WorldWideScience

Sample records for affective word representations

  1. Word Representations via Gaussian Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Vilnis, Luke; McCallum, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current work in lexical distributed representations maps each word to a point vector in low-dimensional space. Mapping instead to a density provides many interesting advantages, including better capturing uncertainty about a representation and its relationships, expressing asymmetries more naturally than dot product or cosine similarity, and enabling more expressive parameterization of decision boundaries. This paper advocates for density-based distributed embeddings and presents a method for...

  2. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KatharineGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  3. Learning Word Representations with Hierarchical Sparse Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Yogatama, Dani; Faruqui, Manaal; Dyer, Chris; Smith, Noah A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for learning word representations using hierarchical regularization in sparse coding inspired by the linguistic study of word meanings. We show an efficient learning algorithm based on stochastic proximal methods that is significantly faster than previous approaches, making it possible to perform hierarchical sparse coding on a corpus of billions of word tokens. Experiments on various benchmark tasks---word similarity ranking, analogies, sentence completion, and sentim...

  4. Word's vector representations meet machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Garcia, Eva; España Bonet, Cristina; Tiedemann, Jörg; Márquez Villodre, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Distributed vector representations of words are useful in various NLP tasks. We briefly review the CBOW approach and propose a bilingual application of this architecture with the aim to improve consistency and coherence of Machine Translation. The primary goal of the bilingual extension is to handle ambiguous words for which the different senses are conflated in the monolingual setup.

  5. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  6. A Simple and Efficient Method To Generate Word Sense Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Piña, Luis Nieto; Johansson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Distributed representations of words have boosted the performance of many Natural Language Processing tasks. However, usually only one representation per word is obtained, not acknowledging the fact that some words have multiple meanings. This has a negative effect on the individual word representations and the language model as a whole. In this paper we present a simple model that enables recent techniques for building word vectors to represent distinct senses of polysemic words. In our asse...

  7. Learning Multilingual Word Representations using a Bag-of-Words Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Lauly, Stanislas; Boulanger, Alex; Larochelle, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given sentence from an enc...

  8. Text comparison using word vector representations and dimensionality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to compare large text sources using word vector representations (word2vec) and dimensionality reduction (t-SNE) and how it can be implemented using Python. The technique provides a bird's-eye view of text sources, e.g. text summaries and their source material, and enables users to explore text sources like a geographical map. Word vector representations capture many linguistic properties such as gender, tense, plurality and even semantic concepts like "capital...

  9. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  10. Learning Representations of Affect from Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sayan; Laksana, Eugene; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Scherer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    There has been a lot of prior work on representation learning for speech recognition applications, but not much emphasis has been given to an investigation of effective representations of affect from speech, where the paralinguistic elements of speech are separated out from the verbal content. In this paper, we explore denoising autoencoders for learning paralinguistic attributes i.e. categorical and dimensional affective traits from speech. We show that the representations learnt by the bott...

  11. WordRep: A Benchmark for Research on Learning Word Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2014-01-01

    WordRep is a benchmark collection for the research on learning distributed word representations (or word embeddings), released by Microsoft Research. In this paper, we describe the details of the WordRep collection and show how to use it in different types of machine learning research related to word embedding. Specifically, we describe how the evaluation tasks in WordRep are selected, how the data are sampled, and how the evaluation tool is built. We then compare several state-of-the-art wor...

  12. Knowledge Representation and WordNets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gabriela Tudorache

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge itself is a representation of “real facts”. Knowledge is a logical model that presents facts from “the real world” witch can be expressed in a formal language. Representation means the construction of a model of some part of reality. Knowledge representation is contingent to both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In cognitive science it expresses the way people store and process the information. In the AI field the goal is to store knowledge in such way that permits int...

  13. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonidandel Scott; Bye-Nagel Kyri; Snell Sam; Pearson Brianna; Heyer Laurie J; Campbell A Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (...

  14. An Inefficient Representation of the Empty Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Tromp, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show that Post's system of tag with alphabet $\\{0,1\\}$, deletion number 3, productions $0\\rightarrow 00$ and $1\\rightarrow 1101$, and initial string $111\\cdots 1$ (330 times) converges to the empty word after a very large number of rewriting steps.

  15. An Autoencoder Approach to Learning Bilingual Word Representations

    OpenAIRE

    P, Sarath Chandar A; Lauly, Stanislas; Larochelle, Hugo; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Ravindran, Balaraman; Raykar, Vikas; Saha, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to reconstruct the bag-of-w...

  16. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carline eBernard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’, whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome. Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words. In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent

  17. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  18. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment. PMID:27445918

  19. Big Data Small Data, In Domain Out-of Domain, Known Word Unknown Word: The Impact of Word Representation on Sequence Labelling Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Lizhen; Ferraro, Gabriela; Zhou, Liyuan; Hou, Weiwei; Schneider, Nathan; Baldwin, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Word embeddings -- distributed word representations that can be learned from unlabelled data -- have been shown to have high utility in many natural language processing applications. In this paper, we perform an extrinsic evaluation of five popular word embedding methods in the context of four sequence labelling tasks: POS-tagging, syntactic chunking, NER and MWE identification. A particular focus of the paper is analysing the effects of task-based updating of word representations. We show th...

  20. Audio Word2Vec: Unsupervised Learning of Audio Segment Representations using Sequence-to-sequence Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yu-An; Wu, Chao-Chung; Shen, Chia-Hao; Lee, Hung-Yi; Lee, Lin-shan

    2016-01-01

    The vector representations of fixed dimensionality for words (in text) offered by Word2Vec have been shown to be very useful in many application scenarios, in particular due to the semantic information they carry. This paper proposes a parallel version, the Audio Word2Vec. It offers the vector representations of fixed dimensionality for variable-length audio segments. These vector representations are shown to describe the sequential phonetic structures of the audio segments to a good degree, ...

  1. Effect of Representational Distance between Meanings on Recognition of Ambiguous Spoken Words

    OpenAIRE

    Mirman, Daniel; Strauss, Ted J.; Dixon, James A.; Magnuson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that mental representations of word meanings are distributed along both semantic and syntactic dimensions such that nouns and verbs are relatively distinct from one another. Two experiments examined the effect of representational distance between meanings on recognition of ambiguous spoken words by comparing recognition of unambiguous words, noun-verb homonyms, and noun-noun homonyms. In Experiment 1, auditory lexical decision was fastest for unambiguous words, slo...

  2. A Gloss Composition and Context Clustering Based Distributed Word Sense Representation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in learning a distributed representation of word sense. Traditional context clustering based models usually require careful tuning of model parameters, and typically perform worse on infrequent word senses. This paper presents a novel approach which addresses these limitations by first initializing the word sense embeddings through learning sentence-level embeddings from WordNet glosses using a convolutional neural networks. The initialized word sense embeddings are used by a context clustering based model to generate the distributed representations of word senses. Our learned representations outperform the publicly available embeddings on half of the metrics in the word similarity task, 6 out of 13 sub tasks in the analogical reasoning task, and gives the best overall accuracy in the word sense effect classification task, which shows the effectiveness of our proposed distributed distribution learning model.

  3. Word knowledge and word usage - Representations and processes in the mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The final NetWordS Conference, held on the 30th and 31st of March, and 1st of April 2015 in Pisa, was convened by Prof. Pier Marco Bertinetto, Dr. Vito Pirrelli and Dr. Claudia Marzi, and brought together 91 participants (scholars, Post-Docs, PhD students) from numerous European, and some non-European, countries. A 3-day schedule involved all participants in a focused, cross-disciplinary discussion on representations and processes in the mental lexicon. People are known to understand, memoris...

  4. Proceedings of the NetWordS Final Conference on Word Knowledge and Word Usage: Representations and Processes in the Mental Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrelli, Vito; Marzi, Claudia; Ferro, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The international conference "Word Knowledge and Word Usage: Representations and processes in the mental lexicon" is the final outcome of 4 years of intense multi-disciplinary research networking and cooperation funded by the European Science Foundation within the framework of the NetWordS programme (May 2011 - April 2015). NetWordS' mission was to bring together experts of various research fields (from brain sciences and computing to cognition and linguistics) and of different theoretical in...

  5. Big Data Small Data, In Domain Out-of Domain, Known Word Unknown Word: The Impact of Word Representations on Sequence Labelling Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Lizhen; Ferraro, Gabriela; Zhou, Liyuan; Hou, Weiwei; Schneider, Nathan; Baldwin, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Word embeddings — distributed word representations that can be learned from unlabelled data — have been shown to have high utility in many natural language processing applications. In this paper, we perform an extrinsic evaluation of four popular word embedding methods in the context of four sequence labelling tasks:part-of-speech tagging, syntactic chunking,named entity recognition, and multi word expression identification. A particular focus of the paper is analysing the effects of task-bas...

  6. Word sense disambiguation via bipartite representation of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Jr., Edilson A.; Lopes, Alneu de Andrade; Amancio, Diego R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, concepts and methods of complex networks have been employed to tackle the word sense disambiguation (WSD) task by representing words as nodes, which are connected if they are semantically similar. Despite the increasingly number of studies carried out with such models, most of them use networks just to represent the data, while the pattern recognition performed on the attribute space is performed using traditional learning techniques. In other words, the structural relationsh...

  7. A Walk-based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Hovy, Dirk

    We propose a walk-based graph kernel that generalizes the notion of tree-kernels to continuous spaces. Our proposed approach subsumes a general framework for word-similarity, and in particular, provides a flexible way to incorporate distributed representations. Using vector representations, such ...... diverse NLP tasks, showing state-of-the-art results....

  8. 15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielPuccini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word + Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development.

  9. Understanding affective content of music videos through learned representations

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Esra; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of the ever-growing available multimedia data, annotating multimedia content automatically with feeling(s) expected to arise in users is a challenging problem. In order to solve this problem, the emerging research field of video affective analysis aims at exploiting human emotions. In this field where no dominant feature representation has emerged yet, choosing discriminative features for the effective representation of video segments is a key issue in designing video affecti...

  10. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  11. Affect Detection from Social Contexts Using Commonsense Knowledge Representations

    OpenAIRE

    BALAHUR DOBRESCU ALEXANDRA; HERMIDA Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, an important volume of research in Natural Language Processing has concentrated on the development of automatic systems to deal with affect in text. In spite of this interest, the performance of the approaches is still very low. An explanation to this fact is that emotion is most of the times not expressed through specific words, but by evoking situations that have an affective meaning. Dealing with this phenomenon requires automatic systems to have “kn...

  12. Word Sense Disambiguation using Aggregated Similarity based on WordNet Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina ZURINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term of word sense disambiguation, WSD, is introduced in the context of text document processing. A knowledge based approach is conducted using WordNet lexical ontology, describing its structure and components used for the process of identification of context related senses of each polysemy words. The principal distance measures using the graph associated to WordNet are presented, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages. A general model for aggregation of distances and probabilities is proposed and implemented in an application in order to detect the context senses of each word. For the non-existing words from WordNet, a similarity measure is used based on probabilities of co-occurrences. The module of WSD is proposed for integration in the step of processing documents such as supervised and unsupervised classification in order to maximize the correctness of the classification. Future work is related to the implementation of different domain oriented ontologies.

  13. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  14. Decoding word and category-specific spatiotemporal representations from MEG and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexander M; Halgren, Eric; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Cash, Sydney S

    2011-02-14

    The organization and localization of lexico-semantic information in the brain has been debated for many years. Specifically, lesion and imaging studies have attempted to map the brain areas representing living versus nonliving objects, however, results remain variable. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the univariate statistical mapping analyses used to detect these brain areas are typically insensitive to subtle, but widespread, effects. Decoding techniques, on the other hand, allow for a powerful multivariate analysis of multichannel neural data. In this study, we utilize machine-learning algorithms to first demonstrate that semantic category, as well as individual words, can be decoded from EEG and MEG recordings of subjects performing a language task. Mean accuracies of 76% (chance=50%) and 83% (chance=20%) were obtained for the decoding of living vs. nonliving category or individual words respectively. Furthermore, we utilize this decoding analysis to demonstrate that the representations of words and semantic category are highly distributed both spatially and temporally. In particular, bilateral anterior temporal, bilateral inferior frontal, and left inferior temporal-occipital sensors are most important for discrimination. Successful intersubject and intermodality decoding shows that semantic representations between stimulus modalities and individuals are reasonably consistent. These results suggest that both word and category-specific information are present in extracranially recorded neural activity and that these representations may be more distributed, both spatially and temporally, than previous studies suggest. PMID:21040796

  15. An alternative text representation to TF-IDF and Bag-of-Words

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang; Xu, De; Chen, Minmin; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Sha, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In text mining, information retrieval, and machine learning, text documents are commonly represented through variants of sparse Bag of Words (sBoW) vectors (e.g. TF-IDF). Although simple and intuitive, sBoW style representations suffer from their inherent over-sparsity and fail to capture word-level synonymy and polysemy. Especially when labeled data is limited (e.g. in document classification), or the text documents are short (e.g. emails or abstracts), many features are rarely observed with...

  16. Similarities Between Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students' Awareness of Affective Words' Valence in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Degao; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    An affective priming task was used with two cohorts of college students, one deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the other hearing, in two experiments. The same set of affective-word targets, preceded by "※※" in Experiment 1 but by affective-word primes of the same valence as the targets in Experiment 2, were presented vertically above or below the screen center. Stimuli that preceded the targets were shown at the screen center. D/HH participants generally performed more poorly than hearing participants, but both groups performed similarly in that both did better on the positive targets than on the negative in both experiments, and on supporting metaphorical associations between valence and vertical positions (Meier & Robinson, 2004), as indicated by reaction times, in Experiment 2. The researchers concluded that D/HH and hearing college students perform similarly in developing cognition-grounded representations of affective words in written language. PMID:27477038

  17. Representations of Religion on the British Feminist Webzine The F Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aune

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 21st century Europe, where religion is a more visible focus in local, national and global politics, how do feminist organisations and groups approach religion? This article explores this through analysis of representations of religion on a prominent British feminist webzine, The F Word. In academic literature and public debates, two dominant viewpoints are articulated in debates on women’s rights, religion and secularism: feminist secularism and religious inclusion. In the context of these debates, the study asks how The F Word writers approach religion, and whether and how their representations of religion reflect these academic and public debates. The analysis identifies four dominant approaches to religion, and two underlying themes, and sets these approaches in their wider social context.

  18. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study. PMID:22258891

  19. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically-Developing Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable to interference than peers. Forty 7- and 8-year-old children, half with SLI, took part in a fast mapping, word learning task. In addition to producin...

  20. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  1. Prosodic knowledge affects the recognition of newly acquired words

    OpenAIRE

    Shatzman, K.; McQueen, J

    2006-01-01

    An eye-tracking study examined the involvement of prosodic knowledge—specifically, the knowledge that monosyllabic words tend to have longer durations than the first syllables of polysyllabic words—in the recognition of newly learned words. Participants learned new spoken words (by associating them to novel shapes): bisyllables and onset-embedded monosyllabic competitors (e.g., baptoe and bap). In the learning phase, the duration of the ambiguous sequence (e.g., bap) was held constant. In the...

  2. Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini: Word classes: Nature, typology and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2016-01-01

    Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini (eds.). Word classes: Nature, typology and representations. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory [CILT] 332. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, 293 + vii pp., ISBN: 1978-90-272-4851-0. Hardback and E-book 99.00 EUR / 149.......00 USD....

  3. VStops: A Thinking Strategy and Visual Representation Approach in Mathematical Word Problem Solving toward Enhancing STEM Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…

  4. Language-General Biases and Language-Specific Experience Contribute to Phonological Detail in Toddlers' Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sho; Fikkert, Paula; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Although toddlers in their 2nd year of life generally have phonologically detailed representations of words, a consistent lack of sensitivity to certain kinds of phonological changes has been reported. The origin of these insensitivities is poorly understood, and uncovering their cause is crucial for obtaining a complete picture of early…

  5. Orthographic consistency affects spoken word recognition at different grain-sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    studies demonstrated this by manipulating feedback consistency of rhymes. The present lexical decision study, done in English, manipulated the spelling of individual vowels within consistent rhymes. Participants recognized words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has the most typical spelling (e......A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition and...

  6. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Anthony F.; Viridian L Benitez; Tony Belpaeme; Angelo Cangelosi; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which n...

  7. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  8. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity, semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration, and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity. The results have shown that representational paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimensions of Form and Complexity, the semantic dimension of the Illusion of Reality (the opposite pole of the Construction of Reality, and the affective dimension of Regularity. On the other hand, abstract paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimension of Color, the semantic dimensions of Construction of Reality (the opposite pole of the Illusion of Reality and Expression, and the affective dimension Arousal. A discriminant analysis indicated that all three sets of dimensions are relatively good predictors of the classification of representational and abstract paintings (61-100%. The results suggest that the subjective categorization of paintings is generally based on the recognizability of pictorial content (representational vs. abstract, but some formal or stylistic properties play a role in the categorization, as well: some expressionistic representational paintings were classified in an abstract category, and some geometrically abstract paintings were classified as representational.

  9. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  10. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  11. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties. PMID:27315272

  12. Visual Word Recognition is Accompanied by Covert Articulation: Evidence for a Speech-like Phonological Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Eiter, Brianna M.; INHOFF, ALBRECHT W.

    2008-01-01

    Two lexical decision task (LDT) experiments examined whether visual word recognition involves the use of a speech-like phonological code that may be generated via covert articulation. In Experiment 1, each visual item was presented with an irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was either phonologically identical, similar, or dissimilar to it. An ISW delayed classification of a visual word when the two were phonologically similar, and it delayed the classification of a pseudoword when it was ident...

  13. Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach / Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships between the structure of a representation and the affective impregnation of representation elements.

  14. How Category Learning Affects Object Representations: Not All Morphspaces Stretch Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    How does learning to categorize objects affect how people visually perceive them? Behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have tested the degree to which category learning influences object representations, with conflicting results. Some studies have found that objects become more visually discriminable along dimensions relevant…

  15. Is accessing of words affected by affective valence only? A discrete emotion view on the emotional congruency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion, the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1 and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2. These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects’ embodied experiences.

  16. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Refreshing: Event-related Potentials Associated with Directing Reflective Attention to Face, Scene, or Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A; Brudner, Samuel N; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-09-01

    Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using fMRI suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI's low temporal resolution. In this study, we used EEG to examine the time course of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. ERP analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (∼400 msec) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response and a later (∼800-1400 msec) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity. Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI. PMID:25961640

  18. Significant decimal digits for energy representation on short-word computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general belief that single precision floating point numbers have always at least seven significant decimal digits on short word computers such as IBM is erroneous. Seven significant digits are required however for representing the energy variable in nuclear cross-section data sets containing sharp p-wave resonances at 0 Kelvin. It is suggested that either the energy variable is stored in double precision or that cross-section resonances are reconstructed to room temperature or higher on short word computers

  19. A word from the DG: Decisions affecting CERN's future

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I would like to inform you of the important issues affecting our Organization that were debated at the Council Session in March. Firstly, on the President's initiative, the Council set up a Working Group to review the way it oversees the Organization's activities. The Council is considering a new approach to governance of the Laboratory that would focus on projects and activities rather than on the organisational structure of Departments as at present. A second important topic related to the Council's future role in the European particle physics strategy. Last July, I reported to you that the Council had taken on a broader role that would involve defining and promoting the major strategic choices for particle physics in Europe. A new structure is required to assist the Council in this role, and it is envisaged that the basic components of this structure would be a Working Group on Strategy and a Commission responsible for the promotion and follow-up of the European particle physics strategy. Work on this s...

  20. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  1. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  2. Document Representation and Clustering with WordNet Based Similarity Rough Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on document clustering till date use Vector Space Model (VSM to represent documents in the document space, where documents are denoted by a vector in a word vector space. The standard VSM does not take into account the semantic relatedness between terms. Thus, terms with some semantic similarity are dealt with in the same way as terms with no semantic relatedness. Since this unconcern about semantics reduces the quality of clustering results, many studies have proposed various approaches to introduce knowledge of semantic relatedness into VSM model. Those approaches give better results than the standard VSM. However they still have their own issues. We propose a new approach as a combination of two approaches, one of which uses Rough Sets theory and co-occurrence of terms, and the other uses WordNet knowledge to solve these issues. Experiments for its evaluation show advantage of the proposed approach over the others.

  3. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; John X Zhang; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  4. Affective norms of 875 Spanish words for five discrete emotional categories and two emotional dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J A; Martínez-García, N; Villalba-García, C; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Sánchez-Carmona, A; Pozo, M A; Montoro, P R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we introduce affective norms for a new set of Spanish words, the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS), that were scored on two emotional dimensions (valence and arousal) and on five discrete emotional categories (happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust), as well as on concreteness, by 660 Spanish native speakers. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables-grammatical class, word frequency, number of letters, and number of syllables-for the words are also included. We observed high split-half reliabilities for every emotional variable and a strong quadratic relationship between valence and arousal. Additional analyses revealed several associations between the affective dimensions and discrete emotions, as well as with some psycholinguistic variables. This new corpus complements and extends prior databases in Spanish and allows for designing new experiments investigating the influence of affective content in language processing under both dimensional and discrete theoretical conceptions of emotion. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from www.dropbox.com/s/o6dpw3irk6utfhy/Hinojosa%20et%20al_Supplementary%20materials.xlsx?dl=0 . PMID:25740761

  5. Working memory load affects processing time in spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye-movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eHadar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the ‘visual world’ eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g. point at the candle. Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset or at the last syllable (offset. Eye movements captured listeners’ ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal. We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load or four (high-load spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  6. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  7. The Representation and Processing of Subjective Words for Chinese Readers%汉语“主观词”的表征及其加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国利; 张兰兰; 孙莎莎; 白学军

    2013-01-01

    Given that there are no visual spaces between words in written Chinese and characters are the basic perceptual unit, it is intriguing how Chinese readers segment and represent words. Many studies have indicated that words play an important role in Chinese reading (Yan et al., 2006; Li et al., 2005; Rayner et al., 2007; Bai et al., 2008; Yan et al., 2009), while some other research has demonstrated that characters are more important than words in reading (Chen et al., 2003). However, some researchers have found that native Chinese readers have no clear concept of words, and they often disagree on how to divide the continuous string of characters within a sentence into words (Hoosain, 1992; Tsai et al., 1998; Miller et al., 2007). So there is a discrepancy here: If words play an important role in Chinese reading, what are the characteristics of these words? We propose that Chinese readers segment text into words according to complex cognitive representations: "subjective words" (e.g., representing the phrase "economic development" as a single word). Three studies were conducted to explore 1) whether subjective words are psychologically real in readers' minds and 2) how these subjective words are processed. The first study examined how well the readers could recognize the two-character combination as a word or a phrase. The results showed that the readers tend to judge phrases as subjective words, which indicated that they represented words according to their own complex cognition about words, which demonstrated that subjective words were real in readers' minds. The second and third experiment investigated the characteristics of subjective word processing. The second experiment explored whether subjective words had a "word superiority effect" - whether the readers found the position of a character in subjective words more efficiently than in non-words. The third experiment examined whether the reaction time of classifying subjective words as words was shorter than

  8. Recognizing clinical entities in hospital discharge summaries using Structural Support Vector Machines with word representation features

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; WU, YONGHUI; Jiang, Min; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Named entity recognition (NER) is an important task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) research. Machine learning (ML) based NER methods have shown good performance in recognizing entities in clinical text. Algorithms and features are two important factors that largely affect the performance of ML-based NER systems. Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), a sequential labelling algorithm, and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), which is based on large margin theory, are two typica...

  9. Attention enhances stimulus representations in macaque visual cortex without affecting their signal-to-noise level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Treue, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the attentional modulation of neuronal responses in visual cortex varies with stimulus contrast. Whether the strength of these attentional influences is similarly dependent on other stimulus properties is unknown. Here we report the effect of spatial attention on responses in the medial-temporal area (MT) of macaque visual cortex to moving random dots pattern of various motion coherences, i.e. signal-to-noise ratios. Our data show that allocating spatial attention causes a gain change in MT neurons. The magnitude of this attentional modulation is independent of the attended stimulus’ motion coherence, creating a multiplicative scaling of the neuron’s coherence-response function. This is consistent with the characteristics of gain models of attentional modulation and suggests that attention strengthens the neuronal representation of behaviorally relevant visual stimuli relative to unattended stimuli, but without affecting their signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:27283275

  10. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  11. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Jonker, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N = 25) and older (N = 38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic

  12. Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A "Abordagem Estrutural" das representações sociais define uma representação social como uma organização, que é atravessada por diferentes dimensões e não como um conjunto de eventos e processos puramente cognitivos. No estado atual da teoria, propomos o princípio que a dimensão afetiva observa uma relação "não-aleatória" com o núcleo central. Dois estudos anteriores são brevemente descritos, assim como os resultados acerca de três representações, ("menino de rua", "estudos superiores"e "família", com o intuito de apresentar uma perspectiva de estudo que parece indicar que as relações entre elementos "semânticos" e "afetivamente carregados" não são aleatórias. Os dados corroboram a tese de que o Núcleo Central das representações organiza igualmente a distribuição das cargas afetivas no conjunto da representação social. As pesquisas, aqui apresentadas, correspondem a uma primeira aproximação exploratória das relações existentes entre a estrutura e a impregnação afetiva dos elementos de uma representação.The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships

  13. Word class and context affect alpha-band oscillatory dynamics in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eMellem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the oscillatory EEG dynamics of reading open class and closed class words have previously been found (Bastiaansen et al., 2005 and are thought to reflect differences in lexical-semantic content between these word classes. In particular, the theta band (4–7 Hz seems to play a prominent role in lexical-semantic retrieval. We tested whether this theta effect is robust in an older population of subjects. Additionally, we examined how the context of a word can modulate the oscillatory dynamics underlying retrieval for the two different classes of words. Older participants (mean age 55 read words presented in either syntactically-correct sentences or in a scrambled order (scrambled sentence while their EEG was recorded. We performed time-frequency analysis to examine how power varied based on the context or class of the word. We observed larger power decreases in the alpha (8–12Hz band between 200–700 ms for the open class compared to closed class words, but this was true only for the scrambled sentence context. We did not observe differences in theta power between these conditions. Context exerted an effect on the alpha and low beta (13–18 Hz bands between 0–700 ms. These results suggest that the previously observed word class effects on theta power changes in a younger participant sample do not seem to be a robust effect in this older population. Though this is an indirect comparison between studies, it may suggest the existence of aging effects on word retrieval dynamics for different populations. Additionally, the interaction between word class and context suggests that word retrieval mechanisms interact with sentence-level comprehension mechanisms in the alpha band.

  14. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  15. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  16. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  17. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli. PMID:24302696

  18. Category Enhanced Word Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chunting; Sun, Chonglin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Lau, Francis C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed word representations have been demonstrated to be effective in capturing semantic and syntactic regularities. Unsupervised representation learning from large unlabeled corpora can learn similar representations for those words that present similar co-occurrence statistics. Besides local occurrence statistics, global topical information is also important knowledge that may help discriminate a word from another. In this paper, we incorporate category information of documents in the l...

  19. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abhinav Dixit; Tushar Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., ...

  20. Expertise affects representation structure and categorical activation of grasp postures in climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In indoor rock climbing, the perception of object properties and the adequate execution of grasping actions highly determine climbers’ performance. In two consecutive experiments, effects of climbing expertise on the cognitive activation of grasping actions following the presentation of climbing holds was investigated. Experiment 1 evaluated the representation of climbing holds in the long-term memory of climbers and non-climbers with the help of a psychometric measurement method. Within a hierarchical splitting procedure subjects had to decide about the similarity of required grasping postures. For the group of climbers, representation structures corresponded clearly to four grip types. In the group of non-climbers, representation structures differed more strongly than in climbers and did not clearly refer to grip types. To learn about categorical knowledge activation in Experiment 2, a priming paradigm was applied. Images of hands in grasping postures were presented as targets and images of congruent, neutral, or incongruent climbing holds were used as primes. Only in climbers, reaction times were shorter and error rates were smaller for the congruent condition than for the incongruent condition. The neutral condition resulted in intermediate performance. The findings suggest that perception of climbing holds activates the commonly associated grasping postures in climbers but not in non-climbers. The findings of this study give evidence that the categorization of visually perceived objects is fundamentally influenced by the cognitive-motor potential for interaction, which depends on the observer’s experience and expertise. Thus, motor expertise not only facilitates precise action perception, but also benefits the perception of action-relevant objects.

  1. Representação: palavras, instituições e idéias Representation: words, institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fenichel Pitkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em argumento reconstrutivo, baseado em abordagem própria à filosofia da linguagem, a autora lança mão das transformações seculares nos usos da fala, nas cristalizações ideológicas no plano da filosofia política e nas práticas históricas de representação política para mostrar a emergência das feições distintivas da representação moderna.In a reconstructive analysis, based upon the philosophy of language, the author handles the secular transformations in speech, ideological crystallizations within the tradition of political philosophy and the historical practices of political representation in order to show the coming up of the distinctive features of modern representation.

  2. Building ensemble representations: How the shape of preceding distractor distributions affects visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-08-01

    Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects. Using singleton search for an oddly oriented target line among differently oriented distractors (a priming of pop-out paradigm), we test how different properties of previously observed distractor distributions (mean, variability, and shape) influence search times. Our results indicate that observers learn properties of distractor distributions over and above mean and variance; in fact, response times also depend on the shape of the preceding distractor distribution. Response times decrease as a function of target distance from the mean of preceding Gaussian distractor distributions, and the decrease is steeper when preceding distributions have small standard deviations. When preceding distributions are uniform, however, this decrease in response times can be described by a two-piece function corresponding to the uniform distribution PDF. Moreover, following skewed distributions response times function is skewed in accordance with the skew in distributions. Indeed, internal PDFs seem to be specifically tuned to the observed feature distribution. PMID:27232163

  3. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  4. Contrasting vertical and horizontal representations of affect in emotional visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanovic, Ljubica; Santiago, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Independent lines of evidence suggest that the representation of emotional evaluation recruits both vertical and horizontal spatial mappings. These two spatial mappings differ in their experiential origins and their productivity, and available data suggest that they differ in their saliency. Yet, no study has so far compared their relative strength in an attentional orienting reaction time task that affords the simultaneous manifestation of both types of mapping. Here, we investigated this question using a visual search task with emotional faces. We presented angry and happy face targets and neutral distracter faces in top, bottom, left, and right locations on the computer screen. Conceptual congruency effects were observed along the vertical dimension supporting the 'up = good' metaphor, but not along the horizontal dimension. This asymmetrical processing pattern was observed when faces were presented in a cropped (Experiment 1) and whole (Experiment 2) format. These findings suggest that the 'up = good' metaphor is more salient and readily activated than the 'right = good' metaphor, and that the former outcompetes the latter when the task context affords the simultaneous activation of both mappings. PMID:26106061

  5. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge. PMID:27389800

  6. Executive functions are not affected by 24 hours of sleep deprivation: A color-word stroop task study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods : The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am, after 12 hours (7-9 pm and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day. The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in

  7. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  8. Can words heal? Using affect labeling to reduce the effects of unpleasant cues on symptom reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OmerVan den Bergh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Processing unpleasant affective cues induces elevated momentary symptom reports, especially in persons with high levels of symptom reporting in daily life. The present study aimed to examine whether applying an emotion regulation strategy, i.e. affect labeling, can inhibit these emotion influences on symptom reporting. Student participants (N=61 with varying levels of habitual symptom reporting completed six picture viewing trials of homogeneous valence (3 pleasant, 3 unpleasant under 3 conditions: merely viewing, emotional labeling or content (non-emotional labeling. Affect ratings and symptom reports were collected after each trial. Participants completed a motor inhibition task and self-control questionnaires as indices of their inhibitory capacities. Heart rate variability was also measured. Labeling, either emotional or non-emotional, significantly reduced experienced affect, as well as the elevated symptoms reports observed after unpleasant picture viewing. These labeling effects became more pronounced with increasing levels of habitual symptom reporting, suggesting a moderating role of the latter variable, but did not correlate with any index of general inhibitory capacity. Our findings suggest that using an emotion regulation strategy, such as labeling emotional stimuli, can reverse the effects of unpleasant stimuli on symptom reporting and that such strategies can be especially beneficial for individuals suffering from medically unexplained physical symptoms.

  9. Connectives and Layout as Processing Signals: How Textual Features Affect Students' Processing and Text Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Silfhout, Gerdineke; Evers-Vermeul, Jacqueline; Mak, Willem M.; Sanders, Ted J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When students read their school text, they may make a coherent mental representation of it that contains coherence relations between the text segments. The construction of such a representation is a prerequisite for learning from texts. This article focuses on the influence of connectives ("therefore," "furthermore") and layout…

  10. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  11. Pruning False Unknown Words to Improve Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; 浅原, 正幸; 松本, 裕治

    2005-01-01

    During the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation, many detected word candidates are invalid. These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy, as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words. Therefore, we propose to eliminate as many invalid word candidates as possible by a pruning process. Our experiments show that by cutting down the invalid unknown word candidates, we improve the segmentation accuracy of known words and ...

  12. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Daselaar; D.J. Veltman; S. Rombouts; J.G.W. Raaijmakers; C. Jonker

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N=25) and older (N=38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic, bu

  13. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  14. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  15. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  16. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.

  17. The Absence of the Automatic Association between Behavioral Representation Level and Psychological Distance:Evidence from a Picture-word Stroop Task%行为表征水平与心理距离间不具自动化联接特性:来自图片-词汇Stroop范式的实验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 申之美

    2014-01-01

    within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the part of speech of each word (adjective or verb) in the arrow and meanwhile ignore the arrow’s spatial location. In Experiment 2, four sets of trait-action word pairs including lively/josh (Experiment 2a), modest/to ask for advice (Experiment 2b), kindhearted/to help (Experiment 2c) and faithful/to repay loan (Experiment 2d), were adopted to be the sample stimuli and were embedded within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the each word embedded in the arrow and ignore the arrow’s spatial location. All words in the experiments were Chinese two-character words. The results showed that: (1) No matter responding to the part of speech (Experiment 1) or the naming (Experiment 2) of the target words, participants’ reaction times were not affected, hence the process of different construal-level words was not influenced by differed spatial distances. (2) Participants responded to both the part of speech (Experiment 1) and the semantic meaning (Experiment 2) significantly faster when the target words (no matter they were trait words or act words) were presented in distal locations than when they were presented in proximate locations. Based on these results, we suggest that there is no automatic association between the behavioral representation levels and psychological distances, and the psychological distance effect on behavioral representation levels may be the product of a consciously controlled process. Moreover, the possible mechanism that participants’ performance on the behavioral evaluative words is largely dependent on a distal spatial distance has been discussed.

  18. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  19. Lexical-semantic variables affecting picture and word naming in Chinese: a mixed logit model study in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables - and their complex interrelations - can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389

  20. sense2vec - A Fast and Accurate Method for Word Sense Disambiguation In Neural Word Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Andrew; Michalak, Phil; Liu, John

    2015-01-01

    Neural word representations have proven useful in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks due to their ability to efficiently model complex semantic and syntactic word relationships. However, most techniques model only one representation per word, despite the fact that a single word can have multiple meanings or "senses". Some techniques model words by using multiple vectors that are clustered based on context. However, recent neural approaches rarely focus on the application to a consuming N...

  1. Weaving words a diachronic analysis of the representation of gender, sexuality and otherness in women’s (re)writings of La Belle et la Bête

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Dearbhla

    2013-01-01

    This thesis endeavours to conduct a comparative analysis between two corpora of fairy tales. The first group of tales dates from approximately 1696 to 1756 and originated from the two French vogues of literary fairy tales from this era. The second group comprises contemporary Anglophone rewritings dating from 1979 to 1999. The purpose of this comparison is to investigate the lineage of similar tales by women writers and the representations of gender roles, sexuality and otherness in the tales...

  2. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice. PMID:25496428

  3. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: Species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E.; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we fo...

  4. Examining the Acquisition of Phonological Word Forms with Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that known words in the lexicon strengthen newly formed representations of novel words, resulting in words with dense neighborhoods being learned more quickly than words with sparse neighborhoods. Tests of this hypothesis in a connectionist network showed that words with dense neighborhoods were learned better than words…

  5. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-01-01

    it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  6. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  7. Embodied simulation of emotional valence: Facial muscle responses to abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin; Palazova, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Semantic knowledge is thought to be at least partially grounded in sensory, motor, and affective information, acquired through experiences in our inner and outer world. The reactivation of experience-related information during meaning access is called simulation. In the affective simulation account, it is assumed that the grounding information depends on the concepts' concreteness. Whereas abstract concepts are thought to be mainly represented through affective experiential information, concrete words rely more on sensory-motor experiential information. To test this hypothesis, we measured facial muscle activity as an indicator of affective simulation during visual word recognition. Words varied on the dimensions of concreteness and valence. Behavioral and electromyographic data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models with maximal random effect structure to optimize generalization over participants and word samples. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found a valence effect in the m. corrugator supercilii only in response to concrete but not to abstract words. Our data show that affective simulation as measured with facial muscle activity occurs in response to concrete rather than to abstract words. More concrete words are supposed to have higher context availability and richer visual imagery, which might promote affective simulation on the expressive level of facial muscle activity. The results are in line with embodied accounts of semantic representation but speak against its predominant role for representing affective information in abstract concepts. PMID:26437895

  8. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  9. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  10. The effects of mental representation on performance in a navigation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Healy, Alice F.

    2002-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the mental representations employed when instructions were followed that involved navigation in a space displayed as a grid on a computer screen. Performance was affected much more by the number of instructional units than by the number of words per unit. Performance in a three-dimensional space was independent of the number of dimensions along which participants navigated. However, memory for and accuracy in following the instructions were reduced when the task required mentally representing a three-dimensional space, as compared with representing a two-dimensional space, although the words used in the instructions were identical in the two cases. These results demonstrate the interdependence of verbal and spatial memory representations, because individuals' immediate memory for verbal navigation instructions is affected by their mental representation of the space referred to by the instructions.

  11. On the Convergent Properties of Word Embedding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yingtao; Kulkarni, Vivek; Perozzi, Bryan; Skiena, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Do word embeddings converge to learn similar things over different initializations? How repeatable are experiments with word embeddings? Are all word embedding techniques equally reliable? In this paper we propose evaluating methods for learning word representations by their consistency across initializations. We propose a measure to quantify the similarity of the learned word representations under this setting (where they are subject to different random initializations). Our preliminary resu...

  12. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations. PMID:19015501

  13. Eye Movement Evidence for Hierarchy Effects on Memory Representation of Discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.

  14. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9-13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  15. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eSuárez-Coalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995. It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca, et al., 2007. In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9 - 13 years, in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words.The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not.

  16. Representations of handicaped in the portuguese press: hegemony and emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Neca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze what are the representations that three Portuguese general-interest newspapers - Diário de Notícias, Jornal de Notícias and Público - construct and convey about people with disabilities. The analysis was guided by the perspective of social representations, on the assumption that the views conveyed by the press are shared by society and affect the public opinion. A total of 220 articles about disabilities, published in November and December between 2004 and 2009 where analyzed. The results show that there is little questioning in the newspapers regarding issues related with disability and that there are different representations mediated by different newspapers. Diário de Notícias and Público convey hegemonic representations, in other words, don´t discuss the disability issues and show the group as homogeneous, incompetent and object of social policies, thus blocking the appearance of new representations. Jornal de Notícias convey emancipated representations, this is, opens space to the debate of the new ideas, showing disabled people as competent, mainly in articles about awareness raising and physical disability. This debate enhances the appearance of new representations. Regarding mental disability, it appears associated to the stereotype of incompetence, in all the newspapers analyzed.

  17. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  18. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  19. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  20. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  1. Positive words carry less information than negative words

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We show that the frequency of word use is not only determined by the word length [1] and the average information content [2], but also by its emotional content.We have analysed three established lexica of affective word usage in English, German, and Spanish, to verify that these lexica have a neutral, unbiased, emotional content. Taking into account the frequency of word usage, we find that words with a positive emotional content are more frequently used. This lends support to Pollyanna hypothesis [3] that there should be a positive bias in human expression. We also find that negative words contain more information than positive words, as the informativeness of a word increases uniformly with its valence decrease. Our findings support earlier conjectures about (i) the relation between word frequency and information content, and (ii) the impact of positive emotions on communication and social links.

  2. The time course of indexical specificity effects in the perception of spoken words

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2003-10-01

    This research investigates the time-course of indexical specificity effects in spoken word recognition by examining the circumstances under which the variability in the speaking rate affects the participant's perception of spoken words. Previous research has demonstrated that variability has both representational and processing consequences. The current research examines one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which indexical variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely the time-course of processing. Based on our past work, it was hypothesized that indexical specificity effects associated with the speaking rate would only affect later stages of processing in spoken word recognition. The results confirm this hypothesis: Specificity effects are only in evidence when processing is relatively slow. [Research supported (in part) by Research Grant No. R01 DC 0265801 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.

  3. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  4. Representation and Meta-discourse Function of Metaphorical Gestures in Spoken Word Poetry “Hiroshima”%口语诗《广岛》中隐喻手势的表征方式与元话语功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周花平; 邓云华

    2014-01-01

    Pierce’s classification of iconic modes into image iconicity, diagrammatic iconicity, and metaphor iconicity provides a way to explore the representation of metaphoric gestures in combination with Lakoff & Johnson’s conceptual metaphor theory. And the unity of Pierce’s Trichotomies makes the sign process a real interpretant and performs meta-language function in contexts. The metaphorical gestures in the spoken word poetry “Hiroshima” perform such meta-dis-course functions as providing a sharp contrast, framing a negative assessment and planning a structure. The study not only reveals the manifestations of metaphorical thought not presented in verbal metaphors, but also helps to understand metaphorical gestures in oral communication.%皮尔斯把类象符号分为意象象似性、拟象象似性和隐喻象似性三种,这个分类与Lakoff &Johnson的概念隐喻理论结合起来可以很好地揭示隐喻手势的表征方式。皮尔斯符号“三位一体”的整体性使符号成为真正的“说明项”,在具体语境中具备元话语功能。通过分析,口语诗《广岛》中的隐喻手势具备突出对照、否定评价和谋篇布局的元话语功能。本研究不仅揭示了言语隐喻中无法体现的思维层面的内容,而且有助于对口语交际中隐喻手势的理解。

  5. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  6. WORD MAGIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xinmin

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a word game named"Word Magic",which is effective and efficient inavoiding word forgetting & decaying as well as helping students to improve their abilities in spelling,word building and so on.The procedures and rules of the game are formulated together with the makingof the cards used in it.The advantages of the game are also expounded.

  7. [Interest of a mental representation approach to the disclosure of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Saint-Péron, Laurie; Barrelon, Marie-Odile; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the mental representation of Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing the number of words given by the subjects when asked to quickly write seven words characterizing AD in three groups of subjects: 22 caregivers, 22 professional informants, and 28 naïve subjects. The generated words were classified into six dimensions: memory, other neuropsychological impairments, behavioral disorders, consequences on caregiver relationships, familial and social changes, and health. AD mental representation was clearly negative in the three groups and did not differ between groups. Memory was the most frequent dimension reported in all groups with 78 quoted words (20.1% of responses). However the hierarchical classification of the dimensions differed in the three groups. The caregivers reported more words related to social and familial changes. Social and familial modifications, and behavioral changes were first reported by the professionals. The naïve subjects firstly quoted words concerning memory and others neuropsychological deficits. However, naïve subjects who had previously be in contact with AD patients mainly reported words about behavior changes. Actually, naïve subjects are not fully naïve because the clinical aspects of the disease are currently well known in the general population. Families and professional informants reported that AD familial and social changes had a deeper impact than cognitive or behavioral aspects. This preliminary study suggests that AD mental representation is the same in the general population, but the weight of the different dimensions affecting AD differed between subjects concerned or not by the disease (family or professional versus naïve subjects). Therefore, the weight of the different dimensions is to be taken into account for a better approach of the disclosure of AD diagnosis. PMID:25245316

  8. The Affective (Re)Production of Refugee Representations through Educational Policies and Practices: Reconceptualising the Role of Emotion for Peace Education in a Divided Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…

  9. word2vec Parameter Learning Explained

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The word2vec model and application by Mikolov et al. have attracted a great amount of attention in recent two years. The vector representations of words learned by word2vec models have been shown to carry semantic meanings and are useful in various NLP tasks. As an increasing number of researchers would like to experiment with word2vec or similar techniques, I notice that there lacks a material that comprehensively explains the parameter learning process of word embedding models in details, t...

  10. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  11. Visual content of words delays negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. PMID:25463550

  12. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  13. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...... are fictional, value-driven concepts developed to promote dialogue with users about their values and how they may materialize with respect to interaction design in their everyday lives....

  14. Vessel classification in overhead satellite imagery using weighted "bag of visual words"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Shibin; Rainey, Katie

    2015-05-01

    Vessel type classification in maritime imagery is a challenging problem and has applications to many military and surveillance applications. The ability to classify a vessel correctly varies significantly depending on its appearance which in turn is affected by external factors such as lighting or weather conditions, viewing geometry and sea state. The difficulty in classifying vessels also varies among different ship types as some types of vessels show more within-class variation than others. In our previous work, we showed that the bag of visual words" (V-BoW) was an effective feature representation for this classification task in the maritime domain. The V-BoW feature representation is analogous to the bag of words" (BoW) representation used in information retrieval (IR) application in text or natural language processing (NLP) domain. It has been shown in the textual IR applications that the performance of the BoW feature representation can be improved significantly by applying appropriate term-weighting such as log term frequency, inverse document frequency etc. Given the close correspondence between textual BoW (T-BoW) and V-BoW feature representations, we propose to apply several well-known term weighting schemes from the text IR domain on V-BoW feature representation to increase its ability to discriminate between ship types.

  15. The time course of speaking rate specificity effects in spoken word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2005-09-01

    Specificity effects in spoken word recognition were previously examined by examining the circumstances under which variability in speaking rate affects participants perception of spoken words. The word recognition and memory literatures are now replete with demonstrations that variability has representational and processing consequences. The research focuses on one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely time course of processing. Based on previous work, it was hypothesized that speaking rate variability would only affect later stages of spoken word recognition. The results confirmed this hypothesis: Specificity effects were only obtained when processing was relatively slow. However, previous stimuli not only differed in speaking rate, but also in articulation style (i.e., casual and careful). Therefore, in the current set of experiments, it was sought to determine whether the same pattern of results would be obtained with stimuli that only differed in speaking rate (i.e., in the absence of articulation style differences). Moreover, to further generalize time course findings, the stimuli were produced by a different speaker than the speaker in the earlier study. The results add to the knowledge of the circumstances under which variability affects the perception of spoken words.

  16. How Language Affects Children’s Use of Derivational Morphology in Visual Word and Pseudoword Processing: Evidence from a Cross-Language Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eCasalis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1 and for age (Part 2 participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+ and a suffix ending (S+ was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g. postal; R+S-: e.g. turnip; R-S+: e.g. rascal; and R-S-: e.g. bishop and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g. pondal; R+S-: e.g. curlip; R-S+: e.g. vosnal; and R-S-: e.g. hethop. Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children’s recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasise the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system.

  17. Lay representations on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Lázaro, Alexandra; Carvalho, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Lay representations on climate change were mapped via the free-word association method in two pilot studies. Participants were asked to generate words associated to “the big problems faced by humankind nowadays” (1st study) and to “climate change” (2nd study). Climate change was not spontaneously evoked by the participants in the first study: pollution was among the top 10 problems, but references to other environmental issues were very low. In the second study, climate change was consid...

  18. An OWL-based WordNet lexical ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-xi; ZHOU Chang-le

    2007-01-01

    This paper discribes a data representation for WordNet 2.1 based on Web Ontology Language (OWL). The main components of WordNet database are transformed as classes in OWL, and the relations between synsets or lexcial words are transformed as OWL properties. Our conversion is based on the data file of WordNet instead of the Prolog database. This work can be used to enrich the work in progress of standard conversion of WordNet to the RDF/OWL representation at W3C.

  19. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  20. AFFECT IN 100 NOVELS: SEMANTIC PATTERNS AND CULTURAL NEUROLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gliserman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    International audience The paper focuses on unconscious cultural transmission in a corpus of one hundred classic Anglophone novels written between 1719-1997. The paper demonstrates that transmission by looking at lexical representations of a range of semantic constituents in the corpus, including the particular case of AFFECT. Research not the lexical inventories of these novels reveals that there are rules of semantic distributions, i.e., rules about what proportions of what kinds of word...

  1. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  2. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  3. Representation is representation of similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  4. Emotion categorization using affective-pLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Feng, Songhe

    2010-12-01

    Emotion categorization of natural scene images represents a very useful task for automatic image analysis systems. Psychological experiments have shown that visual information at the emotion level is aggregated according to a set of rules. Hence, we attempt to discover the emotion descriptors based on the composition of visual word representation. First, the composition of visual word representation models each image as a matrix, where elements record the correlations of pairwise visual words. In this way, an image collection is modeled as a third-order tensor. Then we discover the emotion descriptors using a novel affective-probabilistic latent semantic analysis (affective-pLSA) model, which is an extension of the pLSA model, on this tensor representation. Considering that the natural scene image may evoke multiple emotional feelings, emotion categorization is carried out using the multilabel k-nearest-neighbor approach based on emotion descriptors. The proposed approach has been tested on the International Affective Picture System and a collection of social images from the Flickr website. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for eliciting image emotions.

  5. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages...... employ a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun...

  6. Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Baichen; Yu, Shuyuan; Gong, Tianwei; Jiang, Ting; Hu, Qingfen; Chen, Yinghe

    2016-01-01

    Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word "green"), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task. PMID:27092100

  7. Words that heal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  8. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  9. The orbitofrontal cortex and beyond: from affect to decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian

    2008-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex represents the reward or affective value of primary reinforcers including taste, touch, texture, and face expression. It learns to associate other stimuli with these to produce representations of the expected reward value for visual, auditory, and abstract stimuli including monetary reward value. The orbitofrontal cortex thus plays a key role in emotion, by representing the goals for action. The learning process is stimulus-reinforcer association learning. Negative reward prediction error neurons are related to this affective learning. Activations in the orbitofrontal cortex correlate with the subjective emotional experience of affective stimuli, and damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs emotion-related learning, emotional behaviour, and subjective affective state. With an origin from beyond the orbitofrontal cortex, top-down attention to affect modulates orbitofrontal cortex representations, and attention to intensity modulates representations in earlier cortical areas of the physical properties of stimuli. Top-down word-level cognitive inputs can bias affective representations in the orbitofrontal cortex, providing a mechanism for cognition to influence emotion. Whereas the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of reward or affective value on a continuous scale, areas beyond the orbitofrontal cortex such as the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 are involved in binary decision-making when a choice must be made. For this decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of each specific reward in a common currency. PMID:18824074

  10. Using Curvature and Markov Clustering in Graphs for Lexical Acquisition and Word Sense Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Dorow, Beate; Widdows, Dominic; Ling, Katarina; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Sergi, Danilo; Moses, Elisha

    2004-01-01

    We introduce two different approaches for clustering semantically similar words. We accommodate ambiguity by allowing a word to belong to several clusters. Both methods use a graph-theoretic representation of words and their paradigmatic relationships. The first approach is based on the concept of curvature and divides the word graph into classes of similar words by removing words of low curvature which connect several dispersed clusters. The second method, instead of clustering the nodes, cl...

  11. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, inspired by the stud...

  12. The Representation of Polysemy: MEG Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pylkkänen, Liina; Llinás, Rodolfo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2006-01-01

    Most words in natural language are polysemous; i.e., they can be used in more than one way. For example, paper can be used to refer to a substance made out of wood pulp or to a daily publication printed on that substance. Even though virtually every sentence contains polysemy, there is little agreement as to how polysemy is represented in the mental lexicon. Do different uses of polysemous words involve access to a single representation or do our minds store distinct representations for each ...

  13. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes. The impact of double letters in writing English words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoniaKandel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer (e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate and DISGRACE (Control. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S and intervals (DI, IS for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., interval IS.

  14. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes: the impact of double letters in writing English words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer [e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate) and DISGRACE (Control)]. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S) and intervals (DI, IS) for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., letter S). PMID:24133473

  15. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  16. Modeling Order in Neural Word Embeddings at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Andrew; Gilmore, David; Russell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems commonly leverage bag-of-words co-occurrence techniques to capture semantic and syntactic word relationships. The resulting word-level distributed representations often ignore morphological information, though character-level embeddings have proven valuable to NLP tasks. We propose a new neural language model incorporating both word order and character order in its embedding. The model produces several vector spaces with meaningful substructure, as ev...

  17. Substitute Based SCODE Word Embeddings in Supervised NLP Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Cirik, Volkan; Yuret, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a word embedding method in supervised tasks. It maps words on a sphere such that words co-occurring in similar contexts lie closely. The similarity of contexts is measured by the distribution of substitutes that can fill them. We compared word embeddings, including more recent representations, in Named Entity Recognition (NER), Chunking, and Dependency Parsing. We examine our framework in multilingual dependency parsing as well. The results show that the proposed method achieves as...

  18. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social......, technical, and institutional mechanisms. Geographically, bodily, and geometrically, the camera has positioned its subjects in social structures and hierarchies, in recognizable localities, and in iconic depth constructions which, although they show remarkable variation, nevertheless belong specifically to...... the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments...

  19. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should...... be written up and disseminated. The article takes a methodological focus, considering general aims and methods of the research project, before turning to the elaboration on how poetic representations have been constructed and employed as a vehicle for certain kinds of participation, representation...... participative social work research. The article moves to ‘trouble’ understandings of participative research as egalitarian and consensus-driven, and proposes a focus on the tensions and positioning of knowledge production....

  20. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier;

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty of...

  1. Word sense disambiguation using semantic relatedness measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Che-Yu

    2006-01-01

    All human languages have words that can mean different things in different contexts, such words with multiple meanings are potentially "ambiguous". The process of "deciding which of several meanings of a term is intended in a given context" is known as "word sense disambiguation (WSD)". This paper presents a method of WSD that assigns a target word the sense that is most related to the senses of its neighbor words. We explore the use of measures of relatedness between word senses based on a novel hybrid approach. First, we investigate how to "literally" and "regularly" express a "concept". We apply set algebra to WordNet's synsets cooperating with WordNet's word ontology. In this way we establish regular rules for constructing various representations (lexical notations) of a concept using Boolean operators and word forms in various synset(s) defined in WordNet. Then we establish a formal mechanism for quantifying and estimating the semantic relatedness between concepts-we facilitate "concept distribution statistics" to determine the degree of semantic relatedness between two lexically expressed concepts. The experimental results showed good performance on Semcor, a subset of Brown corpus. We observe that measures of semantic relatedness are useful sources of information for WSD.

  2. Electric Symbols: Internet Words And Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fraim, John

    2002-01-01

    The famous Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis posits a linguistic determinism arguing language plays a central role in creation of a worldview. In the sense that language is a product of words, one can say that a culture's worldview is affected and influenced by the words of its particular language. Words both create and communicate worldviews. The greatest potential in history for the observation and analysis of words exists on the Internet. Indeed, the Internet can be considered history's greatest obse...

  3. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  4. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012

  5. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  6. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  7. Manipulating Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  8. Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

    2012-01-01

    Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

  9. Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2009-01-01

    The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

  10. Phonemic Representation and Early Spelling Errors in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between linguistic experience and phonemic representations in spelling was investigated in two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (aged 5-6 years) who spoke mostly Mandarin-L1 (n = 23) or mostly English-L1 (n = 27) at home. A 60-item cloze task including high- and low-frequency words with word-initial and word-final…

  11. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    be implemented to improve design conditions for architects, thereby increasing the “thickness of representation”. The study commences from a broader theoretical enquiry, a review of previous research and examples of relevant context in which virtual reality has been used in practice. It develops from......Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...

  12. Czech questions with two wh-words

    OpenAIRE

    Gruet-Skrabalova, Hana

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of questions with two wh-words in Czech. It is shown that these questions involve different syntactic constructions with different semantic representations. In questions with multiple fronting, wh-words either activate DistributiveP and ShareP projections at Logical Form, which leads to their pair-list reading, or the second one moves to ContrastP, which leads to their contrastive specific reading. In questions with fronting and conjunction, the coordinate wh-...

  13. Efficient Parallel Learning of Word2Vec

    OpenAIRE

    Vuurens, Jeroen B. P.; Eickhoff, Carsten; de Vries, Arjen P.

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction, Word2Vec and its variants are widely used to learn semantics-preserving representations of words or entities in an embedding space, which can be used to produce state-of-art results for various Natural Language Processing tasks. Existing implementations aim to learn efficiently by running multiple threads in parallel while operating on a single model in shared memory, ignoring incidental memory update collisions. We show that these collisions can degrade the efficiency...

  14. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  15. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  16. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  17. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed. PMID:21687967

  18. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    , despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  19. DeepWalk: Online Learning of Social Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Perozzi, Bryan; Al-Rfou, Rami; Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We present DeepWalk, a novel approach for learning latent representations of vertices in a network. These latent representations encode social relations in a continuous vector space, which is easily exploited by statistical models. DeepWalk generalizes recent advancements in language modeling and unsupervised feature learning (or deep learning) from sequences of words to graphs. DeepWalk uses local information obtained from truncated random walks to learn latent representations by treating wa...

  20. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  1. Monolingual and cross-lingual information retrieval models based on (bilingual) word embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Vulic, Ivan; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new unified framework for monolingual (MoIR) and cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR) which relies on the induction of dense real-valued word vectors known as word embeddings (WE) from comparable data. To this end, we make several important contributions: (1) We present a novel word representation learning model called Bilingual Word Embeddings Skip-Gram (BWESG) which is the first model able to learn bilingual word embeddings solely on the basis of document-aligned comparab...

  2. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  3. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  4. Supramodal representation of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

    2011-09-21

    Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

  5. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  6. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  7. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  8. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  9. Factorizations and Physical Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Revzen, M.; F. C. Khanna(Edmonton, Canada); Mann, A.; Zak, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the prime numbers decomposition of M. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (J. Zak, Phys. Today, {\\bf 23} (2), 51 (1970)), and related representations termed $q_{1}q_{2}$ representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter repre...

  10. Survey of Classroom Use of Representations: Development, Field Test and Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, Sandra; Prechtl, Helmut; Nerdel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Because of the multimodal nature of learning, doing and reporting science, it is important that students learn how to interpret, construct, relate and translate scientific representations or, in other words, to develop representational competence. Explicit instruction about multimodal representations is needed to foster students'…

  11. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature. PMID:23621718

  12. Strength of object representation: its key role in object-based attention for determining the competition result between Gestalt and top-down objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Donglai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    It was found in previous studies that two types of objects (rectangles formed according to the Gestalt principle and Chinese words formed in a top-down fashion) can both induce an object-based effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the strength of an object representation affects the result of the competition between these two types of objects based on research carried out by Liu, Wang and Zhou [(2011) Acta Psychologica, 138(3), 397-404]. In Experiment 1, the rectangles were filled with two different colors to increase the strength of Gestalt object representation, and we found that the object effect changed significantly for the different stimulus types. Experiment 2 used Chinese words with various familiarities to manipulate the strength of the top-down object representation. As a result, the object-based effect induced by rectangles was observed only when the Chinese word familiarity was low. These results suggest that the strength of object representation determines the result of competition between different types of objects. PMID:26041271

  13. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues". PMID:26117488

  14. Words leaking from objects: thinking with absent photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities within notions of the object constitute a special area of interest in my research. As I have come to see it, the object is bounded by – and yet comes to alter- views of representation/re-presentation; it contributes towards academic thinking through its capacity for democratizing and bridging itself towards others – yet it has a history of failing in the exchange of everyday gestures with places seemingly remote from the academia. Although accused of resolution and impermeability, I admittedly cannot part with the word ‘object’. And this creates a tension in my work with photography, where I attempt to articulate a personal view of the photograph as something ultimately unfixed. In this view, writing and photography extend continuously and reciprocally into the virtual and the physical from gestures before the photograph and before the word. This text reflects on these tensions, drawing on notions of affect, potentiality and on ethics to discover traces of the other suggested in the physical, but also the imaginary surface of an object. Following Sherry Turkle’s notion of ‘object’ as evocative, in this text ‘the things I think with’ form narratives that reflect the absence of other(s, and the escaping capacity of absent objects in and out of words.

  15. Good, Better, Best: Choosing Word Embedding Context

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, James; Xiang, Bing; Zhou, BoWen

    2015-01-01

    We propose two methods of learning vector representations of words and phrases that each combine sentence context with structural features extracted from dependency trees. Using several variations of neural network classifier, we show that these combined methods lead to improved performance when used as input features for supervised term-matching.

  16. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  17. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective

  18. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training

    OpenAIRE

    Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under ...

  19. Representações do corpo: com a palavra um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares Representations of the body: with the word one group of adolescents from popular classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Déa Braga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante da grande preocupação com a estética corporal demonstrada por um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares, o presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar as suas representações sociais de corpo. Tratou-se de investigação de abordagem qualitativa realizada com adolescentes trabalhadores vinculados ao Centro Salesiano do Menor, em Vitória (ES. Uma amostra aleatória foi selecionada de um grupo de 334 sujeitos. Oito meninas e sete meninos foram abordados por meio de entrevista não-estruturada. A partir da análise de suas falas, foi realizada uma categorização e utilizada a teoria das representações sociais para sua discussão. Os resultados apontaram que a percepção de corpo, tanto para meninos quanto para as meninas, está voltada para as idéias de proporcionalidade, normalidade e perfeição. Quanto às consequências de não ter o corpo ideal, ambos apontaram situações como exclusão, doenças, infelicidade e até morte. Aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a percepção, os pensamentos e sentimentos dos adolescentes relativos ao corpo pode contribuir para subsidiar intervenções nesse grupo, ampliando significativamente o âmbito de atuação dos profissionais na área da saúde.In view of the great body aesthetic concern demonstrated by a group of adolescents from popular classes, this study had the purpose of getting to know and analyze the social representations of the body. It investigated the qualitative approach carried out with adolescent workers from the Centro Salesiano do Menor, in Vitória, Espírito Santo State. A random sample was selected from a group of 334 individuals. Eight girls and seven boys were approached by means of non-structured interview. From the analysis of their speeches, a categorization was performed and the theory of the Social Representations was used for discussion. The results pointed out that body perception, for boys as well as for girls, are focused on the ideas of

  20. Representing Word Meaning and Order Information in a Composite Holographic Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a computational model that builds a holographic lexicon representing both word meaning and word order from unsupervised experience with natural language. The model uses simple convolution and superposition mechanisms to learn distributed holographic representations for words. The structure of the resulting lexicon can account…

  1. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

  2. Complex Networks of Words in Fables

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we give an overview of the application of complex network theory to quantify some properties of language. Our study is based on two fables in Ukrainian, Mykyta the Fox and Abu-Kasym's slippers. It consists of two parts: the analysis of frequency-rank distributions of words and the application of complex-network theory. The first part shows that the text sizes are sufficiently large to observe statistical properties. This supports their selection for the analysis of typical properties of the language networks in the second part of the chapter. In describing language as a complex network, while words are usually associated with nodes, there is more variability in the choice of links and different representations result in different networks. Here, we examine a number of such representations of the language network and perform a comparative analysis of their characteristics. Our results suggest that, irrespective of link representation, the Ukrainian language network used in the selected fables i...

  3. Does Grammatical Structure Accelerate Number Word Learning? Evidence from Learners of Dual and Non-Dual Dialects of Slovenian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesničar, Vesna; Razboršek, Tina; Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    How does linguistic structure affect children’s acquisition of early number word meanings? Previous studies have tested this question by comparing how children learning languages with different grammatical representations of number learn the meanings of labels for small numbers, like 1, 2, and 3. For example, children who acquire a language with singular-plural marking, like English, are faster to learn the word for 1 than children learning a language that lacks the singular-plural distinction, perhaps because the word for 1 is always used in singular contexts, highlighting its meaning. These studies are problematic, however, because reported differences in number word learning may be due to unmeasured cross-cultural differences rather than specific linguistic differences. To address this problem, we investigated number word learning in four groups of children from a single culture who spoke different dialects of the same language that differed chiefly with respect to how they grammatically mark number. We found that learning a dialect which features “dual” morphology (marking of pairs) accelerated children’s acquisition of the number word two relative to learning a “non-dual” dialect of the same language. PMID:27486802

  4. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wykowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001, action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing—an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Memelink & Hommel, in press; Wykowska, Schubö, & Hommel, 2009, whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010. The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  5. Word Sense Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Bárta, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis deals with the semantic similarity of words. It describes the design and the implementation of a system, which searches for the most similar words and measures the semantic similarity of words. The system uses the Word2Vec model from GenSim library. It learns the relations among words from CommonCrawl corpus.

  6. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    Full Text Available Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  7. Effective Analysis of Chinese Word-Segmentation Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Weiyin

    2007-01-01

    Automatic word-segmentation is widely used in the ambiguity cancellation when processing large-scale real text,but during the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation,many detected word candidates are invalid.These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy,as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words.In this paper,we propose several methods for reducing the difficulties and improving the accuracy of the word-segmentation of written Chinese,such as full segmentation of a sentence,processing the duplicative word,idioms and statistical identification for unknown words.A simulation shows the feasibility of our proposed methods in improving the accuracy of word-segmentation of Chinese.

  8. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GraziaDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  9. Transforming Graph Representations for Statistical Relational Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Ryan A; Aha, David W; Neville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of statistical relational learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine a range of representation issues for graph-based relational data. Since the choice of relational data representation for the nodes, links, and features can dramatically affect the capabilities of SRL algorithms, we survey approaches and opportunities for relational representation transformation designed to improve the performance of these algorithms. This leads us to introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. In particular, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type...

  10. Detecting "protein words" through unsupervised word segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wang; KaiYong, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised word segmentation methods were applied to analyze the protein sequence. Protein sequences, such as 'MTMDKSELVQKA...', were used as input to these methods. Segmented 'protein word' sequences, such as 'MTM DKSE LVQKA', were then obtained. We compare the 'protein words' produced by unsupervised segmentation and the protein secondary structure segmentation. An interesting finding is that the unsupervised word segmentation is more efficient than secondary structure segmentation in exp...

  11. Evaluating and reducing the effect of data corruption when applying bag of words approaches to medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, P; Baud, R; Geissbühler, A

    2002-12-01

    Unlike journal corpora, which are supposed to be carefully reviewed before being published, the quality of documents in a patient record are often corrupted by mispelled words and conventional graphies or abbreviations. After a survey of the domain, the paper focuses on evaluating the effect of such corruption on an information retrieval (IR) engine. The IR system uses a classical bag of words approach, with stems as representation items and term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) as weighting schema; we pay special attention to the normalization factor. First results shows that even low corruption levels (3%) do affect retrieval effectiveness (4-7%), whereas higher corruption levels can affect retrieval effectiveness by 25%. Then, we show that the use of an improved automatic spelling correction system, applied on the corrupted collection, can almost restore the retrieval effectiveness of the engine. PMID:12460633

  12. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparamete...

  13. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition-including visual word recognition-have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  14. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHannagan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels. As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition - including visual word recognition - have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power.

  15. Word Spotting and Recognition with Embedded Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks. PMID:26353157

  16. On the nature of sonority in spoken word production: evidence from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Buchwald, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The concept of sonority - that speech sounds can be placed along a universal sonority scale that affects syllable structure - has proved valuable in accounting for a wide spectrum of linguistic phenomena and psycholinguistic findings. Yet, despite the success of this concept in specifying principles governing sound structure, several questions remain about sonority. One issue that needs clarification concerns its locus in the processes involved in spoken language production, and specifically whether sonority affects the computation of abstract word form representations (phonology), the encoding of context-specific features (phonetics), or both of these processes. This issue was examined in the present study investigating two brain-damaged individuals with impairment arising primarily from deficits affecting phonological and phonetic processes, respectively. Clear effects of sonority on production accuracy were observed in both individuals testing word onsets and codas in word production. These findings indicate that the underlying principles governing sound structure that are captured by the notion of sonority play a role at both phonological and phonetic levels of processing. Furthermore, aspects of the errors recorded from our participants revealed features of syllabic structure proposed under current phonological theories (e.g., articulatory phonology). PMID:23742841

  17. The Effect of Feature Representation on MEDLINE Document Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    This work explores the effect of text representation techniques on the overall performance of medical text classification. To accomplish this goal, we developed a text classification system that supports the very basic word representation (bag-of-words) and the more complex medical phrase representation (bag-of-phrases). We also combined word and phrase representations (hybrid) for further analysis. Our system extracts medical phrases from text by incorporating a medical knowledge base and natural language processing techniques. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of different representations by measuring the change in classification performance with MEDLINE documents from the OHSUMED dataset. We measured classification performance with information retrieval metrics; precision (p), recall (r), and F1-score (F1). In our experiments, we achieved better classification performance with the hybrid approach (p=0.87, r=0.46, F1=0.60) compared to the bag-of-words approach (p=0.85, r=0.44, F1=0.58) and the bag-of-phrases approach (p=0.87, r=0.42, F1=0.57). PMID:16779160

  18. Does Hearing Several Speakers Reduce Foreign Word Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Jason Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Learning spoken word forms is a vital part of second language learning, and CALL lends itself well to this training. Not enough is known, however, about how auditory variation across speech tokens may affect receptive word learning. To find out, 144 Thai university students with no knowledge of the Patani Malay language learned 24 foreign words in…

  19. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  20. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Luit de Jonge. Luit de Jonge My only year as president (mid-1982 to mid-1983) of the Staff Association was intense and eventful. Michel Vitasse, who had prepared the ground for me as his successor, had previously worked with his deputies on the modes of staff representation in major international organizations. We had only one official body for discussions with Management, the Standing Consultation Committee (SCC). As its name suggests, this committee was advisory only, but we, the Staff Association, wanted to negotiate and reach signed agreements. A joint group had been established (President Günther Ullmann and Vice President Romain Pittin, who at the same time was Vice-President of the Staff Association) to study the issue. In the end, it was clear that the CERN Management did not want to chang...

  1. Topic2Vec: Learning Distributed Representations of Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Li-Qiang; Dai, Xin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) mining thematic structure of documents plays an important role in nature language processing and machine learning areas. However, the probability distribution from LDA only describes the statistical relationship of occurrences in the corpus and usually in practice, probability is not the best choice for feature representations. Recently, embedding methods have been proposed to represent words and documents by learning essential concepts and representations, s...

  2. Real numbers having ultimately periodic representations in abstract numeration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, P.; Rigo, M

    2002-01-01

    Using a genealogically ordered infinite regular language, we know how to represent an interval of R. Numbers having an ultimately periodic representation play a special role in classical numeration systems. The aim of this paper is to characterize the numbers having an ultimately periodic representation in generalized systems built on a regular language. The syntactical properties of these words are also investigated. Finally, we show the equivalence of the classical "theta"-expansions with o...

  3. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. Th...

  4. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. This ...

  5. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  6. Representations used by mathematics student teachers in mathematical modeling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytuğ Özaltun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine representations used by mathematics student teachers in steps of mathematical modeling process based on their solutions of problems formed in the context of different classification of modeling. The study was conducted with fifteen secondary mathematics student teachers given a Mathematical Modeling course. The participants were separated into five collaboration groups of three students. Data were collected with the detailed written papers given by the groups for the problems and GeoGebra solution files. The groups benefited from verbal, algebraic, figural, tabular and dynamic representations while they were solving the problems. Considering all steps of the process, groups at most used verbal and algebraic representations. While they used only verbal representation in analyzing the problem, they benefited from at most verbal representation and then figural representation in establishing the systematic structure. The most used is algebraic and then verbal representations in the steps of mathematization, meta-mathematization, and mathematical analysis. In the steps of interpretation/evaluation and the model verification, the groups mainly benefited from verbal and then algebraic representations. Further researches towards why representations are preferred in the specific steps of the mathematical modeling process are suggested.Key Words: Mathematical modeling, modeling problems, mathematics student teachers, representations.

  7. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  8. Representation of Teachers’ Identity in EFL Classroom Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinarni Susilowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This sociocultural linguistic study aimed investigating the teachers’ identity representation in their classroom interactions. This study was conducted by considering the significant roles the teachers played in orchestrating classroom activities which involved the accumulation of the teachers’ efforts, values and beliefs. The findings revealed that the teachers exposed their identity in differentways for both different roles and local positioning which were culturally, socially, politically, and religiously constructed. The teachers also perceived their identity which could be clustered into four broad areas which showed their understanding and the significant functions of their identity representation. Some pedagogical implications were derived from these findingsKey Words: teachers’ identity representation, classroom interactions

  9. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  10. Embedding Word Similarity with Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Felix; Cho, Kyunghyun; Jean, Sebastien; Devin, Coline; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural language models learn word representations, or embeddings, that capture rich linguistic and conceptual information. Here we investigate the embeddings learned by neural machine translation models, a recently-developed class of neural language model. We show that embeddings from translation models outperform those learned by monolingual models at tasks that require knowledge of both conceptual similarity and lexical-syntactic role. We further show that these effects hold when translatin...

  11. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors are temporarily activated in the listener’s mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK 'anorak'. In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana- taken from ANANAS 'pineapple'. Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient candidates.

  12. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  13. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  14. Predictability Effects on Durations of Content and Function Words in Conversational English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Alan; Brenier, Jason; Gregory, Michelle L.; girand, cynthia; Jurafsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Content and function word duration are affected differently by their frequency and predictability. Regression analyses of conversational speech show that content words are shorter when they are more frequent, but function words are not. Repeated content words are shorter, but function words are not. Furthermore, function words have shorter pronunciations, after controlling for frequency and predictability. both content and function words are strongly affected by predictability from the word following them, and only very frequent function words show sensitivity to predictability from the preceding word. The results support the view that content and function words are accessed by different production mechanisms. We argue that words’ form differences due to frequency or repetition stem from their faster or slower lexical access, mediated by a general mechanism that coordinates the pace of higher-level planning and the execution of the articulatory plan.

  15. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  16. Things to think with: words and objects as material symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper integrates archaeology, anthropology and functional brain imaging in an examination of the cognition of words and objects. Based on a review of recent brain imaging experiments, it is argued that in cognition and action, material symbols may be the link between internal representations and objects and words in the world. This principle is applied to the sapient paradox, the slow development of material innovation at the advent of the anatomically modern human. This translates the p...

  17. Word, graph and manifold embedding from Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Tatsunori B.; Alvarez-Melis, David; Jaakkola, Tommi S.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous vector representations of words and objects appear to carry surprisingly rich semantic content. In this paper, we advance both the conceptual and theoretical understanding of word embeddings in three ways. First, we ground embeddings in semantic spaces studied in cognitive-psychometric literature and introduce new evaluation tasks. Second, in contrast to prior work, we take metric recovery as the key object of study, unify existing algorithms as consistent metric recovery methods b...

  18. A new ANEW: Evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Sentiment analysis of microblogs such as Twitter has recently gained a fair amount of attention. One of the simplest sentiment analysis approaches compares the words of a posting against a labeled word list, where each word has been scored for valence, — a “sentiment lexicon” or “affective word...... lists”. There exist several affective word lists, e.g., ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words) developed before the advent of microblogging and sentiment analysis. I wanted to examine how well ANEW and other word lists performs for the detection of sentiment strength in microblog posts in comparison...... with a new word list specifically constructed for microblogs. I used manually labeled postings from Twitter scored for sentiment. Using a simple word matching I show that the new word list may perform better than ANEW, though not as good as the more elaborate approach found in SentiStrength....

  19. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  20. Representation recovers information

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Early agreement within cognitive science on the topic of representation has now given way to a combination of positions. Some question the significance of representation in cognition. Others continue to argue in favor, but the case has not been demonstrated in any formal way. The present paper sets out a framework in which the value of representation-use can be mathematically measured, albeit in a broadly sensory context rather than a specifically cognitive one. Key to the approach is the use...

  1. Generative semantic mechanisms within morphologically complex words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Sosa Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.

  2. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: The role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulatio...

  3. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  4. Motoric Characteristics of Representational Gestures Produced by Young Children in a Naming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, Paola; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the form of representational gestures produced by forty-five hearing children (age range 2 ; 0-3 ; 1) asked to label pictures in words. Five pictures depicting objects and five pictures depicting actions which elicited more representational gestures were chosen for more detailed analysis. The range of gestures produced for each…

  5. Bayesian Word Sense Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Samuel; Lapata, Mirella

    2009-01-01

    Sense induction seeks to automatically identify word senses directly from a corpus. A key assumption underlying previous work is that the context surrounding an ambiguous word is indicative of its meaning. Sense induction is thus typically viewed as an unsupervised clustering problem where the aim is to partition a word’s contexts into different classes, each representing a word sense. Our work places sense induction in a Bayesian context by modeling the contexts of the ambiguous word as samp...

  6. Colourful English Colour Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    English colour words, though very small in number, reflect to a great extent the different cultural connotations of different languages. This paper gives quite a few idiomatic usages,and ranslation examples of some colour words and illustrates the mportance of a clear understanding of cultural - loaded words in translation practice.

  7. 网络口碑效应影响因素的性别差异研究--基于在校大学生消费群体调查%A Gender Differences Research on Factors Affecting the Internet Word of Mouth Effect:Based on Survey of Consumer Groups of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开; 王灵巧; 徐自强

    2015-01-01

    随着网络购物的盛行,网络口碑逐渐受到人们的关注。本文以传播学的5W理论为基础,从口碑传播参与者、口碑信息和口碑传播渠道三个方面构建网络口碑效应影响因素模型,并以性别为调节变量来考察不同影响因素在性别间的差异。采用问卷调查法,以安徽在校大学生为调查研究的对象,通过实证研究发现,传播者的专业能力、口碑负面程度、网站可信度均显著正向影响网络口碑传播效果,并且相对于男性消费者,这些因素对女性接受者口碑传播效果的正向影响更大。%With the popularity of online shopping ,the internet word of mouth has gradually attracted peo‐ple’s attention .This paper is based on 5W theory in communication studies ,and from three aspects to con‐struct the model of factors affecting the internet word of mouth effect ,which are participants spread from word of mouth ,word of mouth information and word of mouth information dissemination channels ,in addi‐tion using gender as a moderator variable to examine gender differences in different factors .Using ques‐tionnaire survey method ,taking college students in Anhui Province as an object of investigation ,the empiri‐cal studies found that professional competence of disseminator ,the degree of negative word of mouth and website credibility significantly all positively affect the network effect of word of mouth ,besides ,relative to male consumers ,the positive effect to female recipients is greater .

  8. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  9. An Overview of Recent Research on Multiple Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David; Etkina, Eugenia; Van Heuvelen, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we focus on some of the recent findings of the physics education research community in the area of multiple representations. The overlying trend with the research is how multiple representations help students learn concepts and skills and assist them in problem solving. Two trends developed from the latter are: how students use multiple representations when solving problems and how different representational formats affect student performance in problem solving. We show how our work relates to these trends and provide the reader with an overall synopsis of the findings related to the advantages and disadvantages of multiple representations for learning physics.

  10. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  11. Dictionary Use as Word Solving Strategy (WSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf Mustafai

    2015-01-01

    L2 learners may try to pick up the unknown word’s meaning from a dictionary. Many different factors, such as how important the meaning of the word is in the passage, the number of unknown words, and the reason the students are working on it, etc., affect the frequency of the student’s use of the dictionary for help. However, trying to guess the meaning of the unknown word from the context before consulting a dictionary is more beneficial since this may help the learners to pick the correct me...

  12. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vijayapal Reddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

  13. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  14. Social Representations of Responsibility in Guatemalan Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility is a key concept in the twentieth century because it establishes a connection between the individual and society. Recent studies analyze the responsibility as a relational concept that connects the individual to an event and its outcomes. In that sense, the responsibility may be linked to Markova perspective on dialogicality and social representations because it activates the Ego-Alter-Object dynamic: being responsible for something (Ego toward someone (Alter, and in relation to an instance (object. This paper analyzes the social representations of responsibility in a sample of 296 university students from Guatemala, who answered six stimulus words I Responsible, I Irresponsible, Responsible Guatemalan, Irresponsible Guatemalan, Responsible European and Irresponsible European, using the natural semantic networks technique. Subsequently two questionnaires were made; one about responsibility and irresponsibility on a personal, in group and out group level, based on semantic networks obtained. Finally, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were made.

  15. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  16. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  17. Adults Show Less Sensitivity to Phonetic Detail in Unfamiliar Words, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine S.; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Young word learners fail to discriminate phonetic contrasts in certain situations, an observation that has been used to support arguments that the nature of lexical representation and lexical processing changes over development. An alternative possibility, however, is that these failures arise naturally as a result of how word familiarity affects…

  18. Object Familiarity Enhances Infants' Use of Phonetic Detail in Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    Infants greatly refine their ability to discriminate language sounds by 12 months, yet 14-month-olds appear to confuse similar-sounding novel words. Two explanations could account for this phenomenon: infants initially have incomplete phoneme representations, suggesting developmental discontinuity; or word-learning demands interfere with use of…

  19. Instructional Benefits of Spoken Words: A Review of Cognitive Load Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and…

  20. Toward a Theory of Variation in the Organization of the Word Reading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G.

    2016-01-01

    The strategy underlying most computational models of word reading is to specify the organization of the reading system--its architecture and the processes and representations it employs--and to demonstrate that this organization would give rise to the behavior observed in word reading tasks. This approach fails to adequately address the variation…

  1. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in Int J Billing 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in Am J Psychol, in press), and rapid serial visual processing (Knickerbocker and Altarriba in Vis Cogn 21(5):599-627, 2013). Each of these studies has found significant differences in emotion and emotion-laden word processing. The current study investigated this word type distinction using a bilingual sample, to assess emotion and emotion-laden word processing in a bilingual's two languages. Sixty Spanish-English bilinguals performed a masked LDT with positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden word pairs, in either Spanish or English. Overall, the four-way interaction of relatedness, word type, valence, and language was significant. Response times (RTs) to emotion words were significantly faster than RTs to emotion-laden words, but only in English. These results indicate that the emotion/emotion-laden word type distinction may be the most robust in a person's dominant language. PMID:25732384

  2. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  3. Task-dependent modulation of word processing mechanisms during modified visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampure, Julien; Benraiss, Abdelrhani; Vibert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    During visual search for words, the impact of the visual and semantic features of words varies as a function of the search task. This event-related potential (ERP) study focused on the way these features of words are used to detect similarities between the distractor words that are glanced at and the target word, as well as to then reject the distractor words. The participants had to search for a target word that was either given literally or defined by a semantic clue among words presented sequentially. The distractor words included words that resembled the target and words that were semantically related to the target. The P2a component was the first component to be modulated by the visual and/or semantic similarity of distractors to the target word, and these modulations varied according to the task. The same held true for the later N300 and N400 components, which confirms that, depending on the task, distinct processing pathways were sensitized through attentional modulation. Hence, the process that matches what is perceived with the target acts during the first 200 ms after word presentation, and both early detection and late rejection processes of words depend on the search task and on the representation of the target stored in memory. PMID:26176489

  4. Learning Better Word Embedding by Asymmetric Low-Rank Projection of Knowledge Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Fei; Gao, Bin; Chen, Enhong; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Word embedding, which refers to low-dimensional dense vector representations of natural words, has demonstrated its power in many natural language processing tasks. However, it may suffer from the inaccurate and incomplete information contained in the free text corpus as training data. To tackle this challenge, there have been quite a few works that leverage knowledge graphs as an additional information source to improve the quality of word embedding. Although these works have achieved certai...

  5. Indecomposable representations for parabose algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general study of the representations of the graded Lie algebra of parabose oscillators is given. Besides realizing the standard representations, we also find some interesting indecomposable (not fully reducible) representations. (author)

  6. Distance-Dependent Processing of Pictures and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and…

  7. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  8. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  9. Hierarchical Character-Word Models for Language Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jaech, Aaron; Mulcaire, George; Hathi, Shobhit; Ostendorf, Mari; Smith, Noah A.

    2016-01-01

    Social media messages' brevity and unconventional spelling pose a challenge to language identification. We introduce a hierarchical model that learns character and contextualized word-level representations for language identification. Our method performs well against strong base- lines, and can also reveal code-switching.

  10. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  11. The study of Social Representation Systems: Relationships Involving Representations on Agings, AIDS and the Body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have pointed out that social representations on AIDS, aging and the body might be connected. The present paper reports an exploratory study that aims at characterizing their relationships. The sample was composed of 1118 secondary school and university undergraduate students, who completed a questionnaire about one of the three objects. The main task was to choose 3 of 12 words extracted from the literature that were more strongly related with the object in question, and then justify their choices. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis and typical vocabulary analysis. The results from correspondence analysis suggested that the representations on AIDS and the body are associated with the element young, whereas the representations on the body and old age intersect on elements ‘health’ and ‘life’. It is concluded that there is empirical evidence of interaction zones involving the mentioned representations, and the reference to thêmata and recent developments from the structural approach might provide the guidelines to the underlying logic of a representational system.

  12. Controlled Experiments for Word Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Benjamin J.; Schakel, Adriaan M. J.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental approach to studying the properties of word embeddings is proposed. Controlled experiments, achieved through modifications of the training corpus, permit the demonstration of direct relations between word properties and word vector direction and length. The approach is demonstrated using the word2vec CBOW model with experiments that independently vary word frequency and word co-occurrence noise. The experiments reveal that word vector length depends more or less linearly on bo...

  13. Representations and Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302. ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  15. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  16. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  17. Chinese word sense disambiguation based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting; LU Zhi-mao; LANG Jun; LI Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The input of a network is the key problem for Chinese word sense disambiguation utilizing the neural network. This paper presents an input model of the neural network that calculates the mutual information between contextual words and the ambiguous word by using statistical methodology and taking the contextual words of a certain number beside the ambiguous word according to ( - M, + N). The experiment adopts triple-layer BP Neural Network model and proves how the size of a training set and the value of M and N affect the performance of the Neural Network Model. The experimental objects are six pseudowords owning three word-senses constructed according to certain principles. The tested accuracy of our approach on a closed-corpus reaches 90. 31% ,and 89. 62% on an open-corpus. The experiment proves that the Neural Network Model has a good performance on Word Sense Disambiguation.

  18. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  19. Multiple sparse representations classification

    OpenAIRE

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small...

  20. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surro...

  1. A Study on the Affective Priming Effect of Network Emoticons, Cartoon Emoticons and Chinese Two-character Words%网络表情符号、卡通表情图片和汉语双字词的情绪启动效应探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼

    2015-01-01

    采用3(启动刺激:卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词)×2(启动刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)×2(目标刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)完全被试内设计,比较卡通表情图片、网络表情符号和汉语双字词这三种启动材料之间的情绪启动效果。结果发现,卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词都存在情绪启动效应,且卡通表情图片的情绪启动效果好于网络表情符号和汉语双字词,网络表情符号和汉语双字词之间的启动效果没有显著差异。他们间的差异主要体现在负启动的抑制作用上,即对与启动材料情绪效价不一致的目标刺激的反应时上存在显著差异,在正启动的促进作用上不存在显著差异。%Adopt complete within‐subjects design of 3 (prime stimulus :cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons or Chinese two‐character words) × 2 (emotional types of prime stimulus :positive or negative) × 2 (emotional types of target stimulus :positive or negative) ,and compare the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words these three priming materials .The result shows that there exist affective priming effects in cartoon emoti‐cons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons are better than those of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,and there are no significant differences between the priming effects of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words .The differences are mainly embodied in the inhibitory action on the negative priming ,i .e .there are significant differences in their reaction to the target stimulus which are not inconform‐ity with the emotional valence of priming materials but no significant differences in the promoting action on the positive prim‐ing .

  2. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, W.; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.......We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...

  3. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dy...

  4. Temporal Stability and Authenticity of Self-Representations in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Jacobs, Laurie M.; Hastings, Catherine T.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal stability of role-specific self-representations was examined in a sample of 188 young, middle-aged, and older adults. Considerable stability was observed for all self-representations. Central self-descriptors showed significantly greater temporal stability than peripheral self-descriptors. Temporal stability of self-representations was positively associated with self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and positive affect (PA). Age differences were obtained for three of the five self-r...

  5. Bayesian Neural Word Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Barkan, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several works in the domain of natural language processing presented successful methods for word embedding. Among them, the Skip-gram (SG) with negative sampling, known also as Word2Vec, advanced the state-of-the-art of various linguistics tasks. In this paper, we propose a scalable Bayesian neural word embedding algorithm that can be beneficial to general item similarity tasks as well. The algorithm relies on a Variational Bayes solution for the SG objective and a detailed step by ...

  6. Automatic measurement and representation of prosodic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Goangshiuan Shawn

    Effective measurement and representation of prosodic features of the acoustic signal for use in automatic speech recognition and understanding systems is the goal of this work. Prosodic features-stress, duration, and intonation-are variations of the acoustic signal whose domains are beyond the boundaries of each individual phonetic segment. Listeners perceive prosodic features through a complex combination of acoustic correlates such as intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency (F0). We have developed new tools to measure F0 and intensity features. We apply a probabilistic global error correction routine to an Average Magnitude Difference Function (AMDF) pitch detector. A new short-term frequency-domain Teager energy algorithm is used to measure the energy of a speech signal. We have conducted a series of experiments performing lexical stress detection on words in continuous English speech from two speech corpora. We have experimented with two different approaches, a segment-based approach and a rhythm unit-based approach, in lexical stress detection. The first approach uses pattern recognition with energy- and duration-based measurements as features to build Bayesian classifiers to detect the stress level of a vowel segment. In the second approach we define rhythm unit and use only the F0-based measurement and a scoring system to determine the stressed segment in the rhythm unit. A duration-based segmentation routine was developed to break polysyllabic words into rhythm units. The long-term goal of this work is to develop a system that can effectively detect the stress pattern for each word in continuous speech utterances. Stress information will be integrated as a constraint for pruning the word hypotheses in a word recognition system based on hidden Markov models.

  7. Word 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Want to write great looking documents but can't seem to get ahandle on paragraph structuring? Unfamiliar with some of thebuttons and functions on your menu bar? Need to add page numbersfor a paper but can't find the controls? Word 2003 ForDummies will show you the quick and easy way to navigatethrough the trickiness of Microsoft Word. This book will be yourcomprehensive guide to using this word processor like a pro. Word 2003 For Dummies shows you all the essentials ofbuilding, reviewing, and adding cool new features to Worddocuments. No wonder the previous editions sold over 1.7 millioncopie

  8. Number word structure in first and second language influences arithmetic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat ePrior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in how they represent numerical information, and specifically whether the verbal notation of numbers follows the same order as the symbolic notation (in non-inverted languages, e.g. Hebrew, 25, twenty-five or whether the two notations diverge (in inverted languages, e.g. Arabic, 25, five-and-twenty. We examined how the structure of number-words affects how arithmetic operations are processed by bilingual speakers of an inverted and a non-inverted language. We examined Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals' performance in the first language, L1 (inverted and in the second language, L2 (non-inverted. Their performance was compared to that of Hebrew L1 speakers, who do not speak an inverted language. Participants judged the accuracy of addition problems presented aurally in L1, aurally in L2 or in visual symbolic notation. Problems were presented such that they matched or did not match the structure of number words in the language. Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals demonstrated both flexibility in processing and adaptation to the language of aural-verbal presentation – they were more accurate for the inverted order of presentation in Arabic, but more accurate for non-inverted order of presentation in Hebrew, thus exhibiting the same pattern found for native Hebrew speakers. In addition, whereas native Hebrew speakers preferred the non-inverted order in visual symbolic presentation as well, the Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals showed enhanced flexibility, without a significant preference for one order over the other, in either speed or accuracy. These findings suggest that arithmetic processing is sensitive to the linguistic representations of number words. Moreover, bilinguals exposed to inverted and non-inverted languages showed influence of both systems, and enhanced flexibility in processing. Thus, the L1 does not seem to have exclusive power in shaping numerical mental representations, but rather the system remains open to influences from a later learned

  9. Dictionary Use as Word Solving Strategy (WSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Mustafai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L2 learners may try to pick up the unknown word’s meaning from a dictionary. Many different factors, such as how important the meaning of the word is in the passage, the number of unknown words, and the reason the students are working on it, etc., affect the frequency of the student’s use of the dictionary for help. However, trying to guess the meaning of the unknown word from the context before consulting a dictionary is more beneficial since this may help the learners to pick the correct meaning relevant to the text. Using a dictionary should be limited to those unguessable words whose meanings can hinder the learner’s understanding.

  10. Ghosts in the nursery: a case study of the maternal representations of a woman who killed her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gous

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternal representations as described by Stern (1995:171-190 are used in an extreme case to illustrate the link between depression and pathogenic maternal representations. Opsomming Die moedervoorstellings soos dit deur Stern (1995:171-190 beskryf word, word in ‘n ekstreme geval gebruik om die verband tussen depressie en patogene moedervoorstellings aan te toon. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. Lexical Characteristics of Spanish and English Words and the Development of Phonological Awareness Skills in Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The lexical restructuring model (LRM) is a theory that attempts to explain the developmental origins of phonological awareness (PA). According to the LRM, various characteristics of words should be related to the extent to which words are segmentally represented in the lexicon. Segmental representations of words allow children to access the parts…

  12. Children's mappings between number words and the approximate number system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odic, Darko; Le Corre, Mathieu; Halberda, Justin

    2015-05-01

    Humans can represent number either exactly--using their knowledge of exact numbers as supported by language, or approximately--using their approximate number system (ANS). Adults can map between these two systems--they can both translate from an approximate sense of the number of items in a brief visual display to a discrete number word estimate (i.e., ANS-to-Word), and can generate an approximation, for example by rapidly tapping, when provided with an exact verbal number (i.e., Word-to-ANS). Here we ask how these mappings are initially formed and whether one mapping direction may become functional before the other during development. In two experiments, we gave 2-5 year old children both an ANS-to-Word task, where they had to give a verbal number response to an approximate presentation (i.e., after seeing rapidly flashed dots, or watching rapid hand taps), and a Word-to-ANS task, where they had to generate an approximate response to a verbal number request (i.e., rapidly tapping after hearing a number word). Replicating previous results, children did not successfully generate numerically appropriate verbal responses in the ANS-to-Word task until after 4 years of age--well after they had acquired the Cardinality Principle of verbal counting. In contrast, children successfully generated numerically appropriate tapping sequences in the Word-to-ANS task before 4 years of age--well before many understood the Cardinality Principle. We further found that the accuracy of the mapping between the ANS and number words, as captured by error rates, continues to develop after this initial formation of the interface. These results suggest that the mapping between the ANS and verbal number representations is not functionally bidirectional in early development, and that the mapping direction from number representations to the ANS is established before the reverse. PMID:25721021

  13. Possibilities of Terminological Interpretation And Lexicographical Reflection of Potential Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Borisovna Gatsalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretical and practical aspects of studying the potential words that are presented as a category of the lexical stratum of the language. The term "potential word" is considered in the light of functional temporality and with some relevance of its referent reflection in the language and speech. Controversial issues of "potentiality" representation are clarified and it is stated in the article that a "potential word' as a notion under study conceptually belongs to a lexicographical layer of the language but not to speech, and it is supported with rather few cases of a potential word presence in the dictionaries. Having analyzed registration practice in the Ossetian Orthography Dictionary the authors state the necessity to keep to a set of factors in lexicographical presentation of "future" and "possible" words, as the dictionary contains vocabulary of a specific period, and inclusion into its lexicographical list the words that haven't yet appeared in the language might reflect the actual vocabulary of the time in edition in the wrong way. According to the authors the original understanding of the term "potentiality" as an opportunity for a word to appear makes it evident that only a word-forming nest may be registered in the dictionary.

  14. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  15. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  16. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  17. Words within words in a real-speech corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.; Baayen, R.; Drexler, H.

    1994-01-01

    In a 50,000-word corpus of spoken British English the occurrence of words embedded within other words is reported. Within-word embedding in this real speech sample is common, and analogous to the extent of embedding observed in the vocabulary. Imposition of a syllable boundary matching constraint reduces but by no means eliminates spurious embedding. Embedded words are most likely to overlap with the beginning of matrix words, and thus may pose serious problems for speech recognisers.

  18. A word-count approach to analyze linguistic patterns in the reflective writings of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching reflection and administering reflective writing assignments to students are widely practiced and discussed in medical education and health professional education. However, little is known about how medical students use language to construct their narratives. Exploring students’ linguistic patterns in their reflective writings can facilitate understanding the scope and facets of their reflections and their representational or communication approaches to share their experiences. Moreover, research findings regarding gender differences in language use are inconsistent. Therefore, we attempted to examine how females and males differ in their use of words in reflective writing within our research circumstance to detect the unique and gender-specific approaches to learning and their applications. Methods: We analyzed the linguistic profiles of psychological process categories in the reflective writings of medical students and examined the difference in word usage between male and female medical students. During the first year of a clinical rotation, 60 fifth-year medical students wrote reflective narratives regarding pediatric patients and the psychosocial challenges faced by the patients and their family members. The narratives were analyzed using the Chinese version of Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (CLIWC, a text analysis software program. Multivariate procedures were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cognitive words were most pervasive, averaging 22.16%, whereas perceptual words (2.86% were least pervasive. Female students used more words related to positive emotions and sadness than did male students. The male students exceeded the female students only in the space category. The major limitation of this study is that CLIWC cannot directly acquire contextual text meanings; therefore, depending on the research topic, further qualitative study of the given texts might be necessary. Conclusions: To enhance students

  19. Matrix Representation of Ukrainian Axionomens Used in the Danube Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Soroka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the investigation of the nouns denoting national values in their formalized representation on the material of the Ukrainian language. Matrix representation of non-material values gives an opportunity to describe in detail the structure of lexical meangings of axionouns, to distinguish the degree of their related semantics, to expose the functional character of semes forming definite structures within the framework of analyzed words, as well as the axiounits do the same in the lexico-semantic fields.

  20. Computer simulation as representation of knowledge in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Aebli's operative method (1963) and Bruner's (1974) theory of representation the development of the process of thinking in teaching has the following phases - levels of abstraction: manipulation with specific things (specific phase), iconic representation (figural phase), symbolic representation (symbolic phase). Modern information technology has contributed to the enrichment of teaching and learning processes, especially in the fields of natural sciences and mathematics and those of production and technology. Simulation appears as a new possibility in the representation of knowledge. According to Guetzkow (1972) simulation is an operative representation of reality from a relevant aspect. It is about a model of an objective system, which is dynamic in itself. If that model is material it is a simple simulation, if it is abstract it is a reflective experiment, that is a computer simulation. This present work deals with the systematization and classification of simulation methods in the teaching of natural sciences and mathematics and of production and technology with special retrospective view on computer simulations and exemplar representation of the place and the role of this modern method of cognition. Key words: Representation of knowledge, modeling, simulation, education

  1. Word maps and Waring type problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michael; Shalev, Aner

    2009-04-01

    Waring's classical problem deals with expressing every natural number as a sum of g(k) k th powers. Recently there has been considerable interest in similar questions for nonabelian groups and simple groups in particular. Here the k th power word is replaced by an arbitrary group word w ne 1 , and the goal is to express group elements as short products of values of w . We give a best possible and somewhat surprising solution for this Waring type problem for various finite simple groups, showing that a product of length two suffices to express all elements. We also show that the set of values of w is very large, improving various results obtained so far. Along the way we also obtain new results of independent interest on character values and class squares in symmetric groups. Our methods involve algebraic geometry, representation theory, probabilistic arguments, as well as results from analytic number theory, including three primes theorems (approximating Goldbach's Conjecture).

  2. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises, are...

  3. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes....... Thus, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more...

  4. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  5. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  6. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work...... regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives....

  7. Memetics of representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Rubertis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss about the physiological genesis of representation and then it will illustrate the developments, especially in evolutionary perspective, and it will show how these are mainly a result of accidental circumstances, rather than of deliberate intention of improvement. In particular, it will be argue that the representation has behaved like a meme that has arrived to its own progressive evolution coming into symbiosis with the different cultures in which it has spread, and using in this activity human work “unconsciously”. Finally it will be shown how in this action the geometry is an element key, linked to representation both to construct images using graphics operations and to erect buildings using concrete operations.

  8. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  9. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  10. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  11. Scientific Representation and Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ghins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by showing that the contact of our models with reality is grounded on the truth of ontic judgements. I conclude by examining.

  12. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    experiences within a club as a way of understanding the complexities of pleasure. The study does so by addressing experiences through the concept of affects, which is situated within a framework of a non-representational theory of space. Anxiety, pride, anger, shame and embarrassment are embodied...

  13. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-01-01

    The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan stu...

  14. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan students.

  15. Proportional Representation with Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco De Sinopoli; Giovanna Iannantuoni; Elena Manzoni; Carlos Pimienta

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model with strategic voting in a parliamentary election with proportional representation and uncertainty about voters’ preferences. In any equilibrium of the model, most voters only vote for those parties whose positions are extreme. In the resulting parliament, a consensus government forms and the policy maximizing the sum of utilities of the members of the government is implemented.

  16. Social representations about cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Cirila Škufca

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are presenting the results of the comparison study on social representations and causal attributions about cancer. We compared a breast cancer survivors group and control group without own experience of cancer of their own. Although social representations about cancer differ in each group, they are closely related to the concept of suffering, dying and death. We found differences in causal attribution of cancer. In both groups we found a category of risky behavior, which attributes a responsibility for a disease to an individual. Besides these factors we found predominate stress and psychological influences in cancer survivors group. On the other hand control group indicated factors outside the ones control e.g. heredity and environmental factors. Representations about a disease inside person's social space are important in co-shaping the individual process of coping with own disease. Since these representations are not always coherent with the knowledge of modern medicine their knowledge and appreciation in the course of treatment is of great value. We find the findingss of applied social psychology important as starting points in the therapeutic work with patients.

  17. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  19. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed. PMID:27322885

  20. “Without love you can not develop a good work”: analysis of social representation of teachers inclusion on school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia Rodrigues Albuquerque

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational legislation, and the National Policy on Education in Brazil highlight the Special Education as a means of education, offered, preferably in the regular school network, whose guiding principle is the inclusion. This article presents the results of a study of social representations to include school teachers between the public network developed in the Graduate Program in Education at the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Participants in the survey are 43 teachers of students with disabilities in the municipal network of Jaboatao of Exmouth-EP. Data were collected through the free association of words and the results indicate that the inclusion in school social representation of teachers is an act of love. The character of the emotional evocations excels is in the social representations of students with disabilities affecting the meaning of inclusion as a right of a student with disabilities. Thus, the Special Education, despite its merits and achievements, such as social right constitutionally guaranteed to persons with disabilities continues to be denied.

  1. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes-color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation-for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes. PMID:25750259

  2. Neural substrates of phonological and lexicosemantic representations in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; Collette, Fabienne; Degueldre, Christian; Del Fiore, Guy; Laureys, Steven; Moonen, Gustave; Salmon, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The language profile of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by lexicosemantic impairments but also by phonological deficits, as shown by an increasing number of neuropsychological studies. This study explored the functional neural correlates underlying phonological and lexicosemantic processing in AD. Using H(215)O PET functional brain imaging, a group of mild to moderate AD patients and a group of age-matched controls were asked to repeat four types of verbal stimuli: words, wordlike nonwords (WL+), non-wordlike nonwords (WL-) and simple vowels. The comparison between the different conditions allowed us to determine brain activation preferentially associated with lexicosemantic or phonological levels of language representations. When repeating words, AD patients showed decreased activity in the left temporo-parietal and inferior frontal regions relative to controls, consistent with distorted lexicosemantic representations. Brain activity was abnormally increased in the right superior temporal area during word repetition, a region more commonly associated with perceptual-phonological processing. During repetition of WL+ and WL- nonwords, AD patients showed decreased activity in the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus, presumably associated with sublexical phonological information; at the same time, AD patients showed larger activation than controls in the inferior temporal gyrus, typically associated with lexicosemantic levels of representation. Overall, the results suggest that AD patients use altered pathways to process phonological and lexicosemantic information, possibly related to a progressive loss of specialization of phonological and lexicosemantic neural networks. PMID:18095283

  3. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O’Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and thus guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in two masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets’ first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar co-activated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. PMID:26618911

  4. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  5. Meaning representation for automatic indexing of Arabic texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhouche Abdelali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of indexing is to identify the words that represent the main idea of a paragraph or a specific text, in the framework of the representation of the meaning in an automatic treatment (NLP of the Arabic; we propose a model based on conceptual vectors. These vectors try to represent the whole of ideas contained in textual segment (word, expression, texts. This model lean on modern linguistic conception the semantic field theory. By basing itself on the semantic relations (synonymy, homonymy between the words, we use these fields for the construction of semantic field data base and of a vectorial space then we calculate the meaning of textual segments in the semantic fields. Finally we use this model for indexing the text.

  6. The influence of contextual diversity on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    In a series of analyses over mega datasets, Jones, Johns, and Recchia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115-124, 2012) and Johns et al. (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132:2, EL74-EL80, 2012) found that a measure of contextual diversity that takes into account the semantic variability of a word's contexts provided a better fit to both visual and spoken word recognition data than traditional measures, such as word frequency or raw context counts. This measure was empirically validated with an artificial language experiment (Jones et al.). The present study extends the empirical results with a unique natural language learning paradigm, which allows for an examination of the semantic representations that are acquired as semantic diversity is varied. Subjects were incidentally exposed to novel words as they rated short selections from articles, books, and newspapers. When novel words were encountered across distinct discourse contexts, subjects were both faster and more accurate at recognizing them than when they were seen in redundant contexts. However, learning across redundant contexts promoted the development of more stable semantic representations. These findings are predicted by a distributional learning model trained on the same materials as our subjects. PMID:26597891

  7. Solving Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  8. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation. PMID:26519144

  9. On the Acquisition of Some Basic Word Spelling Mechanisms in a Deep (French) and a Shallow (Spanish) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria Soledad; Alegria, Jesus; Marin, Javier

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to compare the time course of the acquisition of two basic spelling mechanisms in Spanish, a shallow system, and French, a deep system. The first was lexical. It relies on the orthographic lexicon, a hypothetical structure containing the orthographic representations of words accessible for word spelling. To evaluate…

  10. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  11. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  12. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA) algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs) representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications. PMID:26193271

  13. Decorporation: Officially a word

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition

  14. Decorporation: officially a word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. PMID:10772031

  15. The words students need

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction in schools is often fragmented, which results in students having problems engaging with textbooks and other academic materials. A system of cross-content, whole-school vocabulary could prove to be the solution to better reading comprehension. In order to implement a program of whole-school vocabulary instruction, the teaching team needs to select vocabulary words to teach, ensure that these words are repeated and that students are well-exposed to their usage, encourage ...

  16. Infinite Dimensional Word Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Nalisnick, Eric; Ravi, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for learning word embeddings with stochastic dimensionality. Our Infinite Skip-Gram (iSG) model specifies an energy-based joint distribution over a word vector, a context vector, and their dimensionality. By employing the same techniques used to make the Infinite Restricted Boltzmann Machine (Cote & Larochelle, 2015) tractable, we define vector dimensionality over a countably infinite domain, allowing vectors to grow as needed during training. After training, we find that...

  17. Word Identification in Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Pisoni, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Speech intelligibility has traditionally been measured by presenting words mixed in noise to listeners for identification at several different signal-to-noise ratios. The words are produced in isolation or in sentence contexts where the predictability of specific items can be varied. Psychometric functions are typically obtained relating signal-to-noise ratio to percent correct recognition. Error analyses are often carried out by examining response confusions to construct similarity spaces fo...

  18. WORD-ATTACK SKILLS FOR INDONESIAN LEARNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Pranowo

    2006-01-01

    The typical drawbacks that affect most Indonesian learners studying English as the target language concern the strategies in dealing with new dictions. The rule of thumb is that the learners are usually tempted to directly look up the meaning in a dictionary when other ways such as guessing the meaning from the context or by dissecting the words into smaller units so that they are able to get a hint from the base word cannot be engineered. As a result of this activity then, they miss crucial ...

  19. On the geometry underlying a real Lie algebra representation

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Bert, Rodrigo Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a real Lie group with Lie algebra $\\mathfrak g$. Given a unitary representation $\\pi$ of $G$, one obtains by differentiation a representation $d\\pi$ of $\\mathfrak g$ by unbounded, skew-adjoint operators. Representations of $\\mathfrak g$ admitting such a description are called \\emph{integrable,} and they can be geometrically seen as the action of $\\mathfrak g$ by derivations on the algebra of representative functions $g\\mapsto$, which are naturally defined on the homogeneous space $M=G/\\ker\\pi$. In other words, integrable representations of a real Lie algebra can always be seen as realizations of that algebra by vector fields on a homogeneous manifold. Here we show how to use the coproduct of the universal enveloping algebra of $\\mathfrak g$ to generalize this to representations which are not necessarily integrable. The geometry now playing the role of $M$ is a locally homogeneous space. This provides the basis for a geometric approach to integrability questions regarding Lie algebra representations...

  20. Unsupervised Word and Dependency Path Embeddings for Aspect Term Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yichun; Wei, Furu; Dong, Li; Xu, Kaimeng; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel approach to aspect term extraction based on unsupervised learning of distributed representations of words and dependency paths. The basic idea is to connect two words (w1 and w2) with the dependency path (r) between them in the embedding space. Specifically, our method optimizes the objective w1 + r = w2 in the low-dimensional space, where the multi-hop dependency paths are treated as a sequence of grammatical relations and modeled by a recurrent neural netwo...

  1. Retrieval from long-term memory reduces working memory representations for visual features and their bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R; Elliott, Emily M

    2015-02-01

    The ability to remember feature bindings is an important measure of the ability to maintain objects in working memory (WM). In this study, we investigated whether both object- and feature-based representations are maintained in WM. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that retaining a greater number of feature representations (i.e., both as individual features and bound representations) results in a more robust representation of individual features than of feature bindings, and that retrieving information from long-term memory (LTM) into WM would cause a greater disruption to feature bindings. In four experiments, we examined the effects of retrieving a word from LTM on shape and color-shape binding change detection performance. We found that binding changes were more difficult to detect than individual-feature changes overall, but that the cost of retrieving a word from LTM was the same for both individual-feature and binding changes. PMID:25301564

  2. AARP Word 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    It's a whole new Word - make the most of it! Here's exactly what you need to know to get going with Word 2010. From firing up Word, using the spell checker, and working with templates to formatting documents, adding images, and saving your stuff, you'll get the first and last word on Word 2010 with this fun and easy mini guide. So get ready to channel your inner writer and start creating Word files that wow! Open the book and find:Tips for navigating Word with the keyboard and mouseAdvice on using the RibbonHow to edit text and undo mistakesThings to know

  3. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  4. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  5. Retrieval and unification of syntactic structure in sentence comprehension: An fMRI study using word-category ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, T.; Vosse, T.; Kempen, G.; Berkum, J.; Petersson, K.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires the retrieval of single word information from long-term memory, and the integration of this information into multiword representations. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study explored the hypothesis that the left posterior temporal gyrus supports the retrieval of lexical-syntactic information, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes to syntactic unification. Twenty-eight subjects read sentences and word sequences containing word-...

  6. Illusory Memories of Emotionally Charged Words in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Further Evidence for Atypical Emotion Processing Outside the Social Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gaigg, S. B.; Bowler, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with ASD may not accumulate distinct representations of emotional information throughout development. On the basis of this observation we predicted that such individuals would not be any less likely to falsely remember emotionally significant as compared to neutral words when such illusory memories are induced by asking participants to study lists of words that are orthographically associated to these words. Our findings showed that typical participan...

  7. Cognitive Polyphasia, Themata and Blood Donation: Between or Within Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloney, G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive polyphasia has typically been understood through the notion of situated knowledge. This paper adds to this body of work by suggesting that the processes involved in representation, namely themata, be considered in concert with the content of the representation. We present research that investigated why so few people in Australia donate blood when most people agree that blood donation is a worthwhile, altruistic act. Using word association data we show that the representational field associated with blood donation has contradictory normative and functional meanings that are not delineated by donor status. We suggest that the thema of self/other gives rise to a heterogeneous field that manifests as polyphasic responses bound to the salience of the social context

  8. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  9. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  10. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan; Klein, Stefan S; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  11. Computing modular Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Mascot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We compute modular Galois representations associated with a newform $f$, and study the related problem of computing the coefficients of $f$ modulo a small prime $\\ell$. To this end, we design a practical variant of the complex approximations method presented in the book edited by B. Edixhoven and J.-M. Couveignes. Its efficiency stems from several new ingredients. For instance, we use fast exponentiation in the modular jacobian instead of analytic continuation, which greatly reduces the need ...

  12. Computing modular Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Mascot

    2012-01-01

    We compute modular Galois representations associated with a newform $f$, and study the related problem of computing the coefficients of $f$ modulo a small prime $\\ell$. To this end, we design a practical variant of the complex approximations method presented in the book edited by B. Edixhoven and J.-M. Couveignes. Its efficiency stems from several new ingredients. For instance, we use fast exponentiation in the modular jacobian instead of analytic continuation, which greatly reduces the need ...

  13. Repositories with Direct Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Robert Burnell

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of digital repositories could be based on direct representation of the contents with rich semantics and models rather than be collections of documents. The contents of such repositories would be highly structured which should help users to focus on meaningful relationships of the contents. These repositories would implement earlier proposals for model-oriented information organization by extending current work on ontologies to cover state changes, instances, and scenarios. Th...

  14. Numerical representations in primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, M D; MacNeilage, P; M. Ware

    1996-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that human infants and nonhuman primates have a rudimentary numerical system that enables them to count objects or events. More recently, however, studies using a preferential looking paradigm have suggested that preverbal human infants are capable of simple arithmetical operations, such as adding and subtracting a small number of visually presented objects. These findings implicate a relatively sophisticated representational system in the absence of language. To exp...

  15. Representations in Undergraduate Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, John

    2014-01-01

    Representations in undergraduate physics Problem solving is one of the most important parts of undergraduate physics education, yet a huge body of international research has clearly shown that simply being able to solve a set of physics problems correctly is not a good indicator of students having attained appropriate physics understanding. Grounded in a comparison of the way experts and novices solve problems, the research focus has gradually shifted towards the importance of representationa...

  16. Islam and Media Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-01-01

    For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconograph...

  17. Semantic Representation of Synaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia has multifaceted consequences for both subjective experience and cognitive performance. Here, I broach the issue of how synaesthesia is represented in semantic memory. I hypothesize that, for example, in grapheme colour synaesthesia, colour is represented as an additional feature in the semantic network that enables the formation of associations that are not present in non-synaesthetes. Thus, synaesthesia provokes richer memory representations which enable learning opportunities ...

  18. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  19. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  20. Spatial representation of soundscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubezari, Mohammed; Bento Coelho, Jos-Luis

    2001-05-01

    For the last 30 years the concept of soundscape has been largely adopted in many scientific disciplines and by the urban experts for the benefit of a better comprehension and management of the sound environment. However, the spatial representation of the soundscape as a simple tool for the description, management or composition of sound environment is always needed. In this article a method is presented for the spatial sound representation with differentiated sources. The first results are shown. This method gives an account of the soundscape as close as possible to the way it can be perceived by the listener in each location. This method generates qualitative sound maps in a reduced urban scale, based on in situ measurements and on the implication of the measuring subject perception. The maps are sufficient enough to isolate many sound sources of the overall sound field. In this manner, sound quality refers to the sound attribute of a perceived object. It is neither an aesthetic judgment nor traditional psychoacoustics criteria. Concrete examples of application to squares in the city of Lisbon will be shown and discussed. The limits and the prospects of such a qualitative representation will also be presented and discussed.

  1. The Acquisition of a Lexicon from Paired Phoneme Sequences and Semantic Representations

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1994-01-01

    We present an algorithm that acquires words (pairings of phonological forms and semantic representations) from larger utterances of unsegmented phoneme sequences and semantic representations. The algorithm maintains from utterance to utterance only a single coherent dictionary, and learns in the presence of homonymy, synonymy, and noise. Test results over a corpus of utterances generated from the Childes database of mother-child interactions are presented.

  2. Comprehension and Representation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉萍

    2010-01-01

    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.

  3. Visual representations are dominated by intrinsic fluctuations correlated between areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kay, Kendrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic cortical dynamics are thought to underlie trial-to-trial variability of visually evoked responses in animal models. Understanding their function in the context of sensory processing and representation is a major current challenge. Here we report that intrinsic cortical dynamics strongly affect the representational geometry of a brain region, as reflected in response-pattern dissimilarities, and exaggerate the similarity of representations between brain regions. We characterized the representations in several human visual areas by representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) constructed from fMRI response-patterns for natural image stimuli. The RDMs of different visual areas were highly similar when the response-patterns were estimated on the basis of the same trials (sharing intrinsic cortical dynamics), and quite distinct when patterns were estimated on the basis of separate trials (sharing only the stimulus-driven component). We show that the greater similarity of the representational geometries can be explained by coherent fluctuations of regional-mean activation within visual cortex, reflecting intrinsic dynamics. Using separate trials to study stimulus-driven representations revealed clearer distinctions between the representational geometries: a Gabor wavelet pyramid model explained representational geometry in visual areas V1–3 and a categorical animate–inanimate model in the object-responsive lateral occipital cortex. PMID:25896934

  4. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  5. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue that st...... awareness. A research agenda is also included, suggesting specific research activities for evaluating the instructional efficiency of the proposed design....

  6. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Dorr, B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  7. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Maria GraziaDi Bono; MarcoZorzi

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representa...

  8. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    OpenAIRE

    Amancio, Diego R.; Filipi N. Silva; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-01-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the wo...

  9. Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory

    OpenAIRE

    GuillaumeThierry; RhondaMcclain

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness ...

  10. Word of mouth -markkinointi

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomi, Riikka

    2006-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee uutta ilmiötä nimeltään word of mouth -markkinointi. Tutkimusongelmana on selvittää word of mouth -markkinoinnin ja siihen pohjautuvan palvelun tulevaisuuden näkymiä erityisesti markkinointiviestinnän näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyön aineistona käytettiin alan kirjallisuutta, tutkimuksia, internetiä ja haastatteluja. Word of mouth -markkinointi on terminä niin uusi Suomessa, ettei siitä löydy kirjallista materiaalia kovinkaan paljon. Tästä johtuen lähteinä on käytett...

  11. Medical Knowledge Representation System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Zvolský, Miroslav; Zvárová, Jana

    Amsterdam : IOS Press, 2008 - (Andersen, S.; Klein, G.; Schulz, S.; Aarts, J.; Mazzoleni, M.), s. 377-382 ISBN 978-1-58603-864-9. - (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 136). [MIE 2008. International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics /21./. Göteborg (SE), 25.05.2008-28.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * ontology Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  12. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  13. Music as Representational Art

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVolume IMusic as Representational ArtVolume IIAwakeningbyDaniel WalkerDoctor of Philosophy in MusicUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2014Professor Ian Krouse, ChairThere are two volumes to this dissertation; the first is a monograph, and the second is a musical composition, both of which are described below.Volume IMusic is a language that can be used to express a vast range of ideas and emotions. It has been part of the human experience since before recorded ...

  14. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how prayer and praying practice are reflected in archaeological sources. Apart from objects directly involved in the personal act of praying, such as rosaries and praying books, churches and religious foundations played a major role in the medieval system of intercession....... At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh...

  15. A Harmony Search Algorithm with Multi-pitch Adjustment Rate for Symbolic Time Series Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almahdi M. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation task in time series data mining has been a critical issue because the direct manipulation of continuous, high-dimensional data is extremely difficult to complete efficiently. One time series representation approach is a symbolic representation called the Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX. The main function of SAX is to find the appropriate numbers of alphabet symbols and word size that represent the time series. The aim is to achieve the largest alphabet size and maximum word length with the minimum error rate. The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated approach for a symbolic time series data representation that attempts to improve SAX by improving alphabet and word size. The Relative Frequency (RF binning method is employed to obtain alphabet size and is integrated with the proposed Multi-pitch Harmony Search (HSMPAR algorithm to calculate the optimum alphabet and word size. RF is used because of its ability to obtain a sufficient number of intervals with a low error rate compared to other related techniques. HSMPAR algorithm is an optimization algorithm that randomly generates solutions for alphabet and word sizes and selects the best solutions. HS algorithms are compatible with multi-pitch adjustment. The integration of the RF and HSMPAR algorithms is developed to maximize information rather than to improve the error rate. The algorithms are tested on 20 standard time series datasets and are compared with the meta-heuristic algorithms GENEBLA and the original SAX algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method generates larger alphabet and word sizes and achieves a lower error rate than the compared methods. With larger alphabet and word sizes, the proposed method is capable of preserving important information.

  16. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  17. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. PMID:26731198

  18. TYPES OF EXERCISES IN THE STUDY OF WORD ORDER IN PHRASES FOR MONGOLIAN STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Batsuuri Batchimeg

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the linguodidactic fundamentals of teaching Mongolian students Russian word order norms in phrases at the elementary, basic and The first certificate levels Russian as a foreign language, which need to analyze the textbooks and educational programs in Russian as a foreign language in terms of representation in these materials on the topic "The word order ". The material of this analysis and the results are of great interest for the theory and practice-oriented traini...

  19. (Fullmetal) alchemy: the monstrosity of reading words and pictures in shonen manga

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Lesley Anne

    2011-01-01

    Shonen manga (Japanese comics aimed at an audience of teenage boys) are often teeming with monsters, but the texts themselves are more monstrous still. The monstrous combinations of words and picture dispersed across the manga page seem to expose and challenge a fissure within representation itself-but productively so. Through reading a short section of Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, this paper explores the ways in which words and pictures can be combined to produce monstrous composite...

  20. Phonological word-object mapping is contingent upon the nature of the visual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hintz, F.; Huettig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments investigated the impact of the nature of the visual environment on the likelihood of word-object mapping taking place at a phonological level of representation during languagemediated visual search. Dutch participants heard single spoken target words while looking at four objects embedded in displays of different complexity and were asked to indicate the presence or absence of the target object. During filler trials the target objects were present, but during exp...

  1. Integrating Distributional Lexical Contrast into Word Embeddings for Antonym-Synonym Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Walde, Sabine Schulte im; Vu, Ngoc Thang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel vector representation that integrates lexical contrast into distributional vectors and strengthens the most salient features for determining degrees of word similarity. The improved vectors significantly outperform standard models and distinguish antonyms from synonyms with an average precision of 0.66-0.76 across word classes (adjectives, nouns, verbs). Moreover, we integrate the lexical contrast vectors into the objective function of a skip-gram model. The novel embedding...

  2. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning during word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ferro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database, and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  3. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gotseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  4. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  5. Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

    2014-10-01

    Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. PMID:25015421

  6. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  7. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  8. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene;

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter......Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...

  9. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna;

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  10. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  11. Word Phonology in Czech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičan, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, Spring 2014 (2014), s. 2-4. ISSN 1085-2950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-15361P Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : phonological word * phonological corpus * syllable Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://wredhor.pair.com/signatur/iatc/pdf/14spr.pdf

  12. Stuck for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callinan, Carol; Sharp, John

    2011-01-01

    What are children trying to tell when they can't find the words that they need? Children's gestures are valuable in informing teaching practice and how one goes about assessing children's work in science. These children's gestures may have more meaning attached to it than is at first apparent. Use such gesturing to learn what children know and can…

  13. Lost for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

  14. From Thoughts to Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, Marlene

    The activities presented in this book, designed to help children translate their thoughts into spoken and written words, can supplement an elementary teacher's own language arts lessons. Objectives for each activity are listed, with the general focus of the many oral activities being to develop a rich verbal background for future written work. The…

  15. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  16. Merging linear discriminant analysis with Bag of Words model for human action recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for human action recognition, that unifies discriminative Bag of Words (BoW)-based video representation and discriminant subspace learning. An iterative optimization scheme is proposed for sequential discriminant BoWs-based action representation and codebook adaptation based on action discrimination in a reduced dimensionality feature space where action classes are better discriminated. Experiments on four publicly available action recognition data sets...

  17. Towards learning domain-general representations for language from multi-modal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadar, Akos; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Alishahi, Afra

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have gained a reputation for producing state-of-the-art results on many NLP tasks and for producing representations of words, phrases and larger linguistic units that encode complex syntactic and semantic structures. Recently these types of models have also been used

  18. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  19. Simplified representation of concepts and relations on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Hans Rudolf; Frei, Norbert; Mosimann, Hugo; Perger, Csaba; Ulrich, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The fully automated generation of diagnostic codes requires a knowledge-based system which is capable of interpreting noun phrases. The sense content of the words must be analysed and represented for this purpose. The codes are then generated based on this representation.In comparison with other knowledge-based systems, a system of this kind places the emphasis on the data structures and not on the calculus; coding itself is a simple matter compared to the much more difficult task of incorporating the complex information contained in the words used in natural language in a systematic data model. Initial attempts were based on the assumption that each word was linked to one conceptual meaning, whereas such a naive viewpoint certainly no longer applies today. The notation of concepts and their relations is the task at hand.Existing notation methods include predicate logic, conceptual graphs (CGs) as proposed by J. F. Sowa [2], GRAIL as used by the GALEN Project [1] and methods developed as part of the WWW consortium, e.g. RDF's (Resource Description Frameworks). For the purpose of coding, we developed a notation system using "concept particles" back in 1989 [3]. In 1996, the resulting experience led us to represent "concept molecules" (CM), with which both complex data structures and multi-branched rules can be denoted in a simple manner [4]. In this paper we shall explain the principles behind this notation and compare it with another modern concept representation system, conceptual graphs. PMID:16160356

  20. Representation of Musical Computer Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fober, Dominique; Orlarey, Yann; Letz, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience The paper presents a study about the representation of musical computer processes within a music score. The idea is to provide performers with information that could be useful especially in the context of interactive music. The paper starts with a characterization of a musical computer process in order to define the values to be represented. Next it proposes an approach to time representation suitable to asynchronous processes representation.

  1. Ambiguity, Children, Representation, and Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Lumby, Catharine

    2010-01-01

    In her article "Ambiguity, Children, Representation, and Sexuality" Catharine Lumby considers current and historical scholarly and popular debates about the representation of children, including concerns about their sexualisation in such representations. The article begins by examining images taken by photographers in the Victorian era, including Charles Dodgson and Julia Cameron, and asks not only how the gaze of the photographer frames the child but how the child returns the adult gaze. Lum...

  2. GRAPHIC AND REPRESENTABLE FUZZIFYING MATROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-E Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzifying matroid is induced respectively from a fuzzy graph and a fuzzy vector subspace. The concepts of graphic fuzzifying matroid and representable fuzzifying matroid are presented and some properties of them are discussed. In general, a graphic fuzzifying matriod can not be representable over any field. But when a fuzzifying matroid is isomorphic to a fuzzifying cycle matroid which is induced by a fuzzy tree, it is a representable over any field.

  3. Acquiring Word-Meaning Mappings for Natural Language Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a system, WOLFIE (WOrd Learning From Interpreted Examples), that acquires a semantic lexicon from a corpus of sentences paired with semantic representations. The lexicon learned consists of phrases paired with meaning representations. WOLFIE is part of an integrated system that learns to transform sentences into representations such as logical database queries. Experimental results are presented demonstrating WOLFIE's ability to learn useful lexicons for a database interface in four different natural languages. The usefulness of the lexicons learned by WOLFIE are compared to those acquired by a similar system, with results favorable to WOLFIE. A second set of experiments demonstrates WOLFIE's ability to scale to larger and more difficult, albeit artificially generated, corpora. In natural language acquisition, it is difficult to gather the annotated data needed for supervised learning; however, unannotated data is fairly plentiful. Active learning methods attempt to select for annotation...

  4. WORD OF THE MONTH: Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Etymology is the study of the history and origin of words and the way they' ve changed throughout history. The word etymology itself comes from two Greek words: "etumon" (which means "true sense" ), and "logia" (which means "study" ). The origin of words

  5. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  6. WordRank: Learning Word Embeddings via Robust Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shihao; Yun, Hyokun; Yanardag, Pinar; Matsushima, Shin; Vishwanathan, S. V. N.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding words in a vector space has gained a lot of attention in recent years. While state-of-the-art methods provide efficient computation of word similarities via a low-dimensional matrix embedding, their motivation is often left unclear. In this paper, we argue that word embedding can be naturally viewed as a ranking problem due to the ranking nature of the evaluation metrics. Then, based on this insight, we propose a novel framework WordRank that efficiently estimates word representatio...

  7. Algebraic analysis of minimal representations

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Small representations of a group bring us to large symmetries in a representation space. Analysis on minimal representations utilises large symmetries in their geometric models, and serves as a driving force in creating new interesting problems that interact with other branches of mathematics. This article discusses the following three topics that arise from minimal representations of the indefinite orthogonal group: 1. construction of conservative quantities for ultra-hyperbolic equations, 2. quantative discrete branching laws, 3. deformation of the Fourier transform with emphasis on the prominent roles of Sato's idea on algebraic analysis.

  8. Integral geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya

    1966-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 5: Integral Geometry and Representation Theory is devoted to the theory of representations, focusing on the group of two-dimensional complex matrices of determinant one.This book emphasizes that the theory of representations is a good example of the use of algebraic and geometric methods in functional analysis, in which transformations are performed not on the points of a space, but on the functions defined on it. The topics discussed include Radon transform on a real affine space, integral transforms in the complex domain, and representations of the group of comp

  9. A word by any other intonation: fMRI evidence for implicit memory traces for pitch contours of spoken words in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inspector

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41, temporal areas (BA 21 22 bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.

  10. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  11. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered. PMID:7138296

  12. Representations from the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammut, Gordon; Tsirogianni, Stavroula; Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    propose an epidemiological time-series framework for social representations, that are conceptualised as evolving over time and that are subject to a ‘ratchet effect’ that perpetuates meaning in a collective. We argue that understanding forms of social behaviour that draw on lay explanations of social......Psychological life is subject to the influence of a constructed and potentially reconstituted past, as well as to future anticipated outcomes and expectations. Human behaviour occurs along a temporal trajectory that marks the projects individuals adopt in their quests of human action. Explanations...... of social behaviour are limited insofar as they exclude a historical concern with human purpose. In this paper, we draw on Bartlett’s notion of collective remembering to argue that manifest social relations are rooted in past events that give present behaviours meaning and justification. We further...

  13. Entropy analysis of word-length series of natural language texts: Effects of text language and genre

    CERN Document Server

    Kalimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Karamanos, Kostantinos; Diakonos, Fotis K; Papageorgiou, Haris

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the $n$-gram entropies of natural language texts in word-length representation and find that these are sensitive to text language and genre. We attribute this sensitivity to changes in the probability distribution of the lengths of single words and emphasize the crucial role of the uniformity of probabilities of having words with length between five and ten. Furthermore, comparison with the entropies of shuffled data reveals the impact of word length correlations on the estimated $n$-gram entropies.

  14. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    How often a given word is used, relative to other words, can convey information about the word's linguistic utility. Using Google word data for 3 languages over the 209-year period 1800-2008, we found by analyzing word use an anomalous recent change in the birth and death rates of words, which indicates a shift towards increased levels of competition between words as a result of new standardization technology. We demonstrate unexpected analogies between the growth dynamics of word use and the growth dynamics of economic institutions. Our results support the intriguing concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition which evolves according to selection laws that are related to social, technological, and political trends. Specifically, the aggregate properties of language show pronounced differences during periods of world conflict, e.g. World War II.

  15. Acuity of mental representations of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2012-04-01

    Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

  16. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection. PMID:26444043

  17. Word of mouth as a recruitment source: an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoye, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Despite the social realities of job seeking, few studies have addressed how and why employment information received by other people affects organizational attraction. This chapter first discusses the characteristics of word-of-mouth as a recruitment source and then provides a systematic review of its determinants and outcomes studied in previous research. An integrative model of word-of-mouth is developed that synthesizes prior research findings and highlights key directions for future resear...

  18. The interpretation of ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context

    OpenAIRE

    Pollatsek, Alexander; Drieghe, Denis; Stockall, Linnaea; de Almeida, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Many trimorphemic words are structurally and semantically ambiguous. For example, unlockable can either be un-lockable (can’t be locked) or unlock-able (can be unlocked). Which interpretation is preferred and whether prior sentence context affects the initial interpretation is not clear from prior research. The present experiment embedded ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context and manipulated whether prior context disambiguated the meaning or not and examined the pattern of fixation...

  19. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two-word...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a...

  20. Word Learning: An ERP Investigation of Word Experience Effects on Recognition and Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., "gloaming") in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no…

  1. Knowledge Representation Methods in Expert System for Earthquake Prediction ESEP 3.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Wu Gengfeng; Zhang Bofeng; Zheng Zhaobi; Liu Hui; Li Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation is a key to the building of expert systems. The performance of knowledge representation methods directly affects the intelligence level and the problem-solving ability of the system. There are various kinds of knowledge representation methods in ESEP3.0. In this paper, the authors introduce the knowledge representation methods, such as structure knowledge, seismological and precursory forecast knowledge, machine learning knowledge, synthetic prediction knowledge, knowledge to validate and verify certainty factors of anomalous evidence and support knowledge, etc. and propose a model for validation of certainty factors of anomalous evidence. The knowledge representation methods represent all kinds of earthquake prediction knowledge well.

  2. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: A developmental embodied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'angiulli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization, followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors (part 2: matching visualization. Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e. < 300 ms was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e. 300-699 ms and late (i.e. 700-1000 ms ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a post-anterior pathway sequence: occipital, parietal and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an ant-posterior pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying

  3. Recipes: beyond the words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made. PMID:21591315

  4. Slang Word Identification on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushabh Shroff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that people use different words to refer to the same things. We aim to find such similar words and classify their usage based on location. We believe this can have multiple real world usage. Such analysis could help linguistic scientists and aid in linguistic training. If a beverage selling company needed to advertise their product, they could tailor their advertisements to use words based on the map above to connect better with the audience so this data can be used in targeted marketing. On a higher level, if we measure this data over time, we can capture the resilience of words in areas. We can also map the evolution of words over time. For example: some words may fade out of usage, some may spread to other areas, some may even give way to new words. We think this can be a very interesting for businesses as they can measure the evolution of their brand name

  5. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  6. Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Chang XI

    2006-01-01

    We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.

  7. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations. ...

  8. Deconfinement of higher representation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the finite-temperature phase transition of non-abelian gauge theories static quarks, external sources in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, are deconfined. We discuss the behavior of 'quark' sources in higher representations of the gauge group around this deconfinement phase transition. (orig.)

  9. Induction of quantum group representations

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccoli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Induced representations for quantum groups are defined starting from coisotropic quantum subgroups and their main properties are proved. When the coisotropic quantum subgroup has a suitably defined section such representations can be realized on associated quantum bundles on general embeddable quantum homogeneous spaces.

  10. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  11. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  12. The Effects of Using Drawings in Developing Young Children's Mathematical Word Problem Solving: A Design Experiment with Third-Grade Hungarian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikos, Csaba; Szitanyi, Judit; Kelemen, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of a design experiment developed for third-grade students in the field of mathematics word problems. The main focus of the program was developing students' knowledge about word problem solving strategies with an emphasis on the role of visual representations in mathematical modeling. The experiment…

  13. When emotions are expressed figuratively: Psycholinguistic and Affective Norms of 619 Idioms for German (PANIG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Cacciari, Cristina; Kucharski, Michael; Beck, Luna; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-03-01

    Despite flourishing research on the relationship between emotion and literal language, and despite the pervasiveness of figurative expressions in communication, the role of figurative language in conveying affect has been underinvestigated. This study provides affective and psycholinguistic norms for 619 German idiomatic expressions and explores the relationships between affective and psycholinguistic idiom properties. German native speakers rated each idiom for emotional valence, arousal, familiarity, semantic transparency, figurativeness, and concreteness. They also described the figurative meaning of each idiom and rated how confident they were about the attributed meaning. The results showed that idioms rated high in valence were also rated high in arousal. Negative idioms were rated as more arousing than positive ones, in line with results from single words. Furthermore, arousal correlated positively with figurativeness (supporting the idea that figurative expressions are more emotionally engaging than literal expressions) and with concreteness and semantic transparency. This suggests that idioms may convey a more direct reference to sensory representations, mediated by the meanings of their constituting words. Arousal correlated positively with familiarity. In addition, positive idioms were rated as more familiar than negative idioms. Finally, idioms without a literal counterpart were rated as more emotionally valenced and arousing than idioms with a literal counterpart. Although the meanings of ambiguous idioms were less correctly defined than those of unambiguous idioms, ambiguous idioms were rated as more concrete than unambiguous ones. We also discuss the relationships between the various psycholinguistic variables characterizing idioms, with reference to the literature on idiom structure and processing. PMID:25821142

  14. Don't Classify Ratings of Affect; Rank Them!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, H. P.; Yannakakis, G. N.; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    How should affect be appropriately annotated and how should machine learning best be employed to map manifestations of affect to affect annotations? What is the use of ratings of affect for the study of affective computing and how should we treat them? These are the key questions this paper...... attempts to address by investigating the impact of dissimilar representations of annotated affect on the efficacy of affect modelling. In particular, we compare several different binary-class and pairwise preference representations for automatically learning from ratings of affect. The representations are...... attributes, respectively; these attributes are coupled with ratings of various affective and cognitive states. The main results of the paper suggest that ratings (when used) should be naturally transformed to ordinal (ranked) representations for obtaining more reliable and generalisable models of affect. The...

  15. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  16. The Study of the word 'Dahyu'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    معینی سام معینی سام

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the roots of many Persian words are unclear, a researcher should study the vocalic evolution of these words to get to the root. The word Dahyu is one of these words. From Indo-European period to modern Persian, this word has had many different meanings. The writer of this article, studies the different meanings of this word. To reach to the earlier form of the word, the writer has studied the history of the word, from its Indo-European form to modern Persian. In the end, the writer has constructed the most probable root for this word. Key Words: Dahyu, Dasyu, Avesta, Yasht, Old Persian.

  17. Nested symmetric representation of elements of the Suzuki chain groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an economic and concise method for representing the elements of groups involved in the Suzuki chain. For example, we represent each element of Suz:2 by a permutation on 14 letters from L3(2:2 followed by four words, each of length at most two, in 14, 36, 100, and 416 involutory symmetric generators, respectively. Such expressions will have an obvious advantage over permutations on 1782 provided that it is reasonably simple to multiply and invert them. We refer to this as nested symmetric representation of an element of the group.

  18. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  19. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  20. When Our Words Return

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Phyllis; Schneider, William

    1995-01-01

    The title to this interdisciplinary collection draws on the Yupik Eskimo belief that seals, fish, and other game are precious gifts that, when treated with respect and care, will return to be hunted again. Just so, if oral traditions are told faithfully and respectfully, they will return to benefit future generations. The contributors to this volume are concerned with the interpretation and representation of oral narrative and how it is shaped by its audience and the time, place, and cultural...

  1. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian;

    1998-01-01

    subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... recognition were observed: the latter task evoked considerably more prefrontal activity and stronger cerebellar activation. Stimulus degradation was associated with focal increases in bilateral fusiform regions within the occipital lobe. No task, degradation, or item repetition effects were demonstrated in...

  2. Attentional control and word inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henik, Avishai; Carter, Cameron S; Salo, Ruth; Chaderjian, Marc; Kraft, Louis; Nordahl, Thomas E; Robertson, Lynn C

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that schizophrenia patients do not utilize contextual information efficiently to modulate attentional performance. The goal of the current study was to compare the utilization of context in modulating responses to irrelevant information on the Stroop task between a group of schizophrenia outpatients and matched controls. A single-trial version of the Stroop task was used to investigate performance on the Stroop task under three expectancy conditions. Eleven schizophrenia outpatients (on and off antipsychotic medication) and sixteen matched controls were tested. The schizophrenia patients showed: (1) augmented facilitation; (2) interference comparable to normals; and (3) normal ability to reduce interference under certain experimental circumstances. Schizophrenia patients were able to utilize contextual information under certain conditions and could modulate the magnitude of irrelevant word interference, although they were not able to overcome the prepotent tendency to read the word during the Stroop task as effectively as normals, which was reflected in greater Stroop facilitation. This suggests that the integrity or impairment of cognitive control functions in schizophrenia is related to the complexity of the context representation required to support that function. PMID:12057826

  3. REPRESENTATIONAL STRUCTURES AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: ANALYSIS OF SPONTANEOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF SELF AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT MENTAL DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Benedik, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Background: The article was designed to contribute to the empirical clarification of representational structures among adult psychiatric patients. According to psychoanalytic concepts, cognitive developmental psychology and attachment theory, various forms of adult psychopathology involve fundamental impairments in representational structures or cognitive-affective schemas. Subjects and method: We conducted a study to research the structural characteristics of representations of self and s...

  4. The influence of category representations on exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moyun; Xie, Liuqing

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the influence of category representations on exemplar generation, which has been neglected in previous category research. An experiment on college students manipulated the category representation of insects in three conditions (prototypes, exemplars, and the hybrid of prototypes and exemplars). Participants were asked to generate as many exemplars as possible. The results demonstrate that category representations affect and constrain exemplar generation. The new findings are as follows. In the prototype and hybrid conditions with the prototype representation, people tend to generate more valid exemplars by using the prototype mutation mechanism, and exemplar generation conforms to the family resemblance structure. Exemplar generation in the hybrid condition is additionally constrained by known exemplars. In the exemplar condition, people tend to generate fewer valid exemplars by using miscellaneous strategies, and their exemplar generation may not conform to the family resemblance structure. PMID:26275023

  5. An ordinal approach to computing with words and the preference-aversion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Computing with words (CWW) explores the brain’s ability to handle and evaluate perceptions through language, i.e., by means of the linguistic representation of information and knowledge. On the other hand, standard preference structures examine decision problems through the decomposition of the...

  6. Why Do We Mipsell the Middle of Words? Orthographic Texture and the Serial Position Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.

    2013-01-01

    In the current set of studies, a new hypothesis regarding the cause of the commonly observed U-shaped serial position effect (SPE) in spelling is introduced and tested. Instead of greater competition during output or weaker positional representation for word-medial letters, commonly accepted explanations for the cause of the SPE, the…

  7. Wrong word dictionary 2,500 most commonly confused words

    CERN Document Server

    Dowling, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The correct usage for more than 2,500 commonly misused words is provided in this concise and accessible handbook that assures, insures, and ensures that anyone who wants to communicate accurately and effectively chooses the right word every time. Arranged alphabetically in pairs (or threes when appropriate), entries are carefully cross-referenced and explained with a sentence, guaranteeing that readers find boycott, even when they look up embargo first. Two dozen accompanying cartoons humorously clarify confusing distinctions between words, making this a fun reference for all word lovers to en

  8. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use. PMID:25893450

  9. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  10. Do infants perceive word boundaries? An empirical study of the bootstrapping of lexical acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, A; Dupoux, E; Bertoncini, J; Mehler, J

    1994-03-01

    Babies, like adults, hear mostly continuous speech. Unlike adults, however, they are not acquainted with the words that constitute the utterances; yet in order to construct representations for words, they have to retrieve them from the speech wave. Given the apparent lack of obvious cues to word boundaries (such as pauses between words), this is not a trivial problem. Among the several mechanisms that could be explored to solve this bootstrapping problem for lexical acquisition, a tentative but reasonable one posits the existence of some cues (other than silence) that signal word boundaries. In order to test this hypothesis, infants were used as informants in our experiments. It was hypothesized that if word boundary cues exist, and if infants are to use them in the course of language acquisition, then they should at least perceive these cues. As a consequence, infants should be able to discriminate sequences that contain a word boundary from those that do not. A number of bisyllabic stimuli were extracted either from within French words (e.g., mati in mathématicien), or from between words (e.g., mati in panorama typique). Three-day-old infants were tested with a non-nutritive sucking paradigm, and the results of two experiments suggest that infants can discriminate between items that contain a word boundary and items that do not. It is therefore conceivable that newborns are already sensitive to cues that correlate with word boundaries. This result lends plausibility to the hypothesis that infants might use word boundary cues during lexical acquisition. PMID:8176060

  11. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  12. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C.; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  13. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Y Ho

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  14. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  15. Locally Embedding Autoencoders: A Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning Approach of Document Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available Topic models and neural networks can discover meaningful low-dimensional latent representations of text corpora; as such, they have become a key technology of document representation. However, such models presume all documents are non-discriminatory, resulting in latent representation dependent upon all other documents and an inability to provide discriminative document representation. To address this problem, we propose a semi-supervised manifold-inspired autoencoder to extract meaningful latent representations of documents, taking the local perspective that the latent representation of nearby documents should be correlative. We first determine the discriminative neighbors set with Euclidean distance in observation spaces. Then, the autoencoder is trained by joint minimization of the Bernoulli cross-entropy error between input and output and the sum of the square error between neighbors of input and output. The results of two widely used corpora show that our method yields at least a 15% improvement in document clustering and a nearly 7% improvement in classification tasks compared to comparative methods. The evidence demonstrates that our method can readily capture more discriminative latent representation of new documents. Moreover, some meaningful combinations of words can be efficiently discovered by activating features that promote the comprehensibility of latent representation.

  16. Locally Embedding Autoencoders: A Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning Approach of Document Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Luo, Senlin; Ma, Xincheng; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Ji; Pan, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Topic models and neural networks can discover meaningful low-dimensional latent representations of text corpora; as such, they have become a key technology of document representation. However, such models presume all documents are non-discriminatory, resulting in latent representation dependent upon all other documents and an inability to provide discriminative document representation. To address this problem, we propose a semi-supervised manifold-inspired autoencoder to extract meaningful latent representations of documents, taking the local perspective that the latent representation of nearby documents should be correlative. We first determine the discriminative neighbors set with Euclidean distance in observation spaces. Then, the autoencoder is trained by joint minimization of the Bernoulli cross-entropy error between input and output and the sum of the square error between neighbors of input and output. The results of two widely used corpora show that our method yields at least a 15% improvement in document clustering and a nearly 7% improvement in classification tasks compared to comparative methods. The evidence demonstrates that our method can readily capture more discriminative latent representation of new documents. Moreover, some meaningful combinations of words can be efficiently discovered by activating features that promote the comprehensibility of latent representation. PMID:26784692

  17. Locally Embedding Autoencoders: A Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning Approach of Document Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Luo, Senlin; Ma, Xincheng; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Ji; Pan, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Topic models and neural networks can discover meaningful low-dimensional latent representations of text corpora; as such, they have become a key technology of document representation. However, such models presume all documents are non-discriminatory, resulting in latent representation dependent upon all other documents and an inability to provide discriminative document representation. To address this problem, we propose a semi-supervised manifold-inspired autoencoder to extract meaningful latent representations of documents, taking the local perspective that the latent representation of nearby documents should be correlative. We first determine the discriminative neighbors set with Euclidean distance in observation spaces. Then, the autoencoder is trained by joint minimization of the Bernoulli cross-entropy error between input and output and the sum of the square error between neighbors of input and output. The results of two widely used corpora show that our method yields at least a 15% improvement in document clustering and a nearly 7% improvement in classification tasks compared to comparative methods. The evidence demonstrates that our method can readily capture more discriminative latent representation of new documents. Moreover, some meaningful combinations of words can be efficiently discovered by activating features that promote the comprehensibility of latent representation. PMID:26784692

  18. Representation of identities and the politics of representation in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, I make a plea for viewing representation as first and foremost a political matter. I argue that by so doing we may avoid the many of pitfalls of contemporary theories of cognition as they attempt to tackle the issue of representation. Most of these problems have to do with the fact that representation is treated exclusively as a mimetic or theatrical question. The fact of the matter is however that representation also has a political dimension. Indeed it has always had this political dimension which, counterintuitive though it may seem at first glimpse, manifests itself even in very the attempt to aestheticise the whole issue of representation (as in some versions of postmodernism or to deny its role altogether as a tertium quid between the external world and the cognising mind (as in contemporary neo-pragmatism. I also contend that, by recognising the political nature of representation, we also pave the way for endorsing the thesis that the mind is a social construct, thereby taking some steam out of the thesis of "mind-brain identity" (so-called "identity theory of mind".

  19. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  20. Form Some Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hey! The flowerpot (花盆) is a puzzle. You can see some English capital letters on the petals (花瓣) and on the flowerpot. Er! If you count, there are ten English capital letters. Some are the same. They are A, I, U, Rs, Es, Ts and L. After enjoying the pic- ture, finish a task. Please form words as many as you can. The rules are: Letters can only be used once for each time. Plurals, proper names (专有名词) do not count. OK! Start your work at once, please. Have fun!

  1. Sensitivity to morphological composition in spoken word recognition: Evidence from grammatical and lexical identification tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilliams, Laura E; Monahan, Philip J; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-11-01

    Access to morphological structure during lexical processing has been established across a number of languages; however, it remains unclear which constituents are held as mental representations in the lexicon. The present study examined the auditory recognition of different noun types across 2 experiments. The critical manipulations were morphological complexity and the presence of a verbal derivation or nominalizing suffix form. Results showed that nominalizations, such as "explosion," were harder to classify as a noun but easier to classify as a word when compared with monomorphemic words with similar actionlike semantics, such as "avalanche." These findings support the claim that listeners decompose morphologically complex words into their constituent units during processing. More specifically, the results suggest that people hold representations of base morphemes in the lexicon. PMID:25961359

  2. Interference between gestures and words

    OpenAIRE

    Langton, Stephen R. H.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis explores the idea that a speaker's gestural and verbal behaviours are mutually influential in the comprehension process. A Stroop-type interference paradigm was adopted as a tool for investigating whether or not listeners process to-be-ignored gestural information and how this information influences the processing of spoken words. In Experiments 1-4, static pointing (deictic) gestures and corresponding spoken and written words showed symmetrical interference. Incongruent words ...

  3. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  4. Analogy perception applied to seven tests of word comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. In AI research, algorithms for analogy are often limited by the need for hand-coded high-level representations as input. An alternative approach is to use high-level perception, in which high-level representations are automatically generated from raw data. Analogy perception is the process of recognizing analogies using high-level perception. We present PairClass, an algorithm for analogy perception that recognizes lexical proportional analogies using representations that are automatically generated from a large corpus of raw textual data. A proportional analogy is an analogy of the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D". A lexical proportional analogy is a proportional analogy with words, such as carpenter:wood::mason:stone. PairClass represents the semantic relations between two words using a high-dimensional feature vector, in which the elements are based on frequencies of patterns in the corpus. PairClass recognizes analogies by applying s...

  5. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  6. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  7. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  8. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884

  9. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...... one has to assign to social media as a source of reputation for companies and brands, which eventually impact consumers’ choices....

  10. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  11. Texture Representations Using Subspace Embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a texture representation framework to map local texture patches into a low-dimensional texture subspace. In natural texture images, textons are entangled with multiple factors, such as rotation, scaling, viewpoint variation, illumination change, and non-rigid surface deformation. Mapping local texture patches into a low-dimensional subspace can alleviate or eliminate these undesired variation factors resulting from both geometric and photometric transformations. We observe that texture representations based on subspace embeddings have strong resistance to image deformations, meanwhile, are more distinctive and more compact than traditional representations. We investigate both linear and non-linear embedding methods including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) to compute the essential texture subspace. The experiments in the context of texture classification on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed subspace embedding representations achieve the state-of-the-art results while with much fewer feature dimensions. PMID:23710105

  12. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  13. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can be...... distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part in...

  14. Representations of twisted current algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We use evaluation representations to give a complete classification of the finite-dimensional simple modules of twisted current algebras. This generalizes and unifies recent work on multiloop algebras, current algebras, equivariant map algebras, and twisted forms.

  15. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Anantharam, Venkat; Konstantopoulos, Takis

    2010-01-01

    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  16. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  17. Representations of mad cow disease

    OpenAIRE

    Washer, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three ‘snapshots’ of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting a...

  18. Cultural skepticism and 'group representation'

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arguments for group representation have commonly faced three objections: (1) that representing people via their membership of a group promotes sectionalism, parochialism, and the pursuit of vested interests; (2) that it raises impossible questions about which groups qualify for group representation; (3) that it falsely presumes the existence of a group with sufficiently shared interests, perspectives, values, or concerns for some of those group members fairly to represent the others. I have s...

  19. Sparse Representation of Astronomical Images

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Bowley, James

    2012-01-01

    Sparse representation of astronomical images is discussed. It is shown that a significant gain in sparsity is achieved when particular mixed dictionaries are used for approximating these types of images with greedy selection strategies. Experiments are conducted to confirm: i)Effectiveness at producing sparse representations. ii)Competitiveness, with respect to the time required to process large images.The latter is a consequence of the suitability of the proposed dictionaries for approximati...

  20. The socially-weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeghanSumner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: Words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially-idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially-weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially-idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.

  1. Symmetry Transformation in Extended Phase Space: the Harmonic Oscillator in the Husimi Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadolah Nasiri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work the concept of quantum potential is generalized into extended phase space (EPS for a particle in linear and harmonic potentials. It was shown there that in contrast to the Schrödinger quantum mechanics by an appropriate extended canonical transformation one can obtain the Wigner representation of phase space quantum mechanics in which the quantum potential is removed from dynamical equation. In other words, one still has the form invariance of the ordinary Hamilton-Jacobi equation in this representation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to the disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates. Here we show that the Husimi representation is another possible representation where the quantum potential for the harmonic potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form. This happens when the parameter in the Husimi transformation assumes a specific value corresponding to Q-function.

  2. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH; Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Alexander J. Rothman, PhD; Kevin D. McCaul, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005), a nationally representative survey of American adults (N...

  3. Comparing Explicit and Implicit Learning of Emotional and Non-Emotional Words in Autistic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Nejati; Bahareh Barzegar; Elham Faghihi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Explicit and implicit memories have different cerebral origins and learning approaches. Defective emotional words processing in children with autism may affect the memory allocated to such words. The aim of this study was comparing two types of (explicit and implicit) memories during processing the two types of (emotional and non-emotional) words in autistic children and their healthy counterparts. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 14 autist...

  4. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  5. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150–250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300–500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500–700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  6. Plagiarism Detection Using Graph-Based Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Ahmed Hamza; Binwahlan, Mohammed Salem

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism of material from the Internet is a widespread and growing problem. Several methods used to detect the plagiarism and similarity between the source document and suspected documents such as fingerprint based on character or n-gram. In this paper, we discussed a new method to detect the plagiarism based on graph representation; however, Preprocessing for each document is required such as breaking down the document into its constituent sentences. Segmentation of each sentence into separated terms and stop word removal. We build the graph by grouping each sentence terms in one node, the resulted nodes are connected to each other based on order of sentence within the document, all nodes in graph are also connected to top level node "Topic Signature". Topic signature node is formed by extracting the concepts of each sentence terms and grouping them in such node. The main advantage of the proposed method is the topic signature which is main entry for the graph is used as quick guide to the relevant nodes. ...

  7. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  8. Representation of psychosomatic disturbances: metaphor and metonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, I; Clerici, M; Pantò, C; Papa, R; Cazzullo, C L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expressive capacities of our psychosomatic patients. We invited them to represent their illness in a drawing through the design test. Following this, we investigated 43 patients affected with bronchial asthma, 30 patients affected with refractory massive obesity and compared them with a control group of 25 'normal' subjects (medical students in a situation where stress and anxiety were strongly suspected as they were awaiting to sit for an examination in the Medical School). The two patient groups showed quite relevant differences as to their own expressive modalities in the use of metaphor and metonymy, which are considered as the graphic representation means of the illness. PMID:3628685

  9. Representations of abstract grammatical feature agreement in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un MASC ravole 'a ravole'). Test trials presented the objects side-by-side while one of them was named in new phrases containing other determiners and an adjective (e.g., le MASC joli ravole MASC 'the pretty ravole'). The gender agreement between the new determiner and the non-adjacent noun was manipulated in different test trials (e.g., le MASC __ravole MASC; *la FEM __ravole MASC). We found that online comprehension of the named target was facilitated in gender-matched trials but impeded in gender-mismatched trials. That is, children assigned the determiner genders to the novel nouns during word learning. They then processed the non-adjacent gender agreement between the two categories (Det, Noun) during test. The results demonstrate abstract featural representation and grammatical productivity in young children. PMID:25633508

  10. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  11. How the Clustering of Phonological Neighbors Affects Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a new scientific field known as network science has been emerging. Network science is concerned with understanding the structure and properties of networks. One concept that is commonly used in describing a network is how the nodes in the network cluster together. The current research applied the idea of clustering to the study of…

  12. Supervised Filter Learning for Representation Based Face Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Bi

    Full Text Available Representation based classification methods, such as Sparse Representation Classification (SRC and Linear Regression Classification (LRC have been developed for face recognition problem successfully. However, most of these methods use the original face images without any preprocessing for recognition. Thus, their performances may be affected by some problematic factors (such as illumination and expression variances in the face images. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel supervised filter learning algorithm is proposed for representation based face recognition in this paper. The underlying idea of our algorithm is to learn a filter so that the within-class representation residuals of the faces' Local Binary Pattern (LBP features are minimized and the between-class representation residuals of the faces' LBP features are maximized. Therefore, the LBP features of filtered face images are more discriminative for representation based classifiers. Furthermore, we also extend our algorithm for heterogeneous face recognition problem. Extensive experiments are carried out on five databases and the experimental results verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Supervised Filter Learning for Representation Based Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Miao; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Representation based classification methods, such as Sparse Representation Classification (SRC) and Linear Regression Classification (LRC) have been developed for face recognition problem successfully. However, most of these methods use the original face images without any preprocessing for recognition. Thus, their performances may be affected by some problematic factors (such as illumination and expression variances) in the face images. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel supervised filter learning algorithm is proposed for representation based face recognition in this paper. The underlying idea of our algorithm is to learn a filter so that the within-class representation residuals of the faces' Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features are minimized and the between-class representation residuals of the faces' LBP features are maximized. Therefore, the LBP features of filtered face images are more discriminative for representation based classifiers. Furthermore, we also extend our algorithm for heterogeneous face recognition problem. Extensive experiments are carried out on five databases and the experimental results verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27416030

  14. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    Buxbaum, Marcella Ottolenghi

    2001-01-01

    This practical, inexpensive volume features over 1,000 common French words, each accompanied by a French sentence demonstrating proper usage. Also included are definitions arranged by such categories as family, food, numbers, and more. (These words are not repeated in the alphabetical section.) A page of Vocabulary Tips explains how to easily recognize hundreds of French/English cognates.

  15. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  16. Literacy and the Written Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Writing can be a real problem for students. We tend to think of writing as free writing, but there is so much more to it. It should provide an effective extension to the spoken word. We will look at ways of recognising what's involved and what the problems are in meeting learner needs. Writing is not just putting words on paper.

  17. Populating Sub-entries in Dictionaries with Multi-word Unitsfrom Concordance Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo J. Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Lexicography is primarily concerned with the representation of words and their senses in dic-tionaries. By words most dictionary users and lexicographers refer to a combination of characters delineated by spaces on both sides. This article discusses the weakness of this approach in the selection of dictionary en-tries. Through an inspection of concordance lines generated from a multi-million Setswana corpus, it is ar-gued and demonstrated how multi-word units (MWUs, also known as multi-word expressions (MWEs, may be extracted from concordance lines to supplement dictionary entries. It is illustrated how both mono-lingual and bilingual Setswana dictionaries may be enhanced by the addition of MWEs as sub-entries.

    Keywords: SETSWANA, LEXICOGRAPHY, MULTI-WORD UNIT, CORPUS, CONCOR-DANCE, MULTI-WORD EXPRESSION, COLLOCATION, WORD, SUB-ENTRIES, DICTIONARY

    Opsomming: Die aanvulling van subinskrywings in woordeboeke met meerwoordige eenhede uit konkordansiereëls. Leksikografie is hoofsaaklik gemoeid met die weergawe van woorde en hul betekenisse in woordeboeke. Met woorde verwys die meeste woordeboekgebruikers en leksikograwe na 'n kombinasie van lettertekens afgegrens deur spasies aan beide kante. Hierdie artikel bespreek die swakheid van hierdie benadering by die keuse van woordeboekinskrywings. Deur 'n ondersoek van konkordansiereëls gegenereer uit 'n multimiljoen-Setswanakorpus, word daar geredeneer en verduidelik hoe meerwoordige eenhede (MWE's, ook bekend as meerwoordige uitdrukkings (MWU's, uit konkordansiereëls onttrek kan word om woordeboekinskrywings aan te vul. Daar word aangetoon hoe sowel eentalige as meertalige Setswanawoordeboeke uitgebrei kan word deur die toevoeging van MWU's as subinskrywings.

    Sleutelwoorde: SETSWANA, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, MEERWOORDIGE EENHEID, KORPUS, KONKORDANSIE, MEERWOORDIGE UITDRUKKING, KOLLOKASIE, WOORD, SUBINSKRY-WINGS, WOORDEBOEK

  18. A Trichotomic Approach to Concept Capture and Representation : With its Application to Library Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Toshiro; Hirokawa, Sachio; Baba, Kensuke; Amano, Eriko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, we propose a method of specifying the concept that is too hard to describe in an exact way by a word or a phrase, by setting up the “relative distances" from three key concepts; which we call a trichotomic approach to concept capture and representation, or description, in an approximate means. It is important and interesting that we can choose not only the key words but also other three “keys" such as patrons, books, concepts, objects or others. Th...

  19. Distributed neural representations of phonological features during speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Jessica S; Buchsbaum, Bradley R

    2015-01-14

    A fundamental goal of the human auditory system is to map complex acoustic signals onto stable internal representations of the basic sound patterns of speech. Phonemes and the distinctive features that they comprise constitute the basic building blocks from which higher-level linguistic representations, such as words and sentences, are formed. Although the neural structures underlying phonemic representations have been well studied, there is considerable debate regarding frontal-motor cortical contributions to speech as well as the extent of lateralization of phonological representations within auditory cortex. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to investigate the distributed patterns of activation that are associated with the categorical and perceptual similarity structure of 16 consonant exemplars in the English language used in Miller and Nicely's (1955) classic study of acoustic confusability. Participants performed an incidental task while listening to phonemes in the MRI scanner. Neural activity in bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus and supratemporal plane was correlated with the first two components derived from a multidimensional scaling analysis of a behaviorally derived confusability matrix. We further showed that neural representations corresponding to the categorical features of voicing, manner of articulation, and place of articulation were widely distributed throughout bilateral primary, secondary, and association areas of the superior temporal cortex, but not motor cortex. Although classification of phonological features was generally bilateral, we found that multivariate pattern information was moderately stronger in the left compared with the right hemisphere for place but not for voicing or manner of articulation. PMID:25589757

  20. Stimulus-based similarity and the recognition of spoken words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Spoken word recognition has been hypothesized to be achieved via a competitive process amongst perceptually similar lexical candidates in the mental lexicon. In this process, lexical candidates are activated as a function of their perceived similarity to the spoken stimulus. The evidence supporting this hypothesis has largely come from studies of auditory word recognition. In this talk, evidence from our studies of visual spoken word recognition will be reviewed. Visual speech provides the opportunity to highlight the importance of stimulus-driven perceptual similarity because it presents a different pattern of segmental similarity than is afforded by auditory speech degraded by noise. Our results are consistent with stimulus-driven activation followed by competition as general spoken word recognition mechanism. In addition, results will be presented from recent investigations of the direct prediction of perceptual similarity from measurements of spoken stimuli. High levels of correlation have been observed between the predicted and perceptually obtained distances for a large set of spoken consonants. These results support the hypothesis that the perceptual structure of English consonants and vowels is predicted by stimulus structure without the need for an intervening level of abstract linguistic representation. [Research supported by NSF IIS 9996088 and NIH DC04856.