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Sample records for affective word representations

  1. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Annett

    2010-02-15

    The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  2. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    Full Text Available The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  3. Learning Word Representations with Hierarchical Sparse Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Yogatama, Dani; Faruqui, Manaal; Dyer, Chris; Smith, Noah A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for learning word representations using hierarchical regularization in sparse coding inspired by the linguistic study of word meanings. We show an efficient learning algorithm based on stochastic proximal methods that is significantly faster than previous approaches, making it possible to perform hierarchical sparse coding on a corpus of billions of word tokens. Experiments on various benchmark tasks---word similarity ranking, analogies, sentence completion, and sentim...

  4. Word's vector representations meet machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Garcia, Eva; España Bonet, Cristina; Tiedemann, Jörg; Márquez Villodre, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Distributed vector representations of words are useful in various NLP tasks. We briefly review the CBOW approach and propose a bilingual application of this architecture with the aim to improve consistency and coherence of Machine Translation. The primary goal of the bilingual extension is to handle ambiguous words for which the different senses are conflated in the monolingual setup.

  5. Spatial representations of words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, R; Umiltà, C; Mapelli, D

    1992-06-01

    The first two experiments investigated whether the representations of words, besides being unitary, are also spatial in nature. Subjects were required to search for target letters in either five-letter words or five-letter nonwords. They were instructed to press the right-side key for one target and the left-side key for the other target. The center item of the letter string was always at fixation. Targets appeared one at a time, located at the second (left side) or the fourth (right side) position within the letter string. The results showed that: a) responses to targets within words were faster than responses to targets within nonwords (the word-superiority effect); b) responses to compatible stimulus-response pairings were faster than responses to incompatible stimulus-response pairings (the spatial compatibility, or, more precisely, the Simon effect); and c) in Experiment 2, left-side targets were responded to faster than right-side targets within nonwords (the left-right scanning effect). It was concluded that representations of both words and nonwords are spatial in nature. Experiment 3 was aimed at testing whether the spatial layout of the representations of words is always along the left-right horizontal dimension, regardless of the topographic transformation of the stimulus. The same words and nonwords used in the previous experiments were shown vertically and the subjects were required to make left-right discriminative responses to upper and lower target letters. The results showed the word-superiority effect but no spatial compatibility effects. It was concluded that the representation of a vertically presented word is vertically arranged. PMID:1499303

  6. Learning Multilingual Word Representations using a Bag-of-Words Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Lauly, Stanislas; Boulanger, Alex; Larochelle, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given sentence from an enc...

  7. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  8. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  9. Text comparison using word vector representations and dimensionality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to compare large text sources using word vector representations (word2vec) and dimensionality reduction (t-SNE) and how it can be implemented using Python. The technique provides a bird's-eye view of text sources, e.g. text summaries and their source material, and enables users to explore text sources like a geographical map. Word vector representations capture many linguistic properties such as gender, tense, plurality and even semantic concepts like "capital...

  10. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  11. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  12. Learning Representations of Affect from Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sayan; Laksana, Eugene; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Scherer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    There has been a lot of prior work on representation learning for speech recognition applications, but not much emphasis has been given to an investigation of effective representations of affect from speech, where the paralinguistic elements of speech are separated out from the verbal content. In this paper, we explore denoising autoencoders for learning paralinguistic attributes i.e. categorical and dimensional affective traits from speech. We show that the representations learnt by the bott...

  13. Knowledge Representation and WordNets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gabriela Tudorache

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge itself is a representation of “real facts”. Knowledge is a logical model that presents facts from “the real world” witch can be expressed in a formal language. Representation means the construction of a model of some part of reality. Knowledge representation is contingent to both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In cognitive science it expresses the way people store and process the information. In the AI field the goal is to store knowledge in such way that permits int...

  14. An Inefficient Representation of the Empty Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Tromp, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show that Post's system of tag with alphabet $\\{0,1\\}$, deletion number 3, productions $0\\rightarrow 00$ and $1\\rightarrow 1101$, and initial string $111\\cdots 1$ (330 times) converges to the empty word after a very large number of rewriting steps.

  15. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonidandel Scott; Bye-Nagel Kyri; Snell Sam; Pearson Brianna; Heyer Laurie J; Campbell A Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (...

  16. An Autoencoder Approach to Learning Bilingual Word Representations

    OpenAIRE

    P, Sarath Chandar A; Lauly, Stanislas; Larochelle, Hugo; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Ravindran, Balaraman; Raykar, Vikas; Saha, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to reconstruct the bag-of-w...

  17. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carline eBernard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’, whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome. Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words. In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent

  18. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  19. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2008-01-10

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.

  20. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment. PMID:27445918

  1. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment.

  2. Audio Word2Vec: Unsupervised Learning of Audio Segment Representations using Sequence-to-sequence Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yu-An; Wu, Chao-Chung; Shen, Chia-Hao; Lee, Hung-Yi; Lee, Lin-shan

    2016-01-01

    The vector representations of fixed dimensionality for words (in text) offered by Word2Vec have been shown to be very useful in many application scenarios, in particular due to the semantic information they carry. This paper proposes a parallel version, the Audio Word2Vec. It offers the vector representations of fixed dimensionality for variable-length audio segments. These vector representations are shown to describe the sequential phonetic structures of the audio segments to a good degree, ...

  3. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  4. Effect of Representational Distance between Meanings on Recognition of Ambiguous Spoken Words

    OpenAIRE

    Mirman, Daniel; Strauss, Ted J.; Dixon, James A.; Magnuson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that mental representations of word meanings are distributed along both semantic and syntactic dimensions such that nouns and verbs are relatively distinct from one another. Two experiments examined the effect of representational distance between meanings on recognition of ambiguous spoken words by comparing recognition of unambiguous words, noun-verb homonyms, and noun-noun homonyms. In Experiment 1, auditory lexical decision was fastest for unambiguous words, slo...

  5. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  6. A Gloss Composition and Context Clustering Based Distributed Word Sense Representation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in learning a distributed representation of word sense. Traditional context clustering based models usually require careful tuning of model parameters, and typically perform worse on infrequent word senses. This paper presents a novel approach which addresses these limitations by first initializing the word sense embeddings through learning sentence-level embeddings from WordNet glosses using a convolutional neural networks. The initialized word sense embeddings are used by a context clustering based model to generate the distributed representations of word senses. Our learned representations outperform the publicly available embeddings on half of the metrics in the word similarity task, 6 out of 13 sub tasks in the analogical reasoning task, and gives the best overall accuracy in the word sense effect classification task, which shows the effectiveness of our proposed distributed distribution learning model.

  7. An Unsupervised Graph Based Continuous Word Representation Method for Biomedical Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenchao; Li, Lishuang; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical text mining tasks, distributed word representation has succeeded in capturing semantic regularities, but most of them are shallow-window based models, which are not sufficient for expressing the meaning of words. To represent words using deeper information, we make explicit the semantic regularity to emerge in word relations, including dependency relations and context relations, and propose a novel architecture for computing continuous vector representation by leveraging those relations. The performance of our model is measured on word analogy task and Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction (PPIE) task. Experimental results show that our method performs overall better than other word representation models on word analogy task and have many advantages on biomedical text mining.

  8. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  9. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation.

  10. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation. PMID:27443646

  11. Word sense disambiguation via bipartite representation of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Jr., Edilson A.; Lopes, Alneu de Andrade; Amancio, Diego R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, concepts and methods of complex networks have been employed to tackle the word sense disambiguation (WSD) task by representing words as nodes, which are connected if they are semantically similar. Despite the increasingly number of studies carried out with such models, most of them use networks just to represent the data, while the pattern recognition performed on the attribute space is performed using traditional learning techniques. In other words, the structural relationsh...

  12. A Walk-based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Hovy, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We propose a walk-based graph kernel that generalizes the notion of tree-kernels to continuous spaces. Our proposed approach subsumes a general framework for word-similarity, and in particular, provides a flexible way to incorporate distributed representations. Using vector representations, such ...... diverse NLP tasks, showing state-of-the-art results....

  13. Understanding affective content of music videos through learned representations

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Esra; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of the ever-growing available multimedia data, annotating multimedia content automatically with feeling(s) expected to arise in users is a challenging problem. In order to solve this problem, the emerging research field of video affective analysis aims at exploiting human emotions. In this field where no dominant feature representation has emerged yet, choosing discriminative features for the effective representation of video segments is a key issue in designing video affecti...

  14. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  15. Word Sense Disambiguation using Aggregated Similarity based on WordNet Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina ZURINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term of word sense disambiguation, WSD, is introduced in the context of text document processing. A knowledge based approach is conducted using WordNet lexical ontology, describing its structure and components used for the process of identification of context related senses of each polysemy words. The principal distance measures using the graph associated to WordNet are presented, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages. A general model for aggregation of distances and probabilities is proposed and implemented in an application in order to detect the context senses of each word. For the non-existing words from WordNet, a similarity measure is used based on probabilities of co-occurrences. The module of WSD is proposed for integration in the step of processing documents such as supervised and unsupervised classification in order to maximize the correctness of the classification. Future work is related to the implementation of different domain oriented ontologies.

  16. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  17. Writing words from pictures: what representations are activated, and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M

    2000-06-01

    In three experiments, the nature of the representations involved in written picture naming and the time course of their activation were investigated. French participants had to produce picture names while hearing distractors. In Experiment 1, distractors semantically related to the picture names yielded a semantic interference effect when a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of--150 msec, but not when a SOA of 0 msec, was used, in both spoken and written picture naming. Experiment 2 showed that the semantic interference effect was not located at the conceptual level. In Experiment 3, participants wrote down picture names while hearing semantically related, phonologically related, both semantically and phonologically related, or unrelated distractors, presented at both SOAs. A semantic interference effect was obtained with phonologically unrelated distractors but was eliminated with phonologically related distractors. Facilitatory effects of phonologically related distractors were found at both SOAs. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are discussed. PMID:10946550

  18. Representations of Religion on the British Feminist Webzine The F Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aune

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 21st century Europe, where religion is a more visible focus in local, national and global politics, how do feminist organisations and groups approach religion? This article explores this through analysis of representations of religion on a prominent British feminist webzine, The F Word. In academic literature and public debates, two dominant viewpoints are articulated in debates on women’s rights, religion and secularism: feminist secularism and religious inclusion. In the context of these debates, the study asks how The F Word writers approach religion, and whether and how their representations of religion reflect these academic and public debates. The analysis identifies four dominant approaches to religion, and two underlying themes, and sets these approaches in their wider social context.

  19. Similarities Between Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students' Awareness of Affective Words' Valence in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Degao; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    An affective priming task was used with two cohorts of college students, one deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the other hearing, in two experiments. The same set of affective-word targets, preceded by "※※" in Experiment 1 but by affective-word primes of the same valence as the targets in Experiment 2, were presented vertically above or below the screen center. Stimuli that preceded the targets were shown at the screen center. D/HH participants generally performed more poorly than hearing participants, but both groups performed similarly in that both did better on the positive targets than on the negative in both experiments, and on supporting metaphorical associations between valence and vertical positions (Meier & Robinson, 2004), as indicated by reaction times, in Experiment 2. The researchers concluded that D/HH and hearing college students perform similarly in developing cognition-grounded representations of affective words in written language. PMID:27477038

  20. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  1. Relating numeric cognition and language processing: do numbers and words share a common representational platform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Numerical processing and language processing are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a common basis. If number processing activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that processing numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word processing. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.

  2. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  3. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically-Developing Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable to interference than peers. Forty 7- and 8-year-old children, half with SLI, took part in a fast mapping, word learning task. In addition to producin...

  4. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants' Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bergmann

    Full Text Available During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise--an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a

  5. Orthographic consistency affects spoken word recognition at different grain-sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition...

  6. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  7. 一种基于双通道 LDA 模型的汉语词义%A Dual-LDA Method on Chinese Word Sense Representation and Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少楠; 宗成庆

    2016-01-01

    Semantic memory is the foundation of human language understanding.Human brain needs to encode,retrieve and decode word meanings for language understanding.The semantic representation is the key step to develop natural language processing systems.Some studies have shown that the formation of concepts is affected by the interaction of human brain and the real world,and the concepts in human brain contain rich forms of information including vision, perception and language.Based on the distributional hypothesis which states that “similar words occur in similar contexts”,the concepts are represented as vectors by calculating the co-occurrence frequency of each word and its statistical features.In this way,word representation in computer can be seen as the semantic representation in human brain.This article mainly focuses on how to represent word senses and do word senses induction in natural language text.We first investigate the relation between computational models of word representation and semantic representation in human brain.Based on word similarity experiments,we have verified that word representations by statistical methods can capture the relationship of similarity between words in human brain.In the view of Chinese word sense disambiguation,this paper studies the methods to find the semantic features of ambiguities from context automatically.Bayesian probability model can learn word representations and do word sense induction together.Specifically,in order to do word sense induction,Bayesian probability model clusters words with the same topic.The words within the same topic can be seen as the representation of the topic.In the task of word sense induction,the topics are mapped to word senses in evaluation.Therefore,we use latent Dirichlet allocation model to learn word sense representation from large scale of corpus without annotation.On the basis of word sense representation,we do word sense induction on the testing data.In order to better capture the

  8. Prosodic knowledge affects the recognition of newly acquired words

    OpenAIRE

    Shatzman, K.; McQueen, J

    2006-01-01

    An eye-tracking study examined the involvement of prosodic knowledge—specifically, the knowledge that monosyllabic words tend to have longer durations than the first syllables of polysyllabic words—in the recognition of newly learned words. Participants learned new spoken words (by associating them to novel shapes): bisyllables and onset-embedded monosyllabic competitors (e.g., baptoe and bap). In the learning phase, the duration of the ambiguous sequence (e.g., bap) was held constant. In the...

  9. Language-General Biases and Language-Specific Experience Contribute to Phonological Detail in Toddlers' Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sho; Fikkert, Paula; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Although toddlers in their 2nd year of life generally have phonologically detailed representations of words, a consistent lack of sensitivity to certain kinds of phonological changes has been reported. The origin of these insensitivities is poorly understood, and uncovering their cause is crucial for obtaining a complete picture of early…

  10. Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini: Word classes: Nature, typology and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2016-01-01

    Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini (eds.). Word classes: Nature, typology and representations. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory [CILT] 332. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, 293 + vii pp., ISBN: 1978-90-272-4851-0. Hardback and E-book 99.00 EUR / 149...

  11. VStops: A Thinking Strategy and Visual Representation Approach in Mathematical Word Problem Solving toward Enhancing STEM Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…

  12. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Anthony F.; Viridian L Benitez; Tony Belpaeme; Angelo Cangelosi; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which n...

  13. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages.

  14. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity, semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration, and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity. The results have shown that representational paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimensions of Form and Complexity, the semantic dimension of the Illusion of Reality (the opposite pole of the Construction of Reality, and the affective dimension of Regularity. On the other hand, abstract paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimension of Color, the semantic dimensions of Construction of Reality (the opposite pole of the Illusion of Reality and Expression, and the affective dimension Arousal. A discriminant analysis indicated that all three sets of dimensions are relatively good predictors of the classification of representational and abstract paintings (61-100%. The results suggest that the subjective categorization of paintings is generally based on the recognizability of pictorial content (representational vs. abstract, but some formal or stylistic properties play a role in the categorization, as well: some expressionistic representational paintings were classified in an abstract category, and some geometrically abstract paintings were classified as representational.

  15. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  16. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  17. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties. PMID:27315272

  18. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  19. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  20. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

  1. Pose Sentences: A new representation for action recognition using sequence of pose words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatun, Kardelen; Duygulu, Pinar

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method for recognizing human actions in videos. Inspired from the recent bag-of-words approaches, we represent actions as documents consisting of words, where a word refers to the pose in a frame. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features are used to describe poses, which are then

  2. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Banmali

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (pattention to the creation and labeling of diagrams to represent the mathematics involved in standard word problems. Although Learnertype (ELL, EFLL), Classtype (Bilingual and Mixed), and Gender (Female, Male) were not significant indicators of student achievement, there was

  3. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  4. New Word Vector Representation for Semantic Clustering Une nouvelle représentation vectorielle pour la classification sémantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamoussi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea we defend in this paper is the possibility to obtain significant semantic concepts using clustering methods. We start by defining some semantic measures to quantify the semantic relations between words. Then, we use some clustering methods to build up concepts in an automatic way. We test two well known methods: the K-means algorithm and the Ko- honen maps. Then, we propose the use of a Bayesian network conceived for clustering and called AutoClass. To group the words of the vocabulary in various classes, we test three vector representations of words. The first is a simple contextual representation. The second associates to each word a vector which represents its similarity with each word of the vocabulary. The third representation is a combination of the first and the second one.

  5. Making Connections: Elementary Teachers' Construction of Division Word Problems and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    If teachers make few connections among multiple representations of division, supporting students in using representations to develop operation sense demanded by national standards will not occur. Studies have investigated how prospective and practicing teachers use representations to develop knowledge of fraction division. However, few studies…

  6. Visual Word Recognition is Accompanied by Covert Articulation: Evidence for a Speech-like Phonological Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Eiter, Brianna M.; INHOFF, ALBRECHT W.

    2008-01-01

    Two lexical decision task (LDT) experiments examined whether visual word recognition involves the use of a speech-like phonological code that may be generated via covert articulation. In Experiment 1, each visual item was presented with an irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was either phonologically identical, similar, or dissimilar to it. An ISW delayed classification of a visual word when the two were phonologically similar, and it delayed the classification of a pseudoword when it was ident...

  7. Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach / Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships between the structure of a representation and the affective impregnation of representation elements.

  8. How Category Learning Affects Object Representations: Not All Morphspaces Stretch Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    How does learning to categorize objects affect how people visually perceive them? Behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have tested the degree to which category learning influences object representations, with conflicting results. Some studies have found that objects become more visually discriminable along dimensions relevant…

  9. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  10. A word from the DG: Decisions affecting CERN's future

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I would like to inform you of the important issues affecting our Organization that were debated at the Council Session in March. Firstly, on the President's initiative, the Council set up a Working Group to review the way it oversees the Organization's activities. The Council is considering a new approach to governance of the Laboratory that would focus on projects and activities rather than on the organisational structure of Departments as at present. A second important topic related to the Council's future role in the European particle physics strategy. Last July, I reported to you that the Council had taken on a broader role that would involve defining and promoting the major strategic choices for particle physics in Europe. A new structure is required to assist the Council in this role, and it is envisaged that the basic components of this structure would be a Working Group on Strategy and a Commission responsible for the promotion and follow-up of the European particle physics strategy. Work on this s...

  11. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  12. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  13. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  14. Word Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer: Findings from Contextual and Isolated Word Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Chang, Sandra Lyn; Levy, Betty Ann; O'Neil, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Successful reading instruction entails not only acquiring new words but also remembering them after training has finished and accessing their word-specific representations when they are encountered in new text. We report two studies demonstrating that acquisition, retention, and transfer of unfamiliar words were affected differentially by isolated…

  15. Document Representation and Clustering with WordNet Based Similarity Rough Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on document clustering till date use Vector Space Model (VSM to represent documents in the document space, where documents are denoted by a vector in a word vector space. The standard VSM does not take into account the semantic relatedness between terms. Thus, terms with some semantic similarity are dealt with in the same way as terms with no semantic relatedness. Since this unconcern about semantics reduces the quality of clustering results, many studies have proposed various approaches to introduce knowledge of semantic relatedness into VSM model. Those approaches give better results than the standard VSM. However they still have their own issues. We propose a new approach as a combination of two approaches, one of which uses Rough Sets theory and co-occurrence of terms, and the other uses WordNet knowledge to solve these issues. Experiments for its evaluation show advantage of the proposed approach over the others.

  16. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; John X Zhang; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  17. Cognitive and anatomic double dissociation in the representation of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant and behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; York, Collin; Bauer, Laura; Grossman, Murray

    2016-04-01

    We examine the anatomic basis for abstract and concrete lexical representations in semantic memory by assessing patients with focal neurodegenerative disease. Prior evidence from healthy adult studies suggests that there may be an anatomical dissociation between abstract and concrete representations: abstract words more strongly activate the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to concrete words, while concrete words more strongly activate left anterior-inferior temporal regions. However, this double dissociation has not been directly examined. We test this dissociation in two patient groups with focal cortical atrophy in each of these regions, the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Degeneration (bvFTD) and the semantic variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia (svPPA). We administered an associativity judgment task for abstract and concrete words, where subjects select which of two words is best associated with a given target word. Both bvFTD and svPPA patients were significantly impaired in their overall performance compared to controls. While controls treated concrete and abstract words equally, we found a category-specific double dissociation in patients' judgments: bvFTD patients showed a concreteness effect (CE), with significantly worse performance for abstract compared to concrete words, while svPPA patients showed reversal of the CE, with significantly worse performance for concrete over abstract words. Regression analyses also revealed an anatomic double dissociation: The CE is associated with inferior frontal atrophy in bvFTD, while reversal of the CE is associated with left anterior-inferior temporal atrophy in svPPA. These results support a cognitive and anatomic model of semantic memory organization where abstract and concrete representations are supported by dissociable neuroanatomic substrates.

  18. Automatic Analysis of Facial Affect: A Survey of Registration, Representation, and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyanidi, Evangelos; Gunes, Hatice; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Automatic affect analysis has attracted great interest in various contexts including the recognition of action units and basic or non-basic emotions. In spite of major efforts, there are several open questions on what the important cues to interpret facial expressions are and how to encode them. In this paper, we review the progress across a range of affect recognition applications to shed light on these fundamental questions. We analyse the state-of-the-art solutions by decomposing their pipelines into fundamental components, namely face registration, representation, dimensionality reduction and recognition. We discuss the role of these components and highlight the models and new trends that are followed in their design. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of facial representations by uncovering their advantages and limitations; we elaborate on the type of information they encode and discuss how they deal with the key challenges of illumination variations, registration errors, head-pose variations, occlusions, and identity bias. This survey allows us to identify open issues and to define future directions for designing real-world affect recognition systems. PMID:26357337

  19. Working memory load affects processing time in spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye-movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eHadar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the ‘visual world’ eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g. point at the candle. Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset or at the last syllable (offset. Eye movements captured listeners’ ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal. We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load or four (high-load spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  20. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  1. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  2. Happiness is pleasant, or is it? Implicit representations of affect valence are associated with contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-10-01

    People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations.

  3. The Representation and Processing of Subjective Words for Chinese Readers%汉语“主观词”的表征及其加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国利; 张兰兰; 孙莎莎; 白学军

    2013-01-01

    Given that there are no visual spaces between words in written Chinese and characters are the basic perceptual unit, it is intriguing how Chinese readers segment and represent words. Many studies have indicated that words play an important role in Chinese reading (Yan et al., 2006; Li et al., 2005; Rayner et al., 2007; Bai et al., 2008; Yan et al., 2009), while some other research has demonstrated that characters are more important than words in reading (Chen et al., 2003). However, some researchers have found that native Chinese readers have no clear concept of words, and they often disagree on how to divide the continuous string of characters within a sentence into words (Hoosain, 1992; Tsai et al., 1998; Miller et al., 2007). So there is a discrepancy here: If words play an important role in Chinese reading, what are the characteristics of these words? We propose that Chinese readers segment text into words according to complex cognitive representations: "subjective words" (e.g., representing the phrase "economic development" as a single word). Three studies were conducted to explore 1) whether subjective words are psychologically real in readers' minds and 2) how these subjective words are processed. The first study examined how well the readers could recognize the two-character combination as a word or a phrase. The results showed that the readers tend to judge phrases as subjective words, which indicated that they represented words according to their own complex cognition about words, which demonstrated that subjective words were real in readers' minds. The second and third experiment investigated the characteristics of subjective word processing. The second experiment explored whether subjective words had a "word superiority effect" - whether the readers found the position of a character in subjective words more efficiently than in non-words. The third experiment examined whether the reaction time of classifying subjective words as words was shorter than

  4. Attention enhances stimulus representations in macaque visual cortex without affecting their signal-to-noise level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Treue, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the attentional modulation of neuronal responses in visual cortex varies with stimulus contrast. Whether the strength of these attentional influences is similarly dependent on other stimulus properties is unknown. Here we report the effect of spatial attention on responses in the medial-temporal area (MT) of macaque visual cortex to moving random dots pattern of various motion coherences, i.e. signal-to-noise ratios. Our data show that allocating spatial attention causes a gain change in MT neurons. The magnitude of this attentional modulation is independent of the attended stimulus’ motion coherence, creating a multiplicative scaling of the neuron’s coherence-response function. This is consistent with the characteristics of gain models of attentional modulation and suggests that attention strengthens the neuronal representation of behaviorally relevant visual stimuli relative to unattended stimuli, but without affecting their signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:27283275

  5. STOP TALKING ! Inhibition of speech is affected by word frequency and dysfunctional impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wery Van Den Wildenberg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is a complex natural behavior that most people master very well. Nevertheless, systematic investigation of the factors that affect adaptive control over speech production is relatively scarce. The present experiments quantified and compared inhibitory control over manual and verbal responses using the stop-signal paradigm. In tasks with only two response alternatives, verbal expressions were slower than manual responses, but the stopping latencies of hand and verbal actions were comparable. When engaged in a standard picture-naming task using a large set of pictures, verbal stopping latencies were considerably prolonged. Interestingly, stopping was slower for naming words that are less frequently used compared to words that are used more frequently. These results indicate that adaptive action control over speech production is affected by lexical processing. This notion is compatible with current theories on speech self-monitoring. Finally, stopping latencies varied with individual differences in impulsivity, indicating that specifically dysfunctional impulsivity, and not functional impulsivity, is associated with slower verbal stopping.

  6. Learning Word Sense Embeddings from Word Sense Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Li, Tianshi; Chang, Baobao

    2016-01-01

    Word embeddings play a significant role in many modern NLP systems. Since learning one representation per word is problematic for polysemous words and homonymous words, researchers propose to use one embedding per word sense. Their approaches mainly train word sense embeddings on a corpus. In this paper, we propose to use word sense definitions to learn one embedding per word sense. Experimental results on word similarity tasks and word sense disambiguation task show that word sense embedding...

  7. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  8. Does the Grammatical Count/Mass Distinction Affect Semantic Representations? Evidence from Experiments in English and Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    We investigate linguistic relativity effects by examining whether the grammatical count/mass distinction in English affects English speakers' semantic representations of noun referents, as compared with those of Japanese speakers, whose language does not grammatically distinguish nouns for countability. We used two tasks which are sensitive to…

  9. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  10. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  11. 熟练粤语-普通话双言者听觉词的语言表征%The Language Representation of Auditory Words in Cantonese-Mandarin Diglossias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积家; 张凤玲

    2014-01-01

    Using implicit memory paradigm, the study probed into the language representation of Cantonese-Mandarin di-glossias.The results showed that:1 ) the semantic representations of Mandarin and Cantonese words are identical and their lexical representations are separated for Mandarin-Cantonese bidialecters; 2 ) the link intensity between Cantonese words, Mandarin words and semantic representation are different;3 ) the links from Mandarin words to Cantonese words are stronger than the links from Cantonese words to Mandarin words.%以熟练粤语-普通话双言者为被试,考察粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征。实验1呈现粤语和普通话同形异音的词,实验2呈现粤语和普通话异形异音的词,要求被试做语义决定。结果发现,粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征类似于双语者,即普通话和粤语的语义共同表征,词汇分别表征。所以如此,是由粤语的特点和它与普通话的关系决定的。

  12. Explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model: an application to simultaneous investigation of word and person contributions to multidimensional lexical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model and its application to reading data with multilevel item structure. The model includes multilevel random item parameters that allow consideration of variability in item parameters at both item and item group levels. Item-level random item parameters were included to model unexplained variance remaining when item related covariates were used to explain variation in item difficulties. Item group-level random item parameters were included to model dependency in item responses among items having the same item stem. Using the model, this study examined the dimensionality of a person's word knowledge, termed lexical representation, and how aspects of morphological knowledge contributed to lexical representations for different persons, items, and item groups.

  13. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words. PMID:18942034

  14. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  15. Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A "Abordagem Estrutural" das representações sociais define uma representação social como uma organização, que é atravessada por diferentes dimensões e não como um conjunto de eventos e processos puramente cognitivos. No estado atual da teoria, propomos o princípio que a dimensão afetiva observa uma relação "não-aleatória" com o núcleo central. Dois estudos anteriores são brevemente descritos, assim como os resultados acerca de três representações, ("menino de rua", "estudos superiores"e "família", com o intuito de apresentar uma perspectiva de estudo que parece indicar que as relações entre elementos "semânticos" e "afetivamente carregados" não são aleatórias. Os dados corroboram a tese de que o Núcleo Central das representações organiza igualmente a distribuição das cargas afetivas no conjunto da representação social. As pesquisas, aqui apresentadas, correspondem a uma primeira aproximação exploratória das relações existentes entre a estrutura e a impregnação afetiva dos elementos de uma representação.The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships

  16. Affect Analysis of Radical Contents on Web Forums Using SentiWordNet

    OpenAIRE

    Chalothorn, Tawunrat; Ellman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The internet has become a major tool for communication, training, fundraising, media operations, and recruitment, and these processes often use web forums. This paper presents a model that was built using SentiWordNet, WordNet and NLTK to analyze selected web forums that included radical content. SentiWordNet is a lexical resource for supporting opinion mining by assigning a positivity score and a negativity score to each WordNet. The approaches of the model measure and identify sentiment pol...

  17. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Jonker, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N = 25) and older (N = 38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic

  18. Word class and context affect alpha-band oscillatory dynamics in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eMellem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the oscillatory EEG dynamics of reading open class and closed class words have previously been found (Bastiaansen et al., 2005 and are thought to reflect differences in lexical-semantic content between these word classes. In particular, the theta band (4–7 Hz seems to play a prominent role in lexical-semantic retrieval. We tested whether this theta effect is robust in an older population of subjects. Additionally, we examined how the context of a word can modulate the oscillatory dynamics underlying retrieval for the two different classes of words. Older participants (mean age 55 read words presented in either syntactically-correct sentences or in a scrambled order (scrambled sentence while their EEG was recorded. We performed time-frequency analysis to examine how power varied based on the context or class of the word. We observed larger power decreases in the alpha (8–12Hz band between 200–700 ms for the open class compared to closed class words, but this was true only for the scrambled sentence context. We did not observe differences in theta power between these conditions. Context exerted an effect on the alpha and low beta (13–18 Hz bands between 0–700 ms. These results suggest that the previously observed word class effects on theta power changes in a younger participant sample do not seem to be a robust effect in this older population. Though this is an indirect comparison between studies, it may suggest the existence of aging effects on word retrieval dynamics for different populations. Additionally, the interaction between word class and context suggests that word retrieval mechanisms interact with sentence-level comprehension mechanisms in the alpha band.

  19. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  20. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  1. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  2. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  3. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  4. Parent or Community: Where Do 20-Month-Olds Exposed to Two Accents Acquire Their Representation of Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccia, Caroline; Luche, Claire Delle; Durrant, Samantha; Butler, Joseph; Goslin, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of familiar words was evaluated in 20-month-old children raised in a rhotic accent environment to parents that had either rhotic or non-rhotic accents. Using an Intermodal Preferential Looking task children were presented with familiar objects (e.g. "bird") named in their rhotic or non-rhotic form. Children were only able to…

  5. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  6. Expertise affects representation structure and categorical activation of grasp postures in climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In indoor rock climbing, the perception of object properties and the adequate execution of grasping actions highly determine climbers’ performance. In two consecutive experiments, effects of climbing expertise on the cognitive activation of grasping actions following the presentation of climbing holds was investigated. Experiment 1 evaluated the representation of climbing holds in the long-term memory of climbers and non-climbers with the help of a psychometric measurement method. Within a hierarchical splitting procedure subjects had to decide about the similarity of required grasping postures. For the group of climbers, representation structures corresponded clearly to four grip types. In the group of non-climbers, representation structures differed more strongly than in climbers and did not clearly refer to grip types. To learn about categorical knowledge activation in Experiment 2, a priming paradigm was applied. Images of hands in grasping postures were presented as targets and images of congruent, neutral, or incongruent climbing holds were used as primes. Only in climbers, reaction times were shorter and error rates were smaller for the congruent condition than for the incongruent condition. The neutral condition resulted in intermediate performance. The findings suggest that perception of climbing holds activates the commonly associated grasping postures in climbers but not in non-climbers. The findings of this study give evidence that the categorization of visually perceived objects is fundamentally influenced by the cognitive-motor potential for interaction, which depends on the observer’s experience and expertise. Thus, motor expertise not only facilitates precise action perception, but also benefits the perception of action-relevant objects.

  7. Executive functions are not affected by 24 hours of sleep deprivation: A color-word stroop task study

    OpenAIRE

    Abhinav Dixit; Tushar Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., ...

  8. Representação: palavras, instituições e idéias Representation: words, institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fenichel Pitkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em argumento reconstrutivo, baseado em abordagem própria à filosofia da linguagem, a autora lança mão das transformações seculares nos usos da fala, nas cristalizações ideológicas no plano da filosofia política e nas práticas históricas de representação política para mostrar a emergência das feições distintivas da representação moderna.In a reconstructive analysis, based upon the philosophy of language, the author handles the secular transformations in speech, ideological crystallizations within the tradition of political philosophy and the historical practices of political representation in order to show the coming up of the distinctive features of modern representation.

  9. Building ensemble representations: How the shape of preceding distractor distributions affects visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-08-01

    Perception allows us to extract information about regularities in the environment. Observers can quickly determine summary statistics of a group of objects and detect outliers. The existing body of research has, however, not revealed how such ensemble representations develop over time. Moreover, the correspondence between the physical distribution of features in the external world and their potential internal representation as a probability density function (PDF) by the visual system is still unknown. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that such internal PDFs are built during visual search and show how they can be assessed with repetition and role-reversal effects. Using singleton search for an oddly oriented target line among differently oriented distractors (a priming of pop-out paradigm), we test how different properties of previously observed distractor distributions (mean, variability, and shape) influence search times. Our results indicate that observers learn properties of distractor distributions over and above mean and variance; in fact, response times also depend on the shape of the preceding distractor distribution. Response times decrease as a function of target distance from the mean of preceding Gaussian distractor distributions, and the decrease is steeper when preceding distributions have small standard deviations. When preceding distributions are uniform, however, this decrease in response times can be described by a two-piece function corresponding to the uniform distribution PDF. Moreover, following skewed distributions response times function is skewed in accordance with the skew in distributions. Indeed, internal PDFs seem to be specifically tuned to the observed feature distribution. PMID:27232163

  10. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  11. Contrasting vertical and horizontal representations of affect in emotional visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanovic, Ljubica; Santiago, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Independent lines of evidence suggest that the representation of emotional evaluation recruits both vertical and horizontal spatial mappings. These two spatial mappings differ in their experiential origins and their productivity, and available data suggest that they differ in their saliency. Yet, no study has so far compared their relative strength in an attentional orienting reaction time task that affords the simultaneous manifestation of both types of mapping. Here, we investigated this question using a visual search task with emotional faces. We presented angry and happy face targets and neutral distracter faces in top, bottom, left, and right locations on the computer screen. Conceptual congruency effects were observed along the vertical dimension supporting the 'up = good' metaphor, but not along the horizontal dimension. This asymmetrical processing pattern was observed when faces were presented in a cropped (Experiment 1) and whole (Experiment 2) format. These findings suggest that the 'up = good' metaphor is more salient and readily activated than the 'right = good' metaphor, and that the former outcompetes the latter when the task context affords the simultaneous activation of both mappings. PMID:26106061

  12. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge. PMID:27389800

  13. "Worth a thousand words" : absolute and relative decoding of nonlinguistic affect vocalizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawk, S.T.; Kleef, G.A. van; Fischer, A.H.; Schalk, J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared the accuracy of emotion decoding for nonlinguistic affect vocalizations, speechembedded vocal prosody, and facial cues representing 9 different emotions. Participants (N 121) decoded 80 stimuli from 1 of the 3 channels. Accuracy scores for nonlinguistic affect vocalizations and

  14. Executive functions are not affected by 24 hours of sleep deprivation: A color-word stroop task study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods : The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am, after 12 hours (7-9 pm and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day. The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in

  15. Seeing words in context : the interaction of lexical and sentence level information during reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, JCJ; Stowe, LA; Doedens, G

    2004-01-01

    The ERP experiment reported here addresses some outstanding questions regarding word processing in sentential contexts: (1) Does only the 'message-level' representation (the representation of sentence meaning combining lexico-semantic and syntactic constraints) affect the processing of the incoming

  16. Emotional Prosody Modulates the Recognition of Affective Word: An ERP Study%情绪韵律调节情绪词识别的ERP研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志伟; 黄贤军; 张钦

    2013-01-01

    采用韵律/词汇干扰范式和延迟匹配任务,通过两个ERP实验,考察了汉语口语中情绪韵律能否、以及如何调节情绪词的识别.实验一中,不同类型的情绪韵律分组呈现,ERP结果显示,同与情绪韵律效价一致的情绪词相比,与情绪韵律效价不一致的情绪词诱发了走向更负的P200、N300和N400成分;实验二中,不同类型的情绪韵律随机呈现,上述效价一致性效应依然存在.实验结果表明,情绪韵律能够调节情绪词识别,主要表现在对情绪词的音韵编码和语义加工的双重易化上.%An important difference between spoken language and written language is that spoken language carries prosodic information. Previous studies investigated how speech prosody modulated syntactic processing and discourse comprehension, but few studies examined the roles of emotional prosody in speech processing. This study investigated the time course of the processing of emotional spoken speech of Mandarin, and explored that how emotional prosody modulated the processing of spoken word using the technique of event-related potential and prosody/word interference paradigm. Thirty-two college students participated in this study, sixteen of them for the first experiment, and the rest for the second one. We used positive and negative words spoken with affectively congruent or incongruent prosody as study materials. Participants completed a delayed matching task. They were asked to judge that whether the spoken word matched the subsequent presented visual word. We recorded the EEG evoked by emotional spoken words. The emotional prosody was blocked presented (Experiment 1) or mixed presented (Experiment 2). The ERP results were analyzed by four-way repeated-measure ANOVA. The ERP results of Experiment 1 indicated that at the time window of 150~250ms after the onset of spoken word, the congruent affective word evoked a more positive P2 than incongruent affective word under both conditions

  17. Connectives and Layout as Processing Signals: How Textual Features Affect Students' Processing and Text Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Silfhout, Gerdineke; Evers-Vermeul, Jacqueline; Mak, Willem M.; Sanders, Ted J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When students read their school text, they may make a coherent mental representation of it that contains coherence relations between the text segments. The construction of such a representation is a prerequisite for learning from texts. This article focuses on the influence of connectives ("therefore," "furthermore") and layout…

  18. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  19. 教学对社会表征的塑造:对词汇网络的研究%Shaping Effects of Teaching on Social Representation by Using Word Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林枫; 贺丹军; 江钟立

    2011-01-01

    This paper explored the shaping effects of teaching on complex network structure of students' social representation. The present study analyzed social representations of a fundamental concept named "rehabilitation" before and after completion of the Rehabilitation Medicine course. The subjects executed free evocation task before teaching process and do it again after the examination. Two evoked words networks were constructed for analyzing the structure of the social representation of "rehabilitation". By using of complex network analysis techniques including network visualization,k-core decomposition and statistical analysis for randomized networks, the structures of two networks were analyzed. Before the teaching process the students' social representation of rehabilitation organized its central core around the concept of "health". The teaching process reorganized the social representation of rehabilitation on the basis of a group of central concepts including "function" and its related words. After the teaching processt the social representation showed a more interactive core structure. Teaching process can fashion social representations of students. Word network analysis technique can provide a quick, qualified and visualized approach for the assessments of knowledge structure.%研究教学时学生社会表征的塑造作用.在康复医学课授课前后以“康复”为刺激词,构建“康复”社会表征联想词网络.采用网络可视化、k-核解析、构建随机网络统计检验等复杂网络分析法,比较授课前后的“康复”社会表征.发现授课前社会表征围绕“健康”构建核心结构,授课后围绕“功能”及相关词汇构建更紧密的核心.提示教学可以塑造学生的社会表征,而词汇网络分析技术可以为知识结构测评提供便捷的、量化和可视化的分析工具.

  20. Pruning False Unknown Words to Improve Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; 浅原, 正幸; 松本, 裕治

    2005-01-01

    During the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation, many detected word candidates are invalid. These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy, as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words. Therefore, we propose to eliminate as many invalid word candidates as possible by a pruning process. Our experiments show that by cutting down the invalid unknown word candidates, we improve the segmentation accuracy of known words and ...

  1. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

  2. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  3. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Daselaar; D.J. Veltman; S. Rombouts; J.G.W. Raaijmakers; C. Jonker

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N=25) and older (N=38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic, bu

  4. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.

  5. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  6. The Absence of the Automatic Association between Behavioral Representation Level and Psychological Distance:Evidence from a Picture-word Stroop Task%行为表征水平与心理距离间不具自动化联接特性:来自图片-词汇Stroop范式的实验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 申之美

    2014-01-01

    within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the part of speech of each word (adjective or verb) in the arrow and meanwhile ignore the arrow’s spatial location. In Experiment 2, four sets of trait-action word pairs including lively/josh (Experiment 2a), modest/to ask for advice (Experiment 2b), kindhearted/to help (Experiment 2c) and faithful/to repay loan (Experiment 2d), were adopted to be the sample stimuli and were embedded within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the each word embedded in the arrow and ignore the arrow’s spatial location. All words in the experiments were Chinese two-character words. The results showed that: (1) No matter responding to the part of speech (Experiment 1) or the naming (Experiment 2) of the target words, participants’ reaction times were not affected, hence the process of different construal-level words was not influenced by differed spatial distances. (2) Participants responded to both the part of speech (Experiment 1) and the semantic meaning (Experiment 2) significantly faster when the target words (no matter they were trait words or act words) were presented in distal locations than when they were presented in proximate locations. Based on these results, we suggest that there is no automatic association between the behavioral representation levels and psychological distances, and the psychological distance effect on behavioral representation levels may be the product of a consciously controlled process. Moreover, the possible mechanism that participants’ performance on the behavioral evaluative words is largely dependent on a distal spatial distance has been discussed.

  7. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  8. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition.

  9. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... representation? How is virtual reality used in public participation and how do virtual environments affect participatory decision making? How does VR thus affect the physical world of built environment? Given the practical collaborative possibilities of immersive technology, how can they best be implemented...

  10. Fuzzy Nonnative Phonolexical Representations Lead to Fuzzy Form-to-Meaning Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Svetlana V.; Pandža, Nick B.; Lancaster, Alia K.; Gor, Kira

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores nonnative (L2) phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1) L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1); and (2) fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2). The Russian-English Translation Judgment Task (Experiment 1, TJT) explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent–parrot) show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent–parchment) in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP) addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words. The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of incorrect

  11. Weaving words a diachronic analysis of the representation of gender, sexuality and otherness in women’s (re)writings of La Belle et la Bête

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Dearbhla

    2013-01-01

    This thesis endeavours to conduct a comparative analysis between two corpora of fairy tales. The first group of tales dates from approximately 1696 to 1756 and originated from the two French vogues of literary fairy tales from this era. The second group comprises contemporary Anglophone rewritings dating from 1979 to 1999. The purpose of this comparison is to investigate the lineage of similar tales by women writers and the representations of gender roles, sexuality and otherness in the tales...

  12. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice. PMID:25496428

  13. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  14. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: Species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E.; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we fo...

  15. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-01-01

    it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  16. Examining the Acquisition of Phonological Word Forms with Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that known words in the lexicon strengthen newly formed representations of novel words, resulting in words with dense neighborhoods being learned more quickly than words with sparse neighborhoods. Tests of this hypothesis in a connectionist network showed that words with dense neighborhoods were learned better than words…

  17. Young Infants Encode Lexical Stress in Newly Encountered Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in the word. Our…

  18. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  19. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  20. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross......-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more...

  1. Embodied simulation of emotional valence: Facial muscle responses to abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin; Palazova, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Semantic knowledge is thought to be at least partially grounded in sensory, motor, and affective information, acquired through experiences in our inner and outer world. The reactivation of experience-related information during meaning access is called simulation. In the affective simulation account, it is assumed that the grounding information depends on the concepts' concreteness. Whereas abstract concepts are thought to be mainly represented through affective experiential information, concrete words rely more on sensory-motor experiential information. To test this hypothesis, we measured facial muscle activity as an indicator of affective simulation during visual word recognition. Words varied on the dimensions of concreteness and valence. Behavioral and electromyographic data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models with maximal random effect structure to optimize generalization over participants and word samples. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found a valence effect in the m. corrugator supercilii only in response to concrete but not to abstract words. Our data show that affective simulation as measured with facial muscle activity occurs in response to concrete rather than to abstract words. More concrete words are supposed to have higher context availability and richer visual imagery, which might promote affective simulation on the expressive level of facial muscle activity. The results are in line with embodied accounts of semantic representation but speak against its predominant role for representing affective information in abstract concepts.

  2. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role to c

  3. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011).

  4. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  5. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations. PMID:19015501

  6. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9-13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  7. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eSuárez-Coalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995. It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca, et al., 2007. In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9 - 13 years, in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words.The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not.

  8. Eye Movement Evidence for Hierarchy Effects on Memory Representation of Discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.

  9. Eye Movement Evidence for Hierarchy Effects on Memory Representation of Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.

  10. Knowledge inhibition and N400: a study with words that look like common words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruille, J B

    1998-04-01

    In addition to their own representations, low frequency words, such as BRIBE, can covertly activate the representations of higher frequency words they look like (e.g., BRIDE). Hence, look-alike words can activate knowledge that is incompatible with the knowledge corresponding to accurate representations. Comparatively, eccentric words, that is, low frequency words that do not look as much like higher frequency words, are less likely to activate incompatible knowledge. This study focuses on the hypothesis that the N400 component of the event-related potential reflects the inhibition of incompatible knowledge. This hypothesis predicts that look-alike words elicit N400s of greater amplitudes than eccentric words in conditions where incompatible knowledge is inhibited. Results from a single item lexical decision experiment are reported which support the inhibition hypothesis. PMID:9576822

  11. How to Make a Good Animation: A Grounded Cognition Model of How Visual Representation Design Affects the Construction of Abstract Physics Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's…

  12. Anomia in moderate aphasia: problems in accessing the lexical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dorze, G; Nespoulous, J L

    1989-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to determine through the analysis of surface manifestations of anomia whether one or several anomic syndromes exist, (2) to identify the psycholinguistic process at fault in anomia with reference to M. F. Garrett's (1982, in A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions, London/New York: Academic Press) language production model. Two naming tasks were administered to 24 moderate aphasics. Test A was a standard naming task, and test B was a similar task which included subtests designed to indicate which level of representation was affected whenever patients did not name the target word. The subtests required, respectively, the identification of (a) a conceptual property, (b) two semantic attributes, (c) the first and (d) last syllable of the target word, and (e) the target word itself. Descriptive statistics yielded three groups of subjects different in terms of surface anomic manifestations, yet unrelated to clinical type of aphasia. Moreover, no significant differences between groups emerged on the subtests. All groups showed a good performance on the conceptual and the semantic subtests, suggesting preservation of high-level cognitive and semantic processes. In contrast, subjects evidenced poorer performances in syllabic identification, indicating a disruption of lower level mechanisms which are assumed to retrieve and process formal lexical representations. Results support the view that aphasic anomia originates from a difficulty in accessing the formal lexical representation and not from a semantic problem.

  13. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  14. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  15. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  16. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  17. The time course of indexical specificity effects in the perception of spoken words

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2003-10-01

    This research investigates the time-course of indexical specificity effects in spoken word recognition by examining the circumstances under which the variability in the speaking rate affects the participant's perception of spoken words. Previous research has demonstrated that variability has both representational and processing consequences. The current research examines one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which indexical variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely the time-course of processing. Based on our past work, it was hypothesized that indexical specificity effects associated with the speaking rate would only affect later stages of processing in spoken word recognition. The results confirm this hypothesis: Specificity effects are only in evidence when processing is relatively slow. [Research supported (in part) by Research Grant No. R01 DC 0265801 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.

  18. Positive words carry less information than negative words

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We show that the frequency of word use is not only determined by the word length [1] and the average information content [2], but also by its emotional content.We have analysed three established lexica of affective word usage in English, German, and Spanish, to verify that these lexica have a neutral, unbiased, emotional content. Taking into account the frequency of word usage, we find that words with a positive emotional content are more frequently used. This lends support to Pollyanna hypothesis [3] that there should be a positive bias in human expression. We also find that negative words contain more information than positive words, as the informativeness of a word increases uniformly with its valence decrease. Our findings support earlier conjectures about (i) the relation between word frequency and information content, and (ii) the impact of positive emotions on communication and social links.

  19. Representation and Meta-discourse Function of Metaphorical Gestures in Spoken Word Poetry “Hiroshima”%口语诗《广岛》中隐喻手势的表征方式与元话语功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周花平; 邓云华

    2014-01-01

    Pierce’s classification of iconic modes into image iconicity, diagrammatic iconicity, and metaphor iconicity provides a way to explore the representation of metaphoric gestures in combination with Lakoff & Johnson’s conceptual metaphor theory. And the unity of Pierce’s Trichotomies makes the sign process a real interpretant and performs meta-language function in contexts. The metaphorical gestures in the spoken word poetry “Hiroshima” perform such meta-dis-course functions as providing a sharp contrast, framing a negative assessment and planning a structure. The study not only reveals the manifestations of metaphorical thought not presented in verbal metaphors, but also helps to understand metaphorical gestures in oral communication.%皮尔斯把类象符号分为意象象似性、拟象象似性和隐喻象似性三种,这个分类与Lakoff &Johnson的概念隐喻理论结合起来可以很好地揭示隐喻手势的表征方式。皮尔斯符号“三位一体”的整体性使符号成为真正的“说明项”,在具体语境中具备元话语功能。通过分析,口语诗《广岛》中的隐喻手势具备突出对照、否定评价和谋篇布局的元话语功能。本研究不仅揭示了言语隐喻中无法体现的思维层面的内容,而且有助于对口语交际中隐喻手势的理解。

  20. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...... be written up and disseminated. The article takes a methodological focus, considering general aims and methods of the research project, before turning to the elaboration on how poetic representations have been constructed and employed as a vehicle for certain kinds of participation, representation...

  1. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  2. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping. In Experiment 1 (n = 20, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  3. [Interest of a mental representation approach to the disclosure of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Saint-Péron, Laurie; Barrelon, Marie-Odile; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the mental representation of Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing the number of words given by the subjects when asked to quickly write seven words characterizing AD in three groups of subjects: 22 caregivers, 22 professional informants, and 28 naïve subjects. The generated words were classified into six dimensions: memory, other neuropsychological impairments, behavioral disorders, consequences on caregiver relationships, familial and social changes, and health. AD mental representation was clearly negative in the three groups and did not differ between groups. Memory was the most frequent dimension reported in all groups with 78 quoted words (20.1% of responses). However the hierarchical classification of the dimensions differed in the three groups. The caregivers reported more words related to social and familial changes. Social and familial modifications, and behavioral changes were first reported by the professionals. The naïve subjects firstly quoted words concerning memory and others neuropsychological deficits. However, naïve subjects who had previously be in contact with AD patients mainly reported words about behavior changes. Actually, naïve subjects are not fully naïve because the clinical aspects of the disease are currently well known in the general population. Families and professional informants reported that AD familial and social changes had a deeper impact than cognitive or behavioral aspects. This preliminary study suggests that AD mental representation is the same in the general population, but the weight of the different dimensions affecting AD differed between subjects concerned or not by the disease (family or professional versus naïve subjects). Therefore, the weight of the different dimensions is to be taken into account for a better approach of the disclosure of AD diagnosis.

  4. [Interest of a mental representation approach to the disclosure of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Saint-Péron, Laurie; Barrelon, Marie-Odile; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the mental representation of Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing the number of words given by the subjects when asked to quickly write seven words characterizing AD in three groups of subjects: 22 caregivers, 22 professional informants, and 28 naïve subjects. The generated words were classified into six dimensions: memory, other neuropsychological impairments, behavioral disorders, consequences on caregiver relationships, familial and social changes, and health. AD mental representation was clearly negative in the three groups and did not differ between groups. Memory was the most frequent dimension reported in all groups with 78 quoted words (20.1% of responses). However the hierarchical classification of the dimensions differed in the three groups. The caregivers reported more words related to social and familial changes. Social and familial modifications, and behavioral changes were first reported by the professionals. The naïve subjects firstly quoted words concerning memory and others neuropsychological deficits. However, naïve subjects who had previously be in contact with AD patients mainly reported words about behavior changes. Actually, naïve subjects are not fully naïve because the clinical aspects of the disease are currently well known in the general population. Families and professional informants reported that AD familial and social changes had a deeper impact than cognitive or behavioral aspects. This preliminary study suggests that AD mental representation is the same in the general population, but the weight of the different dimensions affecting AD differed between subjects concerned or not by the disease (family or professional versus naïve subjects). Therefore, the weight of the different dimensions is to be taken into account for a better approach of the disclosure of AD diagnosis. PMID:25245316

  5. WORD MAGIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xinmin

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a word game named"Word Magic",which is effective and efficient inavoiding word forgetting & decaying as well as helping students to improve their abilities in spelling,word building and so on.The procedures and rules of the game are formulated together with the makingof the cards used in it.The advantages of the game are also expounded.

  6. The Affective (Re)Production of Refugee Representations through Educational Policies and Practices: Reconceptualising the Role of Emotion for Peace Education in a Divided Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…

  7. Word-class stochastic model and knowledge representation in a spoken language dialogue system%口语对话系统中的词类概率模型和知识表示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕鹏举; 郑方

    2001-01-01

    语言分析和知识库管理是口语理解与对话系统的两个重要组成部分,作者在这两方面提出了一些新的方法。一是提出并实现了词类概率模型,它具有较高的性能和较低的时间复杂度,是基于句法规则的语义分析和语言理解的基础。此外还提出了与数据无关的多叉树层次结构模型的知识表示方法,它具有很强的表达能力并易于扩展。在此基础上,实现了一个用以提供清华大学地理、办公、商业及其它一些相关信息检索、基于文本的口语对话系统EasyNav。实验表明,上述模型和方法具有很好的性能。%Language analysis (parsing) and knowledge library management are the most significant parts of a spoken language understanding and dialogue system. Some new approaches to language analysis and knowledge library management are presented. The proposed Word-Class Stochastic Model (WCSM) is the basis for syntax rule based semantic parsing and spoken language understanding which has better performance. The data-independent multi-branch tree hierarchical structure is proposed for the knowledge representation, because it has strong expressing ability and can be easily expanded. EasyNav, a text-based dialogue system based on these concepts, is designed and implemented to provide users with Tsinghua University campus navigation information. Experiments on EasyNav give satisfactory performances with these two models.

  8. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...... are fictional, value-driven concepts developed to promote dialogue with users about their values and how they may materialize with respect to interaction design in their everyday lives....

  9. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  10. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  11. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words referred to a male or female person or animal. In order to explore conceptual representations, we divided the words into gender-specific and gender-ambiguous words. Gender-specific words were words in which conceptual representations contained gender as a defining feature, in both English and Indonesian (e.g., uncle). In contrast, gender-ambiguous words were words in which gender was a defining feature in English but not a necessary feature in Indonesian (e.g., nephew and niece are both subsumed under the same word, keponakan, in Indonesian). The experiment was conducted exclusively in English. Indonesian-English bilinguals responded faster to gender-specific words than gender-ambiguous words, but the difference was smaller for the most proficient bilinguals. As expected, English-dominant speakers' response latencies were similar across these two types of words. The results suggest that English concepts are dynamic and that proficiency leads to native-like conceptual representations.

  12. Lay representations on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Lázaro, Alexandra; Carvalho, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Lay representations on climate change were mapped via the free-word association method in two pilot studies. Participants were asked to generate words associated to “the big problems faced by humankind nowadays” (1st study) and to “climate change” (2nd study). Climate change was not spontaneously evoked by the participants in the first study: pollution was among the top 10 problems, but references to other environmental issues were very low. In the second study, climate change was consid...

  13. The time course of speaking rate specificity effects in spoken word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2005-09-01

    Specificity effects in spoken word recognition were previously examined by examining the circumstances under which variability in speaking rate affects participants perception of spoken words. The word recognition and memory literatures are now replete with demonstrations that variability has representational and processing consequences. The research focuses on one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely time course of processing. Based on previous work, it was hypothesized that speaking rate variability would only affect later stages of spoken word recognition. The results confirmed this hypothesis: Specificity effects were only obtained when processing was relatively slow. However, previous stimuli not only differed in speaking rate, but also in articulation style (i.e., casual and careful). Therefore, in the current set of experiments, it was sought to determine whether the same pattern of results would be obtained with stimuli that only differed in speaking rate (i.e., in the absence of articulation style differences). Moreover, to further generalize time course findings, the stimuli were produced by a different speaker than the speaker in the earlier study. The results add to the knowledge of the circumstances under which variability affects the perception of spoken words.

  14. How Language Affects Children’s Use of Derivational Morphology in Visual Word and Pseudoword Processing: Evidence from a Cross-Language Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eCasalis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1 and for age (Part 2 participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+ and a suffix ending (S+ was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g. postal; R+S-: e.g. turnip; R-S+: e.g. rascal; and R-S-: e.g. bishop and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g. pondal; R+S-: e.g. curlip; R-S+: e.g. vosnal; and R-S-: e.g. hethop. Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children’s recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasise the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system.

  15. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  16. An OWL-based WordNet lexical ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-xi; ZHOU Chang-le

    2007-01-01

    This paper discribes a data representation for WordNet 2.1 based on Web Ontology Language (OWL). The main components of WordNet database are transformed as classes in OWL, and the relations between synsets or lexcial words are transformed as OWL properties. Our conversion is based on the data file of WordNet instead of the Prolog database. This work can be used to enrich the work in progress of standard conversion of WordNet to the RDF/OWL representation at W3C.

  17. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  18. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  19. The Neural Basis of Obligatory Decomposition of Suffixed Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Recent neurolinguistic studies present somewhat conflicting evidence concerning the role of the inferior temporal cortex (IT) in visual word recognition within the first 200 ms after presentation. On the one hand, fMRI studies of the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) suggest that the IT might recover representations of the orthographic form of words.…

  20. Representation is representation of similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  1. AFFECT IN 100 NOVELS: SEMANTIC PATTERNS AND CULTURAL NEUROLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gliserman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    International audience The paper focuses on unconscious cultural transmission in a corpus of one hundred classic Anglophone novels written between 1719-1997. The paper demonstrates that transmission by looking at lexical representations of a range of semantic constituents in the corpus, including the particular case of AFFECT. Research not the lexical inventories of these novels reveals that there are rules of semantic distributions, i.e., rules about what proportions of what kinds of word...

  2. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene;

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...... tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  3. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  4. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  5. Emotion categorization using affective-pLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Feng, Songhe

    2010-12-01

    Emotion categorization of natural scene images represents a very useful task for automatic image analysis systems. Psychological experiments have shown that visual information at the emotion level is aggregated according to a set of rules. Hence, we attempt to discover the emotion descriptors based on the composition of visual word representation. First, the composition of visual word representation models each image as a matrix, where elements record the correlations of pairwise visual words. In this way, an image collection is modeled as a third-order tensor. Then we discover the emotion descriptors using a novel affective-probabilistic latent semantic analysis (affective-pLSA) model, which is an extension of the pLSA model, on this tensor representation. Considering that the natural scene image may evoke multiple emotional feelings, emotion categorization is carried out using the multilabel k-nearest-neighbor approach based on emotion descriptors. The proposed approach has been tested on the International Affective Picture System and a collection of social images from the Flickr website. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for eliciting image emotions.

  6. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforw...

  7. Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Baichen; Yu, Shuyuan; Gong, Tianwei; Jiang, Ting; Hu, Qingfen; Chen, Yinghe

    2016-01-01

    Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word "green"), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task. PMID:27092100

  8. Social representations among university professors affected by a process of academic-administrative fusion. The case of Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Roxana Vivas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to socialize the case study results on the merger of tertiary institutes at Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos (Argentina and the faculty’s social representations among the Latin American community. For this study, we follow three theoretical approaches: Burton Clark’s internism, Lidia Fernández’s institutional dynamics and Brown, Delhom, Clark and Lang’s contributions on mergers. Based on 22 focused interviews, a descriptive study was carried out. In order to examine qualitative data, the illustrative mode, through textual excerpts, was combined to the analytical mode, through category building. This allows interpreting the process in the: teaching work structure, fusion-related meanings, dismemberment of identity, modalities and strategies, and the communicative process aspects. A thoroughful study of these personal and institutional processes helps understand conflict generating “black boxes”, thus bringing new elements in to further mergers

  9. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  10. The orbitofrontal cortex and beyond: from affect to decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian

    2008-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex represents the reward or affective value of primary reinforcers including taste, touch, texture, and face expression. It learns to associate other stimuli with these to produce representations of the expected reward value for visual, auditory, and abstract stimuli including monetary reward value. The orbitofrontal cortex thus plays a key role in emotion, by representing the goals for action. The learning process is stimulus-reinforcer association learning. Negative reward prediction error neurons are related to this affective learning. Activations in the orbitofrontal cortex correlate with the subjective emotional experience of affective stimuli, and damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs emotion-related learning, emotional behaviour, and subjective affective state. With an origin from beyond the orbitofrontal cortex, top-down attention to affect modulates orbitofrontal cortex representations, and attention to intensity modulates representations in earlier cortical areas of the physical properties of stimuli. Top-down word-level cognitive inputs can bias affective representations in the orbitofrontal cortex, providing a mechanism for cognition to influence emotion. Whereas the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of reward or affective value on a continuous scale, areas beyond the orbitofrontal cortex such as the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 are involved in binary decision-making when a choice must be made. For this decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of each specific reward in a common currency. PMID:18824074

  11. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  12. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.

  13. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  14. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  15. 新闻文本间距中的词语色彩对受众之误导%The Misleading of Affective Meaning of Words in the Distance of News Text on Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐成英

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationships among propagation context of news text, context of audience and distance of news text, as well as the function of affective meaning of words in the distance of news text, especially the misleading effect on audience.%探讨了新闻文本传播语境、受众接受语境与新闻文本间距之间的关系,以及词语色彩在新闻文本间距中所产生的作用,尤其是这种作用对受众误导方面的影响。

  16. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier;

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  17. Is there a semantic system for abstract words?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eShallice

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two views on the semantics of concrete words are that their core mental representations are feature-based or are reconstructions of sensory experience. We argue that neither of these approaches is capable of representing the semantics of abstract words, which involve the representation of possibly hypothetical physical and mental states, the binding of entities within a structure, and the possible use of embedding (or recursion in such structures. Brain based evidence in the form of dissociations between deficits related to concrete and abstract semantics corroborates the hypothesis. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that left lateral inferior frontal cortex supports those processes responsible for the representation of abstract words.

  18. Manipulating Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  19. Word sense disambiguation using semantic relatedness measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Che-Yu

    2006-01-01

    All human languages have words that can mean different things in different contexts, such words with multiple meanings are potentially "ambiguous". The process of "deciding which of several meanings of a term is intended in a given context" is known as "word sense disambiguation (WSD)". This paper presents a method of WSD that assigns a target word the sense that is most related to the senses of its neighbor words. We explore the use of measures of relatedness between word senses based on a novel hybrid approach. First, we investigate how to "literally" and "regularly" express a "concept". We apply set algebra to WordNet's synsets cooperating with WordNet's word ontology. In this way we establish regular rules for constructing various representations (lexical notations) of a concept using Boolean operators and word forms in various synset(s) defined in WordNet. Then we establish a formal mechanism for quantifying and estimating the semantic relatedness between concepts-we facilitate "concept distribution statistics" to determine the degree of semantic relatedness between two lexically expressed concepts. The experimental results showed good performance on Semcor, a subset of Brown corpus. We observe that measures of semantic relatedness are useful sources of information for WSD.

  20. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  1. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  2. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  3. Electric Symbols: Internet Words And Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fraim, John

    2002-01-01

    The famous Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis posits a linguistic determinism arguing language plays a central role in creation of a worldview. In the sense that language is a product of words, one can say that a culture's worldview is affected and influenced by the words of its particular language. Words both create and communicate worldviews. The greatest potential in history for the observation and analysis of words exists on the Internet. Indeed, the Internet can be considered history's greatest obse...

  4. Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

    2012-01-01

    Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

  5. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  6. Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2009-01-01

    The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

  7. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  8. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  9. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  10. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  11. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  12. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  13. Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords [1]. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  14. Efficient Parallel Learning of Word2Vec

    OpenAIRE

    Vuurens, Jeroen B. P.; Eickhoff, Carsten; de Vries, Arjen P.

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction, Word2Vec and its variants are widely used to learn semantics-preserving representations of words or entities in an embedding space, which can be used to produce state-of-art results for various Natural Language Processing tasks. Existing implementations aim to learn efficiently by running multiple threads in parallel while operating on a single model in shared memory, ignoring incidental memory update collisions. We show that these collisions can degrade the efficiency...

  15. DeepWalk: Online Learning of Social Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Perozzi, Bryan; Al-Rfou, Rami; Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We present DeepWalk, a novel approach for learning latent representations of vertices in a network. These latent representations encode social relations in a continuous vector space, which is easily exploited by statistical models. DeepWalk generalizes recent advancements in language modeling and unsupervised feature learning (or deep learning) from sequences of words to graphs. DeepWalk uses local information obtained from truncated random walks to learn latent representations by treating wa...

  16. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...

  17. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  18. Magical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  19. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed. PMID:21687967

  20. Affective and Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrell, Ileana Collado; Herrell, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A study showing that lexically equivalent words in two languages have different affective meanings, that affective intensity of dominant language words is greater than for second language equivalents, and that the difference is greatest for words with high affective meaning demonstrates that affective meaning is an important component of…

  1. Is the coupled control of hand and mouth postures precursor of reciprocal relations between gestures and words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    We tested whether a system coupling hand postures related to gestures to the control of internal mouth articulators during production of vowels exists and it can be precursor of a system relating hand/arm gestures to words. Participants produced unimanual and bimanual representational gestures expressing the meaning of LARGE or SMALL. Once the gesture was produced, in experiment 1 they pronounced the vowels "A" or "I", in experiment 2 the word "GRÀNDE" (large) or "PÌCCOLO" (small), and in experiment 3 the pseudo-words "SCRÀNTA" or "SBÌCCARA". Mouth, hand kinematics and voice spectra were recorded and analyzed. Unimanual gestures affected voice spectra of the two vowels pronounced alone (experiment 1). Bimanual and both unimanual and bimanual gestures affected voice spectra of /a/ and /i/ included in the words (experiment 2) and pseudo-words (experiment 3), respectively. The results support the hypothesis that a system coupling hand gestures to vowel production exists. Moreover, they suggest the existence of a more general system relating gestures to words.

  2. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  3. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  4. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  5. Factorizations and Physical Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Revzen, M.; F. C. Khanna(Edmonton, Canada); Mann, A.; Zak, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the prime numbers decomposition of M. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (J. Zak, Phys. Today, {\\bf 23} (2), 51 (1970)), and related representations termed $q_{1}q_{2}$ representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter repre...

  6. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  7. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  8. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that…

  9. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  10. Survey of Classroom Use of Representations: Development, Field Test and Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, Sandra; Prechtl, Helmut; Nerdel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Because of the multimodal nature of learning, doing and reporting science, it is important that students learn how to interpret, construct, relate and translate scientific representations or, in other words, to develop representational competence. Explicit instruction about multimodal representations is needed to foster students'…

  11. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  13. Strength of object representation: its key role in object-based attention for determining the competition result between Gestalt and top-down objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Donglai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    It was found in previous studies that two types of objects (rectangles formed according to the Gestalt principle and Chinese words formed in a top-down fashion) can both induce an object-based effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the strength of an object representation affects the result of the competition between these two types of objects based on research carried out by Liu, Wang and Zhou [(2011) Acta Psychologica, 138(3), 397-404]. In Experiment 1, the rectangles were filled with two different colors to increase the strength of Gestalt object representation, and we found that the object effect changed significantly for the different stimulus types. Experiment 2 used Chinese words with various familiarities to manipulate the strength of the top-down object representation. As a result, the object-based effect induced by rectangles was observed only when the Chinese word familiarity was low. These results suggest that the strength of object representation determines the result of competition between different types of objects.

  14. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues". PMID:26117488

  15. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.

  16. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature. PMID:23621718

  17. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  18. Words leaking from objects: thinking with absent photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities within notions of the object constitute a special area of interest in my research. As I have come to see it, the object is bounded by – and yet comes to alter- views of representation/re-presentation; it contributes towards academic thinking through its capacity for democratizing and bridging itself towards others – yet it has a history of failing in the exchange of everyday gestures with places seemingly remote from the academia. Although accused of resolution and impermeability, I admittedly cannot part with the word ‘object’. And this creates a tension in my work with photography, where I attempt to articulate a personal view of the photograph as something ultimately unfixed. In this view, writing and photography extend continuously and reciprocally into the virtual and the physical from gestures before the photograph and before the word. This text reflects on these tensions, drawing on notions of affect, potentiality and on ethics to discover traces of the other suggested in the physical, but also the imaginary surface of an object. Following Sherry Turkle’s notion of ‘object’ as evocative, in this text ‘the things I think with’ form narratives that reflect the absence of other(s, and the escaping capacity of absent objects in and out of words.

  19. Representações do corpo: com a palavra um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares Representations of the body: with the word one group of adolescents from popular classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Déa Braga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante da grande preocupação com a estética corporal demonstrada por um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares, o presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar as suas representações sociais de corpo. Tratou-se de investigação de abordagem qualitativa realizada com adolescentes trabalhadores vinculados ao Centro Salesiano do Menor, em Vitória (ES. Uma amostra aleatória foi selecionada de um grupo de 334 sujeitos. Oito meninas e sete meninos foram abordados por meio de entrevista não-estruturada. A partir da análise de suas falas, foi realizada uma categorização e utilizada a teoria das representações sociais para sua discussão. Os resultados apontaram que a percepção de corpo, tanto para meninos quanto para as meninas, está voltada para as idéias de proporcionalidade, normalidade e perfeição. Quanto às consequências de não ter o corpo ideal, ambos apontaram situações como exclusão, doenças, infelicidade e até morte. Aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a percepção, os pensamentos e sentimentos dos adolescentes relativos ao corpo pode contribuir para subsidiar intervenções nesse grupo, ampliando significativamente o âmbito de atuação dos profissionais na área da saúde.In view of the great body aesthetic concern demonstrated by a group of adolescents from popular classes, this study had the purpose of getting to know and analyze the social representations of the body. It investigated the qualitative approach carried out with adolescent workers from the Centro Salesiano do Menor, in Vitória, Espírito Santo State. A random sample was selected from a group of 334 individuals. Eight girls and seven boys were approached by means of non-structured interview. From the analysis of their speeches, a categorization was performed and the theory of the Social Representations was used for discussion. The results pointed out that body perception, for boys as well as for girls, are focused on the ideas of

  20. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective

  1. Complex Networks of Words in Fables

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we give an overview of the application of complex network theory to quantify some properties of language. Our study is based on two fables in Ukrainian, Mykyta the Fox and Abu-Kasym's slippers. It consists of two parts: the analysis of frequency-rank distributions of words and the application of complex-network theory. The first part shows that the text sizes are sufficiently large to observe statistical properties. This supports their selection for the analysis of typical properties of the language networks in the second part of the chapter. In describing language as a complex network, while words are usually associated with nodes, there is more variability in the choice of links and different representations result in different networks. Here, we examine a number of such representations of the language network and perform a comparative analysis of their characteristics. Our results suggest that, irrespective of link representation, the Ukrainian language network used in the selected fables i...

  2. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  3. Representing Word Meaning and Order Information in a Composite Holographic Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a computational model that builds a holographic lexicon representing both word meaning and word order from unsupervised experience with natural language. The model uses simple convolution and superposition mechanisms to learn distributed holographic representations for words. The structure of the resulting lexicon can account…

  4. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

  5. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova;

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...

  6. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Hommel, Bernhard; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001a), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing - an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Memelink and Hommel, 2012), whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010). The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  7. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eWykowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001, action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing—an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Memelink & Hommel, in press; Wykowska, Schubö, & Hommel, 2009, whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010. The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  8. Does Grammatical Structure Accelerate Number Word Learning? Evidence from Learners of Dual and Non-Dual Dialects of Slovenian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesničar, Vesna; Razboršek, Tina; Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    How does linguistic structure affect children’s acquisition of early number word meanings? Previous studies have tested this question by comparing how children learning languages with different grammatical representations of number learn the meanings of labels for small numbers, like 1, 2, and 3. For example, children who acquire a language with singular-plural marking, like English, are faster to learn the word for 1 than children learning a language that lacks the singular-plural distinction, perhaps because the word for 1 is always used in singular contexts, highlighting its meaning. These studies are problematic, however, because reported differences in number word learning may be due to unmeasured cross-cultural differences rather than specific linguistic differences. To address this problem, we investigated number word learning in four groups of children from a single culture who spoke different dialects of the same language that differed chiefly with respect to how they grammatically mark number. We found that learning a dialect which features “dual” morphology (marking of pairs) accelerated children’s acquisition of the number word two relative to learning a “non-dual” dialect of the same language. PMID:27486802

  9. Word Sense Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Bárta, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis deals with the semantic similarity of words. It describes the design and the implementation of a system, which searches for the most similar words and measures the semantic similarity of words. The system uses the Word2Vec model from GenSim library. It learns the relations among words from CommonCrawl corpus.

  10. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  11. Prosodic and Syntactic Factors in the Phonetic Realization of Function Words in American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young-Il

    2009-01-01

    Function (i.e., grammatical) words very frequently lack word-level stress and display phonetic reduction relative to content (i.e., lexical) words. However, word-class (function vs . content) may not be the only factor that affects phonetic realization of function words; prosodic and syntactic context can also play a significant role in…

  12. Transforming Graph Representations for Statistical Relational Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Ryan A; Aha, David W; Neville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of statistical relational learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine a range of representation issues for graph-based relational data. Since the choice of relational data representation for the nodes, links, and features can dramatically affect the capabilities of SRL algorithms, we survey approaches and opportunities for relational representation transformation designed to improve the performance of these algorithms. This leads us to introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. In particular, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type...

  13. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    Full Text Available Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  14. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L; Schön, Daniele; Magne, Cyrille; Astésano, Corine; Besson, Mireille

    2010-03-31

    Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target) presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word) elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  15. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  16. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective

  17. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia eDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  18. Effective Analysis of Chinese Word-Segmentation Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Weiyin

    2007-01-01

    Automatic word-segmentation is widely used in the ambiguity cancellation when processing large-scale real text,but during the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation,many detected word candidates are invalid.These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy,as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words.In this paper,we propose several methods for reducing the difficulties and improving the accuracy of the word-segmentation of written Chinese,such as full segmentation of a sentence,processing the duplicative word,idioms and statistical identification for unknown words.A simulation shows the feasibility of our proposed methods in improving the accuracy of word-segmentation of Chinese.

  19. The Role of Identity Salience in the Mechanism of Tourism Destination Image Affecting on Word-of-Mouth---The Explanation based on the Cognitive-Affective Dual Perspective%认同显著性在游客对目的地形象口碑传播机制中的作用--基于认知-情感双重视角的解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    本研究基于认知-情感双重视角构建旅游目的地形象对游客口碑传播的影响模型,解释认同显著性在游客口碑传播中的中介作用。实证结果表明:目的地形象包括情感形象、环境氛围和可融入性三个维度,游客满意度受情感形象和环境氛围(情感上)以及可融入性(认知上)的正向影响;认同显著性在情感上仅受情感形象的正向影响,在认知上受可融入性的正向影响,认同显著性在情感形象和可融入性对满意度与口碑传播的影响中起着重要的中介作用。本研究从认知与情感的双重视角下扩展了游客对目的地形象口碑传播机制的相关理论。%Based on the cognitive-affective dual perspective, this study constructed the conceptual model to investigate how tourism destination image affects tourists′word-of-mouth, and discussed the mediating role of identity salience between tourism destination image and word-of-mouth.The empirical results indicated that the tourism destination im-age includes affective image, physical atmosphere and accessibility;identity salience is positively affected by accessibili-ty with the cognitive viewpoint, and is positively affected by the affective image with affective viewpoint, tourists′satis-faction is also positively affected by accessibility with the cognitive viewpoint, and is positively affected by both affective image and physical environment with the affective viewpoint;identity salience mediates the relation between affective im-age and accessibility and satisfaction and word-of-mouth.With the cognitive-affective dual perspective, this study expanded the theoretical mechanism of tourism destination image affecting word-of-mouth.

  20. Detecting "protein words" through unsupervised word segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wang; KaiYong, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised word segmentation methods were applied to analyze the protein sequence. Protein sequences, such as 'MTMDKSELVQKA...', were used as input to these methods. Segmented 'protein word' sequences, such as 'MTM DKSE LVQKA', were then obtained. We compare the 'protein words' produced by unsupervised segmentation and the protein secondary structure segmentation. An interesting finding is that the unsupervised word segmentation is more efficient than secondary structure segmentation in exp...

  1. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  2. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition-including visual word recognition-have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  3. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHannagan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels. As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition - including visual word recognition - have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power.

  4. The Effect of Feature Representation on MEDLINE Document Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    This work explores the effect of text representation techniques on the overall performance of medical text classification. To accomplish this goal, we developed a text classification system that supports the very basic word representation (bag-of-words) and the more complex medical phrase representation (bag-of-phrases). We also combined word and phrase representations (hybrid) for further analysis. Our system extracts medical phrases from text by incorporating a medical knowledge base and natural language processing techniques. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of different representations by measuring the change in classification performance with MEDLINE documents from the OHSUMED dataset. We measured classification performance with information retrieval metrics; precision (p), recall (r), and F1-score (F1). In our experiments, we achieved better classification performance with the hybrid approach (p=0.87, r=0.46, F1=0.60) compared to the bag-of-words approach (p=0.85, r=0.44, F1=0.58) and the bag-of-phrases approach (p=0.87, r=0.42, F1=0.57). PMID:16779160

  5. Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunillera, Toni; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information. Moreover, we confirmed a previously reported N400 amplitude increase for the to-be-segmented novel words, indicating a bottom-up learning process whereby new memory representations for the novel words emerge. We propose that the anchor word effect indexed by SPN reflects an expectation for an incoming novel word at the offset of the anchor word, thus facilitating the segmentation process. PMID:26792366

  6. Real numbers having ultimately periodic representations in abstract numeration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, P.; Rigo, M

    2002-01-01

    Using a genealogically ordered infinite regular language, we know how to represent an interval of R. Numbers having an ultimately periodic representation play a special role in classical numeration systems. The aim of this paper is to characterize the numbers having an ultimately periodic representation in generalized systems built on a regular language. The syntactical properties of these words are also investigated. Finally, we show the equivalence of the classical "theta"-expansions with o...

  7. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Luit de Jonge. Luit de Jonge My only year as president (mid-1982 to mid-1983) of the Staff Association was intense and eventful. Michel Vitasse, who had prepared the ground for me as his successor, had previously worked with his deputies on the modes of staff representation in major international organizations. We had only one official body for discussions with Management, the Standing Consultation Committee (SCC). As its name suggests, this committee was advisory only, but we, the Staff Association, wanted to negotiate and reach signed agreements. A joint group had been established (President Günther Ullmann and Vice President Romain Pittin, who at the same time was Vice-President of the Staff Association) to study the issue. In the end, it was clear that the CERN Management did not want to chang...

  8. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. Th...

  9. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. This ...

  10. Does Hearing Several Speakers Reduce Foreign Word Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Jason Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Learning spoken word forms is a vital part of second language learning, and CALL lends itself well to this training. Not enough is known, however, about how auditory variation across speech tokens may affect receptive word learning. To find out, 144 Thai university students with no knowledge of the Patani Malay language learned 24 foreign words in…

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  12. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  13. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  14. Representation of Teachers’ Identity in EFL Classroom Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinarni Susilowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This sociocultural linguistic study aimed investigating the teachers’ identity representation in their classroom interactions. This study was conducted by considering the significant roles the teachers played in orchestrating classroom activities which involved the accumulation of the teachers’ efforts, values and beliefs. The findings revealed that the teachers exposed their identity in differentways for both different roles and local positioning which were culturally, socially, politically, and religiously constructed. The teachers also perceived their identity which could be clustered into four broad areas which showed their understanding and the significant functions of their identity representation. Some pedagogical implications were derived from these findingsKey Words: teachers’ identity representation, classroom interactions

  15. When is a word a word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; McCune, L

    1994-10-01

    Although adult-based words co-occur in the period of transition to speech with a variety of non-word vocalizations, little attention has been given to the formidable problem of identifying these earliest words. This paper specifies explicit, maximally 'inclusive' identification procedures, with criteria based on both phonetic and contextual parameters. A formal system for evaluating phonetic match is suggested, as well as a set of child-derived functional categories reflecting use in context. Analysis of word use across two samples of 10 children each, followed from 0;9 to 1;4, provides evidence to suggest that context-bound words can be 'trained' by focusing on eliciting language, but that the timing of context-flexible word use remains independent of such training.

  16. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  17. A Comparative Study of Root -Based and Stem -Based Approaches for Measuring the Similarity Between Arabic Words for Arabic Text Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane FROUD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Representation of semantic information contained in the words is needed for any Arabic Text Miningapplications. More precisely, the purpose is to better take into account the semantic dependenciesbetween words expressed by the co-occurrence frequencies of these words. There have been manyproposals to compute similarities between words based on their distributions in contexts. In this paper,we compare and contrast the effect of two preprocessing techniques applied to Arabic corpus: Rootbased(Stemming, and Stem-based (Light Stemming approaches for measuring the similarity betweenArabic words with the well known abstractive model -Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA- with a widevariety of distance functions and similarity measures, such as the Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity,Jaccard Coefficient, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The obtained results show that, on the onehand, the variety of the corpus produces more accurate results; on the other hand, the Stem-basedapproach outperformed the Root-based one because this latter affects the words meanings

  18. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors are temporarily activated in the listener’s mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK 'anorak'. In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana- taken from ANANAS 'pineapple'. Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient candidates.

  19. Cognate facilitation effects in trilingual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Szubko-Sitarek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is nonselective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence supporting nonselective access is that bilinguals recognize cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two or more languages faster than noncognates. In fact, any difference between how cognates and ‘monolingual’ words are processed by multilinguals would indicate that the other, currently irrelevant language must have played a role as well, at least as long as the two groups of words are comparable with respect to all dimensions other than language membership. The aim of the present paper is to report on two visual perceptual experiments conducted within the lexical decision task paradigm whose aim was to test the assumptions concerning the special position of cognates (the cognate facilitation effect, cf. Dijkstra, 2005 within a trilingual mind and to answer the question whether trilinguals rely upon their second language lexical knowledge when recognizing L3 words. The results of the experiments attest to simultaneous activation and parallel processing as well as interaction among all the three languages. At the same time, they point to the fact that cross-linguistic lexical access and the source and strength of transfer may be constrained by variables such task demands.

  20. The meaning of 'life' and other abstract words: Insights from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    There are a number of long-standing theories on how the cognitive processing of abstract words, like 'life', differs from that of concrete words, like 'knife'. This review considers current perspectives on this debate, focusing particularly on insights obtained from patients with language disorders and integrating these with evidence from functional neuroimaging studies. The evidence supports three distinct and mutually compatible hypotheses. (1) Concrete and abstract words differ in their representational substrates, with concrete words depending particularly on sensory experiences and abstract words on linguistic, emotional, and magnitude-based information. Differential dependence on visual versus verbal experience is supported by the evidence for graded specialization in the anterior temporal lobes for concrete versus abstract words. In addition, concrete words have richer representations, in line with better processing of these words in most aphasic patients and, in particular, patients with semantic dementia. (2) Abstract words place greater demands on executive regulation processes because they have variable meanings that change with context. This theory explains abstract word impairments in patients with semantic-executive deficits and is supported by neuroimaging studies showing greater response to abstract words in inferior prefrontal cortex. (3) The relationships between concrete words are governed primarily by conceptual similarity, while those of abstract words depend on association to a greater degree. This theory, based primarily on interference and priming effects in aphasic patients, is the most recent to emerge and the least well understood. I present analyses indicating that patterns of lexical co-occurrence may be important in understanding these effects.

  1. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  2. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  3. The Role of Accentual Pattern in Early Lexical Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn M.; Nakai, Satsuki; DePaolis, Rory A.; Halle, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between prosodic and segmental aspects of infant representations for speech was explored using the head-turn paradigm, with untrained everyday familiar words and phrases as stimuli. At 11 months English-learning infants, like French infants (Halle & Boysson-Bardies, 1994), attended significantly longer to a list of familiar lexical…

  4. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  5. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  6. Things to think with: words and objects as material symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper integrates archaeology, anthropology and functional brain imaging in an examination of the cognition of words and objects. Based on a review of recent brain imaging experiments, it is argued that in cognition and action, material symbols may be the link between internal representations and objects and words in the world. This principle is applied to the sapient paradox, the slow development of material innovation at the advent of the anatomically modern human. This translates the p...

  7. Research-Based Worksheets on Using Multiple Representations in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew; Sharma, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent the world like a scientist is difficult to teach; it is more than simply knowing the representations (e.g., graphs, words, equations and diagrams). For meaningful science learning to take place, consideration needs to be given to explicitly integrating representations into instructional methods, linked to the content, and…

  8. Motoric Characteristics of Representational Gestures Produced by Young Children in a Naming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, Paola; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the form of representational gestures produced by forty-five hearing children (age range 2 ; 0-3 ; 1) asked to label pictures in words. Five pictures depicting objects and five pictures depicting actions which elicited more representational gestures were chosen for more detailed analysis. The range of gestures produced for each…

  9. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: The role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulatio...

  10. Generative semantic mechanisms within morphologically complex words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Sosa Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.

  11. Predictability Effects on Durations of Content and Function Words in Conversational English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Alan; Brenier, Jason; Gregory, Michelle L.; girand, cynthia; Jurafsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Content and function word duration are affected differently by their frequency and predictability. Regression analyses of conversational speech show that content words are shorter when they are more frequent, but function words are not. Repeated content words are shorter, but function words are not. Furthermore, function words have shorter pronunciations, after controlling for frequency and predictability. both content and function words are strongly affected by predictability from the word following them, and only very frequent function words show sensitivity to predictability from the preceding word. The results support the view that content and function words are accessed by different production mechanisms. We argue that words’ form differences due to frequency or repetition stem from their faster or slower lexical access, mediated by a general mechanism that coordinates the pace of higher-level planning and the execution of the articulatory plan.

  12. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words.

  13. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  14. A new ANEW: Evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment analysis of microblogs such as Twitter has recently gained a fair amount of attention. One of the simplest sentiment analysis approaches compares the words of a posting against a labeled word list, where each word has been scored for valence, -- a 'sentiment lexicon' or 'affective word lists'. There exist several affective word lists, e.g., ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words) developed before the advent of microblogging and sentiment analysis. I wanted to examine how well ANEW and other word lists performs for the detection of sentiment strength in microblog posts in comparison with a new word list specifically constructed for microblogs. I used manually labeled postings from Twitter scored for sentiment. Using a simple word matching I show that the new word list may perform better than ANEW, though not as good as the more elaborate approach found in SentiStrength.

  15. A new ANEW: Evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment analysis of microblogs such as Twitter has recently gained a fair amount of attention. One of the simplest sentiment analysis approaches compares the words of a posting against a labeled word list, where each word has been scored for valence, — a “sentiment lexicon” or “affective word...... lists”. There exist several affective word lists, e.g., ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words) developed before the advent of microblogging and sentiment analysis. I wanted to examine how well ANEW and other word lists performs for the detection of sentiment strength in microblog posts in comparison...... with a new word list specifically constructed for microblogs. I used manually labeled postings from Twitter scored for sentiment. Using a simple word matching I show that the new word list may perform better than ANEW, though not as good as the more elaborate approach found in SentiStrength....

  16. Functions of graphemic and phonemic codes in visual word-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D E; Schvaneveldt, R W; Ruddy, M G

    1974-03-01

    Previous investigators have argued that printed words are recognized directly from visual representations and/or phonological representations obtained through phonemic recoding. The present research tested these hypotheses by manipulating graphemic and phonemic relations within various pairs of letter strings. Ss in two experiments classified the pairs as words or nonwords. Reaction times and error rates were relatively small for word pairs (e.g., BRIBE-TRIBE) that were both graphemically, and phonemically similar. Graphemic similarity alone inhibited performance on other word pairs (e.g., COUCH-TOUCH). These and other results suggest that phonological representations play a significant role in visual word recognition and that there is a dependence between successive phonemic-encoding operations. An encoding-bias model is proposed to explain the data. PMID:24214761

  17. Bayesian Word Sense Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Samuel; Lapata, Mirella

    2009-01-01

    Sense induction seeks to automatically identify word senses directly from a corpus. A key assumption underlying previous work is that the context surrounding an ambiguous word is indicative of its meaning. Sense induction is thus typically viewed as an unsupervised clustering problem where the aim is to partition a word’s contexts into different classes, each representing a word sense. Our work places sense induction in a Bayesian context by modeling the contexts of the ambiguous word as samp...

  18. In a Word, History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  19. Colourful English Colour Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    English colour words, though very small in number, reflect to a great extent the different cultural connotations of different languages. This paper gives quite a few idiomatic usages,and ranslation examples of some colour words and illustrates the mportance of a clear understanding of cultural - loaded words in translation practice.

  20. Something about Word Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2002-01-01

    Some English words are made up of the same part and have different beginnings and different endings, such as import, export, report and transport. All these words, you can see, have the same root “port”, which comes from a Latin (拉丁文)word,

  1. 网络口碑效应影响因素的性别差异研究--基于在校大学生消费群体调查%A Gender Differences Research on Factors Affecting the Internet Word of Mouth Effect:Based on Survey of Consumer Groups of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开; 王灵巧; 徐自强

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of online shopping ,the internet word of mouth has gradually attracted peo‐ple’s attention .This paper is based on 5W theory in communication studies ,and from three aspects to con‐struct the model of factors affecting the internet word of mouth effect ,which are participants spread from word of mouth ,word of mouth information and word of mouth information dissemination channels ,in addi‐tion using gender as a moderator variable to examine gender differences in different factors .Using ques‐tionnaire survey method ,taking college students in Anhui Province as an object of investigation ,the empiri‐cal studies found that professional competence of disseminator ,the degree of negative word of mouth and website credibility significantly all positively affect the network effect of word of mouth ,besides ,relative to male consumers ,the positive effect to female recipients is greater .%随着网络购物的盛行,网络口碑逐渐受到人们的关注。本文以传播学的5W理论为基础,从口碑传播参与者、口碑信息和口碑传播渠道三个方面构建网络口碑效应影响因素模型,并以性别为调节变量来考察不同影响因素在性别间的差异。采用问卷调查法,以安徽在校大学生为调查研究的对象,通过实证研究发现,传播者的专业能力、口碑负面程度、网站可信度均显著正向影响网络口碑传播效果,并且相对于男性消费者,这些因素对女性接受者口碑传播效果的正向影响更大。

  2. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  3. Social Representations of Responsibility in Guatemalan Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility is a key concept in the twentieth century because it establishes a connection between the individual and society. Recent studies analyze the responsibility as a relational concept that connects the individual to an event and its outcomes. In that sense, the responsibility may be linked to Markova perspective on dialogicality and social representations because it activates the Ego-Alter-Object dynamic: being responsible for something (Ego toward someone (Alter, and in relation to an instance (object. This paper analyzes the social representations of responsibility in a sample of 296 university students from Guatemala, who answered six stimulus words I Responsible, I Irresponsible, Responsible Guatemalan, Irresponsible Guatemalan, Responsible European and Irresponsible European, using the natural semantic networks technique. Subsequently two questionnaires were made; one about responsibility and irresponsibility on a personal, in group and out group level, based on semantic networks obtained. Finally, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were made.

  4. Dictionary Use as Word Solving Strategy (WSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf Mustafai

    2015-01-01

    L2 learners may try to pick up the unknown word’s meaning from a dictionary. Many different factors, such as how important the meaning of the word is in the passage, the number of unknown words, and the reason the students are working on it, etc., affect the frequency of the student’s use of the dictionary for help. However, trying to guess the meaning of the unknown word from the context before consulting a dictionary is more beneficial since this may help the learners to pick the correct me...

  5. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  6. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end.

  7. W-tree indexing for fast visual word generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miaojing; Xu, Ruixin; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2013-03-01

    The bag-of-visual-words representation has been widely used in image retrieval and visual recognition. The most time-consuming step in obtaining this representation is the visual word generation, i.e., assigning visual words to the corresponding local features in a high-dimensional space. Recently, structures based on multibranch trees and forests have been adopted to reduce the time cost. However, these approaches cannot perform well without a large number of backtrackings. In this paper, by considering the spatial correlation of local features, we can significantly speed up the time consuming visual word generation process while maintaining accuracy. In particular, visual words associated with certain structures frequently co-occur; hence, we can build a co-occurrence table for each visual word for a large-scale data set. By associating each visual word with a probability according to the corresponding co-occurrence table, we can assign a probabilistic weight to each node of a certain index structure (e.g., a KD-tree and a K-means tree), in order to re-direct the searching path to be close to its global optimum within a small number of backtrackings. We carefully study the proposed scheme by comparing it with the fast library for approximate nearest neighbors and the random KD-trees on the Oxford data set. Thorough experimental results suggest the efficiency and effectiveness of the new scheme.

  8. Morphable Word Clouds for Time-Varying Text Data Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming-Te; Lin, Shih-Syun; Chen, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-12-01

    A word cloud is a visual representation of a collection of text documents that uses various font sizes, colors, and spaces to arrange and depict significant words. The majority of previous studies on time-varying word clouds focuses on layout optimization and temporal trend visualization. However, they do not fully consider the spatial shapes and temporal motions of word clouds, which are important factors for attracting people's attention and are also important cues for human visual systems in capturing information from time-varying text data. This paper presents a novel method that uses rigid body dynamics to arrange multi-temporal word-tags in a specific shape sequence under various constraints. Each word-tag is regarded as a rigid body in dynamics. With the aid of geometric, aesthetic, and temporal coherence constraints, the proposed method can generate a temporally morphable word cloud that not only arranges word-tags in their corresponding shapes but also smoothly transforms the shapes of word clouds over time, thus yielding a pleasing time-varying visualization. Using the proposed frame-by-frame and morphable word clouds, people can observe the overall story of a time-varying text data from the shape transition, and people can also observe the details from the word clouds in frames. Experimental results on various data demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method in morphable word cloud generation. In addition, an application that uses the proposed word clouds in a simulated exhibition demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed method.

  9. Words: blocks, amoebas, or patches of fog? Artificial intelligence and the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Stanley L.

    1996-06-01

    Words are the fundamental carriers of information. Words that refer to numbers stand apart from all other words in one respect: Numbers are concepts that lend themselves to spatial representations with exact contours. Yet the verbal definition of numbers, through which their meaning is defined, shares in a property common to all words: their verbal definition cannot be given a spatial representation with exact contours. In that definitional respect, words are not even comparable to amoebas which, although they constantly change their shapes, have clear boundaries. Words are best to be likened to patches of fog that not only change but have no strict boundaries. While this does not land all discourse in the realm of half-truths, it sets basic limits to what can be achieved by fuzzy logic and programs of artificial intelligence.

  10. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Bilingual Word Translation: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Michael; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between…

  11. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  12. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  13. Instructional Benefits of Spoken Words: A Review of Cognitive Load Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and…

  14. Object Familiarity Enhances Infants' Use of Phonetic Detail in Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    Infants greatly refine their ability to discriminate language sounds by 12 months, yet 14-month-olds appear to confuse similar-sounding novel words. Two explanations could account for this phenomenon: infants initially have incomplete phoneme representations, suggesting developmental discontinuity; or word-learning demands interfere with use of…

  15. Toward a Theory of Variation in the Organization of the Word Reading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G.

    2016-01-01

    The strategy underlying most computational models of word reading is to specify the organization of the reading system--its architecture and the processes and representations it employs--and to demonstrate that this organization would give rise to the behavior observed in word reading tasks. This approach fails to adequately address the variation…

  16. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  17. A probabilistic computational model of cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazly, Afsaneh; Alishahi, Afra; Stevenson, Suzanne

    2010-08-01

    Words are the essence of communication: They are the building blocks of any language. Learning the meaning of words is thus one of the most important aspects of language acquisition: Children must first learn words before they can combine them into complex utterances. Many theories have been developed to explain the impressive efficiency of young children in acquiring the vocabulary of their language, as well as the developmental patterns observed in the course of lexical acquisition. A major source of disagreement among the different theories is whether children are equipped with special mechanisms and biases for word learning, or their general cognitive abilities are adequate for the task. We present a novel computational model of early word learning to shed light on the mechanisms that might be at work in this process. The model learns word meanings as probabilistic associations between words and semantic elements, using an incremental and probabilistic learning mechanism, and drawing only on general cognitive abilities. The results presented here demonstrate that much about word meanings can be learned from naturally occurring child-directed utterances (paired with meaning representations), without using any special biases or constraints, and without any explicit developmental changes in the underlying learning mechanism. Furthermore, our model provides explanations for the occasionally contradictory child experimental data, and offers predictions for the behavior of young word learners in novel situations. PMID:21564243

  18. The study of Social Representation Systems: Relationships Involving Representations on Agings, AIDS and the Body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have pointed out that social representations on AIDS, aging and the body might be connected. The present paper reports an exploratory study that aims at characterizing their relationships. The sample was composed of 1118 secondary school and university undergraduate students, who completed a questionnaire about one of the three objects. The main task was to choose 3 of 12 words extracted from the literature that were more strongly related with the object in question, and then justify their choices. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis and typical vocabulary analysis. The results from correspondence analysis suggested that the representations on AIDS and the body are associated with the element young, whereas the representations on the body and old age intersect on elements ‘health’ and ‘life’. It is concluded that there is empirical evidence of interaction zones involving the mentioned representations, and the reference to thêmata and recent developments from the structural approach might provide the guidelines to the underlying logic of a representational system.

  19. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  20. Task-dependent modulation of word processing mechanisms during modified visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampure, Julien; Benraiss, Abdelrhani; Vibert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    During visual search for words, the impact of the visual and semantic features of words varies as a function of the search task. This event-related potential (ERP) study focused on the way these features of words are used to detect similarities between the distractor words that are glanced at and the target word, as well as to then reject the distractor words. The participants had to search for a target word that was either given literally or defined by a semantic clue among words presented sequentially. The distractor words included words that resembled the target and words that were semantically related to the target. The P2a component was the first component to be modulated by the visual and/or semantic similarity of distractors to the target word, and these modulations varied according to the task. The same held true for the later N300 and N400 components, which confirms that, depending on the task, distinct processing pathways were sensitized through attentional modulation. Hence, the process that matches what is perceived with the target acts during the first 200 ms after word presentation, and both early detection and late rejection processes of words depend on the search task and on the representation of the target stored in memory. PMID:26176489

  1. Hierarchical Character-Word Models for Language Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jaech, Aaron; Mulcaire, George; Hathi, Shobhit; Ostendorf, Mari; Smith, Noah A.

    2016-01-01

    Social media messages' brevity and unconventional spelling pose a challenge to language identification. We introduce a hierarchical model that learns character and contextualized word-level representations for language identification. Our method performs well against strong base- lines, and can also reveal code-switching.

  2. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  3. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, W.; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.......We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...

  4. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  5. Automatic measurement and representation of prosodic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Goangshiuan Shawn

    Effective measurement and representation of prosodic features of the acoustic signal for use in automatic speech recognition and understanding systems is the goal of this work. Prosodic features-stress, duration, and intonation-are variations of the acoustic signal whose domains are beyond the boundaries of each individual phonetic segment. Listeners perceive prosodic features through a complex combination of acoustic correlates such as intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency (F0). We have developed new tools to measure F0 and intensity features. We apply a probabilistic global error correction routine to an Average Magnitude Difference Function (AMDF) pitch detector. A new short-term frequency-domain Teager energy algorithm is used to measure the energy of a speech signal. We have conducted a series of experiments performing lexical stress detection on words in continuous English speech from two speech corpora. We have experimented with two different approaches, a segment-based approach and a rhythm unit-based approach, in lexical stress detection. The first approach uses pattern recognition with energy- and duration-based measurements as features to build Bayesian classifiers to detect the stress level of a vowel segment. In the second approach we define rhythm unit and use only the F0-based measurement and a scoring system to determine the stressed segment in the rhythm unit. A duration-based segmentation routine was developed to break polysyllabic words into rhythm units. The long-term goal of this work is to develop a system that can effectively detect the stress pattern for each word in continuous speech utterances. Stress information will be integrated as a constraint for pruning the word hypotheses in a word recognition system based on hidden Markov models.

  6. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  7. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  8. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  9. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  10. Ghosts in the nursery: a case study of the maternal representations of a woman who killed her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gous

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternal representations as described by Stern (1995:171-190 are used in an extreme case to illustrate the link between depression and pathogenic maternal representations. Opsomming Die moedervoorstellings soos dit deur Stern (1995:171-190 beskryf word, word in ‘n ekstreme geval gebruik om die verband tussen depressie en patogene moedervoorstellings aan te toon. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. Compound reading in Hebrew text-based neglect dyslexia: the effects of the first word on the second word and of the second on the first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Gvion, Aviah

    2014-01-01

    In many Hebrew compounds, which are two-word phrases, the first word is marked morphophonologically, and often also orthographically, as the head of the compound. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, this allowed us to ask whether a right-hand word that is marked orthographically as a compound-head, and hence signals that another word is expected, causes readers with text-based neglect to continue shifting attention to the left and read the second word. We also asked whether the second, left-hand, word affects the reading of the first word. The effect of the second word was assessed in a condition in which the second word semantically disambiguated the first word, a biased heterophonic homograph, and a condition in which the second word formed a compound with the first and hence required reading the first in the morphophonological form of a compound-head. The two participants were Hebrew-speaking men with acquired left text-level neglect dyslexia, without word-based neglect dyslexia. They read 294 two-word compounds and control phrases, composed of five conditions that assessed the effect of the first word on the second word, and of the second on the first. The results indicated that morphosyntax modulates reading in neglect dyslexia. When the first, right-hand, word included an orthographic cue indicating that a second word follows, fewer words on the left were omitted than when no such cue existed. The second word, however, did not affect the reading of the first, and the first word was read as if the patients did not look ahead to the second.

  12. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue...

  13. Multimodal representations in collaborative history learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the question: How does making and connecting different types of multimodal representations affect the collaborative learning process and the acquisition of a chronological frame of reference in 12 to 14-year olds in pre vocational education? A chronological frame of refe

  14. Circular words and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Rittaud

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.

  15. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics.

  16. Chinese word sense disambiguation based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting; LU Zhi-mao; LANG Jun; LI Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The input of a network is the key problem for Chinese word sense disambiguation utilizing the neural network. This paper presents an input model of the neural network that calculates the mutual information between contextual words and the ambiguous word by using statistical methodology and taking the contextual words of a certain number beside the ambiguous word according to ( - M, + N). The experiment adopts triple-layer BP Neural Network model and proves how the size of a training set and the value of M and N affect the performance of the Neural Network Model. The experimental objects are six pseudowords owning three word-senses constructed according to certain principles. The tested accuracy of our approach on a closed-corpus reaches 90. 31% ,and 89. 62% on an open-corpus. The experiment proves that the Neural Network Model has a good performance on Word Sense Disambiguation.

  17. A Study on the Affective Priming Effect of Network Emoticons, Cartoon Emoticons and Chinese Two-character Words%网络表情符号、卡通表情图片和汉语双字词的情绪启动效应探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼

    2015-01-01

    采用3(启动刺激:卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词)×2(启动刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)×2(目标刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)完全被试内设计,比较卡通表情图片、网络表情符号和汉语双字词这三种启动材料之间的情绪启动效果。结果发现,卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词都存在情绪启动效应,且卡通表情图片的情绪启动效果好于网络表情符号和汉语双字词,网络表情符号和汉语双字词之间的启动效果没有显著差异。他们间的差异主要体现在负启动的抑制作用上,即对与启动材料情绪效价不一致的目标刺激的反应时上存在显著差异,在正启动的促进作用上不存在显著差异。%Adopt complete within‐subjects design of 3 (prime stimulus :cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons or Chinese two‐character words) × 2 (emotional types of prime stimulus :positive or negative) × 2 (emotional types of target stimulus :positive or negative) ,and compare the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words these three priming materials .The result shows that there exist affective priming effects in cartoon emoti‐cons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons are better than those of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,and there are no significant differences between the priming effects of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words .The differences are mainly embodied in the inhibitory action on the negative priming ,i .e .there are significant differences in their reaction to the target stimulus which are not inconform‐ity with the emotional valence of priming materials but no significant differences in the promoting action on the positive prim‐ing .

  18. Number word structure in first and second language influences arithmetic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat ePrior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in how they represent numerical information, and specifically whether the verbal notation of numbers follows the same order as the symbolic notation (in non-inverted languages, e.g. Hebrew, 25, twenty-five or whether the two notations diverge (in inverted languages, e.g. Arabic, 25, five-and-twenty. We examined how the structure of number-words affects how arithmetic operations are processed by bilingual speakers of an inverted and a non-inverted language. We examined Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals' performance in the first language, L1 (inverted and in the second language, L2 (non-inverted. Their performance was compared to that of Hebrew L1 speakers, who do not speak an inverted language. Participants judged the accuracy of addition problems presented aurally in L1, aurally in L2 or in visual symbolic notation. Problems were presented such that they matched or did not match the structure of number words in the language. Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals demonstrated both flexibility in processing and adaptation to the language of aural-verbal presentation – they were more accurate for the inverted order of presentation in Arabic, but more accurate for non-inverted order of presentation in Hebrew, thus exhibiting the same pattern found for native Hebrew speakers. In addition, whereas native Hebrew speakers preferred the non-inverted order in visual symbolic presentation as well, the Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals showed enhanced flexibility, without a significant preference for one order over the other, in either speed or accuracy. These findings suggest that arithmetic processing is sensitive to the linguistic representations of number words. Moreover, bilinguals exposed to inverted and non-inverted languages showed influence of both systems, and enhanced flexibility in processing. Thus, the L1 does not seem to have exclusive power in shaping numerical mental representations, but rather the system remains open to influences from a later learned

  19. Word 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Want to write great looking documents but can't seem to get ahandle on paragraph structuring? Unfamiliar with some of thebuttons and functions on your menu bar? Need to add page numbersfor a paper but can't find the controls? Word 2003 ForDummies will show you the quick and easy way to navigatethrough the trickiness of Microsoft Word. This book will be yourcomprehensive guide to using this word processor like a pro. Word 2003 For Dummies shows you all the essentials ofbuilding, reviewing, and adding cool new features to Worddocuments. No wonder the previous editions sold over 1.7 millioncopie

  20. Lexical Characteristics of Spanish and English Words and the Development of Phonological Awareness Skills in Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The lexical restructuring model (LRM) is a theory that attempts to explain the developmental origins of phonological awareness (PA). According to the LRM, various characteristics of words should be related to the extent to which words are segmentally represented in the lexicon. Segmental representations of words allow children to access the parts…

  1. Construction and Interference in Learning from Multiple Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Bannert, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Developed an integrated view of learning from verbal and pictorial representations and analyzed the effects of different kinds of multiple external representations on the structure of mental models. Results from 60 college students indicate that the structure of graphics affects the structure of the mental model. (SLD)

  2. Dictionary Use as Word Solving Strategy (WSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Mustafai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L2 learners may try to pick up the unknown word’s meaning from a dictionary. Many different factors, such as how important the meaning of the word is in the passage, the number of unknown words, and the reason the students are working on it, etc., affect the frequency of the student’s use of the dictionary for help. However, trying to guess the meaning of the unknown word from the context before consulting a dictionary is more beneficial since this may help the learners to pick the correct meaning relevant to the text. Using a dictionary should be limited to those unguessable words whose meanings can hinder the learner’s understanding.

  3. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  4. Computer simulation as representation of knowledge in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Aebli's operative method (1963) and Bruner's (1974) theory of representation the development of the process of thinking in teaching has the following phases - levels of abstraction: manipulation with specific things (specific phase), iconic representation (figural phase), symbolic representation (symbolic phase). Modern information technology has contributed to the enrichment of teaching and learning processes, especially in the fields of natural sciences and mathematics and those of production and technology. Simulation appears as a new possibility in the representation of knowledge. According to Guetzkow (1972) simulation is an operative representation of reality from a relevant aspect. It is about a model of an objective system, which is dynamic in itself. If that model is material it is a simple simulation, if it is abstract it is a reflective experiment, that is a computer simulation. This present work deals with the systematization and classification of simulation methods in the teaching of natural sciences and mathematics and of production and technology with special retrospective view on computer simulations and exemplar representation of the place and the role of this modern method of cognition. Key words: Representation of knowledge, modeling, simulation, education

  5. Matrix Representation of Ukrainian Axionomens Used in the Danube Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Soroka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the investigation of the nouns denoting national values in their formalized representation on the material of the Ukrainian language. Matrix representation of non-material values gives an opportunity to describe in detail the structure of lexical meangings of axionouns, to distinguish the degree of their related semantics, to expose the functional character of semes forming definite structures within the framework of analyzed words, as well as the axiounits do the same in the lexico-semantic fields.

  6. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  7. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  8. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work...... regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives....

  9. Memetics of representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Rubertis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss about the physiological genesis of representation and then it will illustrate the developments, especially in evolutionary perspective, and it will show how these are mainly a result of accidental circumstances, rather than of deliberate intention of improvement. In particular, it will be argue that the representation has behaved like a meme that has arrived to its own progressive evolution coming into symbiosis with the different cultures in which it has spread, and using in this activity human work “unconsciously”. Finally it will be shown how in this action the geometry is an element key, linked to representation both to construct images using graphics operations and to erect buildings using concrete operations.

  10. Dissociation and Association of the Embodied Representation of Tool-Use Verbs and Hand Verbs: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua; Bi, Yanchao; Liu, Youyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Embodied semantic theories suppose that representation of word meaning and actual sensory-motor processing are implemented in overlapping systems. According to this view, association and dissociation of different word meaning should correspond to dissociation and association of the described sensory-motor processing. Previous studies demonstrate…

  11. Scientific Representation and Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ghins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by showing that the contact of our models with reality is grounded on the truth of ontic judgements. I conclude by examining.

  12. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  13. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  14. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  15. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  16. Word maps and Waring type problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michael; Shalev, Aner

    2009-04-01

    Waring's classical problem deals with expressing every natural number as a sum of g(k) k th powers. Recently there has been considerable interest in similar questions for nonabelian groups and simple groups in particular. Here the k th power word is replaced by an arbitrary group word w ne 1 , and the goal is to express group elements as short products of values of w . We give a best possible and somewhat surprising solution for this Waring type problem for various finite simple groups, showing that a product of length two suffices to express all elements. We also show that the set of values of w is very large, improving various results obtained so far. Along the way we also obtain new results of independent interest on character values and class squares in symmetric groups. Our methods involve algebraic geometry, representation theory, probabilistic arguments, as well as results from analytic number theory, including three primes theorems (approximating Goldbach's Conjecture).

  17. A word-count approach to analyze linguistic patterns in the reflective writings of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching reflection and administering reflective writing assignments to students are widely practiced and discussed in medical education and health professional education. However, little is known about how medical students use language to construct their narratives. Exploring students’ linguistic patterns in their reflective writings can facilitate understanding the scope and facets of their reflections and their representational or communication approaches to share their experiences. Moreover, research findings regarding gender differences in language use are inconsistent. Therefore, we attempted to examine how females and males differ in their use of words in reflective writing within our research circumstance to detect the unique and gender-specific approaches to learning and their applications. Methods: We analyzed the linguistic profiles of psychological process categories in the reflective writings of medical students and examined the difference in word usage between male and female medical students. During the first year of a clinical rotation, 60 fifth-year medical students wrote reflective narratives regarding pediatric patients and the psychosocial challenges faced by the patients and their family members. The narratives were analyzed using the Chinese version of Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (CLIWC, a text analysis software program. Multivariate procedures were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cognitive words were most pervasive, averaging 22.16%, whereas perceptual words (2.86% were least pervasive. Female students used more words related to positive emotions and sadness than did male students. The male students exceeded the female students only in the space category. The major limitation of this study is that CLIWC cannot directly acquire contextual text meanings; therefore, depending on the research topic, further qualitative study of the given texts might be necessary. Conclusions: To enhance students

  18. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  19. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  20. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  1. Proportional Representation with Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco De Sinopoli; Giovanna Iannantuoni; Elena Manzoni; Carlos Pimienta

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model with strategic voting in a parliamentary election with proportional representation and uncertainty about voters’ preferences. In any equilibrium of the model, most voters only vote for those parties whose positions are extreme. In the resulting parliament, a consensus government forms and the policy maximizing the sum of utilities of the members of the government is implemented.

  2. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  3. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  4. “Weblog”的发展演变及影响因素分析%The Evolution of the Word "Weblog" and the Analysis of the Related Affect Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2012-01-01

    文章梳理了"weblog"一词的发展变化的三个阶段:外来词"Weblog"传入中国后由多种翻译方法定名为"博客"、从最初广泛接受的博客概念过渡到微博客阶段、微博本土化为"围脖"阶段。文章分析了每一个阶段变化的原因,并分析了这种变化对汉语的影响。%This article combs the three stages of the evolution of the word "weblog": after the intruction of the foreign word "weblog" into China, its several translations were finally settled to be "boke", the orginallly widely accpeted "boke" concept evolved into the microblogging concept, and the latter was nativized into "weibo(collar)". This article has analyzed the motivation of the chagne among the three stages and its influence on the language of Chinese.

  5. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan students.

  6. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  7. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario. PMID:11783573

  8. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-01-01

    The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan stu...

  9. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  10. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...

  11. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  12. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers. PMID:24550795

  13. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Milagros De La Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting and linguistic skills (using number words. The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  14. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  15. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  16. Meaning representation for automatic indexing of Arabic texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhouche Abdelali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of indexing is to identify the words that represent the main idea of a paragraph or a specific text, in the framework of the representation of the meaning in an automatic treatment (NLP of the Arabic; we propose a model based on conceptual vectors. These vectors try to represent the whole of ideas contained in textual segment (word, expression, texts. This model lean on modern linguistic conception the semantic field theory. By basing itself on the semantic relations (synonymy, homonymy between the words, we use these fields for the construction of semantic field data base and of a vectorial space then we calculate the meaning of textual segments in the semantic fields. Finally we use this model for indexing the text.

  17. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  18. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  19. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  20. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  1. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  2. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  3. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA) algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs) representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications. PMID:26193271

  4. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA) algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs) representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications. PMID:26193271

  5. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    2015-07-16

    Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA) algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs) representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  6. The influence of contextual diversity on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    In a series of analyses over mega datasets, Jones, Johns, and Recchia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115-124, 2012) and Johns et al. (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132:2, EL74-EL80, 2012) found that a measure of contextual diversity that takes into account the semantic variability of a word's contexts provided a better fit to both visual and spoken word recognition data than traditional measures, such as word frequency or raw context counts. This measure was empirically validated with an artificial language experiment (Jones et al.). The present study extends the empirical results with a unique natural language learning paradigm, which allows for an examination of the semantic representations that are acquired as semantic diversity is varied. Subjects were incidentally exposed to novel words as they rated short selections from articles, books, and newspapers. When novel words were encountered across distinct discourse contexts, subjects were both faster and more accurate at recognizing them than when they were seen in redundant contexts. However, learning across redundant contexts promoted the development of more stable semantic representations. These findings are predicted by a distributional learning model trained on the same materials as our subjects. PMID:26597891

  7. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed.

  8. The word-superiority effect and phonological recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L E

    1992-11-01

    Previous work indicates that the locus of the word-superiority effect in letter detection is nonvisual and that letter names, but not letter shapes, are more accessible in words than in nonwords, that is, scrambled collections of letters (e.g., Krueger & Shapiro, 1979; Krueger & Stadtlander, 1991; Massaro, 1979). The nonvisual (verbal or lexical) coding may be phonological, or it may be more abstract. In the present study, a word advantage in the speed of letter detection was found even when the target letter was silent in the six-letter test word (e.g., s in island). Other test words varied in their frequency of occurrence in English and number of syllables (1, 2, or 3). The word advantage was larger for higher frequency words but was not affected by syllable length. The presence of unpronounceable nonwords and silent letters in the words discouraged reliance upon the phonological code but did not thereby eliminate the word advantage. Thus, the word-superiority effect with free viewing is not based entirely upon phonological recoding. PMID:1435271

  9. Retrieval from long-term memory reduces working memory representations for visual features and their bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R; Elliott, Emily M

    2015-02-01

    The ability to remember feature bindings is an important measure of the ability to maintain objects in working memory (WM). In this study, we investigated whether both object- and feature-based representations are maintained in WM. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that retaining a greater number of feature representations (i.e., both as individual features and bound representations) results in a more robust representation of individual features than of feature bindings, and that retrieving information from long-term memory (LTM) into WM would cause a greater disruption to feature bindings. In four experiments, we examined the effects of retrieving a word from LTM on shape and color-shape binding change detection performance. We found that binding changes were more difficult to detect than individual-feature changes overall, but that the cost of retrieving a word from LTM was the same for both individual-feature and binding changes. PMID:25301564

  10. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  11. Solving Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  12. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  13. On the Acquisition of Some Basic Word Spelling Mechanisms in a Deep (French) and a Shallow (Spanish) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria Soledad; Alegria, Jesus; Marin, Javier

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to compare the time course of the acquisition of two basic spelling mechanisms in Spanish, a shallow system, and French, a deep system. The first was lexical. It relies on the orthographic lexicon, a hypothetical structure containing the orthographic representations of words accessible for word spelling. To evaluate…

  14. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation.

  15. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation. PMID:26519144

  16. Cognitive Polyphasia, Themata and Blood Donation: Between or Within Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloney, G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive polyphasia has typically been understood through the notion of situated knowledge. This paper adds to this body of work by suggesting that the processes involved in representation, namely themata, be considered in concert with the content of the representation. We present research that investigated why so few people in Australia donate blood when most people agree that blood donation is a worthwhile, altruistic act. Using word association data we show that the representational field associated with blood donation has contradictory normative and functional meanings that are not delineated by donor status. We suggest that the thema of self/other gives rise to a heterogeneous field that manifests as polyphasic responses bound to the salience of the social context

  17. Word Identification in Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Pisoni, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Speech intelligibility has traditionally been measured by presenting words mixed in noise to listeners for identification at several different signal-to-noise ratios. The words are produced in isolation or in sentence contexts where the predictability of specific items can be varied. Psychometric functions are typically obtained relating signal-to-noise ratio to percent correct recognition. Error analyses are often carried out by examining response confusions to construct similarity spaces fo...

  18. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  19. The words students need

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction in schools is often fragmented, which results in students having problems engaging with textbooks and other academic materials. A system of cross-content, whole-school vocabulary could prove to be the solution to better reading comprehension. In order to implement a program of whole-school vocabulary instruction, the teaching team needs to select vocabulary words to teach, ensure that these words are repeated and that students are well-exposed to their usage, encourage ...

  20. Comprehension and Representation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉萍

    2010-01-01

    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.

  1. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  2. Developing representations of compound stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Visser; M.E.J. Raijmakers

    2012-01-01

    Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged childre

  3. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  4. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field. PMID:17434811

  5. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eDe Cat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1 had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2, and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e. incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit versus reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish. The EEG data, analysed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the reversed constituent order. Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers - the licit order in their L1- supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1.

  6. Amyl: A Misunderstood Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonaas, Richard A.

    1996-12-01

    There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. For example, many textbooks draw a structural formula of n-pentyl acetate rather than isopentyl acetate when referring to the chief component of banana oil (amyl acetate). When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl. As is the case with banana oil, if the word amyl is going to be used to refer to just one of the isomeric pentyl groups, it should rightfully be isopentyl. The reason for this dates back to an abundant and important article of commerce called amylic alcohol (also called potato oil) which consisted chiefly of isopentyl alcohol. In fact, one can look in various chemical catalogs and handbooks of today and see such names as amyl benzoate and amyl nitrite used in place of isopentyl benzoate and isopentyl nitrite. Adding to all the confusion is the common practice of using the word amyl along with the singular form of another word when referring to an isomeric mixture; i.e. using amyl acetate rather than amyl acetates when referring to a mixture of pentyl acetates.

  7. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  8. Visual representations are dominated by intrinsic fluctuations correlated between areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kay, Kendrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic cortical dynamics are thought to underlie trial-to-trial variability of visually evoked responses in animal models. Understanding their function in the context of sensory processing and representation is a major current challenge. Here we report that intrinsic cortical dynamics strongly affect the representational geometry of a brain region, as reflected in response-pattern dissimilarities, and exaggerate the similarity of representations between brain regions. We characterized the representations in several human visual areas by representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) constructed from fMRI response-patterns for natural image stimuli. The RDMs of different visual areas were highly similar when the response-patterns were estimated on the basis of the same trials (sharing intrinsic cortical dynamics), and quite distinct when patterns were estimated on the basis of separate trials (sharing only the stimulus-driven component). We show that the greater similarity of the representational geometries can be explained by coherent fluctuations of regional-mean activation within visual cortex, reflecting intrinsic dynamics. Using separate trials to study stimulus-driven representations revealed clearer distinctions between the representational geometries: a Gabor wavelet pyramid model explained representational geometry in visual areas V1–3 and a categorical animate–inanimate model in the object-responsive lateral occipital cortex. PMID:25896934

  9. An Eye-tracking Study of Notational, Informational, and Emotional Aspects of Learning Analytics Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an eye-tracking study of notational, informational, and emotional aspects of nine different notational systems (Skill Meters, Smilies, Traffic Lights, Topic Boxes, Collective Histograms, Word Clouds, Textual Descriptors, Table, and Matrix) and three different information states...... (Weak, Average, & Strong) used to represent student's learning. Findings from the eye-tracking study show that higher emotional activation was observed for the metaphorical notations of traffic lights and smilies and collective representations. Mean view time was higher for representations...

  10. The Acquisition of a Lexicon from Paired Phoneme Sequences and Semantic Representations

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1994-01-01

    We present an algorithm that acquires words (pairings of phonological forms and semantic representations) from larger utterances of unsegmented phoneme sequences and semantic representations. The algorithm maintains from utterance to utterance only a single coherent dictionary, and learns in the presence of homonymy, synonymy, and noise. Test results over a corpus of utterances generated from the Childes database of mother-child interactions are presented.

  11. Illusory Memories of Emotionally Charged Words in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Further Evidence for Atypical Emotion Processing Outside the Social Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gaigg, S. B.; Bowler, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with ASD may not accumulate distinct representations of emotional information throughout development. On the basis of this observation we predicted that such individuals would not be any less likely to falsely remember emotionally significant as compared to neutral words when such illusory memories are induced by asking participants to study lists of words that are orthographically associated to these words. Our findings showed that typical participan...

  12. Retrieval and unification of syntactic structure in sentence comprehension: An fMRI study using word-category ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, T.; Vosse, T.; Kempen, G.; Berkum, J.; Petersson, K.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires the retrieval of single word information from long-term memory, and the integration of this information into multiword representations. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study explored the hypothesis that the left posterior temporal gyrus supports the retrieval of lexical-syntactic information, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes to syntactic unification. Twenty-eight subjects read sentences and word sequences containing word-...

  13. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  14. Retention of New Words: Quantity of Encounters, Quality of Task, and Degree of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Rozovski-Roitblat, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We examined how learning new second language (L2) words was affected by three "task type" conditions (reading only, reading with a dictionary, reading and word focused exercises), three "number of encounters" conditions and their combinations. Three groups of L2 learners (n = 185) were exposed to 30 target words (one group in…

  15. A Classification of Trapezoidal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Fici

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Trapezoidal words are finite words having at most n+1 distinct factors of length n, for every n>=0. They encompass finite Sturmian words. We distinguish trapezoidal words into two disjoint subsets: open and closed trapezoidal words. A trapezoidal word is closed if its longest repeated prefix has exactly two occurrences in the word, the second one being a suffix of the word. Otherwise it is open. We show that open trapezoidal words are all primitive and that closed trapezoidal words are all Sturmian. We then show that trapezoidal palindromes are closed (and therefore Sturmian. This allows us to characterize the special factors of Sturmian palindromes. We end with several open problems.

  16. The word without the tachistoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, W; Silvers, B

    1994-03-01

    In experiments with an unlimited viewing time, we were able to isolate specific stimulus factors that lead to the word-superiority effect. We discovered that advantages of words over nonwords, and words over single letters, are caused by different factors. The word-nonword effect was found in a variety of circumstances, such as with small type, low contrast, or a simultaneously present mask. The advantage of words over single letters occurs only when the stimuli are embedded in a mask making it difficult to find a single letter. In addition, we obtained a word-detection effect without a brief exposure: Subjects were more accurate detecting the presence of words than nonwords. However, this effect only occurred when subjects were required to discriminate letters from nonletters. Thus, the word-superiority (word-nonword difference) and word-detection effects both involve letter discrimination and can be explained by similar mechanisms. PMID:8036111

  17. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    compatible with numerous etiological factors. Multiple clinical forms can be differentiated in accordance with the persistence of parasitic areas, the degree of fragmentation, and the formation of sutures. We use this approach to account for an empirical study concerning the analysis of analogical representations in schizophrenia. We used the Parallel Visual Information Processing Test (PVIPT) which assesses the analysis of interfering visual information. Subjects were asked to connect several small geometric figures printed on a transparency. The transparency was displayed above four photographs which were the interfering material. Then, subjects completed three tasks concerning the photographs: a recognition task, a recall task, and an affective qualification task. Using a case-by-case study, this test allows us to access the defense processes of the subjects, which is not possible with the usual methods in cognitive psychopathology. Twelve clinically-stable schizophrenic subjects participated in the study which also included a self-assessment of alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We obtained 2 main results: (a) creation of items in recall or false recognition by 8 subjects, and (b) lack of the usual -negative correlations between the alexithymia score and the recall, recognition and affective qualification scores in the PVIPT. These 2 results contrast with what has been previously observed for alexithymia using the same methodology. The result (a) confirms an interfering activation in schizophrenic memory, which can be interpreted in our framework as indicative of parasitic areas. The creation of items suggests the formation of sutures between the semantic content of photographs and some delusional fragments. The result (b) suggests that the apparent alexithymia in schizophrenia is a defense against interfering activation in parasitic areas. We underline the interest of individual protocols to exhibit the dynamic interplay between an interfering activity in

  18. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  19. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Hautala

    Full Text Available Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  20. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  1. Multiple forms of dynamic representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Shaaron E.; Van Labeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when the values occur. Time-singular representations show only a single point of time. In this paper, we examine the use of dynamic representations in inst...

  2. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Emily S.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Neural representations of words are thought to have a complex spatio-temporal cortical basis. It has been suggested that spoken word recognition is not a process of feed-forward computations from phonetic to lexical forms, but rather involves the online integration of bottom-up input with stored lexical knowledge. Using direct neural recordings from the temporal lobe, we examined cortical responses to words and pseudowords. We found that neural populations were not only sensitive to lexical status (real vs. pseudo), but also to cohort size (number of words matching the phonetic input at each time point) and cohort frequency (lexical frequency of those words). These lexical variables modulated neural activity from the posterior to anterior temporal lobe, and also dynamically as the stimuli unfolded on a millisecond time scale. Our findings indicate that word recognition is not purely modular, but relies on rapid and online integration of multiple sources of lexical knowledge. PMID:26072003

  3. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...... through exegetical studies of the call narrative (Jer 1), the Temple Sermon (Jer 7) and narratives about the prophet's seclusion from the people (e.g. Jer 16). In addition there is an analysis of Jer 36, the chapter telling about the writing down of the Book of Jeremiah. The main message of this chapter...

  4. Music as Representational Art

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVolume IMusic as Representational ArtVolume IIAwakeningbyDaniel WalkerDoctor of Philosophy in MusicUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2014Professor Ian Krouse, ChairThere are two volumes to this dissertation; the first is a monograph, and the second is a musical composition, both of which are described below.Volume IMusic is a language that can be used to express a vast range of ideas and emotions. It has been part of the human experience since before recorded ...

  5. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  6. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  7. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  8. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.

  9. Spatial representation of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Hahn, Ulrike; Rollings, Jasmine

    2016-07-01

    Four experiments examined spatial correlates of the experience of coherence, that is, the extent to which propositions "fit together." Experiment 1 demonstrates for Heiderian triads (i.e., sets of liking/disliking relations between 3 fictitious persons) that name pairs from balanced triads, such as 2 friends commonly disliking a third person (high coherence) are seen as closer to each other in physical space as compared to name pairs from unbalanced triads, such as 2 persons disliking each other and having a common friend (low coherence). This pattern of results is conceptually replicated in 2 further experiments for categorical syllogisms. Two terms in conclusions from valid syllogisms (high coherence) were seen as spatially closer to each other than when 2 terms came from invalid syllogisms (low coherence). In the final 2 experiments, similar closeness effects are demonstrated for word pairs from scenarios that "made sense" in terms of causal connectedness (latent causality) as opposed to word pairs from scenarios perceived as causally unconnected. These findings are discussed in the context of spatial binding theories, applied psychology, and embodied cognition in general, and their methodological implications are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27175899

  10. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. PMID:26731198

  11. A Harmony Search Algorithm with Multi-pitch Adjustment Rate for Symbolic Time Series Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almahdi M. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation task in time series data mining has been a critical issue because the direct manipulation of continuous, high-dimensional data is extremely difficult to complete efficiently. One time series representation approach is a symbolic representation called the Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX. The main function of SAX is to find the appropriate numbers of alphabet symbols and word size that represent the time series. The aim is to achieve the largest alphabet size and maximum word length with the minimum error rate. The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated approach for a symbolic time series data representation that attempts to improve SAX by improving alphabet and word size. The Relative Frequency (RF binning method is employed to obtain alphabet size and is integrated with the proposed Multi-pitch Harmony Search (HSMPAR algorithm to calculate the optimum alphabet and word size. RF is used because of its ability to obtain a sufficient number of intervals with a low error rate compared to other related techniques. HSMPAR algorithm is an optimization algorithm that randomly generates solutions for alphabet and word sizes and selects the best solutions. HS algorithms are compatible with multi-pitch adjustment. The integration of the RF and HSMPAR algorithms is developed to maximize information rather than to improve the error rate. The algorithms are tested on 20 standard time series datasets and are compared with the meta-heuristic algorithms GENEBLA and the original SAX algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method generates larger alphabet and word sizes and achieves a lower error rate than the compared methods. With larger alphabet and word sizes, the proposed method is capable of preserving important information.

  12. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  13. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gotseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  14. Contending with foreign accent in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Hollich, George; Seidl, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers' abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2 ; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English speaker, success of those aged 2 ; 0 was restricted. Specifically, toddlers aged 2 ; 0 failed to generalize words when trained by the native English speaker and tested by the Spanish-accented speaker. Data suggest that exposure to foreign accent in training may promote generalization of newly learned forms. These findings are considered in the context of developmental changes in early word representations.

  15. Bootstrapping word order in prelexical infants: a Japanese-Italian cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit; Nespor, Marina; Mazuka, Reiko; Horie, Ryota; Mehler, Jacques

    2008-08-01

    Learning word order is one of the earliest feats infants accomplish during language acquisition [Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]. Two theories have been proposed to account for this fact. Constructivist/lexicalist theories [Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult syntactic competence? Cognition, 74(3), 209-253.] argue that word order is learned separately for each lexical item or construction. Generativist theories [Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.], on the other hand, claim that word order is an abstract and general property, determined from the input independently of individual words. Here, we show that eight-month-old Japanese and Italian infants have opposite order preferences in an artificial grammar experiment, mirroring the opposite word orders of their respective native languages. This suggests that infants possess some representation of word order prelexically, arguing for the generativist view. We propose a frequency-based bootstrapping mechanism to account for our results, arguing that infants might build this representation by tracking the order of functors and content words, identified through their different frequency distributions. We investigate frequency and word order patterns in infant-directed Japanese and Italian corpora to support this claim. PMID:18241850

  16. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.L. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive i

  17. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  18. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning during word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ferro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database, and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  19. (Fullmetal) alchemy: the monstrosity of reading words and pictures in shonen manga

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Lesley Anne

    2011-01-01

    Shonen manga (Japanese comics aimed at an audience of teenage boys) are often teeming with monsters, but the texts themselves are more monstrous still. The monstrous combinations of words and picture dispersed across the manga page seem to expose and challenge a fissure within representation itself-but productively so. Through reading a short section of Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, this paper explores the ways in which words and pictures can be combined to produce monstrous composite...

  20. Phonological word-object mapping is contingent upon the nature of the visual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hintz, F.; Huettig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments investigated the impact of the nature of the visual environment on the likelihood of word-object mapping taking place at a phonological level of representation during languagemediated visual search. Dutch participants heard single spoken target words while looking at four objects embedded in displays of different complexity and were asked to indicate the presence or absence of the target object. During filler trials the target objects were present, but during exp...

  1. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  2. Representation of Musical Computer Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fober, Dominique; Orlarey, Yann; Letz, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience The paper presents a study about the representation of musical computer processes within a music score. The idea is to provide performers with information that could be useful especially in the context of interactive music. The paper starts with a characterization of a musical computer process in order to define the values to be represented. Next it proposes an approach to time representation suitable to asynchronous processes representation.

  3. Merging linear discriminant analysis with Bag of Words model for human action recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for human action recognition, that unifies discriminative Bag of Words (BoW)-based video representation and discriminant subspace learning. An iterative optimization scheme is proposed for sequential discriminant BoWs-based action representation and codebook adaptation based on action discrimination in a reduced dimensionality feature space where action classes are better discriminated. Experiments on four publicly available action recognition data sets...

  4. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations....... Concerning this congruence property, it turns out that working with the induced representations is easier than with Selberg's character itself. We also show that the kernels of the induced representations determine an infinite sequence of noncongruence groups, whose noncongruence property can not be detected...

  5. Integral geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya

    1966-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 5: Integral Geometry and Representation Theory is devoted to the theory of representations, focusing on the group of two-dimensional complex matrices of determinant one.This book emphasizes that the theory of representations is a good example of the use of algebraic and geometric methods in functional analysis, in which transformations are performed not on the points of a space, but on the functions defined on it. The topics discussed include Radon transform on a real affine space, integral transforms in the complex domain, and representations of the group of comp

  6. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  7. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  8. Longer Bars for Bigger Numbers? Children's Usage and Understanding of Graphical Representations of Algebraic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Ng, Swee Fong; Ng Lan Kong, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In Singapore, primary school students are taught to use bar diagrams to represent known and unknown values in algebraic word problems. However, little is known about students' understanding of these graphical representations. We investigated whether students use and think of the bar diagrams in a concrete or a more abstract fashion. We also…

  9. Methods of Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Formal Representation as Resulting Units in Relation to the Initial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Belikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to examine the methods of formal representation of euphemisms and dysphemisms, structurally represented as separate words, phrases or sentences, used in the English-language newspaper text. This analysis enables to take a fresh look at the essence of euphemisms and dysphemisms phenomena, many features of which went unnoticed in the previous theories.

  10. Towards learning domain-general representations for language from multi-modal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadar, Akos; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Alishahi, Afra

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have gained a reputation for producing state-of-the-art results on many NLP tasks and for producing representations of words, phrases and larger linguistic units that encode complex syntactic and semantic structures. Recently these types of models have also been used

  11. Assessing Primary Representational System (PRS) Preference for Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) Using Three Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Fred J.

    1983-01-01

    Considered three methods of identifying Primary Representational System (PRS)--an interview, a word list, and a self-report--in a study of 120 college students. Results suggested the three methods offer little to counselors either collectively or individually. Results did not validate the PRS construct, suggesting the need for further research.…

  12. Simplified representation of concepts and relations on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Hans Rudolf; Frei, Norbert; Mosimann, Hugo; Perger, Csaba; Ulrich, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The fully automated generation of diagnostic codes requires a knowledge-based system which is capable of interpreting noun phrases. The sense content of the words must be analysed and represented for this purpose. The codes are then generated based on this representation.In comparison with other knowledge-based systems, a system of this kind places the emphasis on the data structures and not on the calculus; coding itself is a simple matter compared to the much more difficult task of incorporating the complex information contained in the words used in natural language in a systematic data model. Initial attempts were based on the assumption that each word was linked to one conceptual meaning, whereas such a naive viewpoint certainly no longer applies today. The notation of concepts and their relations is the task at hand.Existing notation methods include predicate logic, conceptual graphs (CGs) as proposed by J. F. Sowa [2], GRAIL as used by the GALEN Project [1] and methods developed as part of the WWW consortium, e.g. RDF's (Resource Description Frameworks). For the purpose of coding, we developed a notation system using "concept particles" back in 1989 [3]. In 1996, the resulting experience led us to represent "concept molecules" (CM), with which both complex data structures and multi-branched rules can be denoted in a simple manner [4]. In this paper we shall explain the principles behind this notation and compare it with another modern concept representation system, conceptual graphs. PMID:16160356

  13. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  14. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  15. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered. PMID:7138296

  16. A Newly Invented Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芹

    2004-01-01

    It's not only rocket scientists and journalists who are following the course of "Shenzhou V', or "Divine Vessel V'. There are also lexicographers, or dictionary compilers. The flight of the spacecraft last week might help put some new words into orbit.

  17. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  18. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna;

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  19. Lost for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

  20. Worries about Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Toby

    1996-01-01

    States that derivations of a word are often as intriguing as the explanations psychologists offer for human behavior. Explores the idea that etymology and psychology offer more than just interesting parallels--the meaning and metaphor of each is twisted into and around each other. (PA)

  1. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  2. New Words and Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ To start with, I mention that certain new words and expressions are used relatively often by journalists when they compose reports and articles. Their writing is said to be all right for a newspaper, but that lacks imagination and beauty. Examples:

  3. Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

    2014-10-01

    Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. PMID:25015421

  4. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Using Images to Create a Concreteness Effect for Abstract Words: Evidence from Beginning L2 Learners of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Andrew; Pahom, Olga; Ramonda, Kris

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the lexical representation and recall of abstract words by beginning L2 learners of Spanish in the light of the predictions of the dual coding theory (Paivio 1971; Paivio and Desrochers 1980). Ninety-seven learners (forty-four males and fifty-three females) were randomly placed in the picture or non-picture group and taught…

  5. Acquiring Word-Meaning Mappings for Natural Language Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a system, WOLFIE (WOrd Learning From Interpreted Examples), that acquires a semantic lexicon from a corpus of sentences paired with semantic representations. The lexicon learned consists of phrases paired with meaning representations. WOLFIE is part of an integrated system that learns to transform sentences into representations such as logical database queries. Experimental results are presented demonstrating WOLFIE's ability to learn useful lexicons for a database interface in four different natural languages. The usefulness of the lexicons learned by WOLFIE are compared to those acquired by a similar system, with results favorable to WOLFIE. A second set of experiments demonstrates WOLFIE's ability to scale to larger and more difficult, albeit artificially generated, corpora. In natural language acquisition, it is difficult to gather the annotated data needed for supervised learning; however, unannotated data is fairly plentiful. Active learning methods attempt to select for annotation...

  6. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) is observed when singly presented written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear at which level in visual perception...... this effect arises, and how general it is. This study aimed to investigate the perceptual basis for the WSE: Is it due to a lower threshold for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters? Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if this word advantage is also evident when...... multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...

  7. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  8. Acuity of mental representations of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2012-04-01

    Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

  9. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  10. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  11. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  12. WORD OF THE MONTH: Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Etymology is the study of the history and origin of words and the way they' ve changed throughout history. The word etymology itself comes from two Greek words: "etumon" (which means "true sense" ), and "logia" (which means "study" ). The origin of words

  13. A word by any other intonation: fMRI evidence for implicit memory traces for pitch contours of spoken words in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inspector

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41, temporal areas (BA 21 22 bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.

  14. Knowledge Representation Methods in Expert System for Earthquake Prediction ESEP 3.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Wu Gengfeng; Zhang Bofeng; Zheng Zhaobi; Liu Hui; Li Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation is a key to the building of expert systems. The performance of knowledge representation methods directly affects the intelligence level and the problem-solving ability of the system. There are various kinds of knowledge representation methods in ESEP3.0. In this paper, the authors introduce the knowledge representation methods, such as structure knowledge, seismological and precursory forecast knowledge, machine learning knowledge, synthetic prediction knowledge, knowledge to validate and verify certainty factors of anomalous evidence and support knowledge, etc. and propose a model for validation of certainty factors of anomalous evidence. The knowledge representation methods represent all kinds of earthquake prediction knowledge well.

  15. Entropy analysis of word-length series of natural language texts: Effects of text language and genre

    CERN Document Server

    Kalimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Karamanos, Kostantinos; Diakonos, Fotis K; Papageorgiou, Haris

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the $n$-gram entropies of natural language texts in word-length representation and find that these are sensitive to text language and genre. We attribute this sensitivity to changes in the probability distribution of the lengths of single words and emphasize the crucial role of the uniformity of probabilities of having words with length between five and ten. Furthermore, comparison with the entropies of shuffled data reveals the impact of word length correlations on the estimated $n$-gram entropies.

  16. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  17. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection.

  18. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection. PMID:26444043

  19. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    How often a given word is used, relative to other words, can convey information about the word's linguistic utility. Using Google word data for 3 languages over the 209-year period 1800-2008, we found by analyzing word use an anomalous recent change in the birth and death rates of words, which indicates a shift towards increased levels of competition between words as a result of new standardization technology. We demonstrate unexpected analogies between the growth dynamics of word use and the growth dynamics of economic institutions. Our results support the intriguing concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition which evolves according to selection laws that are related to social, technological, and political trends. Specifically, the aggregate properties of language show pronounced differences during periods of world conflict, e.g. World War II.

  20. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian;

    1998-01-01

    between memory scores obtained with the two kinds of tasks. However, there is continuing controversy about the meaning of these dissociations. In recent studies, Ostergaard (1998a, Memory Cognit. 26:40-60; 1998b, J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., in press) showed that simply degrading visual word stimuli can...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...

  1. Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Chang XI

    2006-01-01

    We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.

  2. Quantum operations in probabilistic representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpati, A; Adam, P; Janszky, J [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: adam@szfki.hu

    2009-07-15

    Representing a single qubit by using a set of totally decohered mixed-state qubits is considered. A representation is constructed where physically realizable quantum mechanical transformations correspond approximately to unitary operations on the qubit. It is shown that the representation is valid for multiple qubit systems as well, and the precision of the approximation is sufficient for the realization of quantum algorithms.

  3. Deconfinement of higher representation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the finite-temperature phase transition of non-abelian gauge theories static quarks, external sources in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, are deconfined. We discuss the behavior of 'quark' sources in higher representations of the gauge group around this deconfinement phase transition. (orig.)

  4. Induction of quantum group representations

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccoli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Induced representations for quantum groups are defined starting from coisotropic quantum subgroups and their main properties are proved. When the coisotropic quantum subgroup has a suitably defined section such representations can be realized on associated quantum bundles on general embeddable quantum homogeneous spaces.

  5. The Representation of Legal Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Sergot, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines ongoing research on logic-based tools for the analysis and representation of legal contracts of the kind frequently encountered in large-scale engineering projects and complex, long-term trading agreements. We consider both contract formation and contract performance, in each case identifying the representational issues and the prospects for providing automated support tools.

  6. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory.

  7. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory. PMID:27445893

  8. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  9. Representation theory and homological stability

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the idea of *representation stability* (and several variations) for a sequence of representations V_n of groups G_n. One main goal is to expand the important and well-studied concept of homological stability so that it applies to a much broader variety of examples. Representation stability also provides a framework in which to find and to predict patterns, from classical representation theory (Littlewood--Richardson and Murnaghan rules, stability of Schur functors), to cohomology of groups (pure braid, Torelli and congruence groups), to Lie algebras and their homology, to the (equivariant) cohomology of flag and Schubert varieties, to combinatorics (the (n+1)^(n-1) conjecture). The majority of this paper is devoted to exposing this phenomenon through examples. In doing this we obtain applications, theorems, and conjectures. Beyond the discovery of new phenomena, the viewpoint of representation stability can be useful in solving problems outside the theory. In addition to the applications given in...

  10. Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eVisser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged children and adults when learning to categorize compound, multidimensional stimuli. Stimuli were such that both similarity-based and rule-based representations would lead to correct classification. This allows testing whether children have a bias for formation of similarity-based representations. The results are at odds with this expectation. Children use both uni-dimensional and multidimensional classification, and the use of both strategies increases with age. Multidimensional classification is best characterized as resulting from an analytic strategy rather than from procedural processing of overall-similarity. The conclusion is that children are capable of using complex rule-based categorization strategies that involve the use of multiple features of the stimuli.

  11. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two-word...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...

  12. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balass, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Nelson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonol

  13. A Teacher's Guide to Sexist Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mary W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents tables of sexist words (those which apply to one sex only) and words generally used for one particular sex. Teaching suggestions involve students in researching etymology and current uses of the words. Words include job titles (patrolman), words of disapproval (roughneck), and words derived from names (pollyanna). (AV)

  14. The interpretation of ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context

    OpenAIRE

    Pollatsek, Alexander; Drieghe, Denis; Stockall, Linnaea; de Almeida, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Many trimorphemic words are structurally and semantically ambiguous. For example, unlockable can either be un-lockable (can’t be locked) or unlock-able (can be unlocked). Which interpretation is preferred and whether prior sentence context affects the initial interpretation is not clear from prior research. The present experiment embedded ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context and manipulated whether prior context disambiguated the meaning or not and examined the pattern of fixation...

  15. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  16. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: a developmental embodied approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Griffiths, Gordon; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization), followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors; part 2: matching visualization). Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e., words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e., 300-699 ms) and late (i.e., 700-1000 ms) ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a "post-anterior" pathway sequence: occipital, parietal, and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an "ant-posterior" pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly, for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying representations.

  17. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: A developmental embodied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'angiulli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization, followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors (part 2: matching visualization. Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e. < 300 ms was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e. 300-699 ms and late (i.e. 700-1000 ms ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a post-anterior pathway sequence: occipital, parietal and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an ant-posterior pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying

  18. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... the specific L1 is known to influence the acquisition rate, it is worth investigating how sonority characteristics in children’s linguistic input influence their lexical acquisition. Danish is characterized by having a monotonous sonority envelope compared to other Scandinavian languages. Danish language...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  19. Recipes: beyond the words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made. PMID:21591315

  20. Learning Semantic Tags from Big Data for Clinical Text Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In clinical text mining, it is one of the biggest challenges to represent medical terminologies and n-gram terms in sparse medical reports using either supervised or unsupervised methods. Addressing this issue, we propose a novel method for word and n-gram representation at semantic level. We first represent each word by its distance with a set of reference features calculated by reference distance estimator (RDE) learned from labeled and unlabeled data, and then generate new features using simple techniques of discretization, random sampling and merging. The new features are a set of binary rules that can be interpreted as semantic tags derived from word and n-grams. We show that the new features significantly outperform classical bag-of-words and n-grams in the task of heart disease risk factor extraction in i2b2 2014 challenge. It is promising to see that semantics tags can be used to replace the original text entirely with even better prediction performance as well as derive new rules beyond lexical level.