic properties of the mutant lipases were detected and compared with the wild-type. The activities of mutant enzymes dropped to some extent towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPC16 and their optimum temperature was 35°C, which was 5°C lower than that of the wild-type. However, the thermostability of I100F increased 22.44% after incubation for 1 h at 40°C and its optimum substrate shifted from p-nitrophenyl laurate (pNPC12 to p-nitrophenyl caprate (pNPC10. The above results demonstrated that the two substituted amino acid residuals have close relationship with such enzymatic properties as thermostability and substrate selectivity.

  1. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.;

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... acquisition AM decreased rhizosphere respiration and number of protozoa but did not affect bacterial number suggesting top-down regulation of bacterial number by protozoan grazing. In contrast, during flowering and pod formation AM stimulated rhizosphere respiration and the negative effect on protozoa...

  2. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  3. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

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    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  4. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J E

    1995-12-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces. PMID:8618880

  5. Dietary heme-mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Ijssennagger

    Full Text Available Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome analysis of mucosa of heme-fed mice showed, besides stress- and proliferation-related genes, many upregulated lipid metabolism-related PPARα target genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PPARα in heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia. Male PPARα KO and WT mice received a purified diet with or without heme. As PPARα is proposed to protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, we hypothesized that the absence of PPARα leads to more surface injury and crypt hyperproliferation in the colon upon heme-feeding. Heme induced luminal cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation and colonic hyperproliferation and hyperplasia to the same extent in WT and KO mice. Transcriptome analysis of colonic mucosa confirmed similar heme-induced hyperproliferation in WT and KO mice. Stainings for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of Vanin-1 and Nrf2-targets indicated a compromised antioxidant defense in heme-fed KO mice. Our results suggest that the protective role of PPARα in antioxidant defense involves the Nrf2-inhibitor Fosl1, which is upregulated by heme in PPARα KO mice. We conclude that PPARα plays a protective role in colon against oxidative stress, but PPARα does not mediate heme-induced hyperproliferation. This implies that oxidative stress of surface cells is not the main determinant of heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

  6. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  7. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  8. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  9. Ketogenic diet delays the phase of circadian rhythms and does not affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2015-12-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is used for weight loss or to treat epilepsy. KD leads to liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which would be expected to inhibit gluconeogenesis. However, KD leads to increased hepatic glucose output. As AMPK and its active phosphorylated form (pAMPK) show circadian oscillation, this discrepancy could stem from wrong-time-of-day sampling. The effect of KD was tested on mouse clock gene expression, AMPK, mTOR, SIRT1 and locomotor activity for 2 months and compared to low-fat diet (LFD). KD led to 1.5-fold increased levels of blood glucose and insulin. Brain pAMPK/AMPK ratio was 40% higher under KD, whereas that in liver was not affected. KD led to 40% and 20% down-regulation of the ratio of pP70S6K/P70S6K, the downstream target of mTOR, in the brain and liver, respectively. SIRT1 levels were 40% higher in the brain, but 40% lower in the liver of KD-fed mice. Clock genes showed delayed rhythms under KD. In the brain of KD-fed mice, amplitudes of clock genes were down-regulated, whereas 6-fold up-regulation was found in the liver. The metabolic state under KD indicates reduced satiety in the brain and reduced anabolism alongside increased gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  10. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive ‘mentalizing’ functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people’s non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  11. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  12. Snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) affects the redistribution of soil organic matter and hormone-like activity in the alpine ecosystem: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzeghello, Diego; Cocco, Stefania; Francioso, Ornella; Ferrari, Erika; Cardinali, Alessandra; Nardi, Serenella; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In alpine environments, colonies of snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) cause strong pedoturbation, which may affect humification process and soil organic matter (SOM) cycling, with repercussions on the hormone-like activity of organics. We investigated the effect of snow vole pedoturbation on the chemical and spectroscopic features of soil organic fractions, and the potential hormone-like activity of humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). The study site was located on the high-mountain environment of the Majella massif (central Italy). Pedoturbated and regular soils were morphologically described and characterized for pH and content of total organic carbon, total extractable carbon, HA, and FA. Both HA and FA were extracted and investigated using attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS-NMR), and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC). HA and FA were also tested for their auxin-like and gibberellin-like activities. Results provide evidences that bioturbated and regular soils contain a poorly decomposed SOM, but HA and FA with a well-defined molecular structure. The HA and FA from both bioturbated and regular soils show a hormone-like activity with a different allocation along the soil profile. In the regular soil, the highest auxin-like activity was shown by HA and FA from Oe1 horizon, while gibberellin-like activity was expressed by FA from Oe2 horizon. Burrowing activity determines a redistribution of organics throughout the profile with a relatively high auxin-like activity in the FA from straw tunnel wall (STW) and gibberellin-like activity in the HA from vole feces (VF). The relative high presence of carboxylic acids, amides, proteins, and amino acids in the FA from STW and the aromatic moieties in the HA from VF put evidences for their different behavior. The fact that snow vole activity has modified the chemical and biological properties of

  13. Habitat management affects soil chemistry and allochthonous organic inputs mediating microbial structure and exo-enzyme activity in Wadden Sea salt-marsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter; Granse, Dirk; Thi Do, Hai; Weingartner, Magdalena; Nolte, Stefanie; Hoth, Stefan; Jensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The Wadden Sea (WS) region is Europe's largest wetland and home to approximately 20% of its salt marsh area. Mainland salt marshes of the WS are anthropogenically influenced systems and have traditionally been used for livestock grazing in wide parts. After foundation of WS National Parks in the late 1980s and early 1990s, artificial drainage has been abandoned; however, livestock grazing is still common in many areas of the National Parks and is under ongoing discussion as a habitat-management practice. While studies so far focused on effects of livestock grazing on biodiversity, little is known about how biogeochemical processes, element cycling, and particularly carbon sequestration are affected. Here, we present data from a recent field study focusing on grazing effects on soil properties, microbial exo-enzyme activity, microbial abundance and structure. Exo-enzyme activity was studied conducting digestive enzyme assays for various enzymes involved in C- and N cycling. Microbial abundance and structure was assessed measuring specific gene abundance of fungi and bacteria using quantitative PCR. Soil compaction induced by grazing led to higher bulk density and decreases in soil redox (∆ >100 mV). Soil pH was significantly lower in grazed parts. Further, the proportion of allochthonous organic matter (marine input) was significantly smaller in grazed vs. ungrazed sites, likely caused by a higher sediment trapping capacity of the taller vegetation in the ungrazed sites. Grazing induced changes in bulk density, pH and redox resulted in reduced activity of enzymes involved in microbial C acquisition; however, there was no grazing effect on enzymes involved in N acquisition. While changes in pH, bulk density or redox did not affect microbial abundance and structure, the relative amount of marine organic matter significantly reduced the relative abundance of fungi (F:B ratio). We conclude that livestock grazing directly affects microbial exo-enzyme activity, thus

  14. Extracellular enzyme activities in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador affected by low soil P status and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Ute, Hamer

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the enzymatic response of microorganisms in soils having a low P status and being subjected to global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change. Along a land-use sequence (natural forest - young pasture - old pasture - abandoned pasture - shrubland) in the Andes of southern Ecuador mineral topsoils of Cambisols / Umbrisols were investigated. We tested whether the activities of the six hydrolytic enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, α-glucosidase, xylanase, acid phosphomonoesterase) were affected by nutrient status and land-use induced alterations in soil pH (pHH2O from 3.7 to 5.2), resource quantity and quality (e.g. a SOC:N:P ratio from 182:13:1 to 1050:38:1) and microbial community structure (as monitored by phospholipid fatty acids). Microbial production of acid phosphatase responded to the low P status of the sites by a higher investment in the acquisition of P compared to C. We determined three major drivers of enzyme activities: 1.) Microbial demand for P regulated the production of acid phosphatase, provided that N and C were available. At the natural forest site the two-fold higher specific activity of acid phosphatase pointed to a high microbial P-demand, whereas the production of acid phosphatase was constrained by the availability of N and DOC after pasture abandonment. 2.) Microbial biomass that was controlled by pH and resource availability (total soil N (organic and inorganic N), organic P (Bray-fraction)) was the main driver for cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. 3.) Substrate induction due to increased litter inputs of herbaceous plant species seemed to regulate α-glucosidase and xylanase activities during secondary succession. In contrast, alterations in the abundance of microbial groups affected the variation in extracellular enzyme activities only marginally. At the level of broadly defined microbial groups (PLFA), our results

  15. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation. PMID:25837301

  16. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Soledad Rizzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu or ornithine (Orn by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH, P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH, and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild type (Col-0 and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro.

  17. Factors Affecting Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Activity after Liver Transplantation for Autoimmune and Nonautoimmune Liver Diseases: A Prospective, Single Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kotarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. With the improvement of the outcomes after liver transplantation (LTx, health-related quality of life (HRQoL and physical activity are becoming significant outcome parameters. We prospectively assessed these parameters in patients with autoimmune and nonautoimmune liver disorders undergoing LTx. Materials and Methods. Patients (n=107 were subdivided into 3 groups depending on the time after LTx: group-A (n=21: 6–12 months; group-B (n=48: 13–36 months; and group-C (n=38: >37 months. SF-36 and IPAQ were applied in HRQoL and physical activity assessment. Results. Females had impaired HRQoL in most SF-36 domains. Younger patients showed higher scores at SF-36 physical functioning domain but IPAQ was not influenced by age. Group-B had higher general health and physical component summary than group-A (P=0.037, P=0.04, resp. and total IPAQ than group-C (P=0.047. The sitting time domain was longer in group-A than in group-B and group-C (P=0.0157;  P=0.042, resp.. Employed patients had better HRQoL and higher physical activity than those not working. SF-36 and IPAQ were unrelated to the autoimmune etiology of liver disease. Conclusions. These findings show that female and unemployed patients have worse HRQoL, while gender and age at LTx time do not affect IPAQ’s physical activity. The autoimmune etiology of liver disease does not influence HRQoL and physical activity after LTx.

  18. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit. PMID:27080884

  19. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  20. The Size of Activating and Inhibitory Killer Ig-like Receptor Nanoclusters Is Controlled by the Transmembrane Sequence and Affects Signaling

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    Anna Oszmiana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy has revealed that immune cell receptors are organized in nanoscale clusters at cell surfaces and immune synapses. However, mechanisms and functions for this nanoscale organization remain unclear. Here, we used super-resolution microscopy to compare the surface organization of paired killer Ig-like receptors (KIR, KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1, on human primary natural killer cells and cell lines. Activating KIR2DS1 assembled in clusters two-fold larger than its inhibitory counterpart KIR2DL1. Site-directed mutagenesis established that the size of nanoclusters is controlled by transmembrane amino acid 233, a lysine in KIR2DS1. Super-resolution microscopy also revealed two ways in which the nanoscale clustering of KIR affects signaling. First, KIR2DS1 and DAP12 nanoclusters are juxtaposed in the resting cell state but coalesce upon receptor ligation. Second, quantitative super-resolution microscopy revealed that phosphorylation of the kinase ZAP-70 or phosphatase SHP-1 is favored in larger KIR nanoclusters. Thus, the size of KIR nanoclusters depends on the transmembrane sequence and affects downstream signaling.

  1. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  2. Suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by bulking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by the overabundance of the filamentous bacteria (Thiothrix-021N). This technique was used to establish the chlorine dosage according to the observed damages on cellular membranes of both, floc-forming bacteria as well as filamentous bacteria. To identify the filamentous bacteria responsible for the macro-structural alteration of the flocs, several criteria were, met, including morphologic characteristics as well as conventional microbiological stains: Gram, Neisser and polyhydroxy alkanoates. FISH was used to confirm the obtained results, providing a definitive identification of the filamentous bacteria responsible for the alteration. (Author) 11 refs

  3. How does the addition of steric hindrance to a typical N-heterocyclic carbene ligand affect catalytic activity in olefin metathesis?

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes affect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between both ligands in different olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Is growing tourist activity affecting the distribution or number of breeding pairs in a small colony of the Eleonora’s Falcon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abrain, A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbance is a common threat for species of conservation concern such as the Eleonora’s Falcon. This paper shows that the rise in tourist presence from 1992 to 2000 has not affected the overall number of breeding pairs or their productivity in a small archipelago of the western Mediterranean (Columbretes Islands. However, the increasing tourist activity has coincided with a shift in the degree of occupancy on two islands within the archipelago, favouring that with a lower human presence close to colonies. Several conservation actions are reported and suggested, aimed at both testing and preventing the role of human presence as a factor influencing long-term colony persistence and growth.

  5. Does School-Based Health Promotion Affect Physical Activity on Weekends? And, Does It Reach Those Students Most in Need of Health Promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Bastian

    Full Text Available To determine whether a school-based health promotion program affects children's weekend physical activity and whether this effect varies according to socioeconomic-status.This was a quasi-experimental trial of school-based programs on physical activity levels implemented in disadvantaged neighborhoods in Alberta, Canada. In 2009 and 2011, 7 full days of pedometer data were collected from cross-sectional samples of grade 5 students (age 10-11 years from 10 intervention schools in low-socioeconomic neighbourhoods and 20 comparison schools in middle-socioeconomic neighbourhoods. Multilevel models assessed differences in step-counts between intervention and comparison groups over-time by weight (objectively measured and socioeconomic status subgroups.In 2009, children from intervention schools were less active on weekends relative to comparison schools (9212 vs. 11186 steps/day p<0.01. Two years later, daily step-counts on weekend days among children in low socioeconomic intervention schools increased such that they approximated those of children from middle socioeconomic comparison schools (12148 vs. 12121 steps/day p = 0.96. The relative difference in steps between intervention and comparison schools on weekends reduced from -21.4% to 0.2% following the intervention. The normalization of weekend step counts was similar for normal weight (-21.4% to +2.0% and overweight (-19.1 to +3.9% children, and was balanced across socioeconomic subgroups.These data suggest that school-based health promotion is effective for reducing inequities in physical activity levels outside school hours. Investments in school-based health promotion lead to behavior modification beyond the school environment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01914185.

  6. Evaluation of the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS in Italian patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease activity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Conti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant capability of the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS according to disease activity, in a cohort of Italian patients affected by systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE. METHODS: Consecutive SLE patients were enrolled. At each visit, the patients underwent a complete physical examination and the clinical/laboratory data were collected in a standardized, computerized, and electronically-filled form. The evaluation of serum complement C3 and C4 levels and determination of autoantibodies was obtained. Disease activity was assessed with the SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, while chronic damage was measured with the SLICC. Finally, PASS was assessed in all patients by asking to answer yes or no to a single question. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five patients were enrolled (M/F 12/153; mean age 40.4±11.8 years, mean disease duration 109.1±96.2 months. No patients refused to answer, suggesting the acceptability of PASS. A total of 80% of patients rated their state as acceptable. The patients with an acceptable status had significantly lower mean SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM scores than the others [1.8±2.7 versus 3.4±2.3(P=0.004; 0.7±0.9 versus 1.4±1.1(P=0.0027]. No significant differences were observed when considering chronic damage, evaluated with SLICC. CONCLUSIONS: In the clinical practice, SLE patients assessment performed by using complex disease activity indices such as SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, could be time consuming. In our study, for the first time, we used PASS, a quick and easily comprehensible tool, to evaluate the patients' status, this single question seems to be able to discriminate patients with different disease activity, especially when this is determined by musculoskeletal involvement.

  7. Inhibition of COX-2 does not affect therapeutical result of photodynamic therapy with hypericin despite of its increased activity and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a very promising, flexible and multifarious therapeutical approach for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant disorders. It is beholden on a nature of a photosensitive compound, its concentration and an incubation time, on a wavelength of light radiation, a fluence rate and a light dose as well as on a histological origin of the tissue and an oxygen pressure in it. Although PDT is of use in clinical practice, new promising photosensitive compounds with advantageous attributes are discovered continuously. PDT with hypericin, one of promising photosensitizers, activates p38 MAPK signalling pathway which induces expression of COX-2 and thereby increases concentration of its main product PGE2. Elevated activity of COX-2 as such is considered as contradictory to photo-cytotoxic effect of PDT with hypericin which should negatively influence an efficacy of PDT. In our experiment, effect of rofecoxib, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, as a post-treatment after PDT with hypericin in HeLa and HT29 cells have been evaluated. 24 as well as 48 hour treatment with 1 μM rofecoxib applied immediately after PDT did not induce significant decrease in cell proliferation, surprisingly. Purpose of failure to increase efficacy of PDT might be an activation of anti-apoptotic signalling pathways. Levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, especially Mcl-1 (HT29 and HeLa) and Bcl-2 (not expressed in HT29) have been evaluated. Considering our results, we can predict, that activity of COX-2 and its inhibition does not play crucial task in PDT experiments in vitro however its importance manifests in vivo as it affects angiogenesis of tumor. (authors)

  8. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  9. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  10. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS. PMID:22734927

  11. Acute inhibition of glial cells in the NTS does not affect respiratory and sympathetic activities in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kauê M; Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H

    2013-02-16

    Recent studies suggest that neuron-glia interactions are involved in multiple aspects of neuronal activity regulation. In the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neuron-glia interactions are thought to participate in the integration of autonomic responses to physiological challenges. However, it remains to be shown whether NTS glial cells might influence breathing and cardiovascular control, and also if they could be integral to the autonomic and respiratory responses to hypoxic challenges. Here, we investigated whether NTS glia play a tonic role in the modulation of central respiratory and sympathetic activities as well as in the changes in respiratory-sympathetic coupling induced by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a model of central autonomic and respiratory plasticity. We show that bilateral microinjections of fluorocitrate (FCt), a glial cell inhibitor, into the caudal and intermediate subnuclei of the NTS did not alter baseline respiratory and sympathetic parameters in in situ preparations of juvenile rats. Similar results were observed in rats previously exposed to CIH. Likewise, CIH-induced changes in respiratory-sympathetic coupling were unaffected by FCt-mediated inhibition. However, microinjection of FCt into the ventral medulla produced changes in respiratory frequency. Our results show that acute glial inhibition in the NTS does not affect baseline respiratory and sympathetic control. Additionally, we conclude that NTS glial cells may not be necessary for the continuous manifestation of sympathetic and respiratory adaptations to CIH. Our work provides evidence that neuron-glia interactions in the NTS do not participate in baseline respiratory and sympathetic control.

  12. Interfering with post-learning hippocampal activity does not affect long-term consolidation of a context fear memory outside the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Tine L; Sparks, Fraser T; Sutherland, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    There are still uncertainties about the role of the hippocampus (HPC) in memory consolidation. One theory, systems consolidation, states that the HPC is required for the initial storage of certain memories that subsequently become established in non-HPC networks through a lengthy process, involving an interaction with the HPC. A similar process may underlie the ability of multiple, distributed learning episodes of contextual fear conditioning to create a HPC-independent context fear memory, in a memory task that does not undergo systems consolidation with the mere passage of time [5]. The current study examined whether post-learning HPC activity is necessary to establish these HPC-independent context memories through distributed learning episodes. Rats received either three or six context conditioning sessions over the course of three days. The HPC-dependence of context memories was assessed using multisite, temporary inactivation of the HPC using ropivacaine during retention testing. We established that six conditioning sessions, but not three, created a memory that could be retrieved while the HPC was inactive. To directly test our hypothesis, HPC was inactivated after half of the six context-shock pairings in an independent group of rats. The rats were then tested for retention of context fear in the absence of HPC activity. Post-learning inactivation of the HPC did not affect the establishment of a HPC-independent context memory. These results favor the idea that at least one memory system outside the HPC can acquire context memories independently. PMID:23201356

  13. Factors affecting the myocardial activity acquired during exercise SPECT with a high-sensitivity cardiac CZT camera as compared with conventional Anger camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Yagdigul, Yalcine; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U1116 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Allee du Morvan, Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de Brabois, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2014-03-15

    Injected doses are difficult to optimize for exercise SPECT since they depend on the myocardial fraction of injected activity (MFI) that is detected by the camera. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors affecting MFI determined using a cardiac CZT camera as compared with those determined using conventional Anger cameras. Factors affecting MFI were determined and compared in patients who had consecutive exercise SPECT acquisitions with {sup 201}Tl (84 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (87 patients) with an Anger or a CZT camera. A predictive model was validated in a group of patients routinely referred for {sup 201}Tl (78 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (80 patients) exercise CZT SPECT. The predictive model involved: (1) camera type, adjusted mean MFI being ninefold higher for CZT than for Anger SPECT, (2) tracer type, adjusted mean MFI being twofold higher for {sup 201}Tl than for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, and (3) logarithm of body weight. The CZT SPECT model led to a +1 ± 26 % error in the prediction of the actual MFI from the validation group. The mean MFI values estimated for CZT SPECT were more than twofold higher in patients with a body weight of 60 kg than in patients with a body weight of 120 kg (15.9 and 6.8 ppm for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and 30.5 and 13.1ppm for {sup 201}Tl, respectively), and for a 14-min acquisition of up to one million myocardial counts, the corresponding injected activities were only 80 and 186 MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and 39 and 91 MBq for {sup 201}Tl, respectively. Myocardial activities acquired during exercise CZT SPECT are strongly influenced by body weight and tracer type, and are dramatically higher than those obtained using an Anger camera, allowing very low-dose protocols to be planned, especially for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and in non-obese subjects. (orig.)

  14. Fe2O3 nanoparticles suppress Kv1.3 channels via affecting the redox activity of Kvβ2 subunit in Jurkat T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wei-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning; Hao, Wei; Gao, Xue; Cao, Ji-Min

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are promising nanomaterials in medical practice due to their special magnetic characteristics and nanoscale size. However, their potential impacts on immune cells are not well documented. This study aims to investigate the effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) on the electrophysiology of Kv1.3 channels in Jurkat T cells. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate that incubation of Jurkat cells with Fe2O3-NPs dose- and time-dependently decreased the current density and shifted the steady-state inactivation curve and the recovery curve of Kv1.3 channels to a rightward direction. Fe2O3-NPs increased the NADP level but decreased the NADPH level of Jurkat cells. Direct induction of NADPH into the cytosole of Jurkat cells via the pipette abolished the rightward shift of the inactivation curve. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that Fe2O3-NPs could be endocytosed by Jurkat cells with relatively low speed and capacity. Fe2O3-NPs did not significantly affect the viability of Jurkat cells, but suppressed the expressions of certain cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ and IL-2) and interferon responsive genes (IRF-1 and PIM-1), and the time courses of Fe2O3-NPs endocytosis and effects on the expressions of cytokines and interferon responsive genes were compatible. We conclude that Fe2O3-NPs can be endocytosed by Jurkat cells and act intracellularly. Fe2O3-NPs decrease the current density and delay the inactivation and recovery kinetics of Kv1.3 channels in Jurkat cells by oxidizing NADPH and therefore disrupting the redox activity of the Kvβ2 auxiliary subunit, and as a result, lead to changes of the Kv1.3 channel function. These results suggest that iron oxide nanoparticles may affect T cell function by disturbing the activity of Kv1.3 channels. Further, the suppressing effects of Fe2O3-NPs on the expressions of certain inflammatory cytokines and interferon responsive genes suggest that iron

  15. Effectiveness of a mining simulation cooperative learning activity on the cognitive and affective achievement of students in a lower division physical geology course: A confluent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Jeffrey Wayne

    Most students enrolled in lower division physical geology courses are non-majors and tend to finish the course with little appreciation of what it is geologists really do. They may also be expected to analyze, synthesize, and apply knowledge from previous laboratory experiences with little or no instruction and/or practice in utilizing the critical thinking skills necessary to do so. This study sought to answer two research questions: (1) do physical geology students enrolled in a course designed around a mining simulation activity perform better cognitively than students who are taught the same curriculum in the traditional fashion; and (2) do students enrolled in the course gain a greater appreciation of physical geology and the work that geologists do. Eighty students enrolled in the course at Columbia College, Sonora, California over a two year period. During the first year, thirty-one students were taught the traditional physical geology curriculum. During the second year, forty-nine students were taught the traditional curriculum up until week nine, then they were taught a cooperative learning mining simulation activity for three weeks. A static group, split plot, repeated measures design was used. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both the control and treatment groups. The cognitive assessment instrument was validated by content area experts in the University of South Carolina Geological Sciences Department. Students were given raw lithologic, gravimetric, topographic, and environmental data with which to construct maps and perform an overlay analysis. They were tested on the cognitive reasoning and spatial analysis they used to make decisions about where to test drill for valuable metallic ores. The affective instrument used a six point Likert scale to assess students' perceived enjoyment, interest, and importance of the material. Gains scores analysis of cognitive achievement data showed a mean of 2.43 for the control group and 4.47 for

  16. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  17. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  18. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  19. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  20. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  1. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children....... Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7...... y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 ± 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 ± 6 g/d higher (P = 0...

  2. Phase transformation and impact properties in the experimentally simulated weld heat-affected zone of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the phase transformation and impact properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel are investigated. The HAZs were experimentally simulated using a Gleeble simulator. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite through normalizing at 1000 °C and tempering at 750 °C, while the HAZs consisted of martensite, δ-ferrite and a small volume of autotempered martensite. The impact properties using a Charpy V-notch impact test revealed that the HAZs showed poor impact properties due to the formation of martensite and δ-ferrite as compared with the base steel. In addition, the impact properties of the HAZs further deteriorated with an increase in the δ-ferrite fraction caused by increasing the peak temperature. The impact properties of the HAZs could be improved through the formation of tempered martensite after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), but they remained lower than that of the base steel because the δ-ferrite remained in the tempered HAZs

  3. Phase transformation and impact properties in the experimentally simulated weld heat-affected zone of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jang, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Gu; Han, Heung Nam

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the phase transformation and impact properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel are investigated. The HAZs were experimentally simulated using a Gleeble simulator. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite through normalizing at 1000 °C and tempering at 750 °C, while the HAZs consisted of martensite, δ-ferrite and a small volume of autotempered martensite. The impact properties using a Charpy V-notch impact test revealed that the HAZs showed poor impact properties due to the formation of martensite and δ-ferrite as compared with the base steel. In addition, the impact properties of the HAZs further deteriorated with an increase in the δ-ferrite fraction caused by increasing the peak temperature. The impact properties of the HAZs could be improved through the formation of tempered martensite after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), but they remained lower than that of the base steel because the δ-ferrite remained in the tempered HAZs.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Taeho; Jang, Minho; Park, Mingu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite.

  6. Application of Affect to CALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李露

    2006-01-01

    This essay mainly attempts to discuss some affective factors in CALL, with focus on affective influence on English (foreign language) learning and thus concludes that in the process of CALL related affect should be activated and made good use of to better foreign language teaching and learning.

  7. How exercise affects children’s learning capability : A study over how physical activities affect children’s learning capabilities from a few teachers and pupils point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Osbäck, Annica

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to find out how the children’s exercises affect their learning capabilities. With exercise, I mean all kinds of movements, like physics, walks and games. The method I will use in this investigation is interviews, where I choose to interview both teachers and their pupils at a school which uses an exercise-program called röris. Röris is an exercise program which involves moving to music. I also choose to look at Bunkefloprojektet, were scientists has invest...

  8. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for assessing adrenocortical activity and evaluation of factors that affect levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Heymann, Eckhard W; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive methods to assess stress hormone output via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs) have become a powerful tool in behavioral studies and conservation biology because they allow exploring the link between behavior, an animal's socio-ecological environment and its adrenocortical activity. However, FGCM levels are influenced by numerous other factors which often confound their interpretation. Thus, before applying these methods, knowledge on the impact of these factors is important. In this study we investigated the effect of (1) time of day, (2) age, (3) sex and (4) female reproductive state on FGCM levels in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Initially, we validated a 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay for monitoring the physiological stress response via fecal analysis in both species. We determined FGCM levels in fecal samples collected from two and six groups of wild spider monkeys (n=461 samples) and howler monkeys (n=166 samples), respectively. Our analyses revealed a strong effect of time of day on FGCM levels in spider monkeys, but no effect in howler monkeys. Adults of both species had significantly higher FGCM levels than subadults. In neither of the two species we found a sex-effect on FGCM output. Reproductive condition strongly affected FGCM levels in female spider monkeys which showed increasing concentrations with progressing gestation. This was not investigated in female howler monkeys due to an insufficient sample size. Our data indicate that the influence of the tested factors on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite output is species-specific, and that these variables need to be considered when interpreting FGCM levels in the species. PMID:23707497

  9. Non-enzymatic modifications of prostaglandin H synthase 1 affect bifunctional enzyme activity - Implications for the sensitivity of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Stec-Martyna, Emilia; Pawlowska, Zofia; Watala, Cezary

    2016-06-25

    Due to its ability to inhibit the blood platelet PGHS-1, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin(®)) is widely used as a preventive agent in atherothrombotic diseases. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair effective ASA-mediated acetylation process. On the other hand, it is proposed that ASA can prevent some of the late complications of diabetes by lowering the extent of glycation at protein free amino groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extents of non-enzymatic N-glycosylation (glycation) and acetylation of blood platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) and the competition between glycation and acetylation was investigated in order to demonstrate how these two reactions may compete against platelet PGHS-1. When PGHS-1 was incubated with glycating/acetylating agents (glucose, Glu; 1,6-bisphosphofructose, 1,6-BPF; methylglyoxal, MGO, acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), the enzyme was modified in 13.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 1.2 and 6.4 ± 1.1 mol/mol protein, respectively, and its activity was significantly reduced. The prior glycation/carbonylation of PGHS-1 with Glu, 1,6-BPF or MGO decreased the extent of acetylation from 6.4 ± 1.1 down to 2.5 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2 mol/mol protein, respectively, but the enzyme still remained susceptible to the subsequent inhibition of its activity with ASA. When PGHS-1 was first acetylated with ASA and then incubated with glycating/carbonylating agents, we observed the following reductions in the enzyme modifications: from 13.4 ± 1.6 to 8.7 ± 0.6 mol/mol protein for Glu, from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for 1,6-BPF and from 10.7 ± 1.2 to 7.5 ± 0.5 mol/mol protein for MGO, however subsequent glycation/carbonylation did not significantly affect PGHS-1 function. Overall, our outcomes allow to better understand the structural aspects of the chemical competition between glycation and acetylation of PGHS-1

  10. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  11. Sympathetic Activation Does Not Affect the Cardiac and Respiratory Contribution to the Relationship between Blood Pressure and Pial Artery Pulsation Oscillations in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available Using a novel method called near-infrared transillumination backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS that allows for the non-invasive measurement of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ in humans, we assessed the influence of sympathetic activation on the cardiac and respiratory contribution to blood pressure (BP cc-TQ oscillations in healthy subjects.The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to handgrip (HGT and cold test (CT were studied in 20 healthy subjects. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR and beat-to-beat mean BP were recorded using a continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (MV, end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 and end-tidal O2 (EtO2 were measured using a metabolic and spirometry module of the medical monitoring system. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and cc-TQ oscillations.HGT evoked an increase in BP (+15.9%; P<0.001, HR (14.7; P<0.001, SaO2 (+0.5; P<0.001 EtO2 (+2.1; P<0.05 RR (+9.2%; P = 0.05 and MV (+15.5%; P<0.001, while sas-TQ was diminished (-8.12%; P<0.001, and a clear trend toward cc-TQ decline was observed (-11.0%; NS. CBFV (+2.9%; NS and EtCO2 (-0.7; NS did not change during HGT. CT evoked an increase in BP (+7.4%; P<0.001, sas-TQ (+3.5%; P<0.05 and SaO2(+0.3%; P<0.05. HR (+2.3%; NS, CBFV (+2.0%; NS, EtO2 (-0.7%; NS and EtCO2 (+0.9%; NS remained unchanged. A trend toward decreased cc-TQ was observed (-5.1%; NS. The sas-TQ response was biphasic with elevation during the first 40 seconds (+8.8% vs. baseline; P<0.001 and subsequent decline (+4.1% vs. baseline; P<0.05. No change with respect to wavelet coherence and wavelet phase coherence was found between the BP and cc-TQ oscillations.Short sympathetic activation does not affect the cardiac and respiratory contribution to the relationship

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in potato starch as affected by water activity, pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C M; Beuchat, L R

    2000-11-01

    A study was done to determine the survival characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in potato starch powder as affected by aw (0.24-0.26, 0.51-0.52 and 0.75-0.78), pH (4.1 and 6.7) and temperature (4, 20 and 37 degrees C) over a 33-week storage period. Survival was enhanced as the aw decreased. The rate of death was higher as the storage temperature increased. Survival did not appear to be affected by pH. Since the composition of foods greatly affects the viability of E. coli O157:H7 at reduced aw, development of models to predict patterns of inactivation in a given food should be carried out using data generated from that food or one with very similar composition, aw and pH. PMID:11069638

  13. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  14. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  15. A Panel Analysis of Student Mathematics Achievement in the US in the 1990s: Does Increasing the Amount of Time in Learning Activities Affect Math Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Tevfik; Link, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Uses panel estimation techniques to estimate econometric models of mathematics achievement determinants for a nationally representative sample of high-school students. Extra time spent on math homework increases test scores; an extra hour of TV viewing negatively affects scores. Longer math periods also help. (Contains 56 references.) (MLH)

  16. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  17. Increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles in recent-onset Graves' disease caused primarily by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn 3 patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia. The affected muscles were found to be very stiff when the other eye looked straight ahead. It was expected that these stiff muscles would be able to s

  18. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (

  19. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO. PMID:26608644

  20. Autophosphorylation of serine 608 in the p85 regulatory subunit of wild type or cancer-associated mutants of phosphoinositide 3-kinase does not affect its lipid kinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layton Meredith J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α-isoform of the Type 1A Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Kα has protein kinase activity as well as phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity. The best described substrate for its protein kinase activity is its regulatory subunit, p85α, which becomes phosphorylated on Serine 608. Phosphorylation of Serine 608 has been reported to down-regulate its lipid kinase activity. Results We have assessed whether oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα, which have up-regulated lipid kinase activity, have altered levels of Serine 608 phosphorylation compared to wild type PI3Kα, and whether differential phosphorylation of Serine 608 contributes to increased activity of oncogenic forms of PI3Kα with point mutations in the helical or the kinase domains. Despite markedly increased lipid kinase activity, protein kinase activity was not altered in oncogenic compared to wild type forms of PI3Kα. By manipulating levels of phosphorylation of Serine 608 in vitro, we found no evidence that the protein kinase activity of PI3Kα affects its phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity in either wild-type or oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα. Conclusions Phosphorylation of p85α S608 is not a significant regulator of wild-type or oncogenic PI3Kα lipid kinase activity.