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Sample records for affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

  1. Mg spin affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

    CERN Document Server

    Tulub, Alexander A

    2009-01-01

    The Schlegel-Frisch ab initio molecular dynamics (ADMP) (DFT:B3LYP), T = 310 K, is used to study complexation between adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), ATP subsystem, and magnesium cofactor [Mg(H2O)6]2+, Mg subsystem, in a water pool, modeled with 78 water molecules, in singlet (S) and triplet (T) states. The computations prove that the way of ATP cleavage is governed by the electron spin of Mg. In the S state Mg prefers chelation of \\gamma-\\beta-phosphate oxygens (O1-O2), whereas in the T state it chelates \\beta-\\alpha-phosphate oxygens (O2-O3) or produces a single-bonded intermediate. Unlike the chelates, which initiate ionic reaction paths, the single-bonded intermediate starts off a free-radical path of ATP cleavage, yielding a highly reactive adenosinemonophosphate ion-radical, .AMP-, earlier observed in the CIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) experiment (A.A. Tulub, 2006). The free-radical path is highly sensitive to Mg nuclear spin, which through a hyperfine interaction favors the produc...

  2. Diagnostic value of adenosine-triphosphate radionuclide ventriculography in coronary artery disease. Comparison with conventional exercise stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) on hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) function, and to examine the value of ATP radionuclide-ventriculography (RNVG) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with standard exercise RNVG. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with suspected CAD underwent ATP (0.18 mg/Kg/min) RNVG and symptom-limited exercise RNVG. Coronary angiography revealed 27 patients with CAD (Group S) and 11 without CAD (Group N). In group S, exercise induced an increase in LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and a decrease in LV ejection fraction (LVEF). In contrast, ATP infusion caused LVESV to decrease in both groups, improving LVEF. Only 14 of 39 segments whose wall motion was deteriorated by exercise showed worsening regional wall motion during ATP infusion. The sensitivity and specificity of ATP RNVG for detecting CAD were 22. 2% and 100%, while those of exercise RNVG were 77.8% and 81.8%, respectively. Although ATP induced a depression of peak filling rate in group S as compared with group N, the deterioration of systolic function was not apparent with this method. ATP RNVG was not adequate for detecting CAD because of its lower sensitivity compared with exercise RNVG. (author)

  3. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  4. Whence Induced Demand: How Access Affects Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, David; Kanchi, Seshasai

    2000-01-01

    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other), some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering questions of what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced. This pa...

  5. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  6. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H;

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... affected by a reduction of the flux of glutamate derived carbon through the malic enzyme and pyruvate carboxylase catalyzed reactions. Finally, it was found that in the presence of glutamate as an additional substrate, glucose metabolism monitored by the use of tritiated deoxyglucose was unaffected by AMPK...

  7. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  8. Do Real Estate Loans Affect Economic Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Onder; S.Ozyildirim Gunalay; S. Ozyildirim; Y. Gunalay

    2007-01-01

    Real estate, especially housing, has an important share in the nationís wealth. For example, real estate constitutes 48.8% of total wealth in the world in 1991. Moreover, housing construction and its financing are two important factors that affect economic development in developed and developing countries. Although the mortgage system has been developing in the 1980s and 1990s in the developing economies, the impact of mortgage credits on the economy has been ignored in the literature. The on...

  9. Ectomycorrhizal activity as affected by soil liming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Solbritt

    1996-05-01

    Acidification of the forest soils in southern Sweden due to atmospheric deposition has become evident during recent decades. To counteract further acidification, liming of forests in the most affected areas has been proposed. Most forest trees in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and their uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil is greatly influenced by the symbiosis. In this thesis effects of liming on ectomycorrhiza have been studied in relation to effects on root colonization, fungal growth and nitrogen uptake. In field experiments the effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal colonization of root tips were variable, possibly due to different soil types and climatic variations. However, a changed mycorrhizal community structure could be detected. Laboratory studies also showed that the substrate may influence the outcome of lime applications; the nutrient status of the substrate had a marked effect on how mycelial growth was affected by liming. Under the experimental conditions used in the studies presented in this thesis, liming reduced the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The amount of extractable nitrogen and phosphorus in the peat was also reduced by liming. The latter could be due to either microbial or chemical immobilization. The lime induced decrease in nitrogen uptake was stronger in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the mycorrhizal plants had a higher ability to deal with the negative effects of liming on nitrogen availability. This was not the case for phosphorus. The lime induced decrease in phosphorus uptake was stronger for mycorrhizal plants, and in the highest lime treatment there was no significant difference between the mycorrhizal and the non-mycorrhizal spruce plants. 76 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Ionizing radiation affects active ileal electrolyte transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has pronounced effects on gastrointestinal physiology eliciting the fluid and electrolyte loss of the gastrointestinal syndrome. This study reports on the effect of whole-body cobalt-60 exposure on active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum in an effort to quantify these changes and to define the mechanism by which electrolyte transport is altered. The short-circuit current (lsc), a measure of active electrolyte transport, was determined for ileal segments isolated from rabbits radiated with 5 to 100 Gy and compared to those from sham irradiated control 1 to 96 hours after exposure. One hour after exposure there was no apparent effect of radiation. However by 24 hours, there was a significant increase in lsc of segments from animals exposed to doses of 7.5 Gy and greater. The lsc remained elevated during the 96 hours for 10 and 12 Gy whereas at 7.5 Gy it returned to control values by 72 hours. The response of the tissue to a secretagogue, theophylline, was reduced 72 hours post-irradiation. By 96 hours after exposure, the response to an actively transported amino acid, alanine, was also reduced. These results indicate that radiation-induced fluid and electrolyte loss is not simply a consequence of denudiation of the intestine but due in part to alterations in cellular transport processes

  11. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  12. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  13. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3... in or affecting commerce. Section 7A(a)(1) is satisfied if any entity included within the acquiring person, or any entity included within the acquired person, is engaged in commerce or in any...

  14. How do oil prices affect oilrig activity? : an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Resume "How do oil prices affect oilrig activity? An empirical investigation" by Guro Børnes Ringlund. Supervisors: Knut Einar Rosendahl and Terje Skjerpen. In this thesis, I analyse the relationship between oilrig activity and oil price changes for several oil-producing regions in the world. Rig activity is a preparation for future production of oil, through exploration for new fields or development of existing fields, and is thus an indicator for the future level of oil production. ...

  15. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  16. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  17. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  18. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  19. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  20. Relaxation training affects success and activation on a teaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, P; Hänninen, O

    1987-12-01

    We studied the effects of an audiocassette-relaxation training period (ART) and its timing on success at a teaching test (lecture type), on observed tension and on a number of physiological responses. The electrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (EMG), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), of female and male instructor candidates, were examined before, during and after the teaching test as well as during its critique. The relaxation period (18 min) was presented either on the preceding night (ARTnt) or immediately before the teaching test (ARTimm). The influence of personality (types A-B and extrovert-introvert) was also studied. ART improved success at the teaching test in both sexes. In males (but not in females), ARTimm decreased EMG level during the test, but ARTnt increased EMG at the test period as compared to the control group. In females, both ARTnt and ARTimm lowered HR more than in the control group. ARTimm lowered systolic BP in both sexes. Personality types affected the ART responses; ART was more beneficial for type A than B subjects. PMID:3325481

  1. Activity Clinic and Affects in Workplace Conflicts: Transformation through transferential activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Scheller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some reflections about an approach in work psychology: the Activity Clinic.After a brief introduction to the conceptual background of the “Activity Clinic”, it covers threedeeply interconnected themes. The first concerns the meaning attributed to the development of theaffects present in the work situation under analysis; the second discusses the reasons for theconflicts that are ultimately due to these affects; the third considers how a method of co-analysisof the activity can lead towards transformation of those conflicts.Our reflections refer to the process engendered by this methodological approach as one of“transferential activity”. The paper explains this process by empirically describing the“transport” of affects involved in the conflicts. The personal interpretation of the cause ofproblems gives way to the understanding that they are due to organizational dysfunction ratherthan to individual personalities. Measures can then be taken to break the deadlocks experiencedboth at the personal and collective level.

  2. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  3. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  4. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  5. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  6. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect androgen receptor activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hnida, Christina; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    of certain PAHs to activate the Ah receptor was assessed in H4IIE liver cancer cells, stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system. The positive control 2, 3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) caused a 13-14-fold induction of luciferase activity reaching maximum activity at 0.1 nM. DB...

  7. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect androgen receptor activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hnida, Christina; Larsen, John Christian

    of certain PAHs to activate the Ah receptor was assessed in H4IIE liver cancer cells, stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system. The positive control 2, 3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) caused a 13-14-fold induction of luciferase activity reaching maximum activity at 0.1 nM. DB...

  8. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... dependents, may affect the amount of benefit that he or she receives or affect the right to receive...

  9. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  10. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  11. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro.

  12. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  13. Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-01-18

    Salivary alpha-Amylase (sAA) is a starch digesting enzyme. In addition to its function in the context of nutrition, sAA has also turned out to be useful for monitoring sympathetic nervous system activity. Recent studies on humans have found a relationship between intra-individual changes in sAA activity and physical and psychological stress. In studies on primates and other vertebrates, non-invasive monitoring of short-term stress responses is usually based on measurements of cortisol levels, which are indicative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. The few studies that have used both cortisol levels and sAA activity indicate that these two markers may respond differently and independently to different types of stress such that variation in the degree of the activation of different stress response systems might reflect alternative coping mechanisms or individual traits. Here, we present the first data on intra- and inter-individual variation of sAA activity in captive bonobos and compare the results with information from other ape species and humans. Our results indicate that sAA activity in the bonobo samples was significantly lower than in the human samples but within the range of other great ape species. In addition, sAA activity was significantly higher in samples collected at times when subjects had been exposed to stressors (judged by changes in behavioral patterns and cortisol levels) than in samples collected at other times. Our results indicate that bonobos possess functioning sAA and, as in other species, sAA activity is influenced by autonomic nervous system activity. Monitoring sAA activity could therefore be a useful tool for evaluating stress in bonobos. PMID:21945369

  14. Lung cancer: district active treatment rates affect survival

    OpenAIRE

    CARTMAN, M.; Hatfield, A; Muers, M; Peake, M; Haward, R; Forman, D

    2002-01-01

    Design: A retrospective study of population based data held by the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), comparing active treatment rates for lung cancer with survival by districts.

  15. Oxidative Activity of Heated Coal Affected by Antypirogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Borovikov, I. F.; Yakutova, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of antypirogens on chemical activity of heated coal is studied. It is proved that ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and acid fluoride are the most effective antypirogens.

  16. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction

  17. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, A; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; M. Cifra; Pokorný, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of ...

  18. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Porokhnya Maria V; Haertdinov Nail N; Abramochkin Denis V; Zefirov Andrew L; Sitdikova Gusel F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and vent...

  19. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porokhnya Maria V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Contractions of atrial myocardial stripes were registered via force transducer. Results CO (10-4 - 10-3 M caused prominent decrease of action potential duration (APD in working atrial myocardium as well as significant acceleration of sinus rhythm. In addition CO reduced force of contractions and other parameters of contractile activity. Inhibitor of heme oxygenase zinc protoporphyrin IX exerts opposite effects: prolongation of action potential, reduction of sinus rhythm rate and enhancement of contractile function. Therefore, endogenous CO, which may be generated in the heart due to the presence of active heme oxygenase, is likely to exert the same effects as exogenous CO applied to the perfusing medium. In ventricular myocardium preparations exogenous CO also induced shortening of action potential, while zinc protoporphyrin IX produced the opposite effect. Conclusions Thus, endogenous or exogenous carbon monoxide may act as an important regulator of electrical and contractile cardiac activity.

  20. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  1. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  2. Inhibition of Nek2 by Small Molecules Affects Proteasome Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyao Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nek2 is a serine/threonine kinase localized to the centrosome. It promotes cell cycle progression from G2 to M by inducing centrosome separation. Recent studies have shown that high Nek2 expression is correlated with drug resistance in multiple myeloma patients. Materials and Methods. To investigate the role of Nek2 in bortezomib resistance, we ectopically overexpressed Nek2 in several cancer cell lines, including multiple myeloma lines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Nek2 were discovered using an in-house library of compounds. We tested the inhibitors on proteasome and cell cycle activity in several cell lines. Results. Proteasome activity was elevated in Nek2-overexpressing cell lines. The Nek2 inhibitors inhibited proteasome activity in these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these inhibitors resulted in inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation of several cell cycle regulators in HeLa cells, leaving them arrested in G2/M. Combining these Nek2 inhibitors with bortezomib increased the efficacy of bortezomib in decreasing proteasome activity in vitro. Treatment with these novel Nek2 inhibitors successfully mitigated drug resistance in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. Conclusion. Nek2 plays a central role in proteasome-mediated cell cycle regulation and in conferring resistance to bortezomib in cancer cells. Taken together, our results introduce Nek2 as a therapeutic target in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma.

  3. Regulation of drugs affecting striatal cholinergic activity by corticostriatal projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research demonstrates that the chronic degeneration of the corticostriatal excitatory pathway makes the cholinergic neurons of the striatum insensitive to the neuropharmacological action of a number of different drugs. Female rats were used; they were killed and after the i.v. infusion of tritium-choline precursor, choline acetyltransferase activity was measured. Striatal noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin content was measured by electrochemical detection coupled with high pressure liquid chromatography. Uptake of tritium-glutamic acid was estimated. The data were analyzed statistically. It is shown that there is evidence that the effects of a number of drugs capable of depressing cholinergic activity through receptor-mediated responses are operative only if the corticostriatal pathway is integral. Neuropharmacological responses in the brain appear to be the result of an interaction between several major neurotransmitter systems

  4. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  5. New thiazolidinediones affect endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, Martina; Tripodi, Gustavo L; Ferrer, Renila; Boscá, Lisardo; Pitta, Marina G R; Pitta, Ivan R; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2016-07-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists used in treating type 2 diabetes that may exhibit beneficial pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we characterized the effects of three new TZDs [GQ-32 (3-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-5-(4-nitro-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), GQ-169 (5-(4-chloro-benzylidene)-3-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), and LYSO-7 (5-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione)] on endothelial cells. The effects of the new TZDs were evaluated on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell migration, tube formation and the gene expression of adhesion molecules and angiogenic mediators in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PPARγ activation by new TZDs was addressed with a reporter gene assay. The three new TZDs activated PPARγ and suppressed the tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. GQ-169 and LYSO-7 also inhibited the glucose-induced ROS production. Although NO production assessed with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein-FM probe indicated that all tested TZDs enhanced intracellular levels of NO, only LYSO-7 treatment significantly increased the release of NO from HUVEC measured by chemiluminescence analysis of culture media. Additionally, GQ-32 and GQ-169 induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation by the up-regulation of angiogenic molecules expression, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and interleukin 8. GQ-169 also increased the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, and GQ-32 enhanced transforming growth factor-β expression. Together, the results of this study reveal that these new TZDs act as partial agonists of PPARγ and modulate endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction besides to stimulate migration and tube formation. PMID:27108791

  6. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Anna; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jiří

    Vol. 329. Bristol: IOP, 2011 - (Cifra, M.; Pokorny, J.; Kučera, O.), 012030 ISSN 1742-6588. [9th International Frohlich's Symposium on Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells - Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics. Praha (CZ), 01.07.2011-03.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : Biochemical research * Cellular structure * Control groups Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbalová, M.; Jandová, Anna; Dohnalová, A.

    Vol. 329. Bristol: IOP, 2011 - (Cifra, M.; Pokorny, J.; Kučera, O.), 012036 ISSN 1742-6588. [9th International Frohlich's Symposium on Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells - Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics. Praha (CZ), 01.07.2011-03.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Energy supplies * Genetic process * Information transfers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  9. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic reso...

  10. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  11. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  12. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.

  13. Root activity, some crops as affected by soil strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the relationship between soil strength and root activity of different crops, the experiment was conducted on Haryana Agricultural University Farm, Hissar. Open drums were placed one foot deep. 5 cm thick densities 1.4 (Control), 1.6 and 1.8 g/cc were placed at 25 cm depth in various drums. Test crops taken were pea, gram, wheat and barley. Bulk density of higher order in combination with low moisture levels resulted in more detrimental effects on root penetration of the crop in general but at some stages significant interaction between bulk density and moisture was observed where low moisture favoured the root entry through the compacted layers of soil. (author)

  14. Cobalt in alluvial Egyptian soils as affected by industrial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Co content in alluvial soils of Delta in Egypt using the delayed Neturen activation analysis technique (DNAA). The two prominent gamma ray lines at 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV was efficiently used for 60Co determination. Co content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 13.12 to 23.20 ppm Co with an average of 18.16*4.38 ppm. Cobalt content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 26.5 to 30.00 ppm with an average of 28.3*1.3 ppm. The highest Co levels (ranged from 36 to 64.69 ppm with an average of 51.9*9.5); were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils due to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  15. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    Introduction: The ActiLife Data Analysis Software processes ActiGraph accelerometer data and has a bandpass filter attenuating accelerations falling outside the normal human frequency passband considered to be 0.25-2.5 Hz. This frequency passband disfavour vigorous physical activity that is...... normally performed at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz. With the ActiGraph model GT3X one has the option to select sample frequency from 30 to 100 Hz. This study investigated the effect of the sampling frequency on the ouput of the bandpass filter.Methods: A synthetic frequency sweep of 0-15 Hz was generated...... in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies...

  16. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  17. Temperature affects microbial abundance, activity and interactions in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Jiabao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Temperature is a major factor determining the performance of the anaerobic digestion process. The microbial abundance, activity and interactional networks were investigated under a temperature gradient from 25°C to 55°C through amplicon sequencing, using 16S ribosomal RNA and 16S rRNA gene-based approaches. Comparative analysis of past accumulative elements presented by 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, and the in-situ conditions presented by 16S rRNA-based analysis, provided new insights concerning the identification of microbial functional roles and interactions. The daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. Increased methanogenesis and hydrolysis at 50°C were main factors causing higher methane production which was also closely related with more well-defined methanogenic and/or related modules with comprehensive interactions and increased functional orderliness referred to more microorganisms participating in interactions. This research demonstrated the importance of evaluating functional roles and interactions of microbial community. PMID:26970926

  18. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709860

  19. Youth perceptions of how neighborhood physical environment and peers affect physical activity: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alan L.; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is need for a youth-informed conceptualization of how environmental and social neighborhood contexts influence physical activity. We assessed youths’ perceptions of their neighborhood physical and peer environments as affecting physical activity. Methods Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity. Results Inducti...

  20. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  1. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  2. Physical Activity in Adolescents — Barriers and Impact on Depressed Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Langguth, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for physical inactivity as well as depressed affect, both related to various short-, mid-, and long-term negative consequences for adolescents' physical and mental health. Therefore, this developmental period is ideally suited for studying the association between change processes of everyday physical activity and change processes of depressed affect within person by applying an intensive longitudinal design. Given that physical activity substantially decrease...

  3. THE STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACTIVITY OF MEAT ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Patrakova, I.; Gurinovich, G.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin in raw meat are interrelated processes that affect the overall meat quality. The intensity of oxidation processes in meat raw material is regulated by its own antioxidant system (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione, etc.), the activity of which should be considered in the development of new technological solutions. Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin, directly affect the quality and safety of meat products, and reducing of the intensity of these processes contrib...

  4. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  5. Alteration of membrane phospholipid methylation by adenosine analogs does not affect T lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane phospholipid methylation has been described during activation of various immune cells. Moreover recent data indicated modulation of immune cells functions by adenosine. As S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine are adenosine analogs and modulators of transmethylation reactions, the effects of SAH and SAM were investigated on membrane phospholipid methylation and lymphocyte activation. SAM was shown to induce the membrane phospholipid methylation as assessed by the 3Hmethyl-incorporation in membrane extract. This effect was inhibited by SAH. In contrast SAM and SAH did not affect the phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. SAH neither modified the early internalization of membrane CD3 antigens nor did it prevent the late expression of HLA-DR antigens on lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin. These results indicate that in vitro alteration of phospholipid methylation does not affect subsequent steps of human T lymphocyte activation and proliferation

  6. Factors affecting uptake of an education and physical activity programme for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Visram, S.; Bremner, A.S.; Harrington, B.E.; Hawthorne, G

    2008-01-01

    Background: Intensive lifestyle intervention involving weight reduction and moderate physical activity has been shown to help regulate, and even prevent, type 2 diabetes. Aim: This study sought to explore factors affecting uptake of an education and physical activity programme for those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Method: Focus group discussions were conducted with individuals who completed the programme and semi-structured interviews were conducted with those who decline...

  7. CES1 genetic variation affects the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wang, G; Shi, J; Aa, J; Comas, R; Liang, Y; Zhu, H-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) genetic variation on the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) prodrugs. In vitro incubation study of human liver, intestine and kidney s9 fractions demonstrated that the ACEI prodrugs enalapril, ramipril, perindopril, moexipril and fosinopril are selectively activated by CES1 in the liver. The impact of CES1/CES1VAR and CES1P1/CES1P1VAR genotypes and diplotypes on CES1 expression and activity on enalapril activation was investigated in 102 normal human liver samples. Neither the genotypes nor the diplotypes affected hepatic CES1 expression and activity. Moreover, among several CES1 nonsynonymous variants studied in transfected cell lines, the G143E (rs71647871) was a loss-of-function variant for the activation of all ACEIs tested. The CES1 activity on enalapril activation in human livers with the 143G/E genotype was approximately one-third of that carrying the 143G/G. Thus, some functional CES1 genetic variants (for example, G143E) may impair ACEI activation, and consequently affect therapeutic outcomes of ACEI prodrugs. PMID:26076923

  8. Elements of Design-Based Science Activities That Affect Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Chittum, Jessica R.; Akalin, Sehmuz; Schram, Asta B.; Fink, Jonathan; Schnittka, Christine; Evans, Michael A.; Brandt, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which a 12-week after-school science and engineering program affected middle school students' motivation to engage in science and engineering activities. We used current motivation research and theory as a conceptual framework to assess 14 students' motivation through questionnaires,…

  9. Watered depressions as ecological phenomena in regions affected by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the importance of mine watered depressions in a landscape affected by mining activities (model localities - Louky nad Olsi, Orlova and Horni Sucha, Karvina district) from an ecological point of view - conservation and formation of wetland and water ecosystems, genetic resources and biodiversity conservation

  10. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  11. Antifungal activity of different natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Mari selvam; AJA Ranjit Singh; K Kalirajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study to evaluate the anti fungal activity of natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens. Methods: Many traditional craft products affected fungal pathogens were isolated using potato dextrose agar medium. The isolated fungus were identified by morphological and microscopically characterization using Alexopolus manual. 50μl of Turmeric, Terminalli, Guava and Henna natural dyes were poured into the wells of the culture plates. If antifungal activity was present on the plates, it was indicated by an inhibition zone surrounding the well containing the natural dye. Result: At a dose level of 50μl of terminalli dye was able to inhibit the growth of all the fungi tested. The absorbance rate of natural dyes analyzed by UV Spectrophotometer. The absorbance rate is high in terminalli (2.266) and turmeric (2.255). Conclusions: Natural dyes were bound with traditional products to give good colour and good antimicrobial activity against isolated fungal pathogens.

  12. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children’s daily lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanKühnhausen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive influence of physical activity (PA on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses.

  13. Cattle activities affect abundance and activity of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities in upland soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Radl, V.; Čuhel, Jiří; Gattinger, A.; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana; Schloter, M.

    Uppsala : Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, 2007. [Achievements of COST 856. Denitrification and related aspects. Final meeting of the ESF COST Action 856 /14./. 05.12.2007-08.12.2007, Uppsala] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cattle activities * nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities * upland soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  15. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  16. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  17. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  18. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation1

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J.; LU, QINGJUN; Yan ZHENG; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or Toll-like receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Here, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impair hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAP kinase and NF-κB activation and elevated production of...

  19. Critical Success Factors Affecting e-commerce Activities of Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Dogerlioglu; Volkan Cosgun

    2012-01-01

    Electronic commerce is redefining business and customer relationships, business processes, even sometimes restructuring the whole industry by providing new distribution channel, new delivery methods, new payment methods and new medium for communication. The aim of this study was to explore the critical success factors that affect e-commerce activities of Small and Medium -sized Enterprises (SMEs). In this study, a model has been developed based on previous researches and a questionnaire...

  20. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can ...

  1. Factors affecting hospital stay in psychiatric patients: the role of active comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Douzenis, Athanassios; Seretis, Dionysios; Nika, Stella; Nikolaidou, Paraskevi; Papadopoulou, Athanassia; Rizos, Emmanouil N; Christodoulou, Christos; Tsopelas, Christos; Mitchell, Dominic; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on length of stay (LOS) of psychiatric inpatients is an under-investigated issue. In this naturalistic study factors which affect LOS of two groups of patients were investigated, focusing on the impact on LOS of medical comorbidity severe enough to require referral. Methods Active medical comorbidity was quantified using referral as the criterion. The study sample consisted of 200 inpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and 228 inpatients suffering from bipolar diso...

  2. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  3. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils.The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA),in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1).The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system.The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 kev was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination.Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 + 5.1 ppm.Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 + 32.6 ppm.The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 + 54.4 ppm,were observed in soil samples collected from,either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  4. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BirteVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  5. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats

  6. Cannabinoid Modulation of Frontolimbic Activation and Connectivity During Volitional Regulation of Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Phan, K Luan; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Angstadt, Mike; Rabinak, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and brain research indicates that administration of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters threat perception and enhances the suppression of conditioned fear responses via modulation of the frontolimbic circuit. No prior studies, however, have examined whether THC also affects volitional forms of emotion processing such as cognitive reappraisal. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the effects of THC on frontolimbic activation and functional connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in a sample of healthy adults. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design and all participants ingested either an oral dose of synthetic THC (n=41) or placebo (n=37) before completion of an emotion regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional connectivity was assessed using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses. Results indicated that although there were no group differences in self-reported attenuation of negative affect during cognitive reappraisal, relative to placebo, THC increased amygdala activation and reduced amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) functional coupling during cognitive reappraisal of emotionally negative pictures. This suggests that in addition to automatic emotional processes, THC affects frontolimbic functioning during cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26647971

  7. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: identification and characterisation of cyclophilin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Eriksen, E F

    2003-01-01

    )] of control. IGF-I did not significantly affect these decreases. Cyclophilin A alone or in combination with IGF-I did not have any effect on differentiation (assessed by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)). In conclusion, these results suggest cyclophilin A is not involved in the......Prostate cancer cells metastasise to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has previously been shown that PC3 cells secrete factors which stimulate the mitogenic activity of human bone marrow stromal (hBMS) cells. Some of these mitogens have been found to be proteins with a...... molecular weight between 20 and 30 kDa. Even though a number of investigations have been performed to identify the osteoblastic mitogenic factor or factors produced by prostate cancer cells, it is still unknown what causes the mitogenic activation of osteoblasts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to...

  8. Ways of experiencing participation and factors affecting the current activity level after non-reconstructed ACL injury

    OpenAIRE

    Österberg, Annika; Kvist, Joanna; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Current assessment methods after an ACL injury do not consider how the individuals themselves experience their participation in activities or what factors they think have affected their current activity level.

  9. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. PMID:27030953

  10. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  11. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemar Moro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of rice and its components. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial three (levels of soil acidity x five (micronutrients sources with four replications. The addition of micronutrients does not affect levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil; soil acidity significantly affects levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil, concentration of micronutrients in rice plants and crop yield and its components; medium soil acidity (pH 5.5 result in medium to high levels of Cu and Fe, medium level of Zn and Mn, high nitrate reductase activity, resulting in higher dry matter, tillers, panicles, spikelets, weight of 100 grains and hence grain yield.

  12. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. PMID:25621856

  13. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  14. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  15. Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects the activity of a generalist predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Nacho; Lambin, Xavier; Evans, Darren; Pakeman, Robin; Redpath, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Grazing by domestic ungulates has substantial impacts on ecosystem structure and composition. In grasslands of the northern hemisphere, livestock grazing limits populations of small mammals, which are a main food source for a variety of vertebrate predators. However, no experimental studies have described the impact of livestock grazing on vertebrate predators. We experimentally manipulated sheep and cattle grazing intensity in the Scottish uplands to test its impact on a relatively abundant small mammal, the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and its archetypal generalist predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We demonstrate that ungulate grazing had a strong consistent negative impact on both vole densities and indices of fox activity. Ungulate grazing did not substantially affect the relationship between fox activity and vole densities. However, the data suggested that, as grazing intensity increased i) fox activity indices tended to be higher when vole densities were low, and ii) the relationship between fox activity and vole density was weaker. All these patterns are surprising given the relative small scale of our experiment compared to large red fox territories in upland habitats of Britain, and suggest that domestic grazing intensity causes a strong response in the activity of generalist predators important for their conservation in grassland ecosystems.

  16. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  17. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani, E-mail: arianiinaira@yahoo.com.br; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moraes, Rosana Nogueira [Pontifícia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ramos, Helton Estrela [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5{sup th} and 10{sup th} days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  18. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality. PMID:25977015

  19. Heat Shock Protein 90 Indirectly Regulates ERK Activity by Affecting Raf Protein Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei DOU; Liu-Di YUAN; Jing-Jing ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nerve system diseases. As more and more kinases have been discovered to be the client proteins of the molecular chaperone Hsp90, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors to reduce abnormal kinase activity is a new treatment strategy for nerve system diseases. This study investigated the regulation of the ERK pathway by Hsp90. We showed that Hsp90 inhibitors reduce ERK phosphorylation without affecting the total ERK protein level. Further investigation showed that Raf, the upstream kinase in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway,forms a complex with Hsp90 and Hsp70. Treating cells with Hsp90 inhibitors facilitates Raf degradation,thereby down-regulating the activity of ERK.

  20. Noticing relevant problem features: Activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NoelleMCrooks

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + _. Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil & Alibali, 2000. One possible reason is that children’s experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil & Alibali, 2005: the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total,” and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problems. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode

  1. Procyanidins Negatively Affect the Activity of the Phosphatases of Regenerating Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols like oligomeric catechins (procyanidins derived from green tea and herbal medicines are interesting compounds for pharmaceutical research due to their ability to protect against carcinogenesis in animal models. It is nevertheless still unclear how intracellular pathways are modulated by polyphenols. Monomeric polyphenols were shown to affect the activity of some protein phosphatases (PPs. The three phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs are close relatives and promising therapeutic targets in cancer. In the present study we show that several procyanidins inhibit the activity of all three members of the PRL family in the low micromolar range, whereas monomeric epicatechins show weak inhibitory activity. Increasing the number of catechin units in procyanidins to more than three does not further enhance the potency. Remarkably, the tested procyanidins showed selectivity in vitro when compared to other PPs, and over 10-fold selectivity toward PRL-1 over PRL-2 and PRL-3. As PRL overexpression induces cell migration compared to control cells, the effect of procyanidins on this phenotype was studied. Treatment with procyanidin C2 led to a decrease in cell migration of PRL-1- and PRL-3-overexpressing cells, suggesting the compound-dependent inhibition of PRL-promoted cell migration. Treatment with procyanidin B3 led to selective suppression of PRL-1 overexpressing cells, thereby corroborating the selectivity toward PRL-1- over PRL-3 in vitro. Together, our results show that procyanidins negatively affect PRL activity, suggesting that PRLs could be targets in the polypharmacology of natural polyphenols. Furthermore, they are interesting candidates for the development of PRL-1 inhibitors due to their low cellular toxicity and the selectivity within the PRL family.

  2. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  3. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  4. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates. PMID:27041309

  5. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  6. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  7. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  8. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R2=0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R2=0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R2=0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R2=0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of lower limb

  9. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  10. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

  11. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  12. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth;

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover the...... period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks/ceilings; and...

  13. For love or money? How activation of relational versus instrumental concerns affects reactions to decision-making procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Tomas; Vermunt, Riël; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how the direct activation of relational versus instrumental concerns affects reactions to decisions made by an authority. It is demonstrated that when instrumental concerns are experimentally induced, people's evaluations of the authority (Studies 1 and 2) as well as their intentions to protest (Study 3) are more strongly affected by how the procedures used by the authority affect anticipated outcomes (i.e., whether procedures are favorably or unfavorably inaccurate) than when ...

  14. Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jacinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC-amygdala (AMY-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC respectively, basolateral amygdala (BLA and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions.

  15. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  16. Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, J O

    1979-10-01

    A mutation affecting alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity has been shown to be cotransducible with ilv gene cluster. The transaminase deficiency results in conditional isoleucine auxotrophy in the presence of alanine. PMID:396446

  17. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Libuse A

    2007-11-01

    60°C did not affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.

  18. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis. PMID:26993237

  19. Novel function of perforin in negatively regulating CD4+T cell activation by affecting calcium signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enguang Bi; Kairui Mao; Jia Zou; Yuhan Zheng; Bing Sun; Chunjian Huang; Yu Hu; Xiaodong Wu; Weiwen Deng; Guomei Lin; Zhiduo Liu; Lin Tian; Shuhui Sun

    2009-01-01

    Perforin is a pore-forming protein engaged mainly in mediating target T cell death and is employed by cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. However, whether it also plays a role in conventional CD4+ T cell func-tion remains unclear. Here we report that in perforin-deficient (PKO) mice, CD4+ T cells are hyperproliferative in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. This feature of hyperproliferation is accompanied by the enhancement both in cell division and in IL-2 secretion. It seems that the perforin deficiency does not influence T cell development in thymus spleen and lymph node. In vivo, perforin deficiency results in increased antigen-specific T cell prolifera-tion and antibody production. Furthermore, PKO mice are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune uveitis. To address the molecular mechanism, we found that after TCR stimulation, CD44 T cells from PKO mice display an increased intracellular calcium flux and subsequently enhance activation of transcription factor NFATI. Our results indicate that perforin plays a negative role in regulating CD4+ T cell activation and immune response by affecting TCR-dependent Ca2+ signaling.

  20. Interfering with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex via TMS affects social impressions updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Todorov, Alexander; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2016-08-01

    In our everyday social interactions we often need to deal with others' unpredictable behaviors. Integrating unexpected information in a consistent representation of another agent is a cognitively demanding process. Several neuroimaging studies point to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a critical structure in mediating social evaluations. Our aim here was to shed light on the possible causal role of the mPFC in the dynamic process of forming and updating social impressions about others. We addressed this issue by suppressing activity in the mPFC by means of 1 Hz offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to a task requiring participants to evaluate other agents' trustworthiness after reading about their social behavior. In two different experiments, we found that inhibiting activity in the mPFC increased perceived trustworthiness when inconsistent information about one agent's behavior was provided. In turn, when only negative or positive behaviors of a person were described, TMS over the mPFC did not affect judgments. Our results indicate that the mPFC is causally involved in mediating social impressions updating-at least in cases in which judgment is uncertain due to conflicting information to be processed. PMID:27012713

  1. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  2. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  3. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm. • Sulfate

  5. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  6. The potential of denitrification for the stabilization of activated sludge processes affected by low alkalinity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hoffmann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problems provoked by nitrification of wastewater with low alkalinity were analyzed in a pilot sequencing batch activated sludge reactor (SBR. Decrease in pH resulted in disappearence of protozoa. De-flocculation of the activated sludge floc started below pH 6.5, resulting in enhanced effluent turbidity and loss of bacteria. Nitrification efficiency was affected below pH 6.2. The denitrification activity was not sufficient to keep up the pH, due to a low C/N ratio of the wastewater. Based on alkalinity and ammonia concentration of the wastewater and the necessary denitrification rate to prevent operational problems, was developed a prognostic diagram. The applicability of this diagram was tested for the SBR with excellent results. The diagram could be applied to optimize the operation of wastewater treatment plants affected by problems with low alkalinity wastewater.Os problemas provocados pela nitrificação no esgoto com baixa alcalinidade foram analisados num reator piloto do tipo lodos ativados seqüencial por batelada (RSB, alimentado por esgoto urbano. A diminuição do pH se mostrou em três níveis: com pH de 6,8 - 6,0 os protozoários, responsáveis para a filtração da fase liquida, desaparecerem; os flocos de lodos ativados começaram a se destruir abaixo pH 6,5 resultando em elevação da turbidez no efluente final e abaixo de pH 6,2-6,0 a nitrificação foi afetada. A influência da desnitrificação para manter o pH foi analisada. Devido a baixa relação C:N no esgoto pré-tratado, a desnitrificação não se mostrou suficiente para manter o pH estável. Este trabalho apresenta o cálculo da alcalinidade que considera a influência da nitrificação e desnitrificação, de acordo com os resultados obtidos no RSB. Baseado nesse cálculo, foi desenvolvida uma recomendação na forma gráfica para usar em ETE´s afetadas por baixa alcalinidade.

  7. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g-1·min-1) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  8. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  9. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  10. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  11. Frontoparietal Attentional Network Activation Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers during Affective Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Froeliger, Brett; Modlin, Leslie A.; Kozink, Rachel V.; Wang, Lihong; Garland, Eric L; Addicott, Merideth A.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Smoking withdrawal-induced disruption of affect and cognition is associated with dysregulated prefrontal brain function although little is known regarding the neural foci of smoker-nonsmoker differences during affective cognition. Thus, the current study utilized fMRI to identify smoker-nonsmoker differences in affective cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (17 smokers, 17 nonsmokers) underwent fMRI during an affective Stroop task (aST). The aST includes emotional cue-reactivity trials, ...

  12. A tropical coastal lagoon affected by agricultural activities. The importance of radiolabelled pesticide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to integrate the results obtained from laboratory and field radiolabelled pesticide studies on an appropriate management model for a tropical coastal lagoon in which diverse human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and tourism) take place. The tropical coastal lagoon studied is surrounded by agricultural fields on which large quantities of pesticides are used, and pesticide residue commonly enter the lagoon as runoff. Information on the distribution and dynamics of these contaminants is necessary for establishing coastal lagoon management. The distribution of pesticide residues in sediments of the lagoon was evaluated and the dynamics of the pesticides (water:sediment partitioning and bioaccumulation) experimentally assessed using 14C labelled pesticides (chlorpyrifos, DDT and parathion) in model ecosystems. The results of these experiments indicate that partitioning between phases (water:sediment) is very rapid, with the half-life varying from a few hours for chlorpyrifos and DDT to up to 8 days for parathion. In the same way, bio-accumulation of the different pesticides is an active process that varied for the different organisms exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations for 30 days. The results demonstrate that the persistence and the degree of bioaccumulation of pesticides are a threat to the ecosystem, both from the ecological and the economic point of view. Thus, traditional fisheries in the lagoon, shrimp farms and tourism could be seriously affected by their excessive use. Improved environmental management is urgently needed to reduce the risk of these ecological hazards. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  13. A review of OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities related to coupled processes affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA0) activities related to coupled processes. The scope of these activities affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository are focused on. They cover two general headings: the development of performance assessment methodologies and the acquisition of field and laboratory data

  14. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. PMID:26204047

  15. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  16. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    OpenAIRE

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such re...

  17. Factors affecting hospital stay in psychiatric patients: the role of active comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douzenis Athanassios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on length of stay (LOS of psychiatric inpatients is an under-investigated issue. In this naturalistic study factors which affect LOS of two groups of patients were investigated, focusing on the impact on LOS of medical comorbidity severe enough to require referral. Methods Active medical comorbidity was quantified using referral as the criterion. The study sample consisted of 200 inpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and 228 inpatients suffering from bipolar disorder (type I or II. Jonckheere and Mann–Whitney tests were used to estimate the influence of referrals on LOS, and regression analyses isolated variables associated with LOS separately for each group. Results Half of the patients needed one or more referrals for a non-psychiatric problem. The most common medical condition of patients with bipolar disorder was arterial hypertension. Inpatients with schizophrenia suffered mostly from an endocrine/metabolic disease - 12% of referrals were for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. A positive linear trend was found between LOS and number of referrals; the effect was greater for schizophrenia patients. The effect of referrals on LOS was verified by regression in both groups. Overall, referred patients showed greater improvement in GAF compared to controls. Conclusions To our knowledge this was the first study to investigate physical comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients using the criterion of referral to medical subspecialties. Comorbidity severe enough to warrant referral is a significant determinant of hospital stay. This insight may prove useful in health care planning. The results show lack of effective community care in the case of schizophrenia and negative symptoms may be the cause of this. Our findings call for more attention to be paid to the general medical needs of inpatients with severe mental health and concurrent severe medical comorbidity.

  18. Timing of mTOR activation affects tuberous sclerosis complex neuropathology in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magri

    2013-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a dominantly inherited disease with high penetrance and morbidity, and is caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Most affected individuals display severe neurological manifestations – such as intractable epilepsy, mental retardation and autism – that are intimately associated with peculiar CNS lesions known as cortical tubers (CTs. The existence of a significant genotype-phenotype correlation in individuals bearing mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 is highly controversial. Similar to observations in humans, mouse modeling has suggested that a more severe phenotype is associated with mutation in Tsc2 rather than in Tsc1. However, in these mutant mice, deletion of either gene was achieved in differentiated astrocytes. Here, we report that loss of Tsc1 expression in undifferentiated radial glia cells (RGCs early during development yields the same phenotype detected upon deletion of Tsc2 in the same cells. Indeed, the same aberrations in cortical cytoarchitecture, hippocampal disturbances and spontaneous epilepsy that have been detected in RGC-targeted Tsc2 mutants were observed in RGC-targeted Tsc1 mutant mice. Remarkably, thorough characterization of RGC-targeted Tsc1 mutants also highlighted subventricular zone (SVZ disturbances as well as STAT3-dependent and -independent developmental-stage-specific defects in the differentiation potential of ex-vivo-derived embryonic and postnatal neural stem cells (NSCs. As such, deletion of either Tsc1 or Tsc2 induces mostly overlapping phenotypic neuropathological features when performed early during neurogenesis, thus suggesting that the timing of mTOR activation is a key event in proper neural development.

  19. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

  20. Reduction in delta activity predicted improved negative affect in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Goldschmied, Jennifer; Casement, Melynda; Kim, Hyang Sook; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia

    2015-08-30

    While prior research has demonstrated a paradoxical antidepressant effect of slow-wave disruption (SWD), the specific dimensions of depression affected is still unclear. The current study aimed to extend this research by utilizing a dimensional approach in examining the antidepressant effects of SWD. Of particular interest is the affective dimension, as negative affect in depression is arguably the most salient characteristic of depression. This sample included 16 individuals with depression (10 female) recruited from the community. Participants slept in the lab for three nights (adaptation, baseline night, and SWD) with polysomnography, and completed measures of negative affect and depression severity the following morning. Results show that reduction in delta power was linearly associated with improved negative affect. Comparison of individual change scores revealed that half of the individuals showed improved negative affect, which is comparable to the reported 40-60% antidepressant response rate to sleep deprivation. Results suggest that vulnerability in the sleep homeostatic system may be a contributing individual differences factor in response to slow-wave disruption in depression. PMID:26123231

  1. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  2. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    extracts affects their antioxidant capacity. For example, the results suggested that trans-resveratrol, gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, coumaric acid and kaempferol may be essential for the antioxidant activity of grape stem extracts. PMID:26300227

  3. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employabil...

  4. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Jane; Vollstädt-Klein Sabine; Bühler Mira; Smolka Michael N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. Methods To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Results Brain activation differed...

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  6. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water level regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL. High WL creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WL drawdown caused by land-use and/or climate change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WL drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine (undrained to short-term (years and long-term (decades WL drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation, i.e., Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    WL drawdown had a direct and positive effect on microbial activity. Enzyme allocation shifted towards C acquisition, which caused an increase in the rate of decomposition. However, litter type overruled the direct effects of WL drawdown and was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns. Our results imply that changes in plant community composition in response to persistent WL drawdown will strongly affect the C dynamics of peatlands.

  7. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  8. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  9. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is

  10. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inf

  11. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  12. AgRP(83-132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Kas, Martien J H; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A H

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and pr

  13. AgRP(83—132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J. G.; Kas, Martien J.H.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and pr

  14. The Effects of Worry and Rumination on Affect States and Cognitive Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Sibrava, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of worry and rumination on affective states and mentation type were examined in an unselected undergraduate sample in Study 1 and in a sample of individuals with high trait worry and rumination, high rumination, and low worry/rumination in Study 2. Participants engaged in worry and rumination inductions, counterbalanced in order across…

  15. Affective mentalizing and brain activity at rest in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Some of the observed effects may reflect specific compensatory mechanisms for the atrophic changes involving regions in charge of affective mentalizing. The analysis of specific resting-state networks thus highlights an intermediate level of analysis between abnormal brain structure and impaired behavioral performance in bvFTD, reflecting both dysfunction and compensation mechanisms.

  16. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  17. Allitridi induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity in human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LAN; You-yong LU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of allitridi-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823.METHODS: Growth inhibition by allitridi was analyzed using cell growth curve and MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected using staining with Hoechst 33342, and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation analysis. The protein expression affected by allitridi was determined using Western blot. The activity of caspase-3 was measured using a fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Allitridi induced apoptosis, and then inhibited cells proliferation in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823. The protein level of Bcl-2 was decreased dramatically,while Bax and p53 were not significantly affected by allitridi. The expression and activity of caspase-3 started to increase after allitridi treatment for 72 h. CONCLUSION: Allitridi induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bcl-2, and increased caspase-3 expression and its activity.

  18. A Possible Mechanism of the Impact of Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction on the Activity of Tropical Cyclones Affecting China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fumin; BAI Lina; WU Guoxiong; WANG Zaizhi; WANG Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this study,tropical cyclone data from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the ECMWF reanalysis data for the period 1958 2001 was used to propose a possible mechanism for the impacts of airsea interaction on the activity of tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting China.The frequency of TCs affecting China over past 40 years has trended downward,while during the same period,the air sea interaction in the two key areas of the Pacific region has significantly weakened.Our diagnoses and simulations suggest that air sea interactions in the central North Pacific tropics and subtropics (Area 1) have an important role in adjusting typhoon activities in the Northwest Pacific in general,and especially in TC activity affecting China.On the contrary,impacts of the air-sea interaction in the eastern part of the South Pacific tropics (Area 2) were found to be rather limited.As both observational analysis and modeling studies show that,in the past four decades and beyond,the weakening trend of the latent heat released from Area 1 matched well with the decreasing Northwest Pacific TC frequency derived from CMA datasets.Results also showed that the weakening trend of latent heat flux in the area was most likely due to the decreasing TC frequency over the Northwest Pacific,including those affecting China.Although our preliminary analysis revealed a possible mechanism through which the air sea interaction may adjust the genesis conditions for TCs,which eventually affect China,other relevant questions,such as how TC tracks and impacts are affected by these trends,remain unanswered.Further in-depth investigations are required.

  19. [Factors Affecting the Dynamics of Circadian Activity of Frit Flies Meromyza saltatrix (L) (Diptera: Chloropidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkin, A F; Triselyova, T A; Yazchuk, A A; Akent'eva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of circadian activity in adult frit flies of the Holarctic species Meromyza saltatrix (L) from Mongolian, Moscow, and Polish populations was studied. Synchronous peaks of activity were revealed with the periodicity multiple of three-four hours, which may depend on the level of light. The direct effect of temperature and humidity on the activity of flies outside the optimal values of these factors was found. It was detected that the peak of adult emergence falls on the beginning of a general increase in the abundance of flies, which indicates constant rejuvenation of the population. The sex ratio is close to 1, but the emergence of males and females is in antiphase. The synchronization of peaks of circadian activity in the populations from different regions confirms the presence of a circadian rhythm of activity. The rhythm synchronizing the reproductive activity of adults was found to be modified by the photoperiod under the optimum conditions of temperature and humidity. PMID:26852486

  20. Route of administration of pentobarbital affects activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik;

    1986-01-01

    Liver phosphorylase a activity in intact animals is mostly determined during anesthesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of administering pentobarbital by different routes on activity of liver phosphorylase a. Rats had chronically implanted venous catheters and received pentob...... by differences in duration before the drug takes effect. It is proposed that intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital may anesthetize hepatic sympathetic nerves or have a direct inhibiting effect on phosphorylase a activity....

  1. Nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase activities as affected by inorganic phosphate in corn roots

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kummerova; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    The deficieny of inorganic phosphate in nutrient solution reduces by about 50 per cent NO3- absorption in corn seedlings, it decreases both in vitro and in vivo nitrate reductase (NR) activity, as well the potential and actual NR level and has a very weak effect on NR induction. Acid phosphatases activities increase in corn roots when the plants are grown in nutrient solution without phosphorus. We suggest that inorganic phosphate is required mainly for maintenance of NR activity rather, than...

  2. Interactive Multimodal Ambulatory Monitoring to Investigate the Association between Physical Activity and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    UlrichW.Ebner-Priemer; MartinaK.Kanning; GerhardMutz

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a wealth of evidence that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, a large proportion of people are inactive. Data regarding counts, steps, and movement patterns are limited in their ability to explain why people remain inactive. We propose that multimodal ambulatory monitoring, which combines the assessment of physical activity with the assessment of psychological variables, helps to elucidate real world physical activity. Whereas physical activit...

  3. Lexical Activation in Bilinguals' Speech Production Is Dynamic: How Language Ambiguous Words Can Affect Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Daan; Ormel, E.; van Besselaar, Ria; van Hell, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1 Dutch-L2 English bilinguals decided whether or not a…

  4. Frontal Lobe Activity and Affective Behavior of Infants of Mothers with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In comparison to infants of mothers who had no symptoms of depression, infants of mothers with symptoms exhibited reduced left frontal lobe activity during play and failed to exhibit increased right frontal lobe activity during distress. Infants of symptomatic mothers showed less distress during maternal separation than infants of nonsymptomatic…

  5. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  6. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individua...

  7. Leaf Associated Microbial Activities in a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlief, Jeanette

    2004-11-01

    Microbial activity was assessed on birch leaves and plastic strips during 140 days of exposure at three sites in an acidic stream of the Lusatian post-mining landscape, Germany. The sites differed in their degrees of ochre deposition and acidification. The aim of the study was (1) to follow the microbial activities during leaf colonization, (2) to compare the effect of different environmental conditions on leaf associated microbial activities, and (3) to test the microbial availability of leaf litter in acidic mining waters. The activity peaked after 49 days and subsequently decreased gradually at all sites. A formation of iron plaques on leaf surfaces influenced associated microbial activity. It seemed that these plaques inhibit the microbial availability of leaf litter and serve as a microbial habitat by itself. (

  8. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TobiasHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  9. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  10. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  11. Changes In Certain Enzymes Activities In Tribolium CONFUSUM As Affected By Vanillin Or GAMMA Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 1 or 4 g vanillin/100 g whole wheat flour on the alkaline phosphatase of one day old larvae revealed that the mean enzyme activity was highly significantly increased in male and non-significant in female Triboluim confusum. As pupae were irradiated, the mean enzyme activity was significantly decreased in males and females (except at dose 300 Gy). Alanine transaminase (ALT or GPT) activity was decreased in males due to the effect of 4% vanillin and increased by irradiation while in female, the activity of ALT was increased when the larvae were reared on flour containing 1% or 4% vanillin and increased when pupae were irradiated at all doses used. There was a positive relationship between all treatments and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST or GOT) in both sexes. The activity of AST was increased when the male or female larvae were reared on wheat flour containing 1 or 4 % vanillin and when pupae of males or females were irradiated. The choline esterase enzyme in T. confusum adults of both sexes was inhibited according to the effect of treatments with vanillin or gamma irradiation. Treated larvae with 1 or 4 % vanillin or irradiated as pupae at 300, 600 and 800 Gy led to decrease in the activity of choline esterase enzyme with the same pattern in both sexes.

  12. Regulatory proteins (inhibitors or activators) affect estimates of Msub(r) of enzymes and receptors by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-inactivation method allows the determination of the Msub(r) of enzymes and receptors by monitoring the decay of biological activity as a function of absorbed dose. The presence of regulatory or effector proteins (inhibitors or activators) associated with an enzyme or receptor, or released in the preparation after tissue homogenization, may affect the decay of biological activity. How the activity is affected, however, will depend on the type of inhibition (competitive or non-competitive), the inhibitor or activator concentration, the dissociation constant of the enzyme-effector system, and the effector Msub(r) relative to that of the enzyme. Since little is known on how effector proteins influence radiation inactivation of enzymes and receptors, we have considered a theoretical model in an effort to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimentally obtained data. Our model predicts that competitive and non-competitive inhibitors of enzymes could be distinguished by analysing irradiated samples with various substrate concentrations. Inhibitors will decrease whereas activators will increase the apparent target size of enzymes or receptors. (author)

  13. Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L; Kuo, Po-Ling; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N), (2) key travel (2.5mm vs. 3.5mm), and (3) shape of the force-displacement curve as realized through buckling-spring vs. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces, and intramuscular fine wire EMG electrodes measured muscle activity patterns of two intrinsic (first lumbricalis, first dorsal interossei) and three extrinsic (flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and extensor digitorum communis) index finger muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first dorsal interossei increased 25.9% with larger activation forces, but not for the extrinsic muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first lumbricalis and the duration of muscle activities for the first dorsal interossei and both extrinsic flexor muscles decreased up to 40.4% with longer key travel. The amplitude of muscle activity in the first dorsal interossei increased 36.6% and the duration of muscle activity for all muscles, except flexor digitorum profundus, decreased up to 49.1% with the buckling-spring design relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force-displacement characteristics of a keyswitch changes the dynamic loading of the muscles, especially in the intrinsic muscles, during keyboard work. PMID:18515146

  14. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Cláudio F.; Neto Gabriel R.; Araújo Adenilson T.; Sousa Maria S. C.; Sousa Juliana B. C.; Batista Gilmário R.; Reis Victor M. M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness tr...

  15. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-12-15

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser(696) and Ser(698) in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser(886) and/or Ser(893) in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser(717) in the JM, and at Ser(733), Thr(752), Ser(783), Ser(864), Ser(911), Ser(958) and Thr(998) in the kinase domain. The LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr(890), Ser(893) and Thr(894)) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr(890), Ser(893), Thr(894) and Thr(899), differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  16. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  17. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p  0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN. PMID:24432013

  18. The transcription factor DBP affects circadian sleep consolidation and rhythmic EEG activity

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Paulus; Lopez Molina, Luis; Marcacci, Lysiane; Schibler, Ulrich; Tafti, Mehdi

    2000-01-01

    Albumin D-binding protein (DBP) is a PAR leucine zipper transcription factor that is expressed according to a robust circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, harboring the circadian master clock, and in most peripheral tissues. Mice lacking DBP display a shorter circadian period in locomotor activity and are less active. Thus, although DBP is not essential for circadian rhythm generation, it does modulate important clock outputs. We studied the role of DBP in the circadian and homeosta...

  19. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias eHofmann; Ulf eElbelt; Anne eAhnis; Peter eKobelt; Matthias eRose; Andreas eStengel

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high a...

  20. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Bobek Libuse A; Campagna Alexander N; Wei Guo-Xian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background MUC7 12-mer (RKSYKCLHKRCR), a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the human low-molecular-weight salivary mucin MUC7, possesses potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. In order to evaluate the potential therapeutic application of the MUC7 12-mer, we examined the effects of mono- and divalent cations, EDTA, pH, and temperature on its antimicrobial activity. Methods Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined using a liquid growth inhibition assay in 96-...

  1. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Stasiuk; Alicja Janiszewska; Arkadiusz Kozubek

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, ...

  2. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Edemar Moro; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Heitor Cantarella; Adriano Stephan Nascente; Adriana Lima Moro; Fernando Broetto

    2013-01-01

    The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS) in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of ric...

  3. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, s...

  4. Spinal muscle activity in simulated rugby union scrummaging is affected by different engagement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, D; Stone, B; Holsgrove, T P; Trewartha, G; Preatoni, E

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of rugby union scrummaging have focused on kinetic and kinematic analyses, while muscle activation strategies employed by front-row players during scrummaging are still unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the activity of spinal muscles during machine and live scrums. Nine male front-row forwards scrummaged as individuals against a scrum machine under "crouch-touch-set" and "crouch-bind-set" conditions, and against a two-player opposition in a simulated live condition. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and erector spinae were measured over the pre-engagement, engagement, and sustained-push phases. The "crouch-bind-set" condition increased muscle activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid before and during the engagement phase in machine scrummaging. During the sustained-push phase, live scrummaging generated higher activities of the erector spinae than either machine conditions. These results suggest that the pre-bind, prior to engagement, may effectively prepare the cervical spine by stiffening joints before the impact phase. Additionally, machine scrummaging does not replicate the muscular demands of live scrummaging for the erector spinae, and for this reason, we advise rugby union forwards to ensure scrummaging is practiced in live situations to improve the specificity of their neuromuscular activation strategies in relation to resisting external loads. PMID:25818526

  5. Modulation of network excitability by persistent activity: how working memory affects the response to incoming stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Tartaglia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity and match effects are widely regarded as neuronal correlates of short-term storage and manipulation of information, with the first serving active maintenance and the latter supporting the comparison between memory contents and incoming sensory information. The mechanistic and functional relationship between these two basic neurophysiological signatures of working memory remains elusive. We propose that match signals are generated as a result of transient changes in local network excitability brought about by persistent activity. Neurons more active will be more excitable, and thus more responsive to external inputs. Accordingly, network responses are jointly determined by the incoming stimulus and the ongoing pattern of persistent activity. Using a spiking model network, we show that this mechanism is able to reproduce most of the experimental phenomenology of match effects as exposed by single-cell recordings during delayed-response tasks. The model provides a unified, parsimonious mechanistic account of the main neuronal correlates of working memory, makes several experimentally testable predictions, and demonstrates a new functional role for persistent activity.

  6. Affecting Girls' Activity and Job Interests Through Play: The Moderating Roles of Personal Gender Salience and Game Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Emily F; Liben, Lynn S

    2016-03-01

    Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF-tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool girls (M = 4.5 years) were given GSF measures. Two weeks later, they played a computer game about occupations that manipulated the game-character's femininity (hyperfeminized Barbie vs. less feminized Playmobil Jane). Following game play, girls' interests in feminine activities showed an interaction of game condition and GSF: High-GSF girls showed intensified feminine activity interests only with Barbie; low-GSF girls showed no change with either character. Neither GSF nor game condition affected occupational interests. Implications for GST, individual differences, and occupational interventions are discussed. PMID:26548652

  7. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  8. Metformin revisited: Does this regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase secondarily affect bone metabolism and prevent diabetic osteopathy

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María; Sedlinsky, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can develop skeletal complications or “diabetic osteopathy”. These include osteopenia, osteoporosis and an increased incidence of low-stress fractures. In this context, it is important to evaluate whether current anti-diabetic treatments can secondarily affect bone metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates multiple metabolic pathways and acts as a sensor of the cellular energy status; recent e...

  9. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by mining activities in Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Waters have a meteoric origin even in samples located near the shore. • Marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers. • Sulfate enrichment was caused by oxidative dissolution of pyrite by ferric iron. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from Portman Bay by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. In addition, surface waters from Sierra Minera were examined for the purpose of determining if these waters are affected by similar processes. The results obtained indicate that Portman Bay waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred

  10. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  11. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  12. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks

  13. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) Deficiencies Affect Expression of Lipolytic Activities in Mouse Adipose Tissues*

    OpenAIRE

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patters of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (−/−) and HSL (−/−) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-r...

  14. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m‑2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m‑2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher

  15. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. PMID:26675866

  16. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  17. Circadian motor activity affected by stimulant medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Sarah; Davidson, Fiona; Corkum, Penny

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder occurring in approximately 3-5% of school-aged children. The core symptoms of ADHD are effectively treated with stimulant medications such as methylphenidate; however, there are also negative side effects, including insomnia. It has been suggested that administration of stimulant medication may alter the timing or regularity of circadian motor activity levels. This study aimed to investigate the impact of stimulant medication on the strength and timing of circadian rhythms in 16 stimulant medication-naïve children with ADHD. Participants were monitored for changes in motor activity during a 3-week blinded placebo-controlled medication trial to examine the impact of immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride. Motor activity was measured by actigraphy, and 24-h activity profiles were analysed using cosinor analyses to identify measurable changes in circadian rhythms. The children in this sample demonstrated significant increases in motor activity during the sleep-onset latency period. They also showed a significant reduction in relative circadian amplitude and a phase-delay in the timing of the daily rhythm. Clinicians and parents of children being treated with stimulant medication for ADHD should be aware that stimulant medication may cause disruption of sleep/circadian rhythms. Behavioural strategies to improve sleep may be useful for children experiencing these negative effects from medication. PMID:20629940

  18. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  19. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  20. Precursor type affecting surface properties and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarubica Aleksandra R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium-hydroxide precursor samples are synthesized from Zr-hydroxide, Zr-nitrate, and Zr-alkoxide, by precipitation/impregnation, as well as by a modified sol-gel method. Precursor samples are further sulphated for the intended SO4 2- content of 4 wt.%, and calcined at 500-700oC. Differences in precursors’ origin and calcination temperature induce the incorporation of SO4 2- groups into ZrO2 matrices by various mechanisms. As a result, different amounts of residual sulphates are coupled with other structural, as well as surface properties, resulting in various catalytic activities of sulphated zirconia samples. Catalyst activity and selectivity are a complex synergistic function of tetragonal phase fraction, sulphates contents, textural and surface characteristics. Superior activity of SZ of alkoxide origin can be explained by a beneficial effect of meso-pores owing to a better accommodation of coke deposits.

  1. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    OpenAIRE

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. ...

  2. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment....... HP treatment was shown to induce a decrease in protein solubility in both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions. LC–MS analysis of these fractions showed changes in the peptide pattern during storage. Western blot analysis showed that troponin-T was indeed degraded during storage after HP treatment...

  3. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in...... lower (P <0.05) phosphorylation levels of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, ß-enolase and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P <0.05) activation of µ-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B&L activity increased faster (P <0.05) in ES...

  4. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  5. RCRA and CERCLA requirements affecting cleanup activities at a federal facility superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) achieved success on an integrated groundwater monitoring program which addressed both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. The integrated plan resulted in a cost savings of approximately $2.6 million. At present, the FEMP is also working on an integrated closure process to address Hazardous Waste Management Units (HWMUs) at the site. To date, Ohio EPA seems willing to discuss an integrated program with some stipulations. If an integrated program is implemented, a cost savings of several million dollars will be realized since the CERCLA documents can be used in place of a RCRA closure plan. The success of an integrated program at the FEMP is impossible without the support of DOE and the regulators. Since DOE is an owner/operator of the facility and Ohio EPA regulates hazardous waste management activities at the FEMP, both parties must be satisfied with the proposed integration activities. Similarly, US EPA retains CERCLA authority over the site along with a signed consent agreement with DOE, which dictates the schedule of the CERCLA activities. Another federal facility used RCRA closure plans to satisfy CERCLA activities. This federal facility was in a different US EPA Region than the FEMP. While this approach was successful for this site, an integrated approach was required at the FEMP because of the signed Consent Agreement and Consent Decree. For federal facilities which have a large number of HWMUs along with OUs, an integrated approach may result in a timely and cost-effective cleanup

  6. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  7. Glycation of Ribonuclease A affects its enzymatic activity and DNA binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Amit Kumar; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2015-11-01

    Prolonged non-enzymatic glycation of proteins results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that cause several diseases. The glycation of Ribonuclease A (RNase A) at pH 7.4 and 37 °C with ribose, glucose and fructose has been monitored by UV-vis, fluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization spectroscopy-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) methods. The enzymatic activity and DNA binding ability of glycated RNase A was also investigated by an agarose gel-based assay. A precipitation assay examined the ribonucleolytic activity of the glycated enzyme. An increase in incubation time resulted in the formation of high molecular weight AGEs with a decrease in ribonucleolytic activity. Ribose exhibits the highest potency as a glycating agent and showed the greatest reduction in the ribonucleolytic activity of the enzyme. Interestingly, glycated RNase A was unable to bind with the ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) and DNA. The glycated form of the protein was also found to be ineffective in DNA melting unlike native RNase A. PMID:26365067

  8. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  9. Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Liu, Xiwen; Dong, Sihao; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-03-01

    The Asian hive bee Apis cerana has similar queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) to the Western honey bee Apismellifera. However the effects of individual QMP components have never been tested to determine their effects on the reproductive physiology of A. cerana workers. We fed one queen equivalent of each of the major components of A. cerana QMP to groups of c.a. 500 day-old, caged, workers twice a day until the workers were 10 days old. Half of the cages were also provided with 10% royal jelly in the food. Workers were sampled each day and dissected to determine the number of ovarioles and the degree of ovary activation (egg development). In cages treated with 9-carbon fatty acids ovary activation was minimal, whereas the 10-carbon acids suppressed ovary activation very little. Royal jelly enhanced ovary activation, especially in cages treated with 10-carbon acids. The number of ovarioles declined with bee age, but the rate of decline was slowed by the 9-carbon acids in particular. The results show conservation of the composition and function of QMP between A. cerana and A. mellifera and support the hypothesis that QMP is an honest signal of queen fecundity rather than a chemical castrator of workers. PMID:25614964

  10. Activated carbon addition affects substrate pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.; Dam, van M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  11. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John

    2005-01-01

    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  12. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been a

  13. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  14. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in...

  15. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; J. E. Olesen; Porter, J R

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage.Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold storage warming-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

  16. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  17. Ability, Affect, and Children's Out of School Activity and Interest Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Fredric M.; Chandler, Theodore A.

    This study examined the relationships between fourth graders' performance on two intelligence, eight achievement, three creative thinking, three attitude, and two locus of responsibility scales and their self-reported out of school preferences for activities involving (1) peers, (2) television, (3) radio, (4) adults or parents, (5) reading, and…

  18. AIR QUALITY AFFECTED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES GORJ COUNTY, IN THE YEAR 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana - Gabriela POPA; Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main industrial activities pollution the air, at the level of Gorj County, in the year 2010. There are mentioned gases with greenhouse effect, acid effect gases, their graphical representation and pollution produced by the main polluting agents of the county: depositing dusts and dusts in suspension.

  19. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  20. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. PMID:27451179

  1. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  2. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  3. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R;

    2007-01-01

    reorganization in mature osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is actively involved in the regulation of important cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and migration. It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express uPAR and...... to mechanical tests. UPAR KO calvaria osteoblasts were characterized by proliferation assays, RT-PCR for important proteins secreted during differentiation, and immunoblot for activator protein 1 (AP-1) family members. In vitro osteoclast formation was tested with uPAR KO bone marrow monocytes in the...... osteoblasts showed a proliferative advantage with no difference in apoptosis, higher matrix mineralization, and earlier appearance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Surface RANKL expression at different stages of differentiation was not altered. AP-1 components, such as JunB and Fra-1, were upregulated in u...

  4. Probiotic in rennet paste can affect lipase activity of rennet and lipolysis in ovine cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambs were subjected to three different feeding regimes (mother suckling MS, artificial rearing AR, and artificial rearing with 7log10 cfu/ml Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to the milk substitute ARLb and slaughtered at 20d and 40d of age for each feeding treatment. Lambs abomasa were processed to rennet paste and lipases activity was evaluated. Rennet paste was used for Pecorino cheese production. Free fatty acids (FFAs and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs were detected in cheese at 60d of ripening. Lipase activity was found higher in ARLb than in MS and AR rennet from lambs slaughtered at an older age. A reduction of all FFAs was observed in all cheeses when passing from 20 d to 40d of slaughtering. CLAs were more abundant in ARLb cheeses at both 20 and 40d. Milk substitute with Lb. acidophilus improves enzymatic features of rennet, and health and nutritional characteristics of ovine cheese.

  5. Detecting land use changes affected by human activities using remote sensing (Case study: Karkheh River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Maddah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and abundant activities in order to achieve maximum well-being has forced human to make a lot of changes in the nature. These changes will be cost-effective when they have the minimum damage on the landscape. One of the activities that human did for obtaining the water and preventing flood was making the dam in the track of running water. Since the dam is established until its impoundment and after impoundment, the condition of ecosystem and the appearance of the upstream and downstream of the dam will undergo changes. In this study, using satellite data and remote sensing, these changes have been studied and the landuse changes in vegetation, arid land, water level and residential and non-residential lands is measured in 1998 and 2014 using Maximum Likelihood method and support vector machine.

  6. Does a foreign subsidiary’s network status affect its innovation activity? Evidence from postsocialist economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Rojec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire survey among 809 foreign subsidiaries in five post-socialist economies (East Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Croatia is used to study determinants of innovation activity of foreign subsidiaries. Findings demonstrate that foreign subsidiaries are relatively independent as far as innovation activity is concerned, while at the same time subsidiaries with better access to foreign parent companies R&D results are more likely to innovate. Important differences are found in factors that determine product and process innovation: subsidiaries that invest more in R&D exhibit higher probability for product but not for process innovation; transfer of responsibilities from headquarters to subsidiaries is conducive to process innovation; market-seeking motivation of foreign investors has a negative impact on product innovation status.

  7. Hormonal activity in detached lettuce leaves as affected by leaf water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, N; Blumenfeld, A; Richmond, A E

    1977-06-01

    The interrelationship between water deficiency and hormonal makeup in plants was investigated in detached leaves of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. ;Hazera Yellow'). Water stress was imposed by desiccating the leaves for several hours in light or darkness at different air temperatures and relative humidity. In the course of desiccation, a rise in abscisic acid content and a decline in gibberellin and cytokinin activity were observed by gas-liquid chromatography, by both the barley endosperm bioassay and radioimmunoassay and by the soybean callus bioassay. Gibberellin activity began to decline in the stressed leaves before the rise in abscisic acid, the rate of this decline being positively correlated with the rate of increase in leaf water saturation deficit. Recovery from water stress was effected by immersing the leaf petioles in water while exposing the blades to high relative humidity. This resulted in a decrease in leaf water saturation deficit, a reduction in abscisic acid content, and an increase in gibberellin and cytokinin activity.Application of abscisic acid to the leaves caused partial stomatal closure in turgid lettuce leaves, whereas treatment with gibberellic acid and kinetin of such leaves had no effect on the stomatal aperture. In desiccating leaves, however, gibberellic acid and kinetin treatment considerably retarded stomatal closure, thus enhancing the increase in leaf water saturation deficit. These results suggest that the effect of desiccation in changing leaf hormonal make-up, i.e. a rapid increase in abscisic acid and a decrease in both cytokinin and gibberellin activity, is related to a mechanism designed to curtail water loss under conditions inducing water deficiency. PMID:16660015

  8. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    OpenAIRE

    Shigihara Yoshihito; Tanaka Masaaki; Ishii Akira; Kanai Etsuko; Funakura Masami; Watanabe Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fat...

  9. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsanul Kabir; Sharmila Ray; Ki-Hyun Kim; Hye-On Yoon; Eui-Chan Jeon; Yoon Shin Kim; Yong-Sung Cho; Seong-Taek Yun; Richard J. C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration obs...

  10. A high content assay for biosensor validation and for examining stimuli that affect biosensor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Scott D.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the differenc...

  11. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...

  12. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.; Schwarz, H.; Jespersen, J.

    2010-01-01

    for the determination of FSAP antigen and FSAP activity. Results The FSAP measures were comparable at baseline. No significant changes were observed in the control group after 12 months. HT in general induced a significant increase in FSAP antigen (7.7 mu g/ml at baseline and 8.0 mu g/ml after 12...... induced by HT in younger postmenopausal women...

  13. Factors, affecting on the psyche of sportsmen - single combat in the process of competition activity

    OpenAIRE

    Popichev M.I.; Mullashirov R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Factors which render the most meaningful influence on the psyche of sportsman in precontest and competition periods are considered. In organization researches were involved sportsmen in an amount 20 persons in age from 17 to 21 year with the identical level of physical preparation (sport masters). It is set that a key value has a psychological factor in all spheres of activity of sportsman. It is recommended at all levels of preparation of sportsmen to use and inculcate methods and methods of...

  14. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effe...

  15. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    OpenAIRE

    KlausNüsslein; BurcuÜnal

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effe...

  16. Brassica spp cover crop affects soil microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen nutrient dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marinari, S.; Papp, R.; Marabottini, R.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    A general positive effect of Brassica on soil microbial biomass and its activity was observed at all European sites in no tilled soil at both sampling date. Conversely, Brassica under tillage may produce a negative effect on biochemical properties after CC suppression. The effect of Brassica on C and N dynamics differed among the european sites when soil was tilled. These preliminary results establish the bases for the evaluation of the interaction between the pedoclimatic conditions and Bras...

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  18. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods. PMID:26184398

  19. Dominant trees affect microbial community composition and activity in post-mining afforested soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Dobiášová, Petra; Urbanová, Michaela; Petránková, Mirka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 105-115. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10064; GA ČR GAP504/12/1288; GA MŠk 2B08023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Enzyme activity * Litter * Microbial biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2013

  20. Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities. Affecting the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Figure 1.1) constitute a unique ecosystem with high biological diversity. Their natural resources provide a substantial economic support for the region: in addition to the fishery industry, which has ensured food security to many people of the region and created jobs for others, tourism is an ever growing and increasingly important industry for commerce and other economic activities. Hence, the marine environment should be well protecte...

  1. Seismic surveys negatively affect humpback whale singing activity off northern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cerchio

    Full Text Available Passive acoustic monitoring was used to document the presence of singing humpback whales off the coast of Northern Angola, and opportunistically test for the effect of seismic survey activity in the vicinity on the number of singing whales. Two Marine Autonomous Recording Units (MARUs were deployed between March and December 2008 in the offshore environment. Song was first heard in mid June and continued through the remaining duration of the study. Seismic survey activity was heard regularly during two separate periods, consistently throughout July and intermittently in mid-October/November. Numbers of singers were counted during the first ten minutes of every hour for the period from 24 May to 1 December, and Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs were used to assess the effect of survey day (seasonality, hour (diel variation, moon phase and received levels of seismic survey pulses (measured from a single pulse during each ten-minute sampled period on singer number. Application of GAMMs indicated significant seasonal variation, which was the most pronounced effect when assessing the full dataset across the entire season (p<0.001; however seasonality almost entirely dropped out of top-ranked models when applied to a reduced dataset during the July period of seismic survey activity. Diel variation was significant in both the full and reduced datasets (from p<0.01 to p<0.05 and often included in the top-ranked models. The number of singers significantly decreased with increasing received level of seismic survey pulses (from p<0.01 to p<0.05; this explanatory variable was included among the top ranked models for one MARU in the full dataset and both MARUs in the reduced dataset. This suggests that the breeding display of humpback whales is disrupted by seismic survey activity, and thus merits further attention and study, and potentially conservation action in the case of sensitive breeding populations.

  2. How Are Representations Affected by Scene Statistics in an Adaptive Active Vision System?

    OpenAIRE

    Ognibene, D.; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the main claims of active vision (Ballard, 1991) is that finding data on demand, based on the requirements of the task, is more efficient than reconstructing the whole scene by performing a complete visual scan of it. This aids generalisation and a dramatic reduction of the needed visual computations. Using this strategy, however, generates the need to learn complex gaze control strategies dependent on the pursued goals and the properties of scenes and objects. For exam...

  3. COMT Val158Met polymorphism, verbalizing of emotion and activation of affective brain systems

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Marte; Bruggeman, Richard; Laroi, Frank; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Kema, Ido; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been shown to influence performance on cognitive and emotional tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that the Met allele might be less advantageous than the Val allele with respect to emotional processing. This study addresses the question whether the presence of the Met allele is directly related to both lower emotional verbalizing proficiency and differences in brain activation during emotional proc...

  4. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  5. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jake E; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change. PMID:22235311

  6. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  7. Mutagenesis of Ser24 of cytochrome b559 α subunit affects PSⅡ activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA JingJing; LI LiangBi; JING YuXiang; KUANG TingYun

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the functions of cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) in photosystem two (PSⅡ) activity, mutant S24F of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was constructed using site directed mutagenesis, in which Serine24 (Ser24) locating downstream of Histidine23 (His23) in c subunit of Cyt b559 was replaced by Phenylalanine (Phe). Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that mutant S24F could be grown photoautotrophically or photoheterotrophically. However, their growth rate was slower either on HSM or TAP medium than that of the control; Analysis of PSⅡ activity revealed that its oxygen evolution was about 71% of wild type (WT); The Photochemical efficiency of PSll (Fv/Fm) of S24F was reduced 0.23 compared with WT; S24F was more sensitive to strong light irradiance than the wild type; Furthermore,SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting analysis indicated that the expression levels of c subunit of Cyt b559,LHCⅡ and PsbO of S24F were a little less than those of the wild type. Overall, these data suggests that Ser24 plays a significant role in making Cyt b559 structure maintain PSⅡ complex activity of oxygen evolution although it is not directly bound to heme group.

  8. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta José L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C. We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

  9. Low-level microwave irradiations affect central cholinergic activity in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake was measured in various regions of the brains of rats irradiated for 45 min with either pulsed or continuous-wave low-level microwaves (2,450 MHz; power density, 1 mW/cm2; average whole-body specific absorption rate, 0.6 W/kg). Pulsed microwave irradiation (2-microseconds pulses, 500 pulses/s) decreased choline uptake in the hippocampus and frontal cortex but had no significant effect on the hypothalamus, striatum, and inferior colliculus. Pretreatment with a narcotic antagonist (naloxone or naltrexone; 1 mg/kg i.p.) blocked the effect of pulsed microwaves on hippocampal choline uptake but did not significantly alter the effect on the frontal cortex. Irradiation with continuous-wave microwaves did not significantly affect choline uptake in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus but decreased the uptake in the frontal cortex. The effect on the frontal cortex was not altered by pretreatment with narcotic antagonist. These data suggest that exposure to low-level pulsed or continuous-wave microwaves leads to changes in cholinergic functions in the brain.

  10. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr9...

  11. How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Adema, Erwin B; Venterink, Harry Olde; Leonardson, Lars; Wassen, Martin J

    2009-03-15

    Conservation and restoration of fens and fen meadows often aim to reduce soil nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The biogeochemistry of P has received much attention as P-enrichment is expected to negatively impact on species diversity in wetlands. It is known that N, sulphur (S) and hydrological conditions affect the biogeochemistry of P, yet their interactive effects on P-dynamics are largely unknown. Additionally, in Europe, climate change has been predicted to lead to increases in summer drought. We performed a greenhouse experiment to elucidate the interactive effects of N, S and a single drought event on the P-availability for Phalaris arundinacea. Additionally, the response of plant phosphatase activity to these factors was measured over the two year experimental period. In contrast to results from earlier experiments, our treatments hardly affected soil P-availability. This may be explained by the higher pH in our soils, hampering the formation of Fe-P or Fe-Al complexes. Addition of S, however, decreased the plants N:P ratio, indicating an effect of S on the N:P stoichiometry and an effect on the plant's P-demand. Phosphatase activity increased significantly after addition of S, but was not affected by the addition of N or a single drought event. Root phosphatase activity was also positively related to plant tissue N and P concentrations, plant N and P uptake, and plant aboveground biomass, suggesting that the phosphatase enzyme influences P-biogeochemistry. Our results demonstrated that it is difficult to predict the effects of wetland restoration, since the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. Short-term and long-term effects on root phosphatase activity may differ considerably. Additionally, the addition of S can lead to unexpected effects on the biogeochemistry of P. Our results showed that natural resource managers should be careful when restoring degraded fens or preventing desiccation of fen ecosystems. PMID:19101022

  12. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  13. The adsorption of oil sands naphthenic acids from process-affected tailings water using activated petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, C.C.; Hashisho, Z.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Eighty percent of the organic acids in the Athabasca oil sands region are comprised of naphthenic acids that are toxic to a variety of aquatic life-forms as well as being highly corrosive. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of adsorbing naphthenic acids from process-affected water. Activated petroleum coke was studied in order to investigate optimal physical activation conditions for adsorbing oil sands naphthenic acids. Experimental tests were conducted in a centrifuge and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometry. The study demonstrated that delayed and fluid petroleum cokes can be turned into high surface area carbons with increased activation time, temperature, and steam rate. The coke can be used as an adsorbent to remove oil sands naphthenic acids. tabs., figs.

  14. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  15. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  16. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  17. Expertise affects representation structure and categorical activation of grasp postures in climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In indoor rock climbing, the perception of object properties and the adequate execution of grasping actions highly determine climbers’ performance. In two consecutive experiments, effects of climbing expertise on the cognitive activation of grasping actions following the presentation of climbing holds was investigated. Experiment 1 evaluated the representation of climbing holds in the long-term memory of climbers and non-climbers with the help of a psychometric measurement method. Within a hierarchical splitting procedure subjects had to decide about the similarity of required grasping postures. For the group of climbers, representation structures corresponded clearly to four grip types. In the group of non-climbers, representation structures differed more strongly than in climbers and did not clearly refer to grip types. To learn about categorical knowledge activation in Experiment 2, a priming paradigm was applied. Images of hands in grasping postures were presented as targets and images of congruent, neutral, or incongruent climbing holds were used as primes. Only in climbers, reaction times were shorter and error rates were smaller for the congruent condition than for the incongruent condition. The neutral condition resulted in intermediate performance. The findings suggest that perception of climbing holds activates the commonly associated grasping postures in climbers but not in non-climbers. The findings of this study give evidence that the categorization of visually perceived objects is fundamentally influenced by the cognitive-motor potential for interaction, which depends on the observer’s experience and expertise. Thus, motor expertise not only facilitates precise action perception, but also benefits the perception of action-relevant objects.

  18. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  19. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KlausNüsslein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  20. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Shen

    Full Text Available Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L. field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition. The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological

  1. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  2. Factors, affecting on the psyche of sportsmen - single combat in the process of competition activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popichev M.I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors which render the most meaningful influence on the psyche of sportsman in precontest and competition periods are considered. In organization researches were involved sportsmen in an amount 20 persons in age from 17 to 21 year with the identical level of physical preparation (sport masters. It is set that a key value has a psychological factor in all spheres of activity of sportsman. It is recommended at all levels of preparation of sportsmen to use and inculcate methods and methods of psychological preparation and diagnostics.

  3. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P tenderization, resulting in lesser (P tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of μ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle. PMID:22147478

  4. Redox status affects the catalytic activity of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Assaf; Banerjee, Rajat; de Armas, Merly;

    2010-01-01

    Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS) provide Glu-tRNA for different processes including protein synthesis, glutamine transamidation and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Many organisms contain multiple GluRSs, but whether these duplications solely broaden tRNA specificity or also play additional roles in...... vitro, GluRS1 activity is reversibly inactivated upon oxidation by hemin and hydrogen peroxide. The targets for oxidation-based inhibition were found to be cysteines from a SWIM zinc-binding motif located in the tRNA acceptor helix-binding domain. tRNA(Glu) was able to protect GluRS1 against oxidative...

  5. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima;

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress.......Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...

  6. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

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    Jian-Zhong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  7. Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Elisabeth; Baeyens, Jan; Dewil, Raf; De heyder, Bart

    2004-01-30

    The management of wastewater sludge, now often referred to as biosolids, accounts for a major portion of the cost of the wastewater treatment process and represents significant technical challenges. In many wastewater treatment facilities, the bottleneck of the sludge handling system is the dewatering operation. Advanced sludge treatment (AST) processes have been developed in order to improve sludge dewatering and to facilitate handling and ultimate disposal. The authors have extensively reported lab-scale, semi-pilot and pilot investigations on either thermal and thermochemical processes, or chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide. To understand the action of these advanced sludge technologies, the essential role played by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) needs to be understood. EPS form a highly hydrated biofilm matrix, in which the micro-organisms are embedded. Hence they are of considerable importance in the removal of pollutants from wastewater, in bioflocculation, in settling and in dewatering of activated sludge. The present paper reviews the characteristics of EPS and the influence of thermochemical and oxidation mechanisms on degradation and flocculation of EPS. Experimental investigations on waste activated sludge are conducted by the authors to evaluate the various literature findings. From the experiments, it is concluded that AST methods enhance cake dewaterability in two ways: (i) they degrade EPS proteins and polysaccharides reducing the EPS water retention properties; and (ii) they promote flocculation which reduces the amount of fine flocs. PMID:15177096

  8. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  9. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  10. Shear-driven redistribution of surfactant affects enzyme activity in well-mixed femtoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic platform for splitting well-mixed, femtoliter-volume droplets from larger water-in-oil plugs, where the sizes of the daughter droplets were not limited by channel width. These droplets were separated from mother plugs at a microfabricated T-junction, which enabled the study of how increased confinement affected enzyme kinetics in droplets 4-10 {mu}m in diameter. Initial rates for enzyme catalysis in the mother plugs and the largest daughter drops were close to the average bulk rate, while the rates in smaller droplets decreased linearly with increasing surface to volume ratio. Rates in the smallest droplets decreased by a factor of 4 compared to the bulk rate. Traditional methods for detecting nonspecific adsorption at the water-oil interface were unable to detect evidence of enzyme adsorption, including pendant drop tensiometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy of drops containing labeled proteins in microemulsions, and epifluorescence microscopy of plugs and drops generated on-chip. We propose the slowing of enzyme reaction kinetics in the smaller droplets was the result of increased adsorption and inactivation of enzymes at the water-oil interface arising from transient interfacial shear stresses imparted on the daughter droplets as they split from the mother plugs and passed through the constricted opening of the T-junction. Such stresses are known to modulate the interfacial area and density of surfactant molecules that can passivate the interface. Bright field images of the splitting processes at the junction indicate that these stresses scaled with increasing surface to volume ratios of the droplets but were relatively insensitive to the average flow rate of plugs upstream of the junction.

  11. Electron donors and co-contaminants affect microbial community composition and activity in perchlorate degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangyu; Xie, Yuxuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    Although microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) is a promising and effective method, our knowledge on the changes in microbial communities during ClO4(-) degradation is limited, especially when different electron donors are supplied and/or other contaminants are present. Here, we examined the effects of acetate and hydrogen as electron donors and nitrate and ammonium as co-contaminants on ClO4(-) degradation by anaerobic microcosms using six treatments. The process of degradation was divided into the lag stage (SI) and the accelerated stage (SII). Quantitative PCR was used to quantify four genes: pcrA (encoding perchlorate reductase), cld (encoding chlorite dismutase), nirS (encoding copper and cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase), and 16S rRNA. While the degradation of ClO4(-) with acetate, nitrate, and ammonia system (PNA) was the fastest with the highest abundance of the four genes, it was the slowest in the autotrophic system (HYP). The pcrA gene accumulated in SI and played a key role in initiating the accelerated degradation of ClO4(-) when its abundance reached a peak. Degradation in SII was primarily maintained by the cld gene. Acetate inhibited the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), but its effect was weakened by nitrate (NO3(-)), which promoted the growth of PRB in SI, and therefore, accelerated the ClO4(-) degradation rate. In addition, ammonia (NH4(+)), as nitrogen sources, accelerated the growth of PRB. The bacterial communities' structure and diversity were significantly affected by electron donors and co-contaminants. Under heterotrophic conditions, both ammonia and nitrate promoted Azospira as the most dominant genera, a fact that might significantly influence the rate of ClO4(-) natural attenuation by degradation. PMID:25382499

  12. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (pwalking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (pwalking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (pwalking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based lighting regimen that favors for both production and welfare of Broilers. PMID:26954120

  13. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. PMID:27178902

  14. Sex, season and melatonin administration affects daily activity rhythms in a marsupial, the brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, B M; Westman, W; Körtner, G; Cairns, S C

    2008-01-28

    The carnivorous marsupial Antechinus stuartii relies on photoperiodic changes to time reproductive activities, including behaviour, in spring. Similar to other mammals, the administration of the hormone melatonin is known to affect the synchronisation of reproduction in A. stuartii. The present study sought to explore the alterations in locomotor activity from the winter solstice in both males (body mass 35 g) and females (body mass 20 g) as a result of the influences of the changes in the natural photocycle and also of melatonin administration while under the natural photocycle. The total daily activity was found to differ between sexes, with males more active than females, irrespective of melatonin or control treatments. Daily activity patterns were significantly different between male groups but not female treatment groups. Activity patterns were also found to differ between males and females. The significance of these differences is discussed with relation to the profound physiological differences between the sexes, in this mammal where an irreversible stress response is part of the complete post-mating mortality of all males, but not females. PMID:17884113

  15. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  16. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells. PMID:25820126

  17. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (Putilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  18. In vitro evaluation of the activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives against mycotoxigenic fungi affecting cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degola, Francesca; Morcia, Caterina; Bisceglie, Franco; Mussi, Francesca; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Pelosi, Giorgio; Terzi, Valeria; Buschini, Annamaria; Restivo, Francesco Maria; Lodi, Tiziana

    2015-05-01

    With a steadily increasing world population, a more efficient system of food production is of paramount importance. One of the major causes of food spoilage is the presence of fungal pathogens and the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. In the present work we report a study on the activity of a series of functionalized thiosemicarbazones (namely cuminaldehyde, trans-cinnamaldehyde, quinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde, 5-fluoroisatin thiosemicarbazone and 5-fluoroisatin N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone), as antifungal and anti-mycotoxin agents, against the two major genera of cereal mycotoxigenic fungi, i.e. Fusarium and Aspergillus. These thiosemicarbazones display different patterns of efficacy on fungal growth and on mycotoxin accumulation depending on the fungal species. Some of the molecules display a greater effect on mycotoxin synthesis than on fungal growth. PMID:25702884

  19. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

    2013-08-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  20. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanisch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC and from the Baltic Sea (BS have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg−1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150–400 m of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1% pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  1. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanisch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland current (GC and from the Baltic Sea (BS, have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring program. In samples of the second half of 2011 134Cs traces have been detected, suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout being deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-live 2 yr was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg−1 w.w. Existing box-models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the NE Atlantic allowed estimating that 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants, both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134Cs measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150–400 m of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1% pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  2. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:26019053

  3. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  4. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella. PMID:27019124

  5. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  6. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase activity affects tumor development during the maize-Ustilago maydis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Robles, Francisco Ignacio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; García de la Cruz, Ramón Fernando; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic plant pathogenic fungus that leads to tumor development in the aerial tissues of its host, Zea mays. These tumors are the result of cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and are accompanied by the reprograming of primary and secondary metabolism of infected plants. Up to now, little is known regarding key plant actors and their role in tumor development during the interaction with U. maydis. Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. In a previous study, we found substantial increases of polyamine levels in tumors. In the present work, we describe the maize polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene family, its contribution to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and its possible role in tumor development induced by U. maydis. Histochemical analysis revealed that chlorotic lesions and maize tumors induced by U. maydis accumulate H2O2 to significant levels. Maize plants inoculated with U. maydis and treated with the PAO inhibitor 1,8-diaminooctane exhibit a notable reduction of H2O2 accumulation in infected tissues and a significant drop in PAO activity. This treatment also reduced disease symptoms in infected plants. Finally, among six maize PAO genes only the ZmPAO1, which encodes an extracellular enzyme, is up-regulated in tumors. Our data suggest that H2O2 produced through PA catabolism by ZmPAO1 plays an important role in tumor development during the maize-U. maydis interaction. PMID:26926794

  7. Antimony isotopic composition in river waters affected by ancient mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resongles, Eléonore; Freydier, Rémi; Casiot, Corinne; Viers, Jérôme; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antimony (Sb) isotopic composition was determined in natural water samples collected along two hydrosystems impacted by historical mining activities: the upper Orb River and the Gardon River watershed (SE, France). Antimony isotope ratio was measured by HG-MC-ICP-MS (Hydride Generation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) after a preconcentration and purification step using a new thiol-cellulose powder (TCP) procedure. The external reproducibility obtained for δ(123)Sb measurements of our in-house Sb isotopic standard solution and a certified reference freshwater was 0.06‰ (2σ). Significant isotopic variations were evident in surface waters from the upper Orb River (-0.06‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.11‰) and from the Gardon River watershed (+0.27‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.83‰). In particular, streams that drained different former mining sites exploited for Sb or Pb-Zn exhibited contrasted Sb isotopic signature, that may be related to various biogeochemical processes occurring during Sb transfer from rocks, mine wastes and sediments to the water compartment. Nevertheless, Sb isotopic composition appeared to be stable along the Gardon River, which might be attributed to the conservative transport of Sb at distance from mine-impacted streams, due to the relative mobile behavior of Sb(V) in natural oxic waters. This study suggests that Sb isotopic composition could be a useful tool to track pollution sources and/or biogeochemical processes in hydrologic systems. PMID:26452900

  8. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil) and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w) had a mean size < 250 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.4 after freeze-drying with 0.5% HP-Cyd as cryoprotector. PTX encapsulation efficiency was 30% and NS showed a prolonged drug release in vitro. An increase of the cytotoxic effect of PTX-NS was observed with respect to free PTX in all cell lines tested. These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies

  9. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maria Ruggero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w had a mean size Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies.

  10. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca2+-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  11. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

  12. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  13. Prevalence of HBV genotypes in South American immigrants affected by HBV-related chronic active hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Palumbo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of HBV infection in a population of South American immigrants in Italy and to determine in patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA the HBVgenotypes. Between April 2005 and April 2006 a total of 130 South American immigrants were tested for HBsAg. In HBsAg positive patients the biochemical and virological activity of infection and the possible presence of co-infections (HCV, HDV, HIV were evaluated. In patients with detectable serum HBV DNA, the HBV genotype was determined by INNOLiPA. Among the 130 subjects tested, 14 (10.7% resulted HBsAg positive. All were men, with a mean age of 22 years (range 19-37 and 12 (85.7 % came from Brazil, while 2 (14.3% came from Ecuador. All patients infected by HBV had elevated alanine-aminotransferase serum levels (mean level was 127 IU/L, range 74-312 and serum HBV DNA detectable by PCR-Real Time (mean level 1,037,652 copies/mL, range 19,876-1,377,648. Genotype distribution was as follow: genotype D, 9 (64.2%, genotype A, 5 (35.8%. All patients infected by genotype D came from Brazil, while among the patients infected by genotype A, three came from Brazil and two from Ecuador. Our study evidences a moderate prevalence of HBV-infection in South American immigrants with the identification of two genotypes, D and A. These genotypes are not the most prevalent in the South America and this is probably the expression of a possible geographical redistribution of HBV genotypes.

  14. Biological short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from waste-activated sludge affected by surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Su; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Guowei

    2007-07-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the preferred carbon sources for biological nutrient removal, are the important intermediate products in sludge anaerobic fermentation. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a widespread used surfactant, which can be easily found in waste-activated sludge (WAS). In this investigation, the effect of SDBS on SCFAs production from WAS was investigated, and the potential of using fermentative SCFAs to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was tested. Results showed that the total SCFAs production increased significantly in the presence of SDBS at room temperature. At fermentation time of 6 days, the maximum SCFAs was 2599.1mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L in the presence of SDBS 0.02g/g, whereas it was only 339.1mg (COD)/L in the absence of SDBS. The SCFAs produced in the case of SDBS 0.02g/g and fermentation time 6 days consisted of acetic acid (27.1%), propionic acid (22.8%), iso-valeric acid (20.1%), iso-butyric acid (11.9%), n-butyric acid (10.4%) and n-valeric acid (7.7%). It was found that during sludge anaerobic fermentation, the solubilization of sludge particulate organic-carbon and hydrolysis of solubilized substrate as well as acidification of hydrolyzed products were all increased in the presence of SDBS, while the methane formation was decreased, the SCFAs production was therefore remarkably improved. Further investigation showed that the production of SCFAs enhanced by SDBS was caused mainly by biological effects, rather than by chemical effects and SDBS decomposition. With the fermentative SCFAs as the main carbon source, the EBPR maintained high phosphorus removal efficiency ( approximately 97%). PMID:17499838

  15. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  16. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  17. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the flight activity of Fopius arisanus, an egg-pupal parasitoid of fruit fly pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousse, P; Gourdon, F; Roubaud, M; Chiroleu, F; Quilici, S

    2009-06-01

    Climatic conditions and the physiological state of a parasitoid may alter its host selection behavior and thus its efficiency as a biological control agent. We studied the influence of these parameters on the behavior of Fopius arisanus (Sonan), an egg-pupal parasitoid of many Tephritidae. In the first experiment, we assessed in field cage assays the influence of temperature, humidity, light intensity, barometric pressure, and wind speed. Both flight and parasitism were mainly affected by temperature and humidity. However, because these two factors were strongly correlated in our experiments, the direct influence of each one cannot be specified. Flight activity was affected by variations in barometric pressure. In a second set of experiments, we conducted release and recapture assays with dyed insects to determine the influence of sex, mating status, egg load, age, and starvation on attraction toward infested fruit. Males were not attracted, suggesting that fruit are not a mating site. The egg load seemed to be a major parameter of foraging motivation. Finally, we showed that flight activity strongly decreased after 48 h of starvation. We observed a possible switch to food in the foraging motivation of starved females, but this result was impaired by poor recoveries: <10% of released females were recaptured after 96 h of starvation. We finally discuss the importance of these observations on the efficiency of F. arisanus as a biological control agent in tropical humid areas. PMID:19508801

  18. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  19. How Does Cultural Change Affect Indigenous Peoples' Hunting Activity? An Empirical Study Among the Tsimane' in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.

  20. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  1. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the Tunisian Femen-activist Amina Tyler/Sboui and the topless ‘Free Amina protest’ carried out in Tunis, this article investigates the participatory practices and activist imaginary (Marcus, 2006: 6) of the Femen movement. Femen is conceptualized as an assemblage (Delanda, 2006; Latour...... headquarters in Kiev and Paris increasingly provide centralized interpretations of the movement and the localized actions causing the perception of Femen’s activist imaginary to be unfolded between the unrecognizable and the too recognizable body....

  2. Emotion Recognition with Eigen Features of Frequency Band Activities Embedded in Induced Brain Oscillations Mediated by Affective Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Serap; Demirtaş, Serdar; Ateş, Kahraman; Tunga, M Alper

    2016-05-01

    In this study, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) has been used for the first time in order to extract emotional features from well-defined electroencephalography (EEG) frequency band activities (BAs) so-called delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-16 Hz), beta (16-32 Hz), gamma (32-64 Hz). These five BAs were estimated by applying sixth-level multi-resolution wavelet decomposition (MRWD) with Daubechies wavelets (db-8) to single channel nonaveraged emotional EEG oscillations of 6 s for each scalp location over 16 recording sites (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7, F8, C3, C4, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5, T6, O1, O2). Every trial was mediated by different emotional stimuli which were selected from international affective picture system (IAPS) to induce emotional states such as pleasant (P), neutral (N), and unpleasant (UP). Largest principal components (PCs) of BAs were considered as emotional features and data mining approaches were used for the first time in order to classify both three different (P, N, UP) and two contrasting (P and UP) emotional states for 30 healthy controls. Emotional features extracted from gamma BAs (GBAs) for 16 recording sites provided the high classification accuracies of 87.1% and 100% for classification of three emotional states and two contrasting emotional states, respectively. In conclusion, we found the followings: (1) Eigenspectra of high frequency BAs in EEG are highly sensitive to emotional hemispheric activations, (2) emotional states are mostly mediated by GBA, (3) pleasant pictures induce the higher cortical activation in contrast to unpleasant pictures, (4) contrasting emotions induce opposite cortical activations, (5) cognitive activities are necessary for an emotion to occur. PMID:26971786

  3. Psychometric Factors Affecting Female Employees Physical Activity Status: Applying Trans-Theoretical Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafieinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359

  4. ER stress-inducible factor CHOP affects the expression of hepcidin by modulating C/EBPalpha activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana J Oliveira

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress induces a complex network of pathways collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR. The clarification of these pathways has linked the UPR to the regulation of several physiological processes. However, its crosstalk with cellular iron metabolism remains unclear, which prompted us to examine whether an UPR affects the expression of relevant iron-related genes. For that purpose, the HepG2 cell line was used as model and the UPR was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT and homocysteine (Hcys. Here, we report that hepcidin, a liver secreted hormone that shepherds iron homeostasis, exhibits a biphasic pattern of expression following UPR activation: its levels decreased in an early stage and increased with the maintenance of the stress response. Furthermore, we show that immediately after stressing the ER, the stress-inducible transcription factor CHOP depletes C/EBPalpha protein pool, which may in turn impact on the activation of hepcidin transcription. In the later period of the UPR, CHOP levels decreased progressively, enhancing C/EBPalpha-binding to the hepcidin promoter. In addition, analysis of ferroportin and ferritin H revealed that the transcript levels of these iron-genes are increased by the UPR signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings suggest that the UPR can have a broad impact on the maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis.

  5. [Changes in the intragastric contents during sleep affect the statistical characteristics of the neuronal activity in cerebral cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarev, I N; Bibikov, N G; Busygina, I I

    2014-06-01

    Firing activity in somatosensory cortical area was analyzed in cats during slow wave sleep. Statistical characteristics of the background activity were calculated before and after changes of the intragastric contents (introduction of 50 ml of water into stomach). This procedure did not affect the depth of sleep. There were no changes of the mean firing frequency and the local variation coefficients. To evaluate the degree of chaos in neuronal firing before and after changes of the intragastric contents, the dependence of the Fano factor from the length of the intervals of analysis was calculated. This dependence before water infusion for 40 neurons expressed as a power function with index of power > 0.2 what indicated on fractal nature of the background activity. The changes of the gastric contents in 18 neurons lead to considerable changes of the indexes of power of this function. It is known that in wakefulness for cortical neurons these indexes are dependent on the specific sensory stimulation. Thus, our results can be considered as an indication that during slow wave sleep signals from stomach are included in the afferent flow to the cortical areas, which in wakefulness are involved in somatosensory functions. PMID:25665397

  6. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  7. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  8. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species. PMID:27008274

  9. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  10. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonini Chiara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases p44ERK1 and p42ERK2 are crucial components of the regulatory machinery underlying normal and malignant cell proliferation. A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of substrates, both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Results Here, we show that ablation of ERK1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells by gene targeting and RNA interference results in an enhancement of ERK2-dependent signaling and in a significant growth advantage. By contrast, knockdown of ERK2 almost completely abolishes normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of ERK1 but not of ERK2 in NIH 3T3 cells inhibits oncogenic Ras-mediated proliferation and colony formation. These phenotypes are independent of the kinase activity of ERK1, as expression of a catalytically inactive form of ERK1 is equally effective. Finally, ectopic expression of ERK1 but not ERK2 is sufficient to attenuate Ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice. Conclusion These results reveal an unexpected interplay between ERK1 and ERK2 in transducing Ras-dependent cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas ERK2 seems to have a positive role in controlling normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation, ERK1 probably affects the overall signaling output of the cell by antagonizing ERK2 activity.

  11. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Knorr, Ulla; Jensen, Hans Mørch; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  12. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  13. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  14. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and risk management applied to an active industrial site affected by fuel spill in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) applied to sites were groundwater have been affected by a fuel spill from an Industrial Underground Storage Tank (UST) is economically viable and a reliable methodology to achieve remediation goals. MNA process consists in the control of naturally occurring physical, chemical , and biological processes and is based in the knowledge of the processes that take place and reduce the charge of compounds derived from fuel in the site of study. Because the risk for Human Health and Ecosystem define the concept of contaminant, during MNA special attention has to be taken on concentration diminution of that are or could become contaminants and in this way is possible to perform Risk-Based Land Management (RBLM) by measuring both, the primary lines of evidence (shrinking or stable plume of contaminants) and secondary lines of evidence (given by geochemical indicators in the plume). Once, evidences have been gathered, is possible to calculate the rate of attenuation of contaminants and evaluate if admissible risk is reached an in a reasonable time framework, in order to propose MNA as a unique remediation or combined with other procedures to apply to an affected site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of MNA to an active industrial site in order to develop a RBLM able to assess that the risk for Human Health and ecosystem are acceptable. The added attractive of this methodology is the non-intrusiveness that allows not to stop the industrial activity. The site considered in our study is in an active company located about 15 Km to NW from Barcelona, Spain.The company has a buried UST containing heavy fuel oil for energetic use. During 2002 a general soil impact study revealed that subsoil and groundwater close to the UST were affected by hydrocarbon losses from the tank and in January 2003 the fuel of the tank was emptied by pumping. The free phase of fuel floating on groundwater remained on the aquifer. As a

  15. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 μM P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  16. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA or in the acquisition context (AAA. In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC. However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.

  17. Natural Radiation for Identification and Evaluation of Risk Zones for Affectation of Activated Faults in Aquifer Overexploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Leal, J.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Carbajal-Perez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In basins as Mexico, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi, the existence of faults and fractures have affected the urban infrastructure, lines of conduction of drinkable water, pipelines, etc., that when not being identified and considered, they don't reflect the real impact that these cause also to the aquifer system, modifying the permeability of the means and in occasions they work as preferential conduits that communicate hydraulically potentially to the aquifer with substances pollutants (metals, fertilizers, hydrocarbons, waste waters, etc.) located in the surface. In the Valley of San Luis Potosi, Villa of Reyes, Arista, Ahualulco and recently The Huizache-Matehuala is being strongly affected by faulting and supposedly due cracking to subsidence, however, the regional tectonic could also be the origin of this phenomenon. To know the origin of the faults and affectation to the vulnerability of the aquifer few works they have been carried out in the area. A preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible that a tectonic component is affecting the area and that the vulnerability of the aquifer in that area you this increasing. Before such a situation, it is necessary to carry out the isotopic study of the same one, for this way to know among other things, isotopic characterization, recharge places and addresses of flow of the groundwater; quality of waters and the behavior hydrochemistry with relationship to the faults. High radon values were measured in San Luis Potosi Valley, the natural source of radon could be the riolites and however, these are located to almost a once thousand meters deep for what the migration of the gas is not very probable. The anomalies radiometrics was not correlation with the faults in this case. In some areas like the Valley of Celaya, the origin of the structures and the tectonic activity in the area was confirmed, identifying the structural arrangement of the faulting, the space relationships

  18. Autonomous regulation mode moderates the effect of actual physical activity on affective states : an ambulant assessment approach to the role of self-determination

    OpenAIRE

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university...

  19. Pro198Leu polymorphism affects the selenium status and GPx activity in response to Brazil nut intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Bárbara R; Busse, Alexandre L; Hare, Dominic J; Cominetti, Cristiane; Horst, Maria A; McColl, Gawain; Magaldi, Regina M; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2016-02-01

    Selenoproteins play important roles in antioxidant mechanisms, and are thus hypothesised to have some involvement in the pathology of certain types of dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both thought to involve impaired biological activity of certain selenoproteins. Previously, supplementation with a selenium-rich Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has shown potential in reducing cognitive decline in MCI patients, and could prove to be a safe and effective nutritional approach early in the disease process to slow decline. Here, we have conducted a pilot study that examined the effects of a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and selenoprotein P (SEPP) in response to selenium supplementation via dietary Brazil nuts, including selenium status, oxidative stress parameters and GPX1 and SEPP gene expression. Our data suggest that GPX1 Pro198Leu rs1050450 genotypes may differentially affect the selenium status and GPx activity. Moreover, rs7579 and rs3877899 SNPs in SEPP gene, as well as GPX1 rs1050450 genotypes can influence the expression of GPX1 and SEPP mRNA in response to Brazil nuts intake. This small study gives cause for larger investigations into the role of these SNPs in both the selenium status and response to selenium dietary intake, especially in chronic degenerative conditions like MCI and AD. PMID:26661784

  20. Novel somatic mutations in large granular lymphocytic leukemia affecting the STAT-pathway and T-cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a clonal disease characterized by the expansion of mature CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders and immune-mediated cytopenias. Our recent findings suggest that up to 40% of T-LGL patients harbor mutations in the STAT3 gene, whereas STAT5 mutations are present in 2% of patients. In order to identify putative disease-causing genetic alterations in the remaining T-LGL patients, we performed exome sequencing from three STAT mutation-negative patients and validated the findings in 113 large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia patients. On average, 11 CD8+ LGL leukemia cell-specific high-confidence nonsynonymous somatic mutations were discovered in each patient. Interestingly, all patients had at least one mutation that affects either directly the STAT3-pathway (such as PTPRT) or T-cell activation (BCL11B, SLIT2 and NRP1). In all three patients, the STAT3 pathway was activated when studied by RNA expression or pSTAT3 analysis. Screening of the remaining 113 LGL leukemia patients did not reveal additional patients with same mutations. These novel mutations are potentially biologically relevant and represent rare genetic triggers for T-LGL leukemia, and are associated with similar disease phenotype as observed in patients with mutations in the STAT3 gene

  1. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  2. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size

  3. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  4. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly. PMID:19464754

  5. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  6. Activation of tachykinin, neurokinin 3 receptors affects chromatin structure and gene expression by means of histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Amit; Sylar, Elise; Flynn, Francis W

    2012-12-01

    The tachykinin, neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is a g-protein coupled receptor that is broadly distributed in the nervous system and exerts its diverse physiological actions through multiple signaling pathways. Despite the role of the receptor system in a range of biological functions, the effects of NK3R activation on chromatin dynamics and gene expression have received limited attention. The present work determined the effects of senktide, a selective NK3R agonist, on chromatin organization, acetylation, and gene expression, using qRT-PCR, in a hypothalamic cell line (CLU 209) that expresses the NK3R. Senktide (1 nM, 10nM) caused a relaxation of chromatin, an increase in global acetylation of histone H3 and H4, and an increase in the expression of a common set of genes involved in cell signaling, cell growth, and synaptic plasticity. Pretreatment with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor (garcinol and 2-methylene y-butylactone), that inhibits p300, p300/CREB binding protein (CBP) associated factor (PCAF), and GCN 5, prevented the senktide-induced increase in expression of most, but not all, of the genes upregulated in response to 1 nM and 10nM senktide. Treatment with 100 nM had the opposite effect: a reduction in chromatin relaxation and decreased acetylation. The expression of four genes was significantly decreased and the HAT inhibitor had a limited effect in blocking the upregulation of genes in response to 100 nM senktide. Activation of the NK3R appears to recruit multiple pathways, including acetylation, and possibly histone deactylases, histone methylases, or DNA methylases to affect chromatin structure and gene expression. PMID:22985858

  7. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type. PMID:25638294

  8. Density of Helicobacter pylorimay affect the efficacy of eradication therapy and ulcer healing in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Teh-Hong Wang; Shih-Hung Huang; Sien-Sing Yang; Chi-Hwa Wu; Tzen-Kwan Chen; Chia-Long Lee

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) density with bacterial eradication and ulcer healing rates in patients with active duodenal ulcer.METHODS: One hundred and four consecutive duodenal ulcer outpatients with H, pylori infection ascertained by gastric histopathology and 13C-urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this study. H. pylori density was graded histologically according to the Sydney system (normal, mild,moderate, and marked). In each patient, lansoprazole (30rng b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1g b.i.d.) were used for 1 week, then 30 mg lansoprazole once daily was continued for an additional 3 weeks. Followup endoscopy was performed at 4 weeks after completion of the therapy, and UBT was done at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of the therapy.RESULTS: The H. pylorieradication rates were 88.9 %/100.0 %, 94.3 %/100.0 %, and 69.7 %/85.2 %; and the ulcer healing rates were 88.9 %/100.0 %, 94.3 %/100.0 %,and 63.6 %/77.8 % (intention-to-treat/per protocol analysis)in the mild, moderate, and marked H. pyloridensity groups,respectively. The association of pretreatment H. pyloridensity with the eradication rate and ulcer healing rate was both statistically significant (P=0.013/0.006 and 0.002/<0.001,respectively; using results of intention-to-treat/per protocol analysis).CONCLUSION: Intragastric bacterial load may affect both the outcome of eradication treatment and ulcer healing in patients with active duodenal ulcer disease.

  9. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  10. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Serena; Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog), one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e., either "meow" or "woof" sound). These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials). The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone). The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task associations

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  12. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  13. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure....

  14. Snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) affects the redistribution of soil organic matter and hormone‐like activity in the alpine ecosystem: ecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzeghello, Diego; Cocco, Stefania; Francioso, Ornella; Ferrari, Erika; Cardinali, Alessandra; Nardi, Serenella; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In alpine environments, colonies of snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) cause strong pedoturbation, which may affect humification process and soil organic matter (SOM) cycling, with repercussions on the hormone‐like activity of organics. We investigated the effect of snow vole pedoturbation on the chemical and spectroscopic features of soil organic fractions, and the potential hormone‐like activity of humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). The study site was located on the high‐mountain ...

  15. Land Based Sources and Activities Affecting the Quality and Uses of the Marine Coastal and Associated Fresh Water Environments Along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaguni, S.; Munga, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report updates an earlier report whose exercise was conducted in 1992 to assess pollution loads into the marine environment from land based activities along the Kenya coast. Like the previous one this new report presents the current picture of the same problem but is now widened to include how the activities affect the quality and uses of the marine coastal and associated fresh water environments. Output of this rapid assessment exercise is expected to provide an indication of the pollut...

  16. THE IMPACT OF MINING ACTIVITIES ON THE WEST OF PETROŞANI DEPRESSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AFFECTED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL RESOURCES. CASE STUDY: ANINOASA-VULCAN-LUPENI SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    N. NIMARĂ; G. B. TOFAN

    2015-01-01

    The Impact of Mining Activities on the West of Petroşani Depression and Identification of Affected Geomorphological Resources. Case Study: Aninoasa- Vulcan-Lupeni Sector. The west region of Petroşani Depression, like the whole depression, suffered some changes in the geomorphologic environment as a result of coal mining activities. Following displacement processes of mass materials and relocation of it, changes in shape are brought to the original territory that contrast with the natural land...

  17. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes CZECH REPUBLIC (Dvorak, Zdenek) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-08-22 Revised: 2006-11-16 Accepted: 2007-01-02

  18. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  19. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V;

    2016-01-01

    -risk individuals. METHODS: We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire...

  20. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P < .001). The activity of caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin. PMID:26543157

  1. Activity of retinene palmitasynthetase and retinene palmitatehydrolase in the small intestine mucosa and membranes of its cells in white rats affected by A-avitaminosis and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined action of A-avitaminosis and ionizing radiation on the activity of retinenepalmitatesynthetase and retinenepalmitatehydrolase in the small intestine mucosa and cell membranes of white rats has been investigated. The activity of retinenepalmitatehydrolase has been shown to decrease in the irradiated animals deficient in vitamin A as compared to the control nonirradiated animals. The activity of retinenepalmitatesynthetase affected by a combination of A-avitaminosis and irradiation increases as compared to the control nonirradiated rats both in the small intestine mucosa and its cell membranes

  2. Segmental overgrowth syndrome due to an activating PIK3CA mutation identified in affected muscle tissue by exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Weigert, Karen Petra; Bogaard, Pauline Wilhemina; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt

    Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA-associated...

  3. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  4. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the develo

  5. Affecting Girls' Activity and Job Interests through Play: The Moderating Roles of Personal Gender Salience and Game Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Emily F.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF--tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool…

  6. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled st

  7. Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: the effect of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie; Beauchamp, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program. PMID:20479476

  8. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27. Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  9. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: Species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E.; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we fo...

  10. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the development of psychopathologies such as depression and social anxiety in adulthood. In the first experiment, we examined long-term effects of repeated social stress during adolescence on adult social ap...

  11. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coor...

  12. Differences in Cortical Activity between Methamphetamine-Dependent and Healthy Individuals Performing a Facial Affect Matching Task

    OpenAIRE

    Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Monterosso, John R.; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W.; London, Edythe D.

    2007-01-01

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the ...

  13. The fMRI analysis of brain activation in response to face image affected by background images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimuli of a face images expressing fear induce the activation in the medial temporal lobe was reported in previous studies. In particular, it was reported that face image expressing fear activated the amygdala and hippo-campus area of brain. In these studies, no background images were used with facial stimuli. However, normal day-to-day images always have a background. We investigated the effect of combining face images expressing fear and different background images. As a result, strong activation was detected in the amygdala and hippocampus area when the lightning background image was used. But strong activation was not detected when the fire background image was used. From the results of questionnaire rating the impression of possibility of experiencing the situation of shown images, it is thought that this difference of impression of possibility made the difference of empathy and caused the difference of brain activation. (author)

  14. Enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants differentially affects Rubisco activity during low temperature treatment in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Grzesiak, Maciej; Kalita, Katarzyna; Rapacz, Marcin

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene was shown to be a point for optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It can be expected to be a stress-regulated event that depends on plant freezing tolerance. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among Rubisco activity, the expression of two Rubisco activase splicing variants and photoacclimation to low temperature. The experiment was performed on two Lolium perenne genotypes with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. The study investigated the effect of pre-hardening (15°C) and cold acclimation (4°C) on net photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical activity, Rubisco activity and the expression of two splicing variants of the Rubisco activase gene. The results showed an induction of Rubisco activity at both 15°C and 4°C only in a highly freezing-tolerant genotype. The enhanced Rubisco activity after pre-hardening corresponded to increased expression of the splicing variant representing the large isoform, while the increase in Rubisco activity during cold acclimation was due to the activation of both transcript variants. These boosts in Rubisco activity also corresponded to an activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation induced at low temperature exclusively in the highly freezing-tolerant genotype. In conclusion, enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants caused an increase in Rubisco activity during pre-hardening and cold acclimation in the more freezing-tolerant Lolium perenne genotype. The induction of the transcript variant representing the large isoform may be an important element of increasing the carbon assimilation rate supporting the photochemical mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to cold. PMID:27152456

  15. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed. PMID:10750318

  16. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Martina; Paar, Margret; Eder, Christina; Brandis, Janina; Moser, Elena; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Grond, Susanne; Radner, Franz P. W.; Cerk, Ines; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Kersten, Sander; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 switch gene-2 (G0S2). CGI-58 activates and G0S2 inhibits ATGL activity. In contrast to mice, the functional role of G0S2 in human adipocyte lipolysis is poorly characterized. Here we show that overexp...

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcushornemanni (C. hornemanni) on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrioalginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonashydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract.Conclusion:Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  19. Jiawei Wendan decoction affects mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in the hippocampus of depression rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhang; Man Zhang; Li Wu; Meng Xia; Guangbin Li

    2011-01-01

    A previous study from our group showed that Jiawei Wendan decoction inhibits protein expression of interleukin-1β, 2, and 6, as well as plasma neuropeptide Y, P substance and somatostatin in the hippocampus of depression rat models. The present study analyzed the influence of Jiawei Wendan decoction on the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus. Results demonstrated that Jiawei Wendan decoction effectively upregulated expression of small molecular G proteins, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, and activated ribosomal S6 kinase protein in the rat hippocampus. In addition, Jiawei Wendan decoction exhibits antidepressant effects similar to fluoxetine. The underlying mechanisms were shown to be dependent on increased mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway activity.

  20. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  1. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  2. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  3. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’ in their final year of their pre-service preparation program. Transfer of learning was proposed as characteristic of (i) the professional development program,(ii) beginning teachers and...

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Malik, A.; Varik, S.; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V.K.; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    thrice with Milli-Q water and completely dried before use. Bottles were also rinsed with sample before collection. Samples for DO were collected in 125 mL stoppered glass bottles avoiding air bubbles and were immediately fixed with Winkler’s reagents..., including nucleotides, proteins and alkaloids. Phosphatase activity degrades not only particulate P containing matter but also high molecular dissolved organic matter. This enzyme activity has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms in the marine...

  5. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

  6. Hyaluronan Does Not Affect Bupivacaine’s Inhibitory Action on Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Activities in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    William Hester; Jinnan Yang; Guo-Yong Wang; Sen Liu; Michael J O'Brien; Savoie, Felix H.; Zongbing You

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this paper is to determine if hyaluronan affects bupivacaine's anesthetic function. Methods. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in 60 mm dishes. The chondrocytes were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (control group), 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan (Orthovisc), 0.25% bupivacaine, or a mixture of 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan and 0.25% bupivacaine. Outward currents were elicited by step depolarization from −90 mV to 150 mV ...

  7. Cyclosporine A affects the in vitro expression of T cell activation-related molecules and cytokines in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, C L; Stokes, J V; Archer, T M; Pinchuk, L M; Lunsford, K V; Mackin, A J

    2011-04-15

    Cyclosporine is a powerful immunosuppressive drug that is being used with increasing frequency to treat a wide range of immune-mediated diseases in the dog. To date, ideal dosing protocols that will achieve immunosuppression with cyclosporine in dogs remain unclear, and standard methods that can measure effectiveness of immunosuppression have not been established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro cyclosporine exposure on a panel of molecules expressed by activated T cells to ascertain their potential as biomarkers of immunosuppression in dogs. Blood was drawn from six healthy dogs, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and activated. Half of the cells were incubated with 200 ng/mL cyclosporine prior to activation, and the other half were not exposed to cyclosporine. Samples were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the expression of intracellular cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ was evaluated after 6, 12, and 24h of drug exposure. Each cytokine exhibited a time-dependent suppression profile, and all but two samples activated in the presence of cyclosporine showed lower cytokine expression than untreated controls. We also evaluated the expression of the surface T cell activation molecules CD25 and CD95 by flow cytometry after 36 h of drug exposure. Expression of these surface molecules decreased significantly when activated in the presence of cyclosporine. Our results suggest that suppressed expression of the markers related to T cell activation could potentially be utilized as an indicator of the efficacy of cyclosporine therapy in dogs. PMID:21227512

  8. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  9. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy [Bioreclamation In Vitro Technologies, Baltimore, MD 21227 (United States); Swaan, Peter W. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Hongbing, E-mail: hwang@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  10. Rosiglitazone stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and directly affects in vitro steroidogenesis in porcine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Karpeta, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) synthetic activator from the group of thiazolidinediones often used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other forms of insulin resistance. The present in vitro study assessed the direct effects of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50 μM doses on PPARγ gene expression, steroid secretion (progesterone [P4], androstenedione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol), and protein expression of PPARγ, 3βHSD, CYP17, 17βHSD, CYP19 by porcine ovarian follicles from prepubertal and cycling animals. We analyzed also steroid enzymatic activity by conversion of pregnen-3β-ol-20-one to P4, P4 to A4, and A4 to T. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone increased significantly PPARγ expression, P4 secretion, 3βHSD activity, and protein expression. Rosiglitazone decreased A4 and T secretion by reducing the expression and activity of CYP17 and 17βHSD and did not change estradiol secretion and CYP19. Similarly results was observed both in prepubertal and cycling pigs. Our results indicate that these direct effects of rosiglitazone on ovarian steroidogenesis provide a framework for testing several potential new mechanisms of PPAR-γ actions on porcine ovarian function. PMID:24681211

  11. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  12. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  13. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases - A XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  14. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  15. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  16. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [3H]2O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. - Highlights:

  17. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    OpenAIRE

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats f...

  18. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gittel, Antje; Barta, Jiri; Kohoutova, Iva;

    2014-01-01

    its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen...... site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure...

  19. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  20. How Cognitive Styles Affect the Learning Behaviors of Online Problem-Solving Based Discussion Activity: A Lag Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…

  1. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 sw

  2. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  3. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  4. Relationship between malt qualities and p-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; DAI Fei; WEI Kang; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain β-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain β-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand,grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with β-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain β-amylase activity.

  5. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richie Erickson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO, Kansas (KS and Kentucky (KY, USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling, α-galactosidase (C cycling, β-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling and phosphomonoesterases (P cycling. The treatments were as follows: (i two years of beef manure applications to a fine sandy loam at different rates (control: 0, low: 34 kg N ha−1 and high: 96 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in CO; (ii three years of beef manure applications to a silt loam at different rates (0, low: 67 kg N ha−1 and high: 134 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in KS and; (iii three years of poultry and dairy manure applications to a silt loam with different tillage practices at the same rate (403 kg N ha−1 in KY. Tillage practices (none vs. conventional had no effect on the enzyme activities. Principal Component Analyses (PCA grouped all enzyme activities with the high beef manure application rate after the first year in CO at 0–5 cm. By the second year, the low and high beef manure rates differed in enzyme activities for the KS soil with no difference between the low rate and control in CO. Since the first year of the KY study, acid phosphatase activity was greater in the poultry treated soil compared to dairy or the control; whereas, C cycling enzyme activities were similar in soil treated with dairy or poultry manure. For all studies, PCAs for soil samples from 5–10 cm depth did not reveal treatment separation until the second year, i.e., only high application rate differed from the other treatments. Results of the study indicated significant responses in C and P

  6. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  7. Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution with activated Firmiana Simplex Leaf: Behaviors and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium pollution is known to cause severe public health problems. This study is intended to examine the effect of an activated Firmiana Simplex Leaf (FSL) on the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Results showed that the active Firmiana Simplex Leaf could efficiently remove Cd(II) from wastewater due to the preservation of beneficial groups (amine, carboxyl, and phosphate) at a temperature of 250 deg. C. The adsorbent component, dosage, concentration of the initial solute, and the pH of the solution were all found to have significant effects on Cd(II) adsorption. The kinetic constants were predicted by pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the thermodynamic analysis revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. FT-IR and XRD analyses confirmed the strong adsorption between beneficial groups and cadmium ions, and the adsorption capacity was calculated to be 117.786 mg g-1 according to the Langmuir isotherm.

  8. Salinity and Salicylic Acid Interactions in Affecting Nitrogen Assimilation, Enzyme Activity, Ions Content and Translocation Rate of Maize Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, ions concentration as well as the translocation rate (TR) of carbohydrates and salicylic acid (SA) in salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L). Salicylic acid plus salinity treatment highly significantly increased: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), protein content, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibited nucleases (DNase and RNase) activities compared with Na CI-treated plants. In addition, the ionic levels of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3) and the translocation rate of the labelled photo assimilates have also been stimulated while sodium (Na) ions content was decreased. It is concluded that, salinazid maize plants might show an enhancement in their growth pattern upon salicylic acid application

  9. Cultural Influences Across Time and Space: Do Source-country Gender Roles Affect Immigrant Women's Paid and Unpaid Labour Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kristyn; Hou, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Canadian immigrants come from a range of source countries which vary considerably in gender roles. Examining gender roles is therefore valuable in determining whether cultural norms continue to influence labour activities after immigrants have been exposed to the new environment of their host country. This study focuses on the "portability" of gender roles for immigrant women; that is, it examines whether source-country gender roles continue to influence immigrant families' labour and housewo...

  10. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy cont...

  11. Do cholesterol-lowering agents affect brain activity? A comparison of simvastatin, pravastatin, and placebo in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. W.; Ashton, C H

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on measures of central nervous system activity were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover study. 2. Twenty-five healthy volunteers sequentially took 40 mg day-1 simvastatin, 40 mg day-1 pravastatin or placebo for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-6 week washout phase. 3. CNS measures included EEG evoked potentials, power spectral analysis, Leeds Sleep Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale, and Digit Symb...

  12. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of 210Po and 210Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg-1 for 210Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg-1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg-1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210Po and 210Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) for 210Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) for 210Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210Po and man

  13. Pharmacological Activation/Inhibition of the Cannabinoid System Affects Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Neuronal Hypersensitivity to Excitotoxic Insults

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Marina; Villain, Hélène; Docagne, Fabian; Roussel, Benoit D.; Ramos, José Antonio; Vivien, Denis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; Ali, Carine

    2011-01-01

    Cessation of chronic ethanol consumption can increase the sensitivity of the brain to excitotoxic damages. Cannabinoids have been proposed as neuroprotectants in different models of neuronal injury, but their effect have never been investigated in a context of excitotoxicity after alcohol cessation. Here we examined the effects of the pharmacological activation/inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in an in vitro model of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal followed by an excitotoxic c...

  14. Activation of tachykinin Neurokinin 3 receptors affects chromatin structure and gene expression by means of histone acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Thakar, Amit; Sylar, Elise; Flynn, Francis W.

    2012-01-01

    The tachykinin, neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is a g-protein coupled receptor that is broadly distributed in the nervous system and exerts its diverse physiological actions through multiple signaling pathways. Despite the role of the receptor system in a range of biological functions, the effects of NK3R activation on chromatin dynamics and gene expression have received limited attention. The present work determined the effects of senktide, a selective NK3R agonist, on chromatin organization, ...

  15. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  16. The Factors Affecting Individuals’ Participation in Cycling, Mountaineering and Trekking Activities: An Application of Probit Analysis for Turkey Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ardahan, Faik; MERT, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and explain the impacts of the independent variables as gender, marital status, income, education level, age, Life Satisfaction (LS) level, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) level and Ecological values and behavior level on participating in outdoor activities as cycling, trekking and mountaineering by using Probit Model, as Turkey case. To determine the EQ level, Ecological values and behavior level, and LS levels of participants, EQ, LS and New Ecological Paradi...

  17. Extracurricular activities: Investigating the affects of participation-nonparticipation on the Georgia High School Science Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ray A.

    Student achievement research suggests that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive impact on the academic and developmental outcomes for adolescents. Specifically, several studies reported that adolescents who participate in extra-curricular activities are more likely to experience increases in academic achievement, self-esteem, high school graduation rates, and pro-social behaviors. On the other hand, there is research suggesting that participation in extracurricular activities may distract students from their academic pursuits. The state of Georgia requires all eleventh grade students to participate in the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT). The GHSGT consists of five separate tests that include (a) English/language arts, (b) math, (c) writing, (d) social studies, and (e) science. Each comprehensive exam is worth 600 points. A high school diploma will be awarded if the student scores at least 500 points on each individual exam. Further, review of student outcomes on the GHSGT revealed that first-time test takers were failing the science portion of the test at a greater percentage than any other subject on the GHSGT. Specifically, the Governor's Office of Student Achievement (GOSA) reported that from 2002 through 2004, a total of 70,451 students or 30.3% of students that were first-time test takers failed the science portion of the GHSGT. As a result, investigating factors that potentially could increase student achievement in science became the impetus for this study. In particular, this study examined the relationships between the levels of student participation in school sponsored extracurricular activities in relation to the level of student achievement in the area of science.

  18. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Richie Erickson; Vigil, Merle F.; Benjamin, Joseph G.; Phillip W. Stahlman; Karamat R. Sistani; Veronica Acosta-Martinez; Mikha, Maysoon M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO), Kansas (KS) and Kentucky (KY), USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling), α-...

  19. Chronic inflammation and estradiol interact through MAPK activation to affect TMJ nociceptive processing by trigeminal caudalis neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, A.; Okamoto, K.; Bereiter, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway plays a key role in mediating estrogen actions in the brain and neuronal sensitization during inflammation. Estrogen status is a risk factor in chronic temporomandibular muscle/joint disorders (TMJD); however, the basis for this relationship is not known. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen status acts through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway to alter TMJ nociceptive processing. Single TMJ-r...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE REMOVAL OF A BASIC AND AN AZO DYE FROM ARTIFICIAL SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON

    OpenAIRE

    Albroomi, H I; ElSayed, Mohamed; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M A

    2014-01-01

    Decolourisation of wastewater, particularly from textile industries, is one of the major environmental concerns these days. Current methods for removing dyes from wastewater are costly and cannot effectively be used to treat wide range of such wastewater. This work describes the use of commercial available granular activated carbon (GAC) as an efficient adsorbent material for dyes removal. Aqueous solutions of various basic dye Methylene Blue (MB) and azo-dye Tartrazine with concentrations 5-...

  1. Foliar Application of Potassium Nitrate Affects the Growth and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Sunflower and Safflower Leaves under Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat JABEEN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of foliar application of KNO3 on growth and the activity of nitrate reductase were studied in the leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. plants growing under different levels of salinity. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water (i.e. 0.3% and 0.6%, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively were made by dissolving sea salt per litre of tap water. Nutrient solution of KNO3 was sprayed at the rate of 250 ppm. The concentration of Na+ and Cl- rapidly increased in the leaves of both the plants under salinity stress. In contrast the nitrate (NO3- and soluble protein concentration were decreased with the increasing salinity. Salinity reduced leaf area, its fresh and dry weight per plant and also inhibited the activity of Nitrate reductase (NRA enzyme. The application of KNO3 significantly reduced the increasing tendency of Na+ and Cl- and increased leaf area, its fresh and dry weight per plant, NO3- and soluble protein concentration and NR activity in leaves irrespective to the growth of plant under non saline or saline conditions.

  2. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro Orozco, A.M., E-mail: mferro@cidca.org.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Contreras, E.M.; Zaritzky, N.E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA) CCT La Plata CONICET - Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ) La Plata (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, UNLP. 47 y 1 (B1900AJJ) - La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q{sub Cr}) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey {approx} lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  3. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (qCr) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey ∼ lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  4. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  5. Gamma-radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. 2. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10-Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The result of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  6. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation

  7. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Singh, Amika S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10–13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  8. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  9. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V;

    2015-01-01

    -risk individuals. METHODS: We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire...... brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in...... the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling...

  10. Twig extract of the apple mangrove affects the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in postlarval black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon at varying feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Avenido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of the twig extract of the apple mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris on the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in the postlarval black tiger shrimpPenaeus monodon. Incorporating twig extracts of the apple mangrove S. caseolaris increased the activityof trypsin in juvenile P. monodon when fed at three to four times daily. When fed twice daily, trypsinactivity was at the same level as that in shrimp fed the control diet (without medication. The extractresulted in the enhanced chymotrypsin activity starting when shrimps were fed medicated diet twice dailyuntil four times daily. Lipase activity was not at all affected by the apple mangrove extract. Thesefindings demonstrated that the twig apple mangrove extract could be used as aprophylactic/therapeutant and was not deleterious to the nutrition of the black tiger shrimp; in fact, itstimulated protein digestion.

  11. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production. PMID:26428244

  12. Characterization of conserved arginine residues on Cdt1 that affect licensing activity and interaction with Geminin or Mcm complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Ode, Koji L; Shindo, Mayumi; Takisawa, Haruhiko; Masai, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    All organisms ensure once and only once replication during S phase through a process called replication licensing. Cdt1 is a key component and crucial loading factor of Mcm complex, which is a central component for the eukaryotic replicative helicase. In higher eukaryotes, timely inhibition of Cdt1 by Geminin is essential to prevent rereplication. Here, we address the mechanism of DNA licensing using purified Cdt1, Mcm and Geminin proteins in combination with replication in Xenopus egg extracts. We mutagenized the 223th arginine of mouse Cdt1 (mCdt1) to cysteine or serine (R-S or R-C, respectively) and 342nd and 346th arginines constituting an arginine finger-like structure to alanine (RR-AA). The RR-AA mutant of Cdt1 could not only rescue the DNA replication activity in Cdt1-depleted extracts but also its specific activity for DNA replication and licensing was significantly increased compared to the wild-type protein. In contrast, the R223 mutants were partially defective in rescue of DNA replication and licensing. Biochemical analyses of these mutant Cdt1 proteins indicated that the RR-AA mutation disabled its functional interaction with Geminin, while R223 mutations resulted in ablation in interaction with the Mcm2∼7 complex. Intriguingly, the R223 mutants are more susceptible to the phosphorylation-induced inactivation or chromatin dissociation. Our results show that conserved arginine residues play critical roles in interaction with Geminin and Mcm that are crucial for proper conformation of the complexes and its licensing activity. PMID:26940553

  13. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    as well as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding......In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises). In...

  14. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  15. D-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of D-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and D-serine. D-DOPA is converted to L-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas D-serine participates in...... dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans....

  16. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region. PMID:25779694

  17. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  18. Caffeine supplementation does not affect match activities and fatigue resistance during match play in young football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Svein Arne; Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on match activities and development of fatigue during a football match. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over design, two experimental football games separated by 7 days were organised between the junior teams of two professional football...... clubs (17.6 ± 1.1 years (±s), 71.7 ± 6.9 kg, 13.9% ± 5.0% body fat). The players ingested either a capsule of 6 mg · kg−1 b.w. caffeine or placebo (dextrose) 65 min prior to the matches. Match activities were assessed using the ZXY match analysis system, and a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test–level 2...... (Yo-Yo IR2) was conducted immediately post-game. Heart rate was monitored throughout the game, and blood samples were obtained at baseline, half-time and after the game. There were no differences between caffeine and placebo regarding total distance covered (10,062 ± 916 vs 9854 ± 901 m), high...

  19. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-12-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510

  20. Human SOD2 modification by dopamine quinones affects enzymatic activity by promoting its aggregation: possible implications for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belluzzi

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are considered central in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD. Oxidative stress occurs when the endogenous antioxidant systems are overcome by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. A plausible source of oxidative stress, which could account for the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, is the redox chemistry of dopamine (DA and leads to the formation of ROS and reactive dopamine-quinones (DAQs. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, providing a first line of defense against ROS. We investigated the possible interplay between DA and SOD2 in the pathogenesis of PD using enzymatic essays, site-specific mutagenesis, and optical and high-field-cw-EPR spectroscopies. Using radioactive DA, we demonstrated that SOD2 is a target of DAQs. Exposure to micromolar DAQ concentrations induces a loss of up to 50% of SOD2 enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is correlated to the concomitant formation of protein aggregates, while the coordination geometry of the active site appears unaffected by DAQ modifications. Our findings support a model in which DAQ-mediated SOD2 inactivation increases mitochondrial ROS production, suggesting a link between oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  2. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  3. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.;

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... acquisition AM decreased rhizosphere respiration and number of protozoa but did not affect bacterial number suggesting top-down regulation of bacterial number by protozoan grazing. In contrast, during flowering and pod formation AM stimulated rhizosphere respiration and the negative effect on protozoa...... decreased. AM also affected the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community as revealed from DNA analysis (DGGE). With or without mycorrhiza, rhizosphere respiration was P-limited on very young roots, not nutrient limited at more mature roots and C-limited at withering. This suggests changes in the...

  4. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. PMID:26797854

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Morphological Changes of Streptomyces Ascendable and Streptomyces Eighty-three's as Affected by Environmental Conditions and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen actinomycetes out of thirty isolates were recovered from different Egyptian soils and exhibited antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces ascendable and Streptomyces eighty-three's used in the present work showed the most active antimicrobial potentialities against bacteria, moulds and yeasts. The optimum temperature and acidity for their growth and production of microbial activity were 50 degree and ph 7.0, while the maximum biomass yield and the highest antimicrobial activity were attained 10 days of incubation. Among carbon sources starch at 30 gm/L highly supported the growth and antimicrobial activity by the two species, while sodium nitrate (3 gm/L) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.75 gm/L) were the most favorable for both isolates. The presence of microelements such as manganese chloride, zinc sulphate, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate in the growth medium at a concentration of 1 mg/L for each had a good stimulatory effect on the growth and antimicrobial activity for both Streptomyces species. As different irradiation doses were used (up to 5.0 kGy), the high levels clearly affected the morphological characteristics of both tested isolates either in the first or second generation

  6. Interaction between mercury (Hg, arsenic (As and selenium (Se affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk: possible relationship with fish and shellfish intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg and arsenic (As could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se, an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women.

  7. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX high capacity (HCR and low capacity running (LCR rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX or without (sedentary, SED running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05 line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026 in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05 with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially

  8. A dimeric peptide with erythropoiesis-stimulating activity uniquely affects erythropoietin receptor ligation and cell surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Green, Jennifer M; Schatz, Peter J; Wojchowski, Don M

    2016-08-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) that exert long-acting antianemia effects have been developed recently, but their mechanisms are poorly understood. Analyses reveal unique erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)-binding properties for one such ESA, the synthetic EPOR agonist peginesatide. Compared with recombinant human EPO and darbepoietin, peginesatide exhibited a slow on rate, but sustained EPOR residency and resistant displacement. In EPO-dependent human erythroid progenitor UT7epo cells, culture in peginesatide unexpectedly upmodulated endogenous cell surface EPOR levels with parallel increases in full-length EPOR-68K levels. These unique properties are suggested to contribute to the durable activity of this (and perhaps additional) dimeric peptide hematopoietic growth factor receptor agonist. PMID:27174804

  9. PINK1 loss-of-function mutations affect mitochondrial complex I activity via NdufA10 ubiquinone uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Vanessa A; Haddad, Dominik; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Swerts, Jef; Vilain, Sven; Aerts, Liesbeth; Overbergh, Lut; Grünewald, Anne; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine; Gevaert, Kris; Verstreken, Patrik; De Strooper, Bart

    2014-04-11

    Under resting conditions, Pink1 knockout cells and cells derived from patients with PINK1 mutations display a loss of mitochondrial complex I reductive activity, causing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analyzing the phosphoproteome of complex I in liver and brain from Pink1(-/-) mice, we found specific loss of phosphorylation of serine-250 in complex I subunit NdufA10. Phosphorylation of serine-250 was needed for ubiquinone reduction by complex I. Phosphomimetic NdufA10 reversed Pink1 deficits in mouse knockout cells and rescued mitochondrial depolarization and synaptic transmission defects in pink(B9)-null mutant Drosophila. Complex I deficits and adenosine triphosphate synthesis were also rescued in cells derived from PINK1 patients. Thus, this evolutionary conserved pathway may contribute to the pathogenic cascade that eventually leads to Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24652937

  10. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  11. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  12. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  13. Cattle grazing and trampling activities affect abundance and activity of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities and N.sub.2./sub.O production in upland soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Radl, V.; Čuhel, Jiří; Gattinger, A.; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana; Schloter, M.

    Braunschweig : Bba - Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 2007. s. 159-160. [Symposium on Bacterial Genetics and Ecology. BAGECO 9. Microbial Community Networks /9./. 23.06.2007-27.06.2007, Wernigerode] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cattle grazing and trampling activities * nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities * upland soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. The repeated drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles affect only the active pool of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Vyacheslav; Zinyakova, Natalya; Tulina, Anastasiya

    2016-04-01

    The decrease in the content of soil organic carbon, particularly in active form, is one of the major problems of the 21st century, which is closely related to the disturbance of the biogeochemical carbon cycle and to the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The main reasons for the SOM losses are the surplus of the SOM active pool losses due to mineralization, erosion, and infiltration over the input of fresh organic matter to the soil, as well as the changes in the soil conditions and processes due to natural and anthropogenic disturbing impacts. Experiments were carried out with mixed samples from the upper layers of soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and typical chernozems. Soil samples as controls were incubated after wetting for 150 days. The dynamics and cumulative production of C-CO2 under stable temperature (22°C) and moisture conditions were determined; the initial content of potentially mineralizable organic matter (C0) in the soil at the beginning of the incubation was then calculated to use these data as the control. Other soil samples were exposed in flasks to the following successive treatments: wetting →incubation → freezing → thawing → incubation →drying. Six repeated cycles of disturbing impacts were performed for 140 days of the experiment. After six cycles, the soil samples were incubated under stable temperature and moisture conditions for 150 days. The wetting of dried soils and the thawing of frozen soils are accompanied by the pulsed dynamics of the C-CO2 production with an abrupt increase in the rate of the C-CO2 emission within several days by 2.7-12.4 and 1.6-2.7 times, respectively, compared to the stable incubation conditions. The rate of the C-CO2 production pulses under each subsequent impact decreased compared to the preceding one similarly for all studied soils, which could be due to the depletion in potentially mineralizable soil organic matter (C0). The cumulative extra C-CO2 production by

  15. Aromatic Amino Acid Mutagenesis at the Substrate Binding Pocket of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase Lip2 Affects Its Activity and Thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipase2 from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLip2 is a yeast lipase exhibiting high homologous to filamentous fungal lipase family. Though its crystal structure has been resolved, its structure-function relationship has rarely been reported. By contrast, there are two amino acid residues (V94 and I100 with significant difference in the substrate binding pocket of YLLip2; they were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis (SDM to introduce aromatic amino acid mutations. Two mutants (V94W and I100F were created. The enzymatic properties of the mutant lipases were detected and compared with the wild-type. The activities of mutant enzymes dropped to some extent towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPC16 and their optimum temperature was 35°C, which was 5°C lower than that of the wild-type. However, the thermostability of I100F increased 22.44% after incubation for 1 h at 40°C and its optimum substrate shifted from p-nitrophenyl laurate (pNPC12 to p-nitrophenyl caprate (pNPC10. The above results demonstrated that the two substituted amino acid residuals have close relationship with such enzymatic properties as thermostability and substrate selectivity.

  16. Solar regeneration of powdered activated carbon impregnated with visible-light responsive photocatalyst: factors affecting performances and predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pow-Seng; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated a green technique to regenerate spent powdered activated carbon (AC) using solar photocatalysis. The AC was impregnated with a photocatalyst photoexcitable under visible-light irradiation to yield a solar regenerable composite, namely nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO(2)/AC). This composite exhibited bifunctional adsorptive-photocatalytic characteristics. Contaminants of emerging environmental concern, i.e. bisphenol-A (BPA), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and clofibric acid (CFA) which exhibited varying affinities for AC were chosen as target pollutants. The adsorption of BPA and SMZ by the N-TiO(2)/AC was significantly higher than that of CFA. The performance of solar photocatalytic regeneration (SPR) of the spent N-TiO(2)/AC composite generally increased with light intensity, N-TiO(2) loading and temperature. The regeneration efficiency (RE) for CFA-loaded spent composite was the highest compared to the other pollutant-loaded spent composites, achieving 77% within 8h of solar irradiation (765 W m(-2)). The rate-limiting process was pollutant desorption from the interior AC sorption sites. A kinetic model was developed to predict the transient concentration of the sorbate remaining in the spent composite during SPR. Comparison studies using solvent extraction technique indicated a different order of RE for the three pollutants, attributable to their varying solubilities in the aqueous and organic solvents. PMID:22464146

  17. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  18. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J E

    1995-12-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces. PMID:8618880

  19. Visualization of painful experiences believed to trigger the activation of affective and emotional brain regions in subjects with low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Shimo

    Full Text Available In the management of clinical low back pain (LBP, actual damage to lower back areas such as muscles, intervertebral discs etc. are normally targeted for therapy. However, LBP may involve not only sensory pain, but also underlying affective pain which may also play an important role overall in painful events. Therefore we hypothesized that visualization of a painful event may trigger painful memories, thus provoking the affective dimension of pain. The present study investigated neural correlates of affect processing in subjects with LBP (n = 11 and subjects without LBP (n = 11 through the use of virtual LBP stimuli. Whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed for all subjects while they were shown a picture of a man carrying luggage in a half-crouching position. All subjects with LBP reported experiencing discomfort and 7 LBP subjects reported experiencing pain. In contrast to subjects without LBP, subjects with LBP displayed activation of the cortical area related to pain and emotions: the insula, supplementary motor area, premotor area, thalamus, pulvinar, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, fusiform, gyrus, and cerebellum. These results suggest that the virtual LBP stimuli caused memory retrieval of unpleasant experiences and therefore may be associated with prolonged chronic LBP conditions.

  20. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  1. Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalinos Zembylas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.

  2. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  3. Habitat management affects soil chemistry and allochthonous organic inputs mediating microbial structure and exo-enzyme activity in Wadden Sea salt-marsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter; Granse, Dirk; Thi Do, Hai; Weingartner, Magdalena; Nolte, Stefanie; Hoth, Stefan; Jensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The Wadden Sea (WS) region is Europe's largest wetland and home to approximately 20% of its salt marsh area. Mainland salt marshes of the WS are anthropogenically influenced systems and have traditionally been used for livestock grazing in wide parts. After foundation of WS National Parks in the late 1980s and early 1990s, artificial drainage has been abandoned; however, livestock grazing is still common in many areas of the National Parks and is under ongoing discussion as a habitat-management practice. While studies so far focused on effects of livestock grazing on biodiversity, little is known about how biogeochemical processes, element cycling, and particularly carbon sequestration are affected. Here, we present data from a recent field study focusing on grazing effects on soil properties, microbial exo-enzyme activity, microbial abundance and structure. Exo-enzyme activity was studied conducting digestive enzyme assays for various enzymes involved in C- and N cycling. Microbial abundance and structure was assessed measuring specific gene abundance of fungi and bacteria using quantitative PCR. Soil compaction induced by grazing led to higher bulk density and decreases in soil redox (∆ >100 mV). Soil pH was significantly lower in grazed parts. Further, the proportion of allochthonous organic matter (marine input) was significantly smaller in grazed vs. ungrazed sites, likely caused by a higher sediment trapping capacity of the taller vegetation in the ungrazed sites. Grazing induced changes in bulk density, pH and redox resulted in reduced activity of enzymes involved in microbial C acquisition; however, there was no grazing effect on enzymes involved in N acquisition. While changes in pH, bulk density or redox did not affect microbial abundance and structure, the relative amount of marine organic matter significantly reduced the relative abundance of fungi (F:B ratio). We conclude that livestock grazing directly affects microbial exo-enzyme activity, thus

  4. Snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) affects the redistribution of soil organic matter and hormone-like activity in the alpine ecosystem: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzeghello, Diego; Cocco, Stefania; Francioso, Ornella; Ferrari, Erika; Cardinali, Alessandra; Nardi, Serenella; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In alpine environments, colonies of snow vole (Chionomys nivalis Martins) cause strong pedoturbation, which may affect humification process and soil organic matter (SOM) cycling, with repercussions on the hormone-like activity of organics. We investigated the effect of snow vole pedoturbation on the chemical and spectroscopic features of soil organic fractions, and the potential hormone-like activity of humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). The study site was located on the high-mountain environment of the Majella massif (central Italy). Pedoturbated and regular soils were morphologically described and characterized for pH and content of total organic carbon, total extractable carbon, HA, and FA. Both HA and FA were extracted and investigated using attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS-NMR), and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC). HA and FA were also tested for their auxin-like and gibberellin-like activities. Results provide evidences that bioturbated and regular soils contain a poorly decomposed SOM, but HA and FA with a well-defined molecular structure. The HA and FA from both bioturbated and regular soils show a hormone-like activity with a different allocation along the soil profile. In the regular soil, the highest auxin-like activity was shown by HA and FA from Oe1 horizon, while gibberellin-like activity was expressed by FA from Oe2 horizon. Burrowing activity determines a redistribution of organics throughout the profile with a relatively high auxin-like activity in the FA from straw tunnel wall (STW) and gibberellin-like activity in the HA from vole feces (VF). The relative high presence of carboxylic acids, amides, proteins, and amino acids in the FA from STW and the aromatic moieties in the HA from VF put evidences for their different behavior. The fact that snow vole activity has modified the chemical and biological properties of

  5. Extracellular enzyme activities in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador affected by low soil P status and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Ute, Hamer

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the enzymatic response of microorganisms in soils having a low P status and being subjected to global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change. Along a land-use sequence (natural forest - young pasture - old pasture - abandoned pasture - shrubland) in the Andes of southern Ecuador mineral topsoils of Cambisols / Umbrisols were investigated. We tested whether the activities of the six hydrolytic enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, α-glucosidase, xylanase, acid phosphomonoesterase) were affected by nutrient status and land-use induced alterations in soil pH (pHH2O from 3.7 to 5.2), resource quantity and quality (e.g. a SOC:N:P ratio from 182:13:1 to 1050:38:1) and microbial community structure (as monitored by phospholipid fatty acids). Microbial production of acid phosphatase responded to the low P status of the sites by a higher investment in the acquisition of P compared to C. We determined three major drivers of enzyme activities: 1.) Microbial demand for P regulated the production of acid phosphatase, provided that N and C were available. At the natural forest site the two-fold higher specific activity of acid phosphatase pointed to a high microbial P-demand, whereas the production of acid phosphatase was constrained by the availability of N and DOC after pasture abandonment. 2.) Microbial biomass that was controlled by pH and resource availability (total soil N (organic and inorganic N), organic P (Bray-fraction)) was the main driver for cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. 3.) Substrate induction due to increased litter inputs of herbaceous plant species seemed to regulate α-glucosidase and xylanase activities during secondary succession. In contrast, alterations in the abundance of microbial groups affected the variation in extracellular enzyme activities only marginally. At the level of broadly defined microbial groups (PLFA), our results

  6. Factors affecting the myocardial activity acquired during exercise SPECT with a high-sensitivity cardiac CZT camera as compared with conventional Anger camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injected doses are difficult to optimize for exercise SPECT since they depend on the myocardial fraction of injected activity (MFI) that is detected by the camera. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors affecting MFI determined using a cardiac CZT camera as compared with those determined using conventional Anger cameras. Factors affecting MFI were determined and compared in patients who had consecutive exercise SPECT acquisitions with 201Tl (84 patients) or 99mTc-sestamibi (87 patients) with an Anger or a CZT camera. A predictive model was validated in a group of patients routinely referred for 201Tl (78 patients) or 99mTc-sestamibi (80 patients) exercise CZT SPECT. The predictive model involved: (1) camera type, adjusted mean MFI being ninefold higher for CZT than for Anger SPECT, (2) tracer type, adjusted mean MFI being twofold higher for 201Tl than for 99mTc-sestamibi, and (3) logarithm of body weight. The CZT SPECT model led to a +1 ± 26 % error in the prediction of the actual MFI from the validation group. The mean MFI values estimated for CZT SPECT were more than twofold higher in patients with a body weight of 60 kg than in patients with a body weight of 120 kg (15.9 and 6.8 ppm for 99mTc-sestamibi and 30.5 and 13.1ppm for 201Tl, respectively), and for a 14-min acquisition of up to one million myocardial counts, the corresponding injected activities were only 80 and 186 MBq for 99mTc-sestamibi and 39 and 91 MBq for 201Tl, respectively. Myocardial activities acquired during exercise CZT SPECT are strongly influenced by body weight and tracer type, and are dramatically higher than those obtained using an Anger camera, allowing very low-dose protocols to be planned, especially for 99mTc-sestamibi and in non-obese subjects. (orig.)

  7. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Soledad Rizzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu or ornithine (Orn by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH, P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH, and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild type (Col-0 and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro.

  8. Ginkgo biloba extract and its flavonol and terpenelactone fractions do not affect beta-secretase mRNA and enzyme activity levels in cultured neurons and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Sabine; Huebbe, Patricia; Matzner, Nicole; Augustin, Kay; Schliebs, Reinhard; Cermak, Rainer; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in the prevention and therapy of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although neuroprotective properties of EGb761 have been consistently reported, the molecular mechanisms of EGb761 and the specific role of its major constituents, the flavonols and terpenlactones, are largely unknown. One major hallmark of AD is the deposition of amyloid-beta (A beta) as amyloid plaques in the brain. A beta is a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Certain proteases, called beta-secretases (BACE), are crucial in the formation of A beta. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction to modulate BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. Neither EGb761 nor its fractions affected BACE-1 activity in vitro. Furthermore, also in Neuro-2a cells and wild-type as well as transgenic (Tg2576) laboratory mice, no significant effect of EGb761 on BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels were observed. Current findings suggest that BACE-1 may not be a major molecular target of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction. PMID:18186016

  9. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit. PMID:27080884

  10. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation. PMID:25837301

  11. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  12. The Size of Activating and Inhibitory Killer Ig-like Receptor Nanoclusters Is Controlled by the Transmembrane Sequence and Affects Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oszmiana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy has revealed that immune cell receptors are organized in nanoscale clusters at cell surfaces and immune synapses. However, mechanisms and functions for this nanoscale organization remain unclear. Here, we used super-resolution microscopy to compare the surface organization of paired killer Ig-like receptors (KIR, KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1, on human primary natural killer cells and cell lines. Activating KIR2DS1 assembled in clusters two-fold larger than its inhibitory counterpart KIR2DL1. Site-directed mutagenesis established that the size of nanoclusters is controlled by transmembrane amino acid 233, a lysine in KIR2DS1. Super-resolution microscopy also revealed two ways in which the nanoscale clustering of KIR affects signaling. First, KIR2DS1 and DAP12 nanoclusters are juxtaposed in the resting cell state but coalesce upon receptor ligation. Second, quantitative super-resolution microscopy revealed that phosphorylation of the kinase ZAP-70 or phosphatase SHP-1 is favored in larger KIR nanoclusters. Thus, the size of KIR nanoclusters depends on the transmembrane sequence and affects downstream signaling.

  13. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  14. How does the addition of steric hindrance to a typical N-heterocyclic carbene ligand affect catalytic activity in olefin metathesis?

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes affect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between both ligands in different olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by bulking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by the overabundance of the filamentous bacteria (Thiothrix-021N). This technique was used to establish the chlorine dosage according to the observed damages on cellular membranes of both, floc-forming bacteria as well as filamentous bacteria. To identify the filamentous bacteria responsible for the macro-structural alteration of the flocs, several criteria were, met, including morphologic characteristics as well as conventional microbiological stains: Gram, Neisser and polyhydroxy alkanoates. FISH was used to confirm the obtained results, providing a definitive identification of the filamentous bacteria responsible for the alteration. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Is growing tourist activity affecting the distribution or number of breeding pairs in a small colony of the Eleonora’s Falcon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abrain, A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbance is a common threat for species of conservation concern such as the Eleonora’s Falcon. This paper shows that the rise in tourist presence from 1992 to 2000 has not affected the overall number of breeding pairs or their productivity in a small archipelago of the western Mediterranean (Columbretes Islands. However, the increasing tourist activity has coincided with a shift in the degree of occupancy on two islands within the archipelago, favouring that with a lower human presence close to colonies. Several conservation actions are reported and suggested, aimed at both testing and preventing the role of human presence as a factor influencing long-term colony persistence and growth.

  17. Inhibition of COX-2 does not affect therapeutical result of photodynamic therapy with hypericin despite of its increased activity and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a very promising, flexible and multifarious therapeutical approach for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant disorders. It is beholden on a nature of a photosensitive compound, its concentration and an incubation time, on a wavelength of light radiation, a fluence rate and a light dose as well as on a histological origin of the tissue and an oxygen pressure in it. Although PDT is of use in clinical practice, new promising photosensitive compounds with advantageous attributes are discovered continuously. PDT with hypericin, one of promising photosensitizers, activates p38 MAPK signalling pathway which induces expression of COX-2 and thereby increases concentration of its main product PGE2. Elevated activity of COX-2 as such is considered as contradictory to photo-cytotoxic effect of PDT with hypericin which should negatively influence an efficacy of PDT. In our experiment, effect of rofecoxib, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, as a post-treatment after PDT with hypericin in HeLa and HT29 cells have been evaluated. 24 as well as 48 hour treatment with 1 μM rofecoxib applied immediately after PDT did not induce significant decrease in cell proliferation, surprisingly. Purpose of failure to increase efficacy of PDT might be an activation of anti-apoptotic signalling pathways. Levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, especially Mcl-1 (HT29 and HeLa) and Bcl-2 (not expressed in HT29) have been evaluated. Considering our results, we can predict, that activity of COX-2 and its inhibition does not play crucial task in PDT experiments in vitro however its importance manifests in vivo as it affects angiogenesis of tumor. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS in Italian patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease activity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Conti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant capability of the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS according to disease activity, in a cohort of Italian patients affected by systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE. METHODS: Consecutive SLE patients were enrolled. At each visit, the patients underwent a complete physical examination and the clinical/laboratory data were collected in a standardized, computerized, and electronically-filled form. The evaluation of serum complement C3 and C4 levels and determination of autoantibodies was obtained. Disease activity was assessed with the SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, while chronic damage was measured with the SLICC. Finally, PASS was assessed in all patients by asking to answer yes or no to a single question. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five patients were enrolled (M/F 12/153; mean age 40.4±11.8 years, mean disease duration 109.1±96.2 months. No patients refused to answer, suggesting the acceptability of PASS. A total of 80% of patients rated their state as acceptable. The patients with an acceptable status had significantly lower mean SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM scores than the others [1.8±2.7 versus 3.4±2.3(P=0.004; 0.7±0.9 versus 1.4±1.1(P=0.0027]. No significant differences were observed when considering chronic damage, evaluated with SLICC. CONCLUSIONS: In the clinical practice, SLE patients assessment performed by using complex disease activity indices such as SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, could be time consuming. In our study, for the first time, we used PASS, a quick and easily comprehensible tool, to evaluate the patients' status, this single question seems to be able to discriminate patients with different disease activity, especially when this is determined by musculoskeletal involvement.

  19. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  20. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  1. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS. PMID:22734927

  2. Factors affecting the myocardial activity acquired during exercise SPECT with a high-sensitivity cardiac CZT camera as compared with conventional Anger camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Yagdigul, Yalcine; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep experimental imaging platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U1116 and Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Allee du Morvan, Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de Brabois, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2014-03-15

    Injected doses are difficult to optimize for exercise SPECT since they depend on the myocardial fraction of injected activity (MFI) that is detected by the camera. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors affecting MFI determined using a cardiac CZT camera as compared with those determined using conventional Anger cameras. Factors affecting MFI were determined and compared in patients who had consecutive exercise SPECT acquisitions with {sup 201}Tl (84 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (87 patients) with an Anger or a CZT camera. A predictive model was validated in a group of patients routinely referred for {sup 201}Tl (78 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (80 patients) exercise CZT SPECT. The predictive model involved: (1) camera type, adjusted mean MFI being ninefold higher for CZT than for Anger SPECT, (2) tracer type, adjusted mean MFI being twofold higher for {sup 201}Tl than for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, and (3) logarithm of body weight. The CZT SPECT model led to a +1 ± 26 % error in the prediction of the actual MFI from the validation group. The mean MFI values estimated for CZT SPECT were more than twofold higher in patients with a body weight of 60 kg than in patients with a body weight of 120 kg (15.9 and 6.8 ppm for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and 30.5 and 13.1ppm for {sup 201}Tl, respectively), and for a 14-min acquisition of up to one million myocardial counts, the corresponding injected activities were only 80 and 186 MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and 39 and 91 MBq for {sup 201}Tl, respectively. Myocardial activities acquired during exercise CZT SPECT are strongly influenced by body weight and tracer type, and are dramatically higher than those obtained using an Anger camera, allowing very low-dose protocols to be planned, especially for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and in non-obese subjects. (orig.)

  3. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  4. Effectiveness of a mining simulation cooperative learning activity on the cognitive and affective achievement of students in a lower division physical geology course: A confluent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Jeffrey Wayne

    Most students enrolled in lower division physical geology courses are non-majors and tend to finish the course with little appreciation of what it is geologists really do. They may also be expected to analyze, synthesize, and apply knowledge from previous laboratory experiences with little or no instruction and/or practice in utilizing the critical thinking skills necessary to do so. This study sought to answer two research questions: (1) do physical geology students enrolled in a course designed around a mining simulation activity perform better cognitively than students who are taught the same curriculum in the traditional fashion; and (2) do students enrolled in the course gain a greater appreciation of physical geology and the work that geologists do. Eighty students enrolled in the course at Columbia College, Sonora, California over a two year period. During the first year, thirty-one students were taught the traditional physical geology curriculum. During the second year, forty-nine students were taught the traditional curriculum up until week nine, then they were taught a cooperative learning mining simulation activity for three weeks. A static group, split plot, repeated measures design was used. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both the control and treatment groups. The cognitive assessment instrument was validated by content area experts in the University of South Carolina Geological Sciences Department. Students were given raw lithologic, gravimetric, topographic, and environmental data with which to construct maps and perform an overlay analysis. They were tested on the cognitive reasoning and spatial analysis they used to make decisions about where to test drill for valuable metallic ores. The affective instrument used a six point Likert scale to assess students' perceived enjoyment, interest, and importance of the material. Gains scores analysis of cognitive achievement data showed a mean of 2.43 for the control group and 4.47 for

  5. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  6. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  7. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  8. Exogenous Thyropin from p41 Invariant Chain Diminishes Cysteine Protease Activity and Affects IL-12 Secretion during Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zavašnik-Bergant

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role as antigen presenting cells (APC and their maturation is crucial for effectively eliciting an antigen-specific immune response. The p41 splice variant of MHC class II-associated chaperone, called invariant chain p41 Ii, contains an amino acid sequence, the p41 fragment, which is a thyropin-type inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes. The effects of exogenous p41 fragment and related thyropin inhibitors acting on human immune cells have not been reported yet. In this study we demonstrate that exogenous p41 fragment can enter the endocytic pathway of targeted human immature DC. Internalized p41 fragment has contributed to the total amount of the immunogold labelled p41 Ii-specific epitope, as quantified by transmission electron microscopy, in particular in late endocytic compartments with multivesicular morphology where antigen processing and binding to MHC II take place. In cell lysates of treated immature DC, diminished enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases has been confirmed. Internalized exogenous p41 fragment did not affect the perinuclear clustering of acidic cathepsin S-positive vesicles typical of mature DC. p41 fragment is shown to interfere with the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated DC. p41 fragment is also shown to reduce the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12/p70 during the subsequent maturation of treated DC. The inhibition of proteolytic activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases in immature DC and the diminished capability of DC to produce IL-12 upon their subsequent maturation support the immunomodulatory potential of the examined thyropin from p41 Ii.

  9. Man-Made Climatic Changes: Man's activities have altered the climate of urbanized areas and may affect global climate in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, H E

    1970-12-18

    Natural climatic fluctuations, even those of recent years, cover a considerable range. They can be characterized as a "noise" spectrum which masks possible global effects of man-caused increases of atmospheric CO(2) and particulates. Local modifications, either deliberate or inadvertent, measurably affect the microclimate. Some artificial alterations of the microlimate are beneficial in agriculture. Among the unplanned effects, those produced by urbanization on local temperature and on wind field are quite pronounced. The influences on rainfall are still somewhat controversial, but effects may extend considerably beyond the confines of metropolitan areas. They are the result of water vapor released by human activity and of the influence of condensation and freezing nuclei produced in overabundance by motor vehicles and other combustion processes. Therefore it appears that on the local scale man-made influences on climate are substantial but that on the global scale natural forces still prevail. Obviously this should not lead to complacency. The potential for anthropogenic changes of climate on a larger and even a global scale is real. At this stage activation of an adequate worldwide monitoring system to permit early assessment of these changes is urgent. This statement applies particularly to the surveillance of atmospheric composition and radiation balance at sites remote from concentrations of population, which is now entirely inadequate. In my opinion, man-made aerosols, because of their optical properties and possible influences on cloud and precipitation processes, constitute a more acute problem than CO(2). Many of their effects are promptly reversible; hence, one should strive for elimination at the source. Over longer intervals, energy added to the atmosphere by heat rejection and CO(2) absorption remain matters of concern. PMID:17829423

  10. Early maternal separation affects ethanol-induced conditioning in a nor-BNI insensitive manner, but does not alter ethanol-induced locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Fabio, Ma Carolina; Spear, Norman E

    2012-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol's reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD 1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

  11. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  12. Application of Affect to CALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李露

    2006-01-01

    This essay mainly attempts to discuss some affective factors in CALL, with focus on affective influence on English (foreign language) learning and thus concludes that in the process of CALL related affect should be activated and made good use of to better foreign language teaching and learning.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Taeho; Jang, Minho; Park, Mingu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite.

  15. Phase transformation and impact properties in the experimentally simulated weld heat-affected zone of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the phase transformation and impact properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel are investigated. The HAZs were experimentally simulated using a Gleeble simulator. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite through normalizing at 1000 °C and tempering at 750 °C, while the HAZs consisted of martensite, δ-ferrite and a small volume of autotempered martensite. The impact properties using a Charpy V-notch impact test revealed that the HAZs showed poor impact properties due to the formation of martensite and δ-ferrite as compared with the base steel. In addition, the impact properties of the HAZs further deteriorated with an increase in the δ-ferrite fraction caused by increasing the peak temperature. The impact properties of the HAZs could be improved through the formation of tempered martensite after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), but they remained lower than that of the base steel because the δ-ferrite remained in the tempered HAZs

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Glucomoringin Bioactivated with Myrosinase against Two Important Pathogens Affecting the Health of Long-Term Patients in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Galuppo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates (GLs are natural compounds present in species of the order Brassicales and precursors of bioactive isothiocyanates (ITCs. In the recent years, they have been studied mainly for their chemopreventive as well as novel chemotherapeutics properties. Among them 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG, purified from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., a plant belonging to the Moringaceae family, represents an uncommon member of the GL family with peculiar characteristics. This short communication reports new evidences about the properties of GMG and presents a new innovative utilization of the molecule. The bioactivation of GMG by myrosinase enzyme just before treatment, permits to maximize the power of the final product of the reaction, which is the 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC. We tested the antibiotic activity of this latter compound on two strains of pathogens affecting the health of patients in hospital, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and on the yeast Candida albicans. Results show that the sensibility of S. aureus BAA-977 strain and E. casseliflavus to GMG-ITC treatment reveals an important possible application of this molecule in the clinical care of patients, more and more often resistant to traditional therapies.

  17. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children....... Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7...... y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 ± 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 ± 6 g/d higher (P = 0.012) in...

  18. How exercise affects children’s learning capability : A study over how physical activities affect children’s learning capabilities from a few teachers and pupils point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Osbäck, Annica

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to find out how the children’s exercises affect their learning capabilities. With exercise, I mean all kinds of movements, like physics, walks and games. The method I will use in this investigation is interviews, where I choose to interview both teachers and their pupils at a school which uses an exercise-program called röris. Röris is an exercise program which involves moving to music. I also choose to look at Bunkefloprojektet, were scientists has invest...

  19. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  20. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for assessing adrenocortical activity and evaluation of factors that affect levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Heymann, Eckhard W; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive methods to assess stress hormone output via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs) have become a powerful tool in behavioral studies and conservation biology because they allow exploring the link between behavior, an animal's socio-ecological environment and its adrenocortical activity. However, FGCM levels are influenced by numerous other factors which often confound their interpretation. Thus, before applying these methods, knowledge on the impact of these factors is important. In this study we investigated the effect of (1) time of day, (2) age, (3) sex and (4) female reproductive state on FGCM levels in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Initially, we validated a 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay for monitoring the physiological stress response via fecal analysis in both species. We determined FGCM levels in fecal samples collected from two and six groups of wild spider monkeys (n=461 samples) and howler monkeys (n=166 samples), respectively. Our analyses revealed a strong effect of time of day on FGCM levels in spider monkeys, but no effect in howler monkeys. Adults of both species had significantly higher FGCM levels than subadults. In neither of the two species we found a sex-effect on FGCM output. Reproductive condition strongly affected FGCM levels in female spider monkeys which showed increasing concentrations with progressing gestation. This was not investigated in female howler monkeys due to an insufficient sample size. Our data indicate that the influence of the tested factors on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite output is species-specific, and that these variables need to be considered when interpreting FGCM levels in the species. PMID:23707497

  1. Non-enzymatic modifications of prostaglandin H synthase 1 affect bifunctional enzyme activity - Implications for the sensitivity of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Stec-Martyna, Emilia; Pawlowska, Zofia; Watala, Cezary

    2016-06-25

    Due to its ability to inhibit the blood platelet PGHS-1, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin(®)) is widely used as a preventive agent in atherothrombotic diseases. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair effective ASA-mediated acetylation process. On the other hand, it is proposed that ASA can prevent some of the late complications of diabetes by lowering the extent of glycation at protein free amino groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extents of non-enzymatic N-glycosylation (glycation) and acetylation of blood platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) and the competition between glycation and acetylation was investigated in order to demonstrate how these two reactions may compete against platelet PGHS-1. When PGHS-1 was incubated with glycating/acetylating agents (glucose, Glu; 1,6-bisphosphofructose, 1,6-BPF; methylglyoxal, MGO, acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), the enzyme was modified in 13.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 1.2 and 6.4 ± 1.1 mol/mol protein, respectively, and its activity was significantly reduced. The prior glycation/carbonylation of PGHS-1 with Glu, 1,6-BPF or MGO decreased the extent of acetylation from 6.4 ± 1.1 down to 2.5 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2 mol/mol protein, respectively, but the enzyme still remained susceptible to the subsequent inhibition of its activity with ASA. When PGHS-1 was first acetylated with ASA and then incubated with glycating/carbonylating agents, we observed the following reductions in the enzyme modifications: from 13.4 ± 1.6 to 8.7 ± 0.6 mol/mol protein for Glu, from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for 1,6-BPF and from 10.7 ± 1.2 to 7.5 ± 0.5 mol/mol protein for MGO, however subsequent glycation/carbonylation did not significantly affect PGHS-1 function. Overall, our outcomes allow to better understand the structural aspects of the chemical competition between glycation and acetylation of PGHS-1

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  3. Sympathetic Activation Does Not Affect the Cardiac and Respiratory Contribution to the Relationship between Blood Pressure and Pial Artery Pulsation Oscillations in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available Using a novel method called near-infrared transillumination backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS that allows for the non-invasive measurement of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ in humans, we assessed the influence of sympathetic activation on the cardiac and respiratory contribution to blood pressure (BP cc-TQ oscillations in healthy subjects.The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to handgrip (HGT and cold test (CT were studied in 20 healthy subjects. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR and beat-to-beat mean BP were recorded using a continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (MV, end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 and end-tidal O2 (EtO2 were measured using a metabolic and spirometry module of the medical monitoring system. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and cc-TQ oscillations.HGT evoked an increase in BP (+15.9%; P<0.001, HR (14.7; P<0.001, SaO2 (+0.5; P<0.001 EtO2 (+2.1; P<0.05 RR (+9.2%; P = 0.05 and MV (+15.5%; P<0.001, while sas-TQ was diminished (-8.12%; P<0.001, and a clear trend toward cc-TQ decline was observed (-11.0%; NS. CBFV (+2.9%; NS and EtCO2 (-0.7; NS did not change during HGT. CT evoked an increase in BP (+7.4%; P<0.001, sas-TQ (+3.5%; P<0.05 and SaO2(+0.3%; P<0.05. HR (+2.3%; NS, CBFV (+2.0%; NS, EtO2 (-0.7%; NS and EtCO2 (+0.9%; NS remained unchanged. A trend toward decreased cc-TQ was observed (-5.1%; NS. The sas-TQ response was biphasic with elevation during the first 40 seconds (+8.8% vs. baseline; P<0.001 and subsequent decline (+4.1% vs. baseline; P<0.05. No change with respect to wavelet coherence and wavelet phase coherence was found between the BP and cc-TQ oscillations.Short sympathetic activation does not affect the cardiac and respiratory contribution to the relationship

  4. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  5. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  6. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  7. Autophosphorylation of serine 608 in the p85 regulatory subunit of wild type or cancer-associated mutants of phosphoinositide 3-kinase does not affect its lipid kinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layton Meredith J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α-isoform of the Type 1A Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Kα has protein kinase activity as well as phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity. The best described substrate for its protein kinase activity is its regulatory subunit, p85α, which becomes phosphorylated on Serine 608. Phosphorylation of Serine 608 has been reported to down-regulate its lipid kinase activity. Results We have assessed whether oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα, which have up-regulated lipid kinase activity, have altered levels of Serine 608 phosphorylation compared to wild type PI3Kα, and whether differential phosphorylation of Serine 608 contributes to increased activity of oncogenic forms of PI3Kα with point mutations in the helical or the kinase domains. Despite markedly increased lipid kinase activity, protein kinase activity was not altered in oncogenic compared to wild type forms of PI3Kα. By manipulating levels of phosphorylation of Serine 608 in vitro, we found no evidence that the protein kinase activity of PI3Kα affects its phosphoinositide lipid kinase activity in either wild-type or oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα. Conclusions Phosphorylation of p85α S608 is not a significant regulator of wild-type or oncogenic PI3Kα lipid kinase activity.

  8. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Red and Yellow Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds as Affected by Baking and Cooking Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Brend; Liel Galili; Hana Badani; Ran Hovav; Shmuel Galili

    2012-01-01

    Seeds with colored testa (seed coat) contain high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. Common processing procedures, such as cooking and baking, decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and consequently, overall antioxidant activity. Here, the effects of baking and cooking processes were examined on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric-reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of re...

  9. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO. PMID:26608644

  10. EARLY MATERNAL SEPARATION AFFECTS ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONING IN A nor-BNI INSENSITIVE MANNER, BUT DOES NOT ALTER ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Fabio, Ma. Carolina; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol’s reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol’s appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed...

  11. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/41n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vaquer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology

  12. Enzyme Activity in Water-Stable Soil Aggregates as Affected by Long-Term Application of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertiliser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-Ren; LI Xiang; SHEN Qi-Rong; XU Yang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The activities of invertase,protease,urease,acid phosphomonoesterase,dehydrogenase,and catalase in different fractions of waterstable aggregates (WSA) were examined in long-term (26 years) fertilised soils.The long-term application of organic manure (OM) with chemical fertiliser (CF) significantly increased macroaggregate and decreased microaggregate percentages,enhanced the mean weight diameter,and significantly increased soil total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents of WSA in different size fractions.Combined fertilisation with OM and CF also increased invertase,protease,urease,acid phosphomonoesterase,dehydrogenase,and catalase activities of WSA in different size fractions.Enzyme activities were higher in macroaggregates than in microaggregates.The distribution of enzyme activities generally followed the distribution of TC and TN in WSA.The geometric mean of the enzyme activities in different WSA of OM-treated soils was significantly higher than that in soils treated with 100% CF or no fertiliser.The results indicated that the long-term combined application of OM with CF increased the aggregate stability and enzyme activity of different WSA sizes,and consequently,improved soil physical structure and increased soil microbial activity.

  13. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; George, Susan R; Cheng, Regina; O'Dowd, Brian F

    2005-10-01

    Co-localization of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in striatal neurons suggests that these two receptors interact at a cellular level in mediating dopaminergic function including psychostimulant-induced behaviour. To study D1 and D3 receptor interactions in cocaine-mediated effects, cocaine-induced locomotion and reward in mice lacking either D1, D3 or both receptors were analysed. Spontaneous locomotor activity was increased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice and D1-/-D3-/- mice did not exhibit habituation of spontaneous rearing activity. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity in wild-type and D3-/- mice, failed to stimulate activity in D1-/- mice and reduced activity in D1-/-D3-/- mice. In the conditioned place preference, all groups exhibited reward at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of cocaine. D1-/-D3-/- mice did not demonstrate preference at 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine although preference was observed in wild-type, D1-/- and D3-/- mice. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is activated by phosphorylation in striatal regions following dopamine receptor activation. Striatal pCREB levels following acute cocaine were increased in wild-type and D3-/- mice and decreased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice. After repeated administration of 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine, D1-/- mice had lower pCREB levels in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that, although spontaneous and cocaine-induced horizontal activity depended mainly on the presence of the D1 receptor, there may be crosstalk between D1 and D3 receptors in rearing habituation and the perception of cocaine reward at low doses of the drug. Furthermore, alterations in pCREB levels were associated with changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity but not reward. PMID:16197514

  14. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P;

    2003-01-01

    , which induced hBMS cell proliferation by 3-fold. This effect was abolished by IGF-I. PC3 CM and galectin-1 in concentrations of 10 and 1000 ng/ml increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hBMS cells up to 175 +/- 27%, 137 +/- 8%, and 131 +/- 11%, respectively, compared with ALP activity of......Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has been shown that cells from the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 secrete factors that influence the behavior of osteoblast-like cells. Some of these factors with mitogenic activity have been found to...

  15. Plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus correlates positively with HbAlc levels, but is not acutely affected by food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryskjaer, Jakob; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Carr, Richard D;

    2006-01-01

    hormones are metabolized quickly by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). It is well known that type-2 diabetic patients have an impaired incretin effect. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma DPP-IV activity in the fasting and the postprandial state in type-2 diabetic...... patients, DPP-IV activity was positively correlated to FPG and HbAlc and negatively to the duration of diabetes and age of the patients. No postprandial changes were seen in plasma DPP-IV activity in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma DPP-IVactivity increases in the fasting state and is positively...

  16. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance of...... activation tagging for functional analysis of novel genes involved in plant development....

  17. Potential Activity of Basil Plants as a Source of Antioxidants and Anticancer Agents as Affected by Organic and Bio-organic Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan Anwar Aly TAIE; Zeinab Abd-EL Rahman SALAMA; Radwan, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among species and herbal crops for phenolic compounds, essential oils which are associated with decreasing risks of cancer and aging diseases. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential activity of phenolic, flavonoids and essential oil of basil as antioxidant and anticancer activities by application organic and bio-orga...

  18. SKLB-163, a new benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative, exhibits potent anticancer activity by affecting RhoGDI/JNK-1 signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, X; Xie, G; Z. Wang; H. Lin; Zhou, T.; Xiang, P.; Jiang, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Yang, S.; Wei, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors are an attractive therapeutic approach for most types of human cancers. SKLB-163, a novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative, was developed via computer-aided drug design and de novo synthesis. MTT assay showed it had potent anti-proliferative activity on various human cancer cells. Treatment of cancer cells with SKLB-163 induced obvious apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in vitro. SKLB-163 administered p.o. showed a marked antitumor activity in vivo. Proteomic tech...

  19. A mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. Multiple oxygen-responsive steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway affect Hap1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Thomas; Dodd, Athena; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Gorman, Nadia; Sinclair, Peter R; Zhang, Li; Poyton, Robert O

    2003-12-12

    Heme plays central roles in oxygen sensing and utilization in many living organisms. In yeast, heme mediates the effect of oxygen on the expression of many genes involved in using or detoxifying oxygen. However, a direct link between intracellular heme level and oxygen concentration has not been vigorously established. In this report, we have examined the relationships among oxygen levels, heme levels, Hap1 activity, and HAP1 expression. We found that Hap1 activity is controlled in vivo by heme and not by its precursors and that heme activates Hap1 even in anoxic cells. We also found that Hap1 activity exhibits the same oxygen dose-response curves as Hap1-dependent aerobic genes and that these dose-response curves have a sharp break at approximately 1 microM O2. The results show that the intracellular signaling heme level, reflected as Hap1 activity, is closely correlated with oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we found that bypass of all heme synthetic steps but ferrochelatase by deuteroporphyrin IX does not circumvent the need for oxygen in Hap1 full activation by heme, suggesting that the last step of heme synthesis, catalyzed by ferrochelatase, is also subjected to oxygen control. Our results show that multiple heme synthetic steps can sense oxygen concentration and provide significant insights into the mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. PMID:14512429

  20. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    OpenAIRE

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods. Microfina...