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Sample records for affective word representations

  1. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Annett

    2010-02-15

    The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  2. Mark my words: tone of voice changes affective word representations in memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    Full Text Available The present study explored the effect of speaker prosody on the representation of words in memory. To this end, participants were presented with a series of words and asked to remember the words for a subsequent recognition test. During study, words were presented auditorily with an emotional or neutral prosody, whereas during test, words were presented visually. Recognition performance was comparable for words studied with emotional and neutral prosody. However, subsequent valence ratings indicated that study prosody changed the affective representation of words in memory. Compared to words with neutral prosody, words with sad prosody were later rated as more negative and words with happy prosody were later rated as more positive. Interestingly, the participants' ability to remember study prosody failed to predict this effect, suggesting that changes in word valence were implicit and associated with initial word processing rather than word retrieval. Taken together these results identify a mechanism by which speakers can have sustained effects on listener attitudes towards word referents.

  3. Empirical studies on word representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental tasks in natural language processing is representing words with mathematical objects (such as vectors). The word representations, which are most often estimated from data, allow capturing the meaning of words. They enable comparing words according to their semantic simila

  4. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

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    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  5. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  6. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

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    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  7. Inspire and Factors of Affecting the External Representation of Mathematics Word Problem%数学应用题外部表征的影响因素及启发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢强; 单永明

    2012-01-01

    Some factors of affecting the external representation of math word problems mainly contain the surface features of text, mathematical symbols, text familiarity, illustrations, problems and text of location, different rewordings, the reality of situational content and so on. Some studies can be advanced from the following aspects in the future: for the math word problems of situational background of different levels of complexity, how text familiarity affects the representation of math word problems? How dynamic conditions itself and the irrelevant information which contain color, shape etc in animated presentation affect the problem-solving in some degree? In the process of children's understanding and solving math word problems, which dimensions are more important to help the students understand mathematical relationships in math word problems when are emphasized in constructing situation model, in order to construct appropriate situation model, conduct correct representation of math word problems?%数学应用题表征类型中的外部表征的影响因素,主要包括文本表面特征、数学符号、文本内容熟悉程度、插图、问题与文本的呈现位置、不同的措辞、情境内容的现实性等.未来可以从以下几个方面进行进一步研究:对不同复杂程度情境背景的应用题而言,题材熟悉度对应用题表征的影响如何?动态呈现方式本身以及动画呈现中的颜色、形状等无关信息对问题解决的影响程度如何?在儿童理解和解决数学应用题过程中,强调情境模型构建的5个维度中的哪些维度更有利于学生理解应用题中的数学关系,以便构建合适的情境模型,进行正确的数学表征?

  8. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

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    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  9. Spoken word recognition and lexical representation in very young children

    OpenAIRE

    Swingley, D.; Aslin, R.

    2000-01-01

    Although children's knowledge of the sound patterns of words has been a focus of debate for many years, little is known about the lexical representations very young children use in word recognition. In particular, researchers have questioned the degree of specificity encoded in early lexical representations. The current study addressed this issue by presenting 18–23-month-olds with object labels that were either correctly pronounced, or mispronounced. Mispronunciations involved replacement of...

  10. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

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    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  11. An Inefficient Representation of the Empty Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Tromp, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show that Post's system of tag with alphabet $\\{0,1\\}$, deletion number 3, productions $0\\rightarrow 00$ and $1\\rightarrow 1101$, and initial string $111\\cdots 1$ (330 times) converges to the empty word after a very large number of rewriting steps.

  12. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

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    Carline eBernard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’, whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome. Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words. In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent

  13. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

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    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-07-21

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  14. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

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    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  15. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

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    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of words.

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    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2008-01-10

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.

  17. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

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    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  18. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

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    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  19. Communicating Emotion: Linking Affective Prosody and Word Meaning

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    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of emotional tone of voice in the perception of spoken words. Listeners were presented with words that had either a happy, sad, or neutral meaning. Each word was spoken in a tone of voice (happy, sad, or neutral) that was congruent, incongruent, or neutral with respect to affective meaning, and naming…

  20. An Unsupervised Graph Based Continuous Word Representation Method for Biomedical Text Mining.

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    Jiang, Zhenchao; Li, Lishuang; Huang, Degen

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical text mining tasks, distributed word representation has succeeded in capturing semantic regularities, but most of them are shallow-window based models, which are not sufficient for expressing the meaning of words. To represent words using deeper information, we make explicit the semantic regularity to emerge in word relations, including dependency relations and context relations, and propose a novel architecture for computing continuous vector representation by leveraging those relations. The performance of our model is measured on word analogy task and Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction (PPIE) task. Experimental results show that our method performs overall better than other word representation models on word analogy task and have many advantages on biomedical text mining.

  1. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

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    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  2. EEG decoding of spoken words in bilingual listeners: from words to language invariant semantic-conceptual representations

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    João Mendonça Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spoken word recognition and production require fast transformations between acoustic, phonological and conceptual neural representations. Bilinguals perform these transformations in native and non-native languages, deriving unified semantic concepts from equivalent, but acoustically different words. Here we exploit this capacity of bilinguals to investigate input invariant semantic representations in the brain. We acquired EEG data while Dutch subjects, highly proficient in English listened to four monosyllabic and acoustically distinct animal words in both languages (e.g. ‘paard’-‘horse’. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA was applied to identify EEG response patterns that discriminate between individual words within one language (within-language discrimination and generalize meaning across two languages (across-language generalization. Furthermore, employing two EEG feature selection approaches, we assessed the contribution of temporal and oscillatory EEG features to our classification results. MVPA revealed that within-language discrimination was possible in a broad time-window (~50-620 ms after word onset probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic and semantic-conceptual differences between the words. Most interestingly, significant across-language generalization was possible around 550-600 ms, suggesting the activation of common semantic-conceptual representations from the Dutch and English nouns. Both types of classification, showed a strong contribution of oscillations below 12 Hz, indicating the importance of low frequency oscillations in the neural representation of individual words and concepts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MVPA to decode individual spoken words from EEG responses and to assess the spectro-temporal dynamics of their language invariant semantic-conceptual representations. We discuss how this method and results could be relevant to track the neural mechanisms underlying conceptual encoding in

  3. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

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    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation.

  4. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

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    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  5. A Walk-based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Hovy, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We propose a walk-based graph kernel that generalizes the notion of tree-kernels to continuous spaces. Our proposed approach subsumes a general framework for word-similarity, and in particular, provides a flexible way to incorporate distributed representations. Using vector representations......, such an approach captures both distributional semantic similarities among words as well as the structural relations between them (encoded as the structure of the parse tree). We show an efficient formulation to compute this kernel using simple matrix multiplication operations. We present our results on three...

  6. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

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    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  7. The role of discourse context in developing word form representations: a paradoxical relation between reading and learning.

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    Landi, Nicole; Perfetti, Charles A; Bolger, Donald J; Dunlap, Susan; Foorman, Barbara R

    2006-06-01

    To acquire representations of printed words, children must attend to the written form of a word and link this form with the word's pronunciation. When words are read in context, they may be read with less attention to these features, and this can lead to poorer word form retention. Two experiments with young children (ages 5-8 years) confirmed this hypothesis. In our experiments, children attempted to read words they could not previously read, during a self-teaching period, either in context or in isolation. Later they were tested on how well they learned the words as a function of self-teaching condition (isolation or context). Consistent with previous research, children read more words accurately in context than in isolation during self-teaching; however, children had better retention for words learned in isolation. Furthermore, this benefit from learning in isolation was larger for less skilled readers. This effect of poorer word retention when words are learned in context is paradoxical because context has been shown to facilitate word identification. We discuss factors that may influence this effect of context, especially the role of children's skill level and the demands of learning new word representations at the beginning of reading instruction.

  8. Relating numeric cognition and language processing: do numbers and words share a common representational platform?

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    Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Numerical processing and language processing are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a common basis. If number processing activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that processing numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word processing. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.

  9. Are word representations abstract or instance-based? Effects of spelling inconsistency in orthographic learning.

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    Burt, Jennifer S; Long, Julia

    2011-09-01

    In Experiment 1, 62 10-year-old children studied printed pseudowords with semantic information. The items were later represented in a different format for reading, with half of the items spelled in the same way as before and half displayed in a new phonologically equivalent spelling. In a dictation test, the exposure to an alternative spelling substantially increased the number of errors that matched the alternative spelling, especially in good spellers. Orthographic learning predicted word identification when accuracy on orthographic choice for words was controlled. In Experiment 2, the effects on dictation responses of exposure to a misspelling versus the correct spelling, and the interactive effect of spelling ability, were confirmed relative to a no-exposure control in adults. The results support a single-lexicon view of reading and spelling and have implications for abstractionist and instance-based theories of orthographic representations.

  10. Word Length and Word Frequency Affect Eye Movements in Dyslexic Children Reading in a Regular (German) Orthography

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    Durrwachter, Ute; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Reinhard, Jens; Klosinski, Gunther; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    We combined independently the word length and word frequency to examine if the difficulty of reading material affects eye movements in readers of German, which has high orthographic regularity, comparing the outcome with previous findings available in other languages. Sixteen carefully selected German-speaking dyslexic children (mean age, 9.5…

  11. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants' Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bergmann

    Full Text Available During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise--an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a

  12. Orthographic consistency affects spoken word recognition at different grain-sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition...

  13. Moved by words: Affective ratings for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories.

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    Ferré, Pilar; Guasch, Marc; Martínez-García, Natalia; Fraga, Isabel; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2016-07-06

    The two main theoretical accounts of the human affective space are the dimensional perspective and the discrete-emotion approach. In recent years, several affective norms have been developed from a dimensional perspective, including ratings for valence and arousal. In contrast, the number of published datasets relying on the discrete-emotion approach is much lower. There is a need to fill this gap, considering that discrete emotions have an effect on word processing above and beyond those of valence and arousal. In the present study, we present ratings from 1,380 participants for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories: happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. This will be the largest dataset published to date containing ratings for discrete emotions. We also present, for the first time, a fine-grained analysis of the distribution of words into the five emotion categories. This analysis reveals that happiness words are the most consistently related to a single, discrete emotion category. In contrast, there is a tendency for many negative words to belong to more than one discrete emotion. The only exception is disgust words, which overlap least with the other negative emotions. Normative valence and arousal data already exist for all of the words included in this corpus. Thus, the present database will allow researchers to design studies to contrast the predictions of the two most influential theoretical perspectives in this field. These studies will undoubtedly contribute to a deeper understanding of the effects of emotion on word processing.

  14. Vowel duration affects visual word identification: evidence that the mediating phonology is phonetically informed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatela, Georgije; Eaton, Thomas; Sabadini, Laura; Turvey, M T

    2004-02-01

    What form is the lexical phonology that gives rise to phonological effects in visual lexical decision? The authors explored the hypothesis that beyond phonological contrasts the physical phonetic details of words are included. Three experiments using lexical decision and 1 using naming compared processing times for printed words (e.g., plead and pleat) that differ, when spoken, in vowel length and overall duration. Latencies were longer for long-vowel words than for short-vowel words in lexical decision but not in naming. Further, lexical decision on long-vowel words benefited more from identity priming than lexical decision on short-vowel words, suggesting that representations of long-vowel words achieve activation thresholds more slowly. The discussion focused on phonetically informed phonologies, particularly gestural phonology and its potential for understanding reading acquisition and performance.

  15. Set of Frequent Word Item sets as Feature Representation for Text with Indonesian Slang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa’adillah Maylawati, Dian; Putri Saptawati, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian slang are commonly used in social media. Due to their unstructured syntax, it is difficult to extract their features based on Indonesian grammar for text mining. To do so, we propose Set of Frequent Word Item sets (SFWI) as text representation which is considered match for Indonesian slang. Besides, SFWI is able to keep the meaning of Indonesian slang with regard to the order of appearance sentence. We use FP-Growth algorithm with adding separation sentence function into the algorithm to extract the feature of SFWI. The experiments is done with text data from social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and personal website. The result of experiments shows that Indonesian slang were more correctly interpreted based on SFWI.

  16. [The effect of goal framing on the activation of affective representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehashi, Hiroki; Karasawa, Kaori

    2007-10-01

    Guided by regulatory focus theory, this study examined the effects of goal framing on the subjective experience of affect and the accessibility of affective representations. Study I examined lay persons' beliefs concerning the relationship between goal framing and certain kinds of affective experiences. The results indicated that a promotion focus was associated with happiness and disappointment, whereas a prevention focus was associated with relaxation and tension. Study 2 examined the effect of goal framing on the activation of affective representations, and found that a promotion focus activated both gain-related representations (happy and disappointment) and loss-related representations (relaxation and tension), whereas a prevention focus activated only loss-related representations. These results suggest that goal framing activates particular affective representations, and the activated affective representations may influence the interpretation of positive or negative experiences. The discussion considered the function of the activation of affective representations as a mediator between goal framing and its cognitive and behavioral consequences.

  17. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages.

  18. Language-General Biases and Language-Specific Experience Contribute to Phonological Detail in Toddlers' Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sho; Fikkert, Paula; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Although toddlers in their 2nd year of life generally have phonologically detailed representations of words, a consistent lack of sensitivity to certain kinds of phonological changes has been reported. The origin of these insensitivities is poorly understood, and uncovering their cause is crucial for obtaining a complete picture of early…

  19. Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini: Word classes: Nature, typology and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2016-01-01

    Review of Raffaele Simone and Francesca Masini (eds.). Word classes: Nature, typology and representations. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory [CILT] 332. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, 293 + vii pp., ISBN: 1978-90-272-4851-0. Hardback and E-book 99.00 EUR / 149...

  20. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  1. The effects of the concreteness of differently valenced words on affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether affective priming is influenced by the concreteness of emotional words. To address this question, we conducted three experiments using lexical decision-priming task. In Experiment 1, positive-abstract (PA) and positive-concrete (PC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of positive words on affective priming, and in Experiment 2, negative-abstract (NA) and negative-concrete (NC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of negative words on affective priming. Results showed that participants responded faster to affectively congruent-abstract trails than incongruent-abstract trails in PA prime conditions, but for PC or negative word (NC and NA) prime conditions, there were no differences between the response times of congruent trails and incongruent trails. To examine the reliability of the priming effects observed in Experiments 1 and 2, we set up a neutral condition as a baseline in Experiment 3, through which we confirmed the difference in the affective priming effect between positive and negative primes in a concrete-abstract dimension. PA words were found to have the tendency to possess more emotional load and facilitate affective association between the prime and the target. The study finding suggests that aside from arousal and valence, the concreteness of positive words also has an impact on affective priming effect.

  2. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  3. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  4. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Benitez, Viridian L; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  5. 一种基于双通道 LDA 模型的汉语词义%A Dual-LDA Method on Chinese Word Sense Representation and Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少楠; 宗成庆

    2016-01-01

    Semantic memory is the foundation of human language understanding.Human brain needs to encode,retrieve and decode word meanings for language understanding.The semantic representation is the key step to develop natural language processing systems.Some studies have shown that the formation of concepts is affected by the interaction of human brain and the real world,and the concepts in human brain contain rich forms of information including vision, perception and language.Based on the distributional hypothesis which states that “similar words occur in similar contexts”,the concepts are represented as vectors by calculating the co-occurrence frequency of each word and its statistical features.In this way,word representation in computer can be seen as the semantic representation in human brain.This article mainly focuses on how to represent word senses and do word senses induction in natural language text.We first investigate the relation between computational models of word representation and semantic representation in human brain.Based on word similarity experiments,we have verified that word representations by statistical methods can capture the relationship of similarity between words in human brain.In the view of Chinese word sense disambiguation,this paper studies the methods to find the semantic features of ambiguities from context automatically.Bayesian probability model can learn word representations and do word sense induction together.Specifically,in order to do word sense induction,Bayesian probability model clusters words with the same topic.The words within the same topic can be seen as the representation of the topic.In the task of word sense induction,the topics are mapped to word senses in evaluation.Therefore,we use latent Dirichlet allocation model to learn word sense representation from large scale of corpus without annotation.On the basis of word sense representation,we do word sense induction on the testing data.In order to better capture the

  6. Distal prosody affects learning of novel words in an artificial language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-06-01

    The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.

  7. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Banmali

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (pvocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success through careful attention to the creation and labeling of diagrams to represent the mathematics involved in standard word problems. Although Learnertype (ELL, EFLL

  8. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  9. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2014-05-01

    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution.

  10. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

  11. Making Connections: Elementary Teachers' Construction of Division Word Problems and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    If teachers make few connections among multiple representations of division, supporting students in using representations to develop operation sense demanded by national standards will not occur. Studies have investigated how prospective and practicing teachers use representations to develop knowledge of fraction division. However, few studies…

  12. Suppressing memories of words and familiar objects results in their affective devaluation: Evidence from Think/No-think tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, David; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-02-07

    Potentially distracting or otherwise-inappropriate stimuli, thoughts, or actions often must be inhibited to prevent interference with goal-directed behaviour. Growing evidence suggests that the impact of inhibition is not limited to reduced neurocognitive processing, but also includes negative affective consequences for any associated stimuli. The link between inhibition and aversive response has primarily been studied using tasks involving attentional- or response-related inhibition of external sensory stimuli. Here we show that affective devaluation also occurs when inhibition is applied to fully-encoded stimulus representations in memory. We first replicated prior findings of increased forgetting of words whose memories were suppressed in a Think/No-think procedure (Experiment 1). Incorporating a stimulus-evaluation task within this procedure revealed that suppressing memories of words (Experiment 2) and visual objects (Experiment 3) also results in their affective devaluation. Given the critical role of memory for guiding thoughts and actions, these results suggest that the affective consequences of inhibition may occur across a far broader range of situations than previously understood.

  13. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  14. Effects of nicotine and depressive traits on affective priming of lateralized emotional word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G; Carlson, Joshua M; Riise, Hege; Rabinovich, Norka E; Sugai, Chihiro; Froeliger, Brett

    2008-08-01

    Based on evidence suggesting that depressive traits, emotional information processing, and the effects of nicotine may be mediated by lateralized brain mechanisms, analyses assessed the influence of depressive traits and nicotine patch on emotional priming of lateralized emotional word identification in 61 habitual smokers. Consistent with hypotheses, nicotine as compared to placebo patch enhanced right visual field (RVF) emotional word identification while decreasing performance of emotional word identification in the left visual field (LVF). Nicotine also enhanced positive affect and decreased negative affect. Consistent with the Heller model of depression, scoring high in depressive traits was associated with a general decrease in LVF emotional word identification. Additionally, this general LVF deficit was especially pronounced for positive word identification in individuals scoring high in trait depression. Positive primes facilitated positive target identification in the RVF and negative primes facilitated negative target identification in the LVF. Thus, nicotine promoted a LVF word-identification deficit similar to that observed in those with depressive traits. However, nicotine also enhanced RVF processing and reduced negative affect, whereas it enhanced positive affect.

  15. New Word Vector Representation for Semantic Clustering Une nouvelle représentation vectorielle pour la classification sémantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamoussi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea we defend in this paper is the possibility to obtain significant semantic concepts using clustering methods. We start by defining some semantic measures to quantify the semantic relations between words. Then, we use some clustering methods to build up concepts in an automatic way. We test two well known methods: the K-means algorithm and the Ko- honen maps. Then, we propose the use of a Bayesian network conceived for clustering and called AutoClass. To group the words of the vocabulary in various classes, we test three vector representations of words. The first is a simple contextual representation. The second associates to each word a vector which represents its similarity with each word of the vocabulary. The third representation is a combination of the first and the second one.

  16. A word from the DG: Decisions affecting CERN's future

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    I would like to inform you of the important issues affecting our Organization that were debated at the Council Session in March. Firstly, on the President's initiative, the Council set up a Working Group to review the way it oversees the Organization's activities. The Council is considering a new approach to governance of the Laboratory that would focus on projects and activities rather than on the organisational structure of Departments as at present. A second important topic related to the Council's future role in the European particle physics strategy. Last July, I reported to you that the Council had taken on a broader role that would involve defining and promoting the major strategic choices for particle physics in Europe. A new structure is required to assist the Council in this role, and it is envisaged that the basic components of this structure would be a Working Group on Strategy and a Commission responsible for the promotion and follow-up of the European particle physics strategy. Work on this s...

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Refreshing: Event-related Potentials Associated with Directing Reflective Attention to Face, Scene, or Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A; Brudner, Samuel N; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-09-01

    Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using fMRI suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI's low temporal resolution. In this study, we used EEG to examine the time course of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. ERP analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (∼400 msec) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response and a later (∼800-1400 msec) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity. Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI.

  18. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages.

  19. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity), semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration), and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity). The results have show...

  20. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity, semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration, and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity. The results have shown that representational paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimensions of Form and Complexity, the semantic dimension of the Illusion of Reality (the opposite pole of the Construction of Reality, and the affective dimension of Regularity. On the other hand, abstract paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimension of Color, the semantic dimensions of Construction of Reality (the opposite pole of the Illusion of Reality and Expression, and the affective dimension Arousal. A discriminant analysis indicated that all three sets of dimensions are relatively good predictors of the classification of representational and abstract paintings (61-100%. The results suggest that the subjective categorization of paintings is generally based on the recognizability of pictorial content (representational vs. abstract, but some formal or stylistic properties play a role in the categorization, as well: some expressionistic representational paintings were classified in an abstract category, and some geometrically abstract paintings were classified as representational.

  1. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity.

  2. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  3. Document Representation and Clustering with WordNet Based Similarity Rough Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on document clustering till date use Vector Space Model (VSM to represent documents in the document space, where documents are denoted by a vector in a word vector space. The standard VSM does not take into account the semantic relatedness between terms. Thus, terms with some semantic similarity are dealt with in the same way as terms with no semantic relatedness. Since this unconcern about semantics reduces the quality of clustering results, many studies have proposed various approaches to introduce knowledge of semantic relatedness into VSM model. Those approaches give better results than the standard VSM. However they still have their own issues. We propose a new approach as a combination of two approaches, one of which uses Rough Sets theory and co-occurrence of terms, and the other uses WordNet knowledge to solve these issues. Experiments for its evaluation show advantage of the proposed approach over the others.

  4. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; Zhang, John X.; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  5. Spanish norms for affective and lexico-semantic variables for 1,400 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Marc; Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Studies of semantic variables (e.g., concreteness) and affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) have traditionally tended to run in different directions. However, in recent years there has been growing interest in studying the relationship, as well as the potential overlaps, between the two. This article describes a database that provides subjective ratings for 1,400 Spanish words for valence, arousal, concreteness, imageability, context availability, and familiarity. Data were collected online through a process involving 826 university students. The results showed a high interrater reliability for all of the variables examined, as well as high correlations between our affective and semantic values and norms currently available in other Spanish databases. Regarding the affective variables, the typical quadratic correlation between valence and arousal ratings was obtained. Likewise, significant correlations were found between the lexico-semantic variables. Importantly, we obtained moderate negative correlations between emotionality and both concreteness and imageability. This is in line with the claim that abstract words have more affective associations than concrete ones (Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, & Del Campo, 2011). The present Spanish database is suitable for experimental research into the effects of both affective properties and lexico-semantic variables on word processing and memory.

  6. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs’ somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants’ body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations. PMID:26842303

  7. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  8. Affective norms of 875 Spanish words for five discrete emotional categories and two emotional dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J A; Martínez-García, N; Villalba-García, C; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Sánchez-Carmona, A; Pozo, M A; Montoro, P R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we introduce affective norms for a new set of Spanish words, the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS), that were scored on two emotional dimensions (valence and arousal) and on five discrete emotional categories (happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust), as well as on concreteness, by 660 Spanish native speakers. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables--grammatical class, word frequency, number of letters, and number of syllables--for the words are also included. We observed high split-half reliabilities for every emotional variable and a strong quadratic relationship between valence and arousal. Additional analyses revealed several associations between the affective dimensions and discrete emotions, as well as with some psycholinguistic variables. This new corpus complements and extends prior databases in Spanish and allows for designing new experiments investigating the influence of affective content in language processing under both dimensional and discrete theoretical conceptions of emotion. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from www.dropbox.com/s/o6dpw3irk6utfhy/Hinojosa%20et%20al_Supplementary%20materials.xlsx?dl=0 .

  9. Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research in psychology that attempts to extrapolate human lexical judgments from computational models of semantics. This research can be used to help develop comprehensive norm sets for experimental research, it has applications to large-scale statistical modelling of lexical access and has broad value within natural language processing and sentiment analysis. However, the value of extrapolated human judgments has recently been questioned within psychological research. Of primary concern is the fact that extrapolated judgments may not share the same pattern of statistical relationship with lexical and semantic variables as do actual human judgments; often the error component in extrapolated judgments is not psychologically inert, making such judgments problematic to use for psychological research. We present a new methodology for extrapolating human judgments that partially addresses prior concerns of validity. We use this methodology to extrapolate human judgments of valence, arousal, dominance, and concreteness for 78,286 words. We also provide resources for users to extrapolate these human judgments for three million English words and short phrases. Applications for large sets of extrapolated human judgments are demonstrated and discussed.

  10. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-later...

  11. Cognitive and anatomic double dissociation in the representation of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant and behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; York, Collin; Bauer, Laura; Grossman, Murray

    2016-04-01

    We examine the anatomic basis for abstract and concrete lexical representations in semantic memory by assessing patients with focal neurodegenerative disease. Prior evidence from healthy adult studies suggests that there may be an anatomical dissociation between abstract and concrete representations: abstract words more strongly activate the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to concrete words, while concrete words more strongly activate left anterior-inferior temporal regions. However, this double dissociation has not been directly examined. We test this dissociation in two patient groups with focal cortical atrophy in each of these regions, the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Degeneration (bvFTD) and the semantic variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia (svPPA). We administered an associativity judgment task for abstract and concrete words, where subjects select which of two words is best associated with a given target word. Both bvFTD and svPPA patients were significantly impaired in their overall performance compared to controls. While controls treated concrete and abstract words equally, we found a category-specific double dissociation in patients' judgments: bvFTD patients showed a concreteness effect (CE), with significantly worse performance for abstract compared to concrete words, while svPPA patients showed reversal of the CE, with significantly worse performance for concrete over abstract words. Regression analyses also revealed an anatomic double dissociation: The CE is associated with inferior frontal atrophy in bvFTD, while reversal of the CE is associated with left anterior-inferior temporal atrophy in svPPA. These results support a cognitive and anatomic model of semantic memory organization where abstract and concrete representations are supported by dissociable neuroanatomic substrates.

  12. How justice can affect jury: training abstract words promotes generalisation to concrete words in patients with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Developing language treatments that not only improve trained items but also promote generalisation to untrained items is a major focus in aphasia research. This study is a replication and extension of previous work which found that training abstract words in a particular context-category promotes generalisation to concrete words but not vice versa (Kiran, Sandberg, & Abbott, 2009 ). Twelve persons with aphasia (five female) with varying types and degrees of severity participated in a generative naming treatment based on the Complexity Account of Treatment Efficacy (CATE; Thompson, Shapiro, Kiran, & Sobecks, 2003 ). All participants were trained to generate abstract words in a particular context-category by analysing the semantic features of the target words. Two other context-categories were used as controls. Ten of the twelve participants improved on the trained abstract words in the trained context-category. Eight of the ten participants who responded to treatment also generalised to concrete words in the same context-category. These results suggest that this treatment is both efficacious and efficient. We discuss possible mechanisms of training and generalisation effects.

  13. Social representations: affective impregnation and structural approach / Abordagem estrutural e componente afetivo das representações sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Humberto Faria Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships between the structure of a representation and the affective impregnation of representation elements.

  14. Is a picture worth a thousand words? The interaction of visual display and attribute representation in attenuating framing bias}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Gamliel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The attribute framing bias is a well-established phenomenon, in which an object or an event is evaluated more favorably when presented in a positive frame such as ``the half full glass'' than when presented in the complementary negative framing. Given that previous research showed that visual aids can attenuate this bias, the current research explores the factors underlying the attenuating effect of visual aids. In a series of three experiments, we examined how attribute framing bias is affected by two factors: (a The display mode---verbal versus visual; and (b the representation of the critical attribute---whether one outcome, either the positive or the negative, is represented or both outcomes are represented. In Experiment 1 a marginal attenuation of attribute framing bias was obtained when verbal description of either positive or negative information was accompanied by corresponding visual representation. In Experiment 2 similar marginal attenuation was obtained when both positive and negative outcomes were verbally represented. In Experiment 3, where the verbal description represented both positive and negative outcomes, significant attenuation was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented a single outcome, and complete attenuation, totally eliminating the framing bias, was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented both outcomes. Thus, our findings showed that interaction between the display mode and the representation of the critical attribute attenuated the framing bias. Theoretical and practical implications of the interaction between verbal description, visual aids and representation of the critical attribute are discussed, and future research is suggested.

  15. Words, words, words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  16. Affective norms for 720 French words rated by children and adolescents (FANchild).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2016-12-07

    FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups. Despite a significant level of consensus, we found age differences in both the valence and arousal ratings: Seven- and 9-year-old children gave higher mean valence and arousal ratings than did the other age groups. Moreover, the tendency to judge words positively (i.e., positive bias) decreased with age. This age- and sex-related database will enable French-speaking researchers to study how the emotional character of words influences their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age. FANchild is available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Monnier/contributions .

  17. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  18. STOP TALKING ! Inhibition of speech is affected by word frequency and dysfunctional impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wery Van Den Wildenberg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is a complex natural behavior that most people master very well. Nevertheless, systematic investigation of the factors that affect adaptive control over speech production is relatively scarce. The present experiments quantified and compared inhibitory control over manual and verbal responses using the stop-signal paradigm. In tasks with only two response alternatives, verbal expressions were slower than manual responses, but the stopping latencies of hand and verbal actions were comparable. When engaged in a standard picture-naming task using a large set of pictures, verbal stopping latencies were considerably prolonged. Interestingly, stopping was slower for naming words that are less frequently used compared to words that are used more frequently. These results indicate that adaptive action control over speech production is affected by lexical processing. This notion is compatible with current theories on speech self-monitoring. Finally, stopping latencies varied with individual differences in impulsivity, indicating that specifically dysfunctional impulsivity, and not functional impulsivity, is associated with slower verbal stopping.

  19. The Representation and Processing of Subjective Words for Chinese Readers%汉语“主观词”的表征及其加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国利; 张兰兰; 孙莎莎; 白学军

    2013-01-01

    Given that there are no visual spaces between words in written Chinese and characters are the basic perceptual unit, it is intriguing how Chinese readers segment and represent words. Many studies have indicated that words play an important role in Chinese reading (Yan et al., 2006; Li et al., 2005; Rayner et al., 2007; Bai et al., 2008; Yan et al., 2009), while some other research has demonstrated that characters are more important than words in reading (Chen et al., 2003). However, some researchers have found that native Chinese readers have no clear concept of words, and they often disagree on how to divide the continuous string of characters within a sentence into words (Hoosain, 1992; Tsai et al., 1998; Miller et al., 2007). So there is a discrepancy here: If words play an important role in Chinese reading, what are the characteristics of these words? We propose that Chinese readers segment text into words according to complex cognitive representations: "subjective words" (e.g., representing the phrase "economic development" as a single word). Three studies were conducted to explore 1) whether subjective words are psychologically real in readers' minds and 2) how these subjective words are processed. The first study examined how well the readers could recognize the two-character combination as a word or a phrase. The results showed that the readers tend to judge phrases as subjective words, which indicated that they represented words according to their own complex cognition about words, which demonstrated that subjective words were real in readers' minds. The second and third experiment investigated the characteristics of subjective word processing. The second experiment explored whether subjective words had a "word superiority effect" - whether the readers found the position of a character in subjective words more efficiently than in non-words. The third experiment examined whether the reaction time of classifying subjective words as words was shorter than

  20. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  1. How Linearity and Structural Complexity Interact and Affect the Recognition of Italian Derived Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgers, Franca Ferrari; Kacinik, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The majority of words in most languages consist of derived poly-morphemic words but a cross-linguistic review of the literature (Amenta and Crepaldi in Front Psychol 3:232-243, 2012) shows a contradictory picture with respect to how such words are represented and processed. The current study examined the effects of linearity and structural…

  2. It matters how much you talk: on the automaticity of affective connotations of first and second language words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.; Doycheva, C.; Wentura, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an affective priming study conducted with proficient sequential German and French bilinguals to assess automatic affective word processing in L1 and L2. Additionally, a semantic priming task was conducted in both languages. Whereas semantic priming effects occurred in L1 and

  3. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  4. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  5. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  6. Predictability affects early perceptual processing of word onsets in continuous speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2011-10-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) evidence indicates that listeners selectively attend to word onsets in continuous speech, but the reason for this preferential processing is unknown. The current study measured ERPs elicited by syllable onsets in an artificial language to test the hypothesis that listeners direct attention to word onsets because their identity is unpredictable. Both before and after recognition training, participants listened to a continuous stream of six nonsense words arranged in pairs, such that the second word in each pair was completely predictable. After training, first words in pairs elicited a larger negativity beginning around 100 ms after onset. This effect was not evident for the completely predictable second words in pairs. These results suggest that listeners are most likely to attend to the segments in speech that they are least able to predict.

  7. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  8. Losing the music: aging affects the perception and subcortical neural representation of musical harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-03-04

    When two musical notes with simple frequency ratios are played simultaneously, the resulting musical chord is pleasing and evokes a sense of resolution or "consonance". Complex frequency ratios, on the other hand, evoke feelings of tension or "dissonance". Consonance and dissonance form the basis of harmony, a central component of Western music. In earlier work, we provided evidence that consonance perception is based on neural temporal coding in the brainstem (Bones et al., 2014). Here, we show that for listeners with clinically normal hearing, aging is associated with a decline in both the perceptual distinction and the distinctiveness of the neural representations of different categories of two-note chords. Compared with younger listeners, older listeners rated consonant chords as less pleasant and dissonant chords as more pleasant. Older listeners also had less distinct neural representations of consonant and dissonant chords as measured using a Neural Consonance Index derived from the electrophysiological "frequency-following response." The results withstood a control for the effect of age on general affect, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for the perceived pleasantness of musical chords and affective voices and that, for listeners with clinically normal hearing, age-related differences in consonance perception are likely to be related to differences in neural temporal coding.

  9. 一种视觉词软直方图的图像表示方法%Visual Word Soft-Histogram for Image Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦杰; 刘峡壁; 贾云得

    2012-01-01

    基于视觉词的统计建模和判别学习,提出一种视觉词软直方图的图像表示方法.假设属于同一视觉词的图像局部特征服从高斯混合分布,利用最大-最小后验伪概率判别学习方法从样本中估计该分布,计算局部特征与视觉词的相似度.累加图像中每个视觉词与对应局部特征的相似度,在全部视觉词集合上进行结果的归一化,得到图像的视觉词软直方图.讨论了两种具体实现方法:一种是基于分类的软直方图方法,该方法根据相似度最大原则建立局部特征与视觉词的对应关系;另一种是完全软直方图方法,该方法将每个局部特征匹配到所有视觉词,在数据库Caltech-4和PASCAL VOC 2006上的实验结果表明,该方法是有效的.%This paper proposes a visual word soft-histogram for image representation based on statistical modeling and discriminative learning of visual words. This type of learning uses Gaussian mixture models (GMM) to reflect the appearance variation of each visual word and employs the max-min posterior pseudo-probabilities discriminative learning method to estimate GMMs of visual words. The similarities between each visual word and corresponding local features are computed, summed, and normalized to construct a soft-histogram, This paper also discusses the implementation of two representation methods. The first one is called classification-based soft histogram, in which each local feature is assigned to only one visual word with maximum similarity. The second one is called completely soft histogram, in which each local feature is assigned to all the visual words. The experimental results of Caltech-4 and PASCAL VOC 2006 confirm the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Writing Dictated Words and Picture Names: Syllabic Boundaries Affect Execution in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cottrell, David; Afonso, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of syllables in writing Spanish words. In Experiment 1, participants had to write single words that were aurally presented. The interletter intervals (ILIs) between critical letters were measured. Longer ILIs were found in the intersyllabic than the intrasyllabic condition. In Experiment 2, the inputs were…

  11. Bilingualism Affects 9-Month-Old Infants' Expectations about How Words Refer to Kinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Infants are precocious word learners, and seem to possess systematic expectations about how words refer to object kinds. For example, while monolingual infants show a one-to-one mapping bias (e.g. mutual exclusivity), expecting each object to have only one basic level label, previous research has shown that this is less robust in bi- and…

  12. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  13. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  14. Explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model: an application to simultaneous investigation of word and person contributions to multidimensional lexical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model and its application to reading data with multilevel item structure. The model includes multilevel random item parameters that allow consideration of variability in item parameters at both item and item group levels. Item-level random item parameters were included to model unexplained variance remaining when item related covariates were used to explain variation in item difficulties. Item group-level random item parameters were included to model dependency in item responses among items having the same item stem. Using the model, this study examined the dimensionality of a person's word knowledge, termed lexical representation, and how aspects of morphological knowledge contributed to lexical representations for different persons, items, and item groups.

  15. Happiness is pleasant, or is it? Implicit representations of affect valence are associated with contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-10-01

    People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations.

  16. 熟练粤语-普通话双言者听觉词的语言表征%The Language Representation of Auditory Words in Cantonese-Mandarin Diglossias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积家; 张凤玲

    2014-01-01

    Using implicit memory paradigm, the study probed into the language representation of Cantonese-Mandarin di-glossias.The results showed that:1 ) the semantic representations of Mandarin and Cantonese words are identical and their lexical representations are separated for Mandarin-Cantonese bidialecters; 2 ) the link intensity between Cantonese words, Mandarin words and semantic representation are different;3 ) the links from Mandarin words to Cantonese words are stronger than the links from Cantonese words to Mandarin words.%以熟练粤语-普通话双言者为被试,考察粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征。实验1呈现粤语和普通话同形异音的词,实验2呈现粤语和普通话异形异音的词,要求被试做语义决定。结果发现,粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征类似于双语者,即普通话和粤语的语义共同表征,词汇分别表征。所以如此,是由粤语的特点和它与普通话的关系决定的。

  17. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  18. Does working memory capacity affect the ability to predict upcoming words in discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that readers and listeners can use information in the prior discourse to rapidly predict specific upcoming words, as the text is unfolding. Here we used event-related potentials to explore whether the ability to make rapid online predictions depends on a reader's working

  19. Representação: palavras, instituições e idéias Representation: words, institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fenichel Pitkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em argumento reconstrutivo, baseado em abordagem própria à filosofia da linguagem, a autora lança mão das transformações seculares nos usos da fala, nas cristalizações ideológicas no plano da filosofia política e nas práticas históricas de representação política para mostrar a emergência das feições distintivas da representação moderna.In a reconstructive analysis, based upon the philosophy of language, the author handles the secular transformations in speech, ideological crystallizations within the tradition of political philosophy and the historical practices of political representation in order to show the coming up of the distinctive features of modern representation.

  20. Does the Grammatical Count/Mass Distinction Affect Semantic Representations? Evidence from Experiments in English and Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    We investigate linguistic relativity effects by examining whether the grammatical count/mass distinction in English affects English speakers' semantic representations of noun referents, as compared with those of Japanese speakers, whose language does not grammatically distinguish nouns for countability. We used two tasks which are sensitive to…

  1. A Model on the Cognitive and Affective Factors for the Use of Representations at the Learning of Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaoura, Areti; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Deliyianni, Eleni; Elia, Iliada

    2010-01-01

    In a previous article of the same journal, we have discussed the interrelations of students' beliefs and self-efficacy beliefs for the use of representations and their respective cognitive performance on the learning of fraction addition. In the present paper, we confirm a similar structure of cognitive and affective factors on using…

  2. Motor Recovery of the Affected Hand in Subacute Stroke Correlates with Changes of Contralesional Cortical Hand Motor Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Veldema; Kathrin Bösl; Dennis Alexander Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between changes of cortical hand motor representation and motor recovery of the affected hand in subacute stroke. Methods. 17 patients with motor impairment of the affected hand were enrolled in an in-patient neurological rehabilitation program. Hand motor function tests (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test) and neurophysiological evaluations (resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, motor map area size, motor map area volume,...

  3. Motor Recovery of the Affected Hand in Subacute Stroke Correlates with Changes of Contralesional Cortical Hand Motor Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Veldema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between changes of cortical hand motor representation and motor recovery of the affected hand in subacute stroke. Methods. 17 patients with motor impairment of the affected hand were enrolled in an in-patient neurological rehabilitation program. Hand motor function tests (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test and neurophysiological evaluations (resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, motor map area size, motor map area volume, and motor map area location were obtained from both hands and hemispheres at baseline and two, four, and six weeks of in-patient rehabilitation. Results. There was a wide spectrum of hand motor impairment at baseline and hand motor recovery over time. Hand motor function and recovery correlated significantly with (i reduction of cortical excitability, (ii reduction in size and volume of cortical hand motor representation, and (iii a medial and anterior shift of the center of gravity of cortical hand motor representation within the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusion. Recovery of motor function of the affected hand after stroke is accompanied by definite changes in excitability, size, volume, and location of hand motor representation over the contralesional primary motor cortex. These measures may serve as surrogate markers for the outcome of hand motor rehabilitation after stroke.

  4. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge.

  5. A War of Words: Do Conflict Metaphors Affect Beliefs about Managing “Unwanted” Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. Nay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants have increased in density and extent in rangelands worldwide since the 1800s, and land managers increasingly remove woodland plants in hopes of restoring pre-settlement conditions and/or improved forage for grazing livestock. Because such efforts can be controversial, especially on publicly owned lands, managers often attempt to frame issues in ways they believe can improve public acceptance of proposed actions. Frequently these framing efforts employ conflict metaphors drawn from military or legal lexicons. We surveyed citizens in the Rocky Mountains region, USA, about their beliefs concerning tree-removal as a management strategy. Plants targeted for removal in the region include such iconic tree species as Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine as well as other less-valued species, such as Rocky Mountain juniper, that are common targets for removal nationwide. To test the influence of issue frame on acceptance, recipients were randomly assigned surveys in which the reason for conifer removal was described using one of three terms often employed by invasive biologists and land managers: “invasion”, “expansion”, and “encroachment”. Framing in this instance had little effect on responses. We conclude the use of single-word frames by scientists and managers use to contextualize an issue may not resonate with the public.

  6. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  7. Automatic Certification or Mandatory Representation Votes? How the Choice of Union Recognition Procedure Affects Union Certification Success

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Union recognition procedures are about to be reformed in the U.K. Current legislative reform proposes automatic certification. Business prefers mandatory representation votes. Will the choice of union recognition procedure affect certification success? This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of the choice of recognition procedure on certification success. Cross-section time-series analysis of nine Canadian jurisdictions over nineteen years is used to identify the effect of mandat...

  8. Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred W.; Preuss, Nora; Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: (1) Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths), body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals), in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. (2) Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. (3) Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are—at least in part—associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood. PMID:24904327

  9. Affective Priming in a Lexical Decision Task: Is There an Effect of Words' Concreteness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Affective priming occurs when responses to a target are facilitated when it is preceded by a prime congruent in valence. We conducted two experiments in order to test whether this is a genuine emotional effect or rather it can be accounted for by semantic relatedness between primes and targets. With this aim, semantic relatedness and emotional…

  10. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  11. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  12. Magritte's Words and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Georges

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Rene Magritte's experiments with words and images are preceded by other experiments with his surrealist friends in Brussels. States that the surrealists' failure to adequately represent women causes Magritte to treat both images and words as mere representations, subject to an equally radical splitting from the "real" thing…

  13. Phonological-orthographic consistency for Japanese words and its impact on visual and auditory word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasushi; Kusunose, Yuu; Miyamura, Shinobu; Lupker, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    In most models of word processing, the degrees of consistency in the mappings between orthographic, phonological, and semantic representations are hypothesized to affect reading time. Following Hino, Miyamura, and Lupker's (2011) examination of the orthographic-phonological (O-P) and orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistency for 1,114 Japanese words (339 katakana and 775 kanji words), in the present research, we initially attempted to measure the phonological-orthographic (P-O) consistency for those same words. In contrast to the O-P and O-S consistencies, which were equivalent for kanji and katakana words, the P-O relationships were much more inconsistent for the kanji words than for the katakana words. The impact of kanji words' P-O consistency was then examined in both visual and auditory word recognition tasks. Although there was no effect of P-O consistency in the standard visual lexical-decision task, significant effects were detected in a lexical-decision task with auditory stimuli, in a perceptual identification task using masked visual stimuli, and in a lexical-decision task with degraded visual stimuli. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the impact of P-O consistency in auditory and visual word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.

  15. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

  16. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples.

  17. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role to c

  18. 道德与情绪词语的空间隐喻表征及其自动联结机制研究%Spatial Metaphor Representations of Morality and Emotion Words and Their Automatic Connection Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨群; 贡德英

    2014-01-01

    通过两个实验对正负性词语的空间隐喻现象及机制进行了探索研究。实验1采用词语线索提示的刺激探测任务范式,研究了正负性道德行为及情绪词语的空间表征对注意转移的影响,结果发现,正负性道德行为和情绪词语的空间表征对注意存在定向激活作用,揭示了极性词语存在空间隐喻性;实验2采用内隐联想测验的实验范式,对实验1所揭示的现象及其机制进行了探索分析,结果发现,正负性词语的空间属性差异是存在于内隐层面的自动联结,即空间隐喻词语与垂直方位属性之间建立的联系是自动化、无意识的。%This paper investigated the spatial metaphor phenomenon and mechanism of positive and negative words by two experiments . The Experiment 1 used the paradigm of stimulus detection task to study the influences of spatial representations of positive and negative words related to morality and emotion on the shifts of attention .The results revealed the directed activation effect of the spatial representations of the words on attention .It also proved the existence of spatial metaphor in polarity words (positive-above ,negative-below ) .The Experiment 2 used the experimental paradigm of the implicit association test to explore the phenomenon and mechanism found in Experiment 1 .The results showed the spatial attribute differences of positive and negative words related to moral behaviors and emotion were the automatic connections which occurred in the implicit level ,namely ,the establishment of the relationships between spatial metaphor words and vertical position attribute was automatic and unconscious .

  19. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-06

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information.

  20. Representation of spectro-temporal features of spoken words within the P1-N1-P2 and T-complex of the auditory evoked potentials (AEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monica; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Campanelli, Luca; Shafer, Valerie L; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether P1-N1-P2 and T-complex morphology reflect spectro-temporal features within spoken words that approximate the natural variation of a speaker and whether waveform morphology is reliable at group and individual levels, necessary for probing auditory deficits. The P1-N1-P2 and T-complex to the syllables /pət/ and /sət/ within 70 natural word productions each were examined. EEG was recorded while participants heard nonsense word pairs and performed a syllable identification task to the second word in the pairs. Single trial auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to the first words were analyzed. Results found P1-N1-P2 and T-complex to reflect spectral and temporal feature processing. Also, results identified preliminary benchmarks for single trial response variability for individual subjects for sensory processing between 50 and 600ms. P1-N1-P2 and T-complex, at least at group level, may serve as phenotypic signatures to identify deficits in spectro-temporal feature recognition and to determine area of deficit, the superior temporal plane or lateral superior temporal gyrus.

  1. The Absence of the Automatic Association between Behavioral Representation Level and Psychological Distance:Evidence from a Picture-word Stroop Task%行为表征水平与心理距离间不具自动化联接特性:来自图片-词汇Stroop范式的实验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 申之美

    2014-01-01

    within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the part of speech of each word (adjective or verb) in the arrow and meanwhile ignore the arrow’s spatial location. In Experiment 2, four sets of trait-action word pairs including lively/josh (Experiment 2a), modest/to ask for advice (Experiment 2b), kindhearted/to help (Experiment 2c) and faithful/to repay loan (Experiment 2d), were adopted to be the sample stimuli and were embedded within the arrow pointing to a specific location (either near or distant) in a landscape photograph with clear depth cues. Participants were asked to judge the each word embedded in the arrow and ignore the arrow’s spatial location. All words in the experiments were Chinese two-character words. The results showed that: (1) No matter responding to the part of speech (Experiment 1) or the naming (Experiment 2) of the target words, participants’ reaction times were not affected, hence the process of different construal-level words was not influenced by differed spatial distances. (2) Participants responded to both the part of speech (Experiment 1) and the semantic meaning (Experiment 2) significantly faster when the target words (no matter they were trait words or act words) were presented in distal locations than when they were presented in proximate locations. Based on these results, we suggest that there is no automatic association between the behavioral representation levels and psychological distances, and the psychological distance effect on behavioral representation levels may be the product of a consciously controlled process. Moreover, the possible mechanism that participants’ performance on the behavioral evaluative words is largely dependent on a distal spatial distance has been discussed.

  2. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-06-29

    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  3. Connectives and Layout as Processing Signals: How Textual Features Affect Students' Processing and Text Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Silfhout, Gerdineke; Evers-Vermeul, Jacqueline; Mak, Willem M.; Sanders, Ted J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When students read their school text, they may make a coherent mental representation of it that contains coherence relations between the text segments. The construction of such a representation is a prerequisite for learning from texts. This article focuses on the influence of connectives ("therefore," "furthermore") and layout…

  4. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition.

  5. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  6. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice.

  7. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  8. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of Human Factors Affecting the Recognition Accuracy of a Discrete Word Recognizer for C3 Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    accuracy. I1. A user’s reccgnition accuracy will be affected oy socio-eccnomic class standing. H. : Past oral-surgery or orthodontal care will not affect...8217 EIGHT NINE GOLF MIKE LAUNCH ’ ’ SHOOT SPEEL CCURSI 2. 11NO SYLLABLE UTTERANCES (35) EUROPE LOGCUT ZERO SEVEN ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO IOXTRCT HOTEL...Teams During Cc- Operative Proolerr-Solving," Internatinal Journal fl. an- r acniLe Studiies,, Voi.rc, Seiteiyter 19474 l6d t 12. Operating

  10. Young Infants Encode Lexical Stress in Newly Encountered Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in the word. Our…

  11. Embodied simulation of emotional valence: Facial muscle responses to abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin; Palazova, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Semantic knowledge is thought to be at least partially grounded in sensory, motor, and affective information, acquired through experiences in our inner and outer world. The reactivation of experience-related information during meaning access is called simulation. In the affective simulation account, it is assumed that the grounding information depends on the concepts' concreteness. Whereas abstract concepts are thought to be mainly represented through affective experiential information, concrete words rely more on sensory-motor experiential information. To test this hypothesis, we measured facial muscle activity as an indicator of affective simulation during visual word recognition. Words varied on the dimensions of concreteness and valence. Behavioral and electromyographic data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models with maximal random effect structure to optimize generalization over participants and word samples. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found a valence effect in the m. corrugator supercilii only in response to concrete but not to abstract words. Our data show that affective simulation as measured with facial muscle activity occurs in response to concrete rather than to abstract words. More concrete words are supposed to have higher context availability and richer visual imagery, which might promote affective simulation on the expressive level of facial muscle activity. The results are in line with embodied accounts of semantic representation but speak against its predominant role for representing affective information in abstract concepts.

  12. WORD MAGIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xinmin

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a word game named"Word Magic",which is effective and efficient inavoiding word forgetting & decaying as well as helping students to improve their abilities in spelling,word building and so on.The procedures and rules of the game are formulated together with the makingof the cards used in it.The advantages of the game are also expounded.

  13. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011).

  14. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  15. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  16. Fuzzy Nonnative Phonolexical Representations Lead to Fuzzy Form-to-Meaning Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Cook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores nonnative (L2 phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1 L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1; and (2 fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2.The Russian-English Translation Priming task (Experiment 1, TJT explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent - parrot show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent – parchment in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words.The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of

  17. Fuzzy Nonnative Phonolexical Representations Lead to Fuzzy Form-to-Meaning Mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Svetlana V; Pandža, Nick B; Lancaster, Alia K; Gor, Kira

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores nonnative (L2) phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1) L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1); and (2) fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2). The Russian-English Translation Judgment Task (Experiment 1, TJT) explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent-parrot) show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent-parchment) in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP) addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words. The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of incorrect semantic

  18. Fuzzy Nonnative Phonolexical Representations Lead to Fuzzy Form-to-Meaning Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Svetlana V.; Pandža, Nick B.; Lancaster, Alia K.; Gor, Kira

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores nonnative (L2) phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1) L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1); and (2) fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2). The Russian-English Translation Judgment Task (Experiment 1, TJT) explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent–parrot) show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent–parchment) in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP) addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words. The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of incorrect

  19. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  20. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words’ concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  1. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  2. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  3. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eSuárez-Coalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995. It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca, et al., 2007. In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9 - 13 years, in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words.The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not.

  4. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9-13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not.

  5. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability.

  6. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  7. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping. In Experiment 1 (n = 20, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  8. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  9. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  10. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  11. Sparing of number words in oral production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Semenza

    2014-04-01

    In sentences only number words were spared; free standing function words and bound morphemes were as affected as other word categories. Discussion. These findings seem to set cardinal number words apart in the phonological output buffer from other possible building blocks of preassembled phonological units (like function words and bound morphemes. Building blocks constituted by numbers are more cohesive than the blocks constituted by function words and bound morphemes. Bencini et al. (2011 argued that numbers are recursive and consist of basic lexical units which are then combined following syntactic rules. This property would make number words resistant to damage in the phonological buffer.

  12. Learning network representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Luis G.

    2017-02-01

    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  13. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  14. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  15. Anomia in moderate aphasia: problems in accessing the lexical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dorze, G; Nespoulous, J L

    1989-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to determine through the analysis of surface manifestations of anomia whether one or several anomic syndromes exist, (2) to identify the psycholinguistic process at fault in anomia with reference to M. F. Garrett's (1982, in A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions, London/New York: Academic Press) language production model. Two naming tasks were administered to 24 moderate aphasics. Test A was a standard naming task, and test B was a similar task which included subtests designed to indicate which level of representation was affected whenever patients did not name the target word. The subtests required, respectively, the identification of (a) a conceptual property, (b) two semantic attributes, (c) the first and (d) last syllable of the target word, and (e) the target word itself. Descriptive statistics yielded three groups of subjects different in terms of surface anomic manifestations, yet unrelated to clinical type of aphasia. Moreover, no significant differences between groups emerged on the subtests. All groups showed a good performance on the conceptual and the semantic subtests, suggesting preservation of high-level cognitive and semantic processes. In contrast, subjects evidenced poorer performances in syllabic identification, indicating a disruption of lower level mechanisms which are assumed to retrieve and process formal lexical representations. Results support the view that aphasic anomia originates from a difficulty in accessing the formal lexical representation and not from a semantic problem.

  16. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis.

  17. How different are language models and word clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Hiemstra, D.; Kamps, J.

    2010-01-01

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences betwee

  18. How Different are Language Models and Word Clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kamps, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences betwee

  19. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  20. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  1. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  2. Mental Representations of Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  3. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  4. Multilingual Word Embeddings using Multigraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Soricut, Radu; Ding, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of neural-network--inspired models for computing continuous word representations, specifically designed to exploit both monolingual and multilingual text. This framework allows us to perform unsupervised training of embeddings that exhibit higher accuracy on syntactic and semantic compositionality, as well as multilingual semantic similarity, compared to previous models trained in an unsupervised fashion. We also show that such multilingual embeddings, optimized for semant...

  5. Word sense disambiguation using semantic relatedness measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Che-Yu

    2006-01-01

    All human languages have words that can mean different things in different contexts, such words with multiple meanings are potentially "ambiguous". The process of "deciding which of several meanings of a term is intended in a given context" is known as "word sense disambiguation (WSD)". This paper presents a method of WSD that assigns a target word the sense that is most related to the senses of its neighbor words. We explore the use of measures of relatedness between word senses based on a novel hybrid approach. First, we investigate how to "literally" and "regularly" express a "concept". We apply set algebra to WordNet's synsets cooperating with WordNet's word ontology. In this way we establish regular rules for constructing various representations (lexical notations) of a concept using Boolean operators and word forms in various synset(s) defined in WordNet. Then we establish a formal mechanism for quantifying and estimating the semantic relatedness between concepts-we facilitate "concept distribution statistics" to determine the degree of semantic relatedness between two lexically expressed concepts. The experimental results showed good performance on Semcor, a subset of Brown corpus. We observe that measures of semantic relatedness are useful sources of information for WSD.

  6. Word-Sized Graphics for Scientific Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-02-24

    Generating visualizations at the size of a word creates dense information representations often called sparklines. The integration of word-sized graphics into text could avoid additional cognitive load caused by splitting the readers' attention between figures and text. In scientific publications, these graphics make statements easier to understand and verify because additional quantitative information is available where needed. In this work, we perform a literature review to find out how researchers have already applied such word-sized representations. Illustrating the versatility of the approach, we leverage these representations for reporting empirical and bibliographic data in three application examples. For interactive Web-based publications, we explore levels of interactivity and discuss interaction patterns to link visualization and text. We finally call the visualization community to be a pioneer in exploring new visualization-enriched and interactive publication formats.

  7. 新闻文本间距中的词语色彩对受众之误导%The Misleading of Affective Meaning of Words in the Distance of News Text on Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐成英

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationships among propagation context of news text, context of audience and distance of news text, as well as the function of affective meaning of words in the distance of news text, especially the misleading effect on audience.%探讨了新闻文本传播语境、受众接受语境与新闻文本间距之间的关系,以及词语色彩在新闻文本间距中所产生的作用,尤其是这种作用对受众误导方面的影响。

  8. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eFerré

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman, Estes, Brysbaert, & Warriner, 2014. It is also well known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré, García, Fraga, Sánchez-Casas, & Molero, 2010. The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitative effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words’ concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and one week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta,Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (2011.

  9. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, inspired by the stud...

  10. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.

  11. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  12. [Interest of a mental representation approach to the disclosure of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Saint-Péron, Laurie; Barrelon, Marie-Odile; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the mental representation of Alzheimer disease (AD) by assessing the number of words given by the subjects when asked to quickly write seven words characterizing AD in three groups of subjects: 22 caregivers, 22 professional informants, and 28 naïve subjects. The generated words were classified into six dimensions: memory, other neuropsychological impairments, behavioral disorders, consequences on caregiver relationships, familial and social changes, and health. AD mental representation was clearly negative in the three groups and did not differ between groups. Memory was the most frequent dimension reported in all groups with 78 quoted words (20.1% of responses). However the hierarchical classification of the dimensions differed in the three groups. The caregivers reported more words related to social and familial changes. Social and familial modifications, and behavioral changes were first reported by the professionals. The naïve subjects firstly quoted words concerning memory and others neuropsychological deficits. However, naïve subjects who had previously be in contact with AD patients mainly reported words about behavior changes. Actually, naïve subjects are not fully naïve because the clinical aspects of the disease are currently well known in the general population. Families and professional informants reported that AD familial and social changes had a deeper impact than cognitive or behavioral aspects. This preliminary study suggests that AD mental representation is the same in the general population, but the weight of the different dimensions affecting AD differed between subjects concerned or not by the disease (family or professional versus naïve subjects). Therefore, the weight of the different dimensions is to be taken into account for a better approach of the disclosure of AD diagnosis.

  13. Using Distributed Representations to Disambiguate Biomedical and Clinical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tulkens, Stéphan; Šuster, Simon; Daelemans, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a knowledge-based method for Word Sense Disambiguation in the domains of biomedical and clinical text. We combine word representations created on large corpora with a small number of definitions from the UMLS to create concept representations, which we then compare to representations of the context of ambiguous terms. Using no relational information, we obtain comparable performance to previous approaches on the MSH-WSD dataset, which is a well-known dataset in the bi...

  14. The Affective (Re)Production of Refugee Representations through Educational Policies and Practices: Reconceptualising the Role of Emotion for Peace Education in a Divided Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…

  15. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes: the impact of double letters in writing English words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer [e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate) and DISGRACE (Control)]. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S) and intervals (DI, IS) for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., letter S). PMID:24133473

  16. Disentangling the effects of word frequency and contextual diversity on serial recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula

    2016-07-19

    Research shows that contextual diversity (CD; the number of different contexts in which a word appears within a corpus) constitutes a better predictor of reading performance than word frequency (WF), that it mediates the access to lexical representations, and that controlling for contextual CD abolishes the effect of WF in lexical decision tasks. Despite the theoretical relevance of these findings for the study of serial memory, it is not known how CD might affect serial recall performance. We report the first independent manipulation of CD and WF in a serial recall task. Experiment 1 revealed better performance for low CD and for high WF words independently. Both effects affected omissions and item errors, but contrary to past research, word frequency also affected order errors. These results were confirmed in two more experiments comparing pure and alternating lists of low and high CD (Experiment 2) or WF (Experiment 3). The effect of CD was immune to this manipulation, while that of WF was abolished in alternating lists. Altogether the findings suggest a more difficult episodic retrieval of item information for words of high CD, and a role for both item and order information in the WF effect.

  17. Examining the effects of variation in emotional tone of voice on spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestar, Maura L; McLennan, Conor T

    2013-09-01

    Emotional tone of voice (ETV) is essential for optimal verbal communication. Research has found that the impact of variation in nonlinguistic features of speech on spoken word recognition differs according to a time course. In the current study, we investigated whether intratalker variation in ETV follows the same time course in two long-term repetition priming experiments. We found that intratalker variability in ETVs affected reaction times to spoken words only when processing was relatively slow and difficult, not when processing was relatively fast and easy. These results provide evidence for the use of both abstract and episodic lexical representations for processing within-talker variability in ETV, depending on the time course of spoken word recognition.

  18. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  19. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  20. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Luit de Jonge. Luit de Jonge My only year as president (mid-1982 to mid-1983) of the Staff Association was intense and eventful. Michel Vitasse, who had prepared the ground for me as his successor, had previously worked with his deputies on the modes of staff representation in major international organizations. We had only one official body for discussions with Management, the Standing Consultation Committee (SCC). As its name suggests, this committee was advisory only, but we, the Staff Association, wanted to negotiate and reach signed agreements. A joint group had been established (President Günther Ullmann and Vice President Romain Pittin, who at the same time was Vice-President of the Staff Association) to study the issue. In the end, it was clear that the CERN Management did not want to chang...

  1. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues".

  2. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words referred to a male or female person or animal. In order to explore conceptual representations, we divided the words into gender-specific and gender-ambiguous words. Gender-specific words were words in which conceptual representations contained gender as a defining feature, in both English and Indonesian (e.g., uncle). In contrast, gender-ambiguous words were words in which gender was a defining feature in English but not a necessary feature in Indonesian (e.g., nephew and niece are both subsumed under the same word, keponakan, in Indonesian). The experiment was conducted exclusively in English. Indonesian-English bilinguals responded faster to gender-specific words than gender-ambiguous words, but the difference was smaller for the most proficient bilinguals. As expected, English-dominant speakers' response latencies were similar across these two types of words. The results suggest that English concepts are dynamic and that proficiency leads to native-like conceptual representations.

  3. The representation of getting ill in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondina Lúcia Ceppas Resende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: This study, developed in a federal hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, has aimed to analyze the social representation of chronic disease and its treatment, in the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: The sample consisted of 31 adolescents (11–21 years with systemic lupus erythematosus and 19 caregivers (32–66 years, followed in the pediatrics and in the internal medicine outpatient clinics for a period of six months. Data was collected from the free association of words test, using chronic disease and treatment of chronic disease impulses, and later submitted to the Multiple Correspondence Analysis using the R software. Results: The group of adolescents associated the impulse chronic disease with the words medication, bad, illness, difficulty, no cure, faith and joy; and in the group of caregivers, to care, treatment, no cure and the word ‘no’. The impulse treatment of chronic disease was associated, in the group of adolescents, with the words patience, improvement, help, affection, care and bad; and in the group of caregivers, to caring, hope, schedule, knowledge, obedience, medication, professional and improvement. Caregivers also associated impulses and words according to age: chronic disease was associated with the word care (over 61 years, pain and impotence (42–61 years, treatment (22–41 years; and treatment of chronic disease, with the words strength (over 61 years, professional, knowledge and improvement (42–61 years, affection and schedule (22–41 years. Conclusions: Considering as subjective and dynamic the experience of getting ill, knowing the representations can contribute to the orientation of conduct and type of psychotherapeutic intervention needed.

  4. "My Greatest Joy and My Greatest Heart Ache:" Parents' Own Words on How Having a Child in the Autism Spectrum Has Affected Their Lives and Their Families' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara J.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children in the autism spectrum wrote an open-ended answer via an online questionnaire to the question, "How has your child in the autism spectrum affected your life and your family's life?" (N = 493). Using a qualitative content analysis, 15 negative themes and 9 positive themes were identified. Themes are subsumed into five clusters:…

  5. Quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  6. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural…

  7. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  8. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  9. Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

    2012-01-01

    Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

  10. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  11. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  12. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should......, and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  13. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

    2014-12-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood.

  14. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.

  15. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed.

  16. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that…

  17. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  18. Complex Networks of Words in Fables

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    Holovatch, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we give an overview of the application of complex network theory to quantify some properties of language. Our study is based on two fables in Ukrainian, Mykyta the Fox and Abu-Kasym's slippers. It consists of two parts: the analysis of frequency-rank distributions of words and the application of complex-network theory. The first part shows that the text sizes are sufficiently large to observe statistical properties. This supports their selection for the analysis of typical properties of the language networks in the second part of the chapter. In describing language as a complex network, while words are usually associated with nodes, there is more variability in the choice of links and different representations result in different networks. Here, we examine a number of such representations of the language network and perform a comparative analysis of their characteristics. Our results suggest that, irrespective of link representation, the Ukrainian language network used in the selected fables i...

  19. Emotion categorization using affective-pLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Feng, Songhe

    2010-12-01

    Emotion categorization of natural scene images represents a very useful task for automatic image analysis systems. Psychological experiments have shown that visual information at the emotion level is aggregated according to a set of rules. Hence, we attempt to discover the emotion descriptors based on the composition of visual word representation. First, the composition of visual word representation models each image as a matrix, where elements record the correlations of pairwise visual words. In this way, an image collection is modeled as a third-order tensor. Then we discover the emotion descriptors using a novel affective-probabilistic latent semantic analysis (affective-pLSA) model, which is an extension of the pLSA model, on this tensor representation. Considering that the natural scene image may evoke multiple emotional feelings, emotion categorization is carried out using the multilabel k-nearest-neighbor approach based on emotion descriptors. The proposed approach has been tested on the International Affective Picture System and a collection of social images from the Flickr website. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for eliciting image emotions.

  20. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  1. Is the coupled control of hand and mouth postures precursor of reciprocal relations between gestures and words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro

    2012-07-15

    We tested whether a system coupling hand postures related to gestures to the control of internal mouth articulators during production of vowels exists and it can be precursor of a system relating hand/arm gestures to words. Participants produced unimanual and bimanual representational gestures expressing the meaning of LARGE or SMALL. Once the gesture was produced, in experiment 1 they pronounced the vowels "A" or "I", in experiment 2 the word "GRÀNDE" (large) or "PÌCCOLO" (small), and in experiment 3 the pseudo-words "SCRÀNTA" or "SBÌCCARA". Mouth, hand kinematics and voice spectra were recorded and analyzed. Unimanual gestures affected voice spectra of the two vowels pronounced alone (experiment 1). Bimanual and both unimanual and bimanual gestures affected voice spectra of /a/ and /i/ included in the words (experiment 2) and pseudo-words (experiment 3), respectively. The results support the hypothesis that a system coupling hand gestures to vowel production exists. Moreover, they suggest the existence of a more general system relating gestures to words.

  2. Social representations among university professors affected by a process of academic-administrative fusion. The case of Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Roxana Vivas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to socialize the case study results on the merger of tertiary institutes at Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos (Argentina and the faculty’s social representations among the Latin American community. For this study, we follow three theoretical approaches: Burton Clark’s internism, Lidia Fernández’s institutional dynamics and Brown, Delhom, Clark and Lang’s contributions on mergers. Based on 22 focused interviews, a descriptive study was carried out. In order to examine qualitative data, the illustrative mode, through textual excerpts, was combined to the analytical mode, through category building. This allows interpreting the process in the: teaching work structure, fusion-related meanings, dismemberment of identity, modalities and strategies, and the communicative process aspects. A thoroughful study of these personal and institutional processes helps understand conflict generating “black boxes”, thus bringing new elements in to further mergers

  3. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  4. The orbitofrontal cortex and beyond: from affect to decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian

    2008-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex represents the reward or affective value of primary reinforcers including taste, touch, texture, and face expression. It learns to associate other stimuli with these to produce representations of the expected reward value for visual, auditory, and abstract stimuli including monetary reward value. The orbitofrontal cortex thus plays a key role in emotion, by representing the goals for action. The learning process is stimulus-reinforcer association learning. Negative reward prediction error neurons are related to this affective learning. Activations in the orbitofrontal cortex correlate with the subjective emotional experience of affective stimuli, and damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs emotion-related learning, emotional behaviour, and subjective affective state. With an origin from beyond the orbitofrontal cortex, top-down attention to affect modulates orbitofrontal cortex representations, and attention to intensity modulates representations in earlier cortical areas of the physical properties of stimuli. Top-down word-level cognitive inputs can bias affective representations in the orbitofrontal cortex, providing a mechanism for cognition to influence emotion. Whereas the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of reward or affective value on a continuous scale, areas beyond the orbitofrontal cortex such as the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 are involved in binary decision-making when a choice must be made. For this decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of each specific reward in a common currency.

  5. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective

  6. Representações do corpo: com a palavra um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares Representations of the body: with the word one group of adolescents from popular classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Déa Braga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante da grande preocupação com a estética corporal demonstrada por um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares, o presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar as suas representações sociais de corpo. Tratou-se de investigação de abordagem qualitativa realizada com adolescentes trabalhadores vinculados ao Centro Salesiano do Menor, em Vitória (ES. Uma amostra aleatória foi selecionada de um grupo de 334 sujeitos. Oito meninas e sete meninos foram abordados por meio de entrevista não-estruturada. A partir da análise de suas falas, foi realizada uma categorização e utilizada a teoria das representações sociais para sua discussão. Os resultados apontaram que a percepção de corpo, tanto para meninos quanto para as meninas, está voltada para as idéias de proporcionalidade, normalidade e perfeição. Quanto às consequências de não ter o corpo ideal, ambos apontaram situações como exclusão, doenças, infelicidade e até morte. Aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a percepção, os pensamentos e sentimentos dos adolescentes relativos ao corpo pode contribuir para subsidiar intervenções nesse grupo, ampliando significativamente o âmbito de atuação dos profissionais na área da saúde.In view of the great body aesthetic concern demonstrated by a group of adolescents from popular classes, this study had the purpose of getting to know and analyze the social representations of the body. It investigated the qualitative approach carried out with adolescent workers from the Centro Salesiano do Menor, in Vitória, Espírito Santo State. A random sample was selected from a group of 334 individuals. Eight girls and seven boys were approached by means of non-structured interview. From the analysis of their speeches, a categorization was performed and the theory of the Social Representations was used for discussion. The results pointed out that body perception, for boys as well as for girls, are focused on the ideas of

  7. When is a word a word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; McCune, L

    1994-10-01

    Although adult-based words co-occur in the period of transition to speech with a variety of non-word vocalizations, little attention has been given to the formidable problem of identifying these earliest words. This paper specifies explicit, maximally 'inclusive' identification procedures, with criteria based on both phonetic and contextual parameters. A formal system for evaluating phonetic match is suggested, as well as a set of child-derived functional categories reflecting use in context. Analysis of word use across two samples of 10 children each, followed from 0;9 to 1;4, provides evidence to suggest that context-bound words can be 'trained' by focusing on eliciting language, but that the timing of context-flexible word use remains independent of such training.

  8. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    Full Text Available Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  9. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L; Schön, Daniele; Magne, Cyrille; Astésano, Corine; Besson, Mireille

    2010-03-31

    Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target) presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word) elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  10. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  11. The Distribution of Words in Chinese and Laos Based on Cross Language Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yuquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Word representation is the basic research content of natural language processing. At present, distributed representation of monolingual words has shown satisfactory application effect in some Neural Probabilistic Language (NPL research, while as for distributed representation of cross-lingual words, there is little research both at home and abroad. Aiming at this problem given distribution similarity of nouns and verbs in these two languages, we embed mutual translated words, synonyms, super-ordinates into Chinese corpus by the weakly supervised learning extension approach and other methods, thus Laos word distribution in cross-lingual environment of Chinese and Laos is learned. We applied the distributed representation of the cross-lingual words learned before to compute similarities of bilingual texts and classify the mixed text corpus of Chinese and Laos, Experimental results show that the proposal has a satisfactory effect on the two tasks.

  12. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  13. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  14. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia eDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  15. Effective Analysis of Chinese Word-Segmentation Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Weiyin

    2007-01-01

    Automatic word-segmentation is widely used in the ambiguity cancellation when processing large-scale real text,but during the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation,many detected word candidates are invalid.These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy,as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words.In this paper,we propose several methods for reducing the difficulties and improving the accuracy of the word-segmentation of written Chinese,such as full segmentation of a sentence,processing the duplicative word,idioms and statistical identification for unknown words.A simulation shows the feasibility of our proposed methods in improving the accuracy of word-segmentation of Chinese.

  16. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Hommel, Bernhard; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001a), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing - an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Memelink and Hommel, 2012), whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010). The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  17. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eWykowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001, action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing—an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Memelink & Hommel, in press; Wykowska, Schubö, & Hommel, 2009, whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010. The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  18. Words Get in the Way: Linguistic Effects on Talker Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandan R; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-07-22

    A speech perception experiment provides evidence that the linguistic relationship between words affects the discrimination of their talkers. Listeners discriminated two talkers' voices with various linguistic relationships between their spoken words. Listeners were asked whether two words were spoken by the same person or not. Word pairs varied with respect to the linguistic relationship between the component words, forming either: phonological rhymes, lexical compounds, reversed compounds, or unrelated pairs. The degree of linguistic relationship between the words affected talker discrimination in a graded fashion, revealing biases listeners have regarding the nature of words and the talkers that speak them. These results indicate that listeners expect a talker's words to be linguistically related, and more generally, indexical processing is affected by linguistic information in a top-down fashion even when listeners are not told to attend to it.

  19. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  20. Getting the "Words" In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Dwight

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that grammar is not something into which words are plugged but is rather a mechanism by which words are served and that linguistics scientists must begin to devote a major part of their attention to lexicology. (TO)

  1. Prosodic and Syntactic Factors in the Phonetic Realization of Function Words in American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young-Il

    2009-01-01

    Function (i.e., grammatical) words very frequently lack word-level stress and display phonetic reduction relative to content (i.e., lexical) words. However, word-class (function vs . content) may not be the only factor that affects phonetic realization of function words; prosodic and syntactic context can also play a significant role in…

  2. Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2009-01-01

    The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

  3. Lexical Representation of Japanese Vowel Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Vowel devoicing happens in Japanese when the high vowel is between voiceless consonants. The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing. A long-term repetition-priming experiment was conducted. Participants shadowed words containing either a devoiced or a voiced vowel in three priming paradigms, and their…

  4. Symbolic Representation across Domains in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined understanding of notational representation among 3- to 5-year-olds. Children solved problems when shown cards with a picture or word indicating identity or a quantity indicator. In the easier condition, children had difficulty solving the problems as a function of their familiarity with the notation, suggesting weaknesses in…

  5. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current......Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  6. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  7. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  8. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  9. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: the role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon.

  10. Cognate facilitation effects in trilingual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Szubko-Sitarek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is nonselective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence supporting nonselective access is that bilinguals recognize cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two or more languages faster than noncognates. In fact, any difference between how cognates and ‘monolingual’ words are processed by multilinguals would indicate that the other, currently irrelevant language must have played a role as well, at least as long as the two groups of words are comparable with respect to all dimensions other than language membership. The aim of the present paper is to report on two visual perceptual experiments conducted within the lexical decision task paradigm whose aim was to test the assumptions concerning the special position of cognates (the cognate facilitation effect, cf. Dijkstra, 2005 within a trilingual mind and to answer the question whether trilinguals rely upon their second language lexical knowledge when recognizing L3 words. The results of the experiments attest to simultaneous activation and parallel processing as well as interaction among all the three languages. At the same time, they point to the fact that cross-linguistic lexical access and the source and strength of transfer may be constrained by variables such task demands.

  11. Activation of words with phonological overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Friedrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lexical representations overlapping with the input (cohort neighbors are temporarily activated in the listener’s mental lexicon when speech unfolds in time. Activation for cohort neighbors appears to rapidly decline as soon as there is mismatch with the input. However, it is a matter of debate whether or not they are completely excluded from further processing. We recorded behavioral data and event-related brain potentials (ERPs in auditory-visual word onset priming during a lexical decision task. As primes we used the first two syllables of spoken German words. In a carrier word condition, the primes were extracted from spoken versions of the target words (ano-ANORAK 'anorak'. In a cohort neighbor condition, the primes were taken from words that overlap with the target word up to the second nucleus (ana- taken from ANANAS 'pineapple'. Relative to a control condition, where primes and targets were unrelated, lexical decision responses for cohort neighbors were delayed. This reveals that cohort neighbors are disfavored by the decision processes at the behavioral front end. In contrast, left-anterior ERPs reflected long-lasting facilitated processing of cohort neighbors. We interpret these results as evidence for extended parallel processing of cohort neighbors. That is, in parallel to the preparation and elicitation of delayed lexical decision responses to cohort neighbors, aspects of the processing system appear to keep track of those less efficient candidates.

  12. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparamete...

  13. Affective and Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrell, Ileana Collado; Herrell, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A study showing that lexically equivalent words in two languages have different affective meanings, that affective intensity of dominant language words is greater than for second language equivalents, and that the difference is greatest for words with high affective meaning demonstrates that affective meaning is an important component of…

  14. How are number words mapped to approximate magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    How do we map number words to the magnitudes they represent? While much is known about the developmental trajectory of number word learning, the acquisition of the counting routine, and the academic correlates of estimation ability, previous studies have yet to describe the mechanisms that link number words to nonverbal representations of number. We investigated two mechanisms: associative mapping and structure mapping. Four dot array estimation tasks found that adults' ability to match a number word to one of two discriminably different sets declined as a function of set size and that participants' estimates of relatively large, but not small, set sizes were influenced by misleading feedback during an estimation task. We propose that subjects employ structure mappings for linking relatively large number words to set sizes, but rely chiefly on item-by-item associative mappings for smaller sets. These results indicate that both inference and association play important roles in mapping number words to approximate magnitudes.

  15. Outer commutator words are uniformly concise

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Alcober, Gustavo A

    2009-01-01

    We prove that outer commutator words are uniformly concise, i.e. if an outer commutator word w takes m different values in a group G, then the order of the verbal subgroup w(G) is bounded by a function depending only on m and not on w or G. This is obtained as a consequence of a structure theorem for the subgroup w(G), which is valid if G is soluble, and without assuming that w takes finitely many values in G. More precisely, there is an abelian series of w(G), such that every section of the series can be generated by values of w all of whose powers are also values of w in that section. For the proof of this latter result, we introduce a new representation of outer commutator words by means of binary trees, and we use the structure of the trees to set up an appropriate induction.

  16. On the nature of sonority in spoken word production: evidence from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Buchwald, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The concept of sonority - that speech sounds can be placed along a universal sonority scale that affects syllable structure - has proved valuable in accounting for a wide spectrum of linguistic phenomena and psycholinguistic findings. Yet, despite the success of this concept in specifying principles governing sound structure, several questions remain about sonority. One issue that needs clarification concerns its locus in the processes involved in spoken language production, and specifically whether sonority affects the computation of abstract word form representations (phonology), the encoding of context-specific features (phonetics), or both of these processes. This issue was examined in the present study investigating two brain-damaged individuals with impairment arising primarily from deficits affecting phonological and phonetic processes, respectively. Clear effects of sonority on production accuracy were observed in both individuals testing word onsets and codas in word production. These findings indicate that the underlying principles governing sound structure that are captured by the notion of sonority play a role at both phonological and phonetic levels of processing. Furthermore, aspects of the errors recorded from our participants revealed features of syllabic structure proposed under current phonological theories (e.g., articulatory phonology).

  17. Generative semantic mechanisms within morphologically complex words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Sosa Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.This paper seeks to introduce an alternative perspective on the treatment of derivation within a functional framework like Role and Reference Grammar (RRG. By taking a functional perspective, we assume that word formation is a two-dimensional phenomenon involving both onomasiological and grammatical components. Furthermore, grammatical processes are considered to be semantically motivated. In order to properly account for the internal mechanisms involved in word formation, we formulate affixal lexical representations by using Lexical Templates as devised within the LCM (see Mairal Usón & Faber 2007; Mairal Usón & Ruíz de Mendoza 2008a,b; Ruiz de Mendoza & Mairal Usón 2008; Butler 2009; Cortés Rodríguez 2009, among others.

  18. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  19. An event-related potential investigation of the relationship between semantic and perceptual levels of representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, H.T.; Wijers, A.A.; Kellenbach, M.L; Stowe, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate relationships between semantic and perceptual levels of representation. A picture - word repetition paradigm was used in which we manipulated the semantic relationship between pictures and words. Experiment I involved two types of trials, one with words

  20. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  1. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  2. Circular words and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Rittaud

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.

  3. Representações sociais de lei, justiça e injustiça: uma pesquisa com jovens argentinos e brasileiros utilizando a técnica de evocação livre de palavras Social representations of law, justice and injustice: a research with Argentinean and Brazilian youngsters using the free evocation of words technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Morais Shimizu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as principais representações sociais de lei, justiça e injustiça apresentadas por jovens argentinos e brasileiros. O grupo de brasileiros constituiu-se de 621 pesquisandos, de três regiões distintas: Floriano/PI, Erechim/RS e Marília/SP. Da Argentina, participaram 200 jovens da cidade de Avellaneda (região metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Os grupos foram proporcionalmente divididos conforme o tipo de escola (pública e particular e o ano escolar freqüentado (8º ano do Ensino Fundamental e 3º ano do Ensino Médio, considerando-se os graus equivalentes na Argentina. O instrumento de coleta de dados constituiu-se de um questionário semidirigido, composto pela técnica de evocação livre de palavras. O procedimento utilizado para a avaliação dos resultados foi a Análise de Correspondência (ANACOR. Os resultados demonstraram variações importantes relacionadas à nacionalidade dos jovens e foram discutidos de forma a contextualizarem-se as representações apresentadas.This study aims to analyze the main social representations of law, justice and injustice presented by Argentinean and Brazilian youngsters. The Brazilian group consisted of 621 polled of three different regions: Floriano/PI, Erechim/RS and Marília/SP. From Argentina, 200 youngsters of Avellaneda city (Buenos Aires metropolitan region participated. The groups were proportionally divided according to the kind of school (public or private and the school year attended (8th grade and 11th grade, considering the equivalent grade in Argentina. The data collection technique consisted of semi directed questionnaire composed by the free evocation of words technique. The procedure used to evaluate the results was the Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR. The results demonstrated important variations related to the youngsters' nationality and they were discussed so that the presented representations were contextualized.

  4. Word 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Want to write great looking documents but can't seem to get ahandle on paragraph structuring? Unfamiliar with some of thebuttons and functions on your menu bar? Need to add page numbersfor a paper but can't find the controls? Word 2003 ForDummies will show you the quick and easy way to navigatethrough the trickiness of Microsoft Word. This book will be yourcomprehensive guide to using this word processor like a pro. Word 2003 For Dummies shows you all the essentials ofbuilding, reviewing, and adding cool new features to Worddocuments. No wonder the previous editions sold over 1.7 millioncopie

  5. Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-06-20

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.

  6. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  7. Strength of object representation: its key role in object-based attention for determining the competition result between Gestalt and top-down objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Donglai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    It was found in previous studies that two types of objects (rectangles formed according to the Gestalt principle and Chinese words formed in a top-down fashion) can both induce an object-based effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the strength of an object representation affects the result of the competition between these two types of objects based on research carried out by Liu, Wang and Zhou [(2011) Acta Psychologica, 138(3), 397-404]. In Experiment 1, the rectangles were filled with two different colors to increase the strength of Gestalt object representation, and we found that the object effect changed significantly for the different stimulus types. Experiment 2 used Chinese words with various familiarities to manipulate the strength of the top-down object representation. As a result, the object-based effect induced by rectangles was observed only when the Chinese word familiarity was low. These results suggest that the strength of object representation determines the result of competition between different types of objects.

  8. Distributed Representation of Biomedical Words for Drug Repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    ゴー, ドゥク, ルー

    2016-01-01

    博士論文本文 以下に掲載:Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 9(1) pp.7-16 2016 January. Scientific Research Publishing Inc. 共著者:Duc Luu Ngo, Naoki Yamamoto, Vu Anh Tran, Ngoc Giang Nguyen, Dau Phan, Favorisen Rosyking Lumbanraja, Mamoru Kubo, Kenji Satou

  9. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words.

  10. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  11. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  12. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  13. The meaning of 'life' and other abstract words: Insights from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    There are a number of long-standing theories on how the cognitive processing of abstract words, like 'life', differs from that of concrete words, like 'knife'. This review considers current perspectives on this debate, focusing particularly on insights obtained from patients with language disorders and integrating these with evidence from functional neuroimaging studies. The evidence supports three distinct and mutually compatible hypotheses. (1) Concrete and abstract words differ in their representational substrates, with concrete words depending particularly on sensory experiences and abstract words on linguistic, emotional, and magnitude-based information. Differential dependence on visual versus verbal experience is supported by the evidence for graded specialization in the anterior temporal lobes for concrete versus abstract words. In addition, concrete words have richer representations, in line with better processing of these words in most aphasic patients and, in particular, patients with semantic dementia. (2) Abstract words place greater demands on executive regulation processes because they have variable meanings that change with context. This theory explains abstract word impairments in patients with semantic-executive deficits and is supported by neuroimaging studies showing greater response to abstract words in inferior prefrontal cortex. (3) The relationships between concrete words are governed primarily by conceptual similarity, while those of abstract words depend on association to a greater degree. This theory, based primarily on interference and priming effects in aphasic patients, is the most recent to emerge and the least well understood. I present analyses indicating that patterns of lexical co-occurrence may be important in understanding these effects.

  14. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  15. The effect of sign language structure on complex word reading in Chinese deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Yu, Yanping; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.

  16. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vijayapal Reddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

  17. A New Academic Word List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and evaluation of a new academic word list that was completed from a corpus of 3.5 million running words of written academic text by examining the range and frequency of words outside the first 2,000 most frequently occurring words in English. Explains the problems with existing word lists intended to guide materials…

  18. W-tree indexing for fast visual word generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miaojing; Xu, Ruixin; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2013-03-01

    The bag-of-visual-words representation has been widely used in image retrieval and visual recognition. The most time-consuming step in obtaining this representation is the visual word generation, i.e., assigning visual words to the corresponding local features in a high-dimensional space. Recently, structures based on multibranch trees and forests have been adopted to reduce the time cost. However, these approaches cannot perform well without a large number of backtrackings. In this paper, by considering the spatial correlation of local features, we can significantly speed up the time consuming visual word generation process while maintaining accuracy. In particular, visual words associated with certain structures frequently co-occur; hence, we can build a co-occurrence table for each visual word for a large-scale data set. By associating each visual word with a probability according to the corresponding co-occurrence table, we can assign a probabilistic weight to each node of a certain index structure (e.g., a KD-tree and a K-means tree), in order to re-direct the searching path to be close to its global optimum within a small number of backtrackings. We carefully study the proposed scheme by comparing it with the fast library for approximate nearest neighbors and the random KD-trees on the Oxford data set. Thorough experimental results suggest the efficiency and effectiveness of the new scheme.

  19. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  20. Word pair classification during imagined speech using direct brain recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie; Brunner, Peter; Iturrate, Iñaki; Millán, José Del R.; Schalk, Gerwin; Knight, Robert T.; Pasley, Brian N.

    2016-05-01

    People that cannot communicate due to neurological disorders would benefit from an internal speech decoder. Here, we showed the ability to classify individual words during imagined speech from electrocorticographic signals. In a word imagery task, we used high gamma (70–150 Hz) time features with a support vector machine model to classify individual words from a pair of words. To account for temporal irregularities during speech production, we introduced a non-linear time alignment into the SVM kernel. Classification accuracy reached 88% in a two-class classification framework (50% chance level), and average classification accuracy across fifteen word-pairs was significant across five subjects (mean = 58% p perception and production. These data represent a proof of concept study for basic decoding of speech imagery, and delineate a number of key challenges to usage of speech imagery neural representations for clinical applications.

  1. Morphable Word Clouds for Time-Varying Text Data Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming-Te; Lin, Shih-Syun; Chen, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-12-01

    A word cloud is a visual representation of a collection of text documents that uses various font sizes, colors, and spaces to arrange and depict significant words. The majority of previous studies on time-varying word clouds focuses on layout optimization and temporal trend visualization. However, they do not fully consider the spatial shapes and temporal motions of word clouds, which are important factors for attracting people's attention and are also important cues for human visual systems in capturing information from time-varying text data. This paper presents a novel method that uses rigid body dynamics to arrange multi-temporal word-tags in a specific shape sequence under various constraints. Each word-tag is regarded as a rigid body in dynamics. With the aid of geometric, aesthetic, and temporal coherence constraints, the proposed method can generate a temporally morphable word cloud that not only arranges word-tags in their corresponding shapes but also smoothly transforms the shapes of word clouds over time, thus yielding a pleasing time-varying visualization. Using the proposed frame-by-frame and morphable word clouds, people can observe the overall story of a time-varying text data from the shape transition, and people can also observe the details from the word clouds in frames. Experimental results on various data demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method in morphable word cloud generation. In addition, an application that uses the proposed word clouds in a simulated exhibition demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed method.

  2. A new ANEW: Evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment analysis of microblogs such as Twitter has recently gained a fair amount of attention. One of the simplest sentiment analysis approaches compares the words of a posting against a labeled word list, where each word has been scored for valence, -- a 'sentiment lexicon' or 'affective word lists'. There exist several affective word lists, e.g., ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words) developed before the advent of microblogging and sentiment analysis. I wanted to examine how well ANEW and other word lists performs for the detection of sentiment strength in microblog posts in comparison with a new word list specifically constructed for microblogs. I used manually labeled postings from Twitter scored for sentiment. Using a simple word matching I show that the new word list may perform better than ANEW, though not as good as the more elaborate approach found in SentiStrength.

  3. A new ANEW: Evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment analysis of microblogs such as Twitter has recently gained a fair amount of attention. One of the simplest sentiment analysis approaches compares the words of a posting against a labeled word list, where each word has been scored for valence, — a “sentiment lexicon” or “affective word...... lists”. There exist several affective word lists, e.g., ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words) developed before the advent of microblogging and sentiment analysis. I wanted to examine how well ANEW and other word lists performs for the detection of sentiment strength in microblog posts in comparison...... with a new word list specifically constructed for microblogs. I used manually labeled postings from Twitter scored for sentiment. Using a simple word matching I show that the new word list may perform better than ANEW, though not as good as the more elaborate approach found in SentiStrength....

  4. Transforming Graph Representations for Statistical Relational Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Ryan A; Aha, David W; Neville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of statistical relational learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine a range of representation issues for graph-based relational data. Since the choice of relational data representation for the nodes, links, and features can dramatically affect the capabilities of SRL algorithms, we survey approaches and opportunities for relational representation transformation designed to improve the performance of these algorithms. This leads us to introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. In particular, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type...

  5. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  6. A Comparative Study of Root -Based and Stem -Based Approaches for Measuring the Similarity Between Arabic Words for Arabic Text Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane FROUD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Representation of semantic information contained in the words is needed for any Arabic Text Miningapplications. More precisely, the purpose is to better take into account the semantic dependenciesbetween words expressed by the co-occurrence frequencies of these words. There have been manyproposals to compute similarities between words based on their distributions in contexts. In this paper,we compare and contrast the effect of two preprocessing techniques applied to Arabic corpus: Rootbased(Stemming, and Stem-based (Light Stemming approaches for measuring the similarity betweenArabic words with the well known abstractive model -Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA- with a widevariety of distance functions and similarity measures, such as the Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity,Jaccard Coefficient, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The obtained results show that, on the onehand, the variety of the corpus produces more accurate results; on the other hand, the Stem-basedapproach outperformed the Root-based one because this latter affects the words meanings

  7. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  8. Dictionary Use as Word Solving Strategy (WSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Mustafai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L2 learners may try to pick up the unknown word’s meaning from a dictionary. Many different factors, such as how important the meaning of the word is in the passage, the number of unknown words, and the reason the students are working on it, etc., affect the frequency of the student’s use of the dictionary for help. However, trying to guess the meaning of the unknown word from the context before consulting a dictionary is more beneficial since this may help the learners to pick the correct meaning relevant to the text. Using a dictionary should be limited to those unguessable words whose meanings can hinder the learner’s understanding.

  9. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  10. Images/Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that words come from strongly felt images. Contrasts the stark language environment of the author's first school years with his vivid memories of stories and poetry in his grandparents', parents', and his own house. (SR)

  11. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  12. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  13. Specifying the role of the left prefrontal cortex in word selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riès, S K; Karzmark, C R; Navarrete, E; Knight, R T; Dronkers, N F

    2015-10-01

    Word selection allows us to choose words during language production. This is often viewed as a competitive process wherein a lexical representation is retrieved among semantically-related alternatives. The left prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to help overcome competition for word selection through top-down control. However, whether the LPFC is always necessary for word selection remains unclear. We tested 6 LPFC-injured patients and controls in two picture naming paradigms varying in terms of item repetition. Both paradigms elicited the expected semantic interference effects (SIE), reflecting interference caused by semantically-related representations in word selection. However, LPFC patients as a group showed a larger SIE than controls only in the paradigm involving item repetition. We argue that item repetition increases interference caused by semantically-related alternatives, resulting in increased LPFC-dependent cognitive control demands. The remaining network of brain regions associated with word selection appears to be sufficient when items are not repeated.

  14. Words: blocks, amoebas, or patches of fog? Artificial intelligence and the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Stanley L.

    1996-06-01

    Words are the fundamental carriers of information. Words that refer to numbers stand apart from all other words in one respect: Numbers are concepts that lend themselves to spatial representations with exact contours. Yet the verbal definition of numbers, through which their meaning is defined, shares in a property common to all words: their verbal definition cannot be given a spatial representation with exact contours. In that definitional respect, words are not even comparable to amoebas which, although they constantly change their shapes, have clear boundaries. Words are best to be likened to patches of fog that not only change but have no strict boundaries. While this does not land all discourse in the realm of half-truths, it sets basic limits to what can be achieved by fuzzy logic and programs of artificial intelligence.

  15. Changes in theta and beta oscillations as signatures of novel word consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.; Takashima, A.; Hell, J.G. van; Janzen, G.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The complementary learning systems account of word learning states that novel words, like other types of memories, undergo an offline consolidation process during which they are gradually integrated into the neocortical memory network. A fundamental change in the neural representation of a novel wor

  16. Toward a Theory of Variation in the Organization of the Word Reading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G.

    2016-01-01

    The strategy underlying most computational models of word reading is to specify the organization of the reading system--its architecture and the processes and representations it employs--and to demonstrate that this organization would give rise to the behavior observed in word reading tasks. This approach fails to adequately address the variation…

  17. Adults Show Less Sensitivity to Phonetic Detail in Unfamiliar Words, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine S.; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Young word learners fail to discriminate phonetic contrasts in certain situations, an observation that has been used to support arguments that the nature of lexical representation and lexical processing changes over development. An alternative possibility, however, is that these failures arise naturally as a result of how word familiarity affects…

  18. Object Familiarity Enhances Infants' Use of Phonetic Detail in Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    Infants greatly refine their ability to discriminate language sounds by 12 months, yet 14-month-olds appear to confuse similar-sounding novel words. Two explanations could account for this phenomenon: infants initially have incomplete phoneme representations, suggesting developmental discontinuity; or word-learning demands interfere with use of…

  19. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Bilingual Word Translation: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Michael; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between…

  20. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  1. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...... through exegetical studies of the call narrative (Jer 1), the Temple Sermon (Jer 7) and narratives about the prophet's seclusion from the people (e.g. Jer 16). In addition there is an analysis of Jer 36, the chapter telling about the writing down of the Book of Jeremiah. The main message of this chapter...

  2. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant.

  3. Chinese word sense disambiguation based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting; LU Zhi-mao; LANG Jun; LI Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The input of a network is the key problem for Chinese word sense disambiguation utilizing the neural network. This paper presents an input model of the neural network that calculates the mutual information between contextual words and the ambiguous word by using statistical methodology and taking the contextual words of a certain number beside the ambiguous word according to ( - M, + N). The experiment adopts triple-layer BP Neural Network model and proves how the size of a training set and the value of M and N affect the performance of the Neural Network Model. The experimental objects are six pseudowords owning three word-senses constructed according to certain principles. The tested accuracy of our approach on a closed-corpus reaches 90. 31% ,and 89. 62% on an open-corpus. The experiment proves that the Neural Network Model has a good performance on Word Sense Disambiguation.

  4. Possibilities of Terminological Interpretation And Lexicographical Reflection of Potential Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Borisovna Gatsalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretical and practical aspects of studying the potential words that are presented as a category of the lexical stratum of the language. The term "potential word" is considered in the light of functional temporality and with some relevance of its referent reflection in the language and speech. Controversial issues of "potentiality" representation are clarified and it is stated in the article that a "potential word' as a notion under study conceptually belongs to a lexicographical layer of the language but not to speech, and it is supported with rather few cases of a potential word presence in the dictionaries. Having analyzed registration practice in the Ossetian Orthography Dictionary the authors state the necessity to keep to a set of factors in lexicographical presentation of "future" and "possible" words, as the dictionary contains vocabulary of a specific period, and inclusion into its lexicographical list the words that haven't yet appeared in the language might reflect the actual vocabulary of the time in edition in the wrong way. According to the authors the original understanding of the term "potentiality" as an opportunity for a word to appear makes it evident that only a word-forming nest may be registered in the dictionary.

  5. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  6. Compound reading in Hebrew text-based neglect dyslexia: the effects of the first word on the second word and of the second on the first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Gvion, Aviah

    2014-01-01

    In many Hebrew compounds, which are two-word phrases, the first word is marked morphophonologically, and often also orthographically, as the head of the compound. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, this allowed us to ask whether a right-hand word that is marked orthographically as a compound-head, and hence signals that another word is expected, causes readers with text-based neglect to continue shifting attention to the left and read the second word. We also asked whether the second, left-hand, word affects the reading of the first word. The effect of the second word was assessed in a condition in which the second word semantically disambiguated the first word, a biased heterophonic homograph, and a condition in which the second word formed a compound with the first and hence required reading the first in the morphophonological form of a compound-head. The two participants were Hebrew-speaking men with acquired left text-level neglect dyslexia, without word-based neglect dyslexia. They read 294 two-word compounds and control phrases, composed of five conditions that assessed the effect of the first word on the second word, and of the second on the first. The results indicated that morphosyntax modulates reading in neglect dyslexia. When the first, right-hand, word included an orthographic cue indicating that a second word follows, fewer words on the left were omitted than when no such cue existed. The second word, however, did not affect the reading of the first, and the first word was read as if the patients did not look ahead to the second.

  7. Words are not things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  8. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  9. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  10. Berge, word lug! Werklikheid, word water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Viljoen

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach is vandag erg omstrede; sy werk ook. Omstrede in die eerste instansie om sy politieke betrokkenheid. Hy skryf iramers (of haal aan "The duty of the artist is to overthrow his government" (Boom p 119. Sy digbundel Skrytj om 'n sinkende skip blou te verf (1972 is om politieke redes verbied - twee jaar nadat dit verskyn het. Sy jongste prosaboek, 'n Seisoen in die paradys (ironiese sinspeling op Rimbaud se Une Saison en enfer, sal - uit vrees vir sensuur om politieke redes - waarskynlik nooit verskyn nie (Anon 1975a kol 1. 'n Paar hoofstukke daarvan het darem al in Rapport verskyn (Breytenbach 1974c. By sy verhoor in Pretoria het Breytenbach onder andere om verskoning gevra vir die dinge wat hy in Skryt geskryf het, maar dit het sy omstredenheid eerder vererger. Hierdie dinge mag nie uit die oog verloor word nie, omdat dit neig om die oordeel oor sy werk te vertroebel.

  11. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  12. Number word structure in first and second language influences arithmetic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat ePrior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in how they represent numerical information, and specifically whether the verbal notation of numbers follows the same order as the symbolic notation (in non-inverted languages, e.g. Hebrew, 25, twenty-five or whether the two notations diverge (in inverted languages, e.g. Arabic, 25, five-and-twenty. We examined how the structure of number-words affects how arithmetic operations are processed by bilingual speakers of an inverted and a non-inverted language. We examined Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals' performance in the first language, L1 (inverted and in the second language, L2 (non-inverted. Their performance was compared to that of Hebrew L1 speakers, who do not speak an inverted language. Participants judged the accuracy of addition problems presented aurally in L1, aurally in L2 or in visual symbolic notation. Problems were presented such that they matched or did not match the structure of number words in the language. Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals demonstrated both flexibility in processing and adaptation to the language of aural-verbal presentation – they were more accurate for the inverted order of presentation in Arabic, but more accurate for non-inverted order of presentation in Hebrew, thus exhibiting the same pattern found for native Hebrew speakers. In addition, whereas native Hebrew speakers preferred the non-inverted order in visual symbolic presentation as well, the Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals showed enhanced flexibility, without a significant preference for one order over the other, in either speed or accuracy. These findings suggest that arithmetic processing is sensitive to the linguistic representations of number words. Moreover, bilinguals exposed to inverted and non-inverted languages showed influence of both systems, and enhanced flexibility in processing. Thus, the L1 does not seem to have exclusive power in shaping numerical mental representations, but rather the system remains open to influences from a later learned

  13. A spectral invariant representation of spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelhameed; Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2011-03-01

    Spectral image acquisition as well as color image is affected by several illumination factors such as shading, gloss, and specular highlight. Spectral invariant representations for these factors were proposed for the standard dichromatic reflection model of inhomogeneous dielectric materials. However, these representations are inadequate for other characteristic materials like metal. This paper proposes a more general spectral invariant representation for obtaining reliable spectral reflectance images. Our invariant representation is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for dielectric materials and the extended dichromatic reflection model for metals. We proof that the invariant formulas for spectral images of natural objects preserve spectral information and are invariant to highlights, shading, surface geometry, and illumination intensity. It is proved that the conventional spectral invariant technique can be applied to metals in addition to dielectric objects. Experimental results show that the proposed spectral invariant representation is effective for image segmentation.

  14. A Study on the Affective Priming Effect of Network Emoticons, Cartoon Emoticons and Chinese Two-character Words%网络表情符号、卡通表情图片和汉语双字词的情绪启动效应探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼

    2015-01-01

    采用3(启动刺激:卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词)×2(启动刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)×2(目标刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)完全被试内设计,比较卡通表情图片、网络表情符号和汉语双字词这三种启动材料之间的情绪启动效果。结果发现,卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词都存在情绪启动效应,且卡通表情图片的情绪启动效果好于网络表情符号和汉语双字词,网络表情符号和汉语双字词之间的启动效果没有显著差异。他们间的差异主要体现在负启动的抑制作用上,即对与启动材料情绪效价不一致的目标刺激的反应时上存在显著差异,在正启动的促进作用上不存在显著差异。%Adopt complete within‐subjects design of 3 (prime stimulus :cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons or Chinese two‐character words) × 2 (emotional types of prime stimulus :positive or negative) × 2 (emotional types of target stimulus :positive or negative) ,and compare the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words these three priming materials .The result shows that there exist affective priming effects in cartoon emoti‐cons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons are better than those of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,and there are no significant differences between the priming effects of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words .The differences are mainly embodied in the inhibitory action on the negative priming ,i .e .there are significant differences in their reaction to the target stimulus which are not inconform‐ity with the emotional valence of priming materials but no significant differences in the promoting action on the positive prim‐ing .

  15. Representations used by mathematics student teachers in mathematical modeling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytuğ Özaltun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine representations used by mathematics student teachers in steps of mathematical modeling process based on their solutions of problems formed in the context of different classification of modeling. The study was conducted with fifteen secondary mathematics student teachers given a Mathematical Modeling course. The participants were separated into five collaboration groups of three students. Data were collected with the detailed written papers given by the groups for the problems and GeoGebra solution files. The groups benefited from verbal, algebraic, figural, tabular and dynamic representations while they were solving the problems. Considering all steps of the process, groups at most used verbal and algebraic representations. While they used only verbal representation in analyzing the problem, they benefited from at most verbal representation and then figural representation in establishing the systematic structure. The most used is algebraic and then verbal representations in the steps of mathematization, meta-mathematization, and mathematical analysis. In the steps of interpretation/evaluation and the model verification, the groups mainly benefited from verbal and then algebraic representations. Further researches towards why representations are preferred in the specific steps of the mathematical modeling process are suggested.Key Words: Mathematical modeling, modeling problems, mathematics student teachers, representations.

  16. Rapid formation and flexible expressionof memories of subliminal word pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter Reber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Our daily experiences are incidentally and rapidly encoded as episodic memories. Episodic memories consist of numerous associations (e.g., who gave what to whom where and when that can be expressed flexibly in new situations. Key features of episodic memory are speed of encoding, its associative nature, and its representational flexibility. Another defining feature of human episodic memory has been consciousness of encoding/retrieval. Here, we show that humans can rapidly form associations between subliminal words and minutes later retrieve these associations even if retrieval words were conceptually related to, but different from encoding words. Because encoding words were presented subliminally, associative encoding and retrieval were unconscious. Unconscious association formation and retrieval were dependent on a preceding understanding of task principles. We conclude that key computations underlying episodic memory – rapid encoding and flexible expression of associations - can operate outside consciousness.

  17. “Weblog”的发展演变及影响因素分析%The Evolution of the Word "Weblog" and the Analysis of the Related Affect Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2012-01-01

    文章梳理了"weblog"一词的发展变化的三个阶段:外来词"Weblog"传入中国后由多种翻译方法定名为"博客"、从最初广泛接受的博客概念过渡到微博客阶段、微博本土化为"围脖"阶段。文章分析了每一个阶段变化的原因,并分析了这种变化对汉语的影响。%This article combs the three stages of the evolution of the word "weblog": after the intruction of the foreign word "weblog" into China, its several translations were finally settled to be "boke", the orginallly widely accpeted "boke" concept evolved into the microblogging concept, and the latter was nativized into "weibo(collar)". This article has analyzed the motivation of the chagne among the three stages and its influence on the language of Chinese.

  18. Single word reading in developmental stutterers and fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmelin, R; Schnitzler, A; Schmitz, F; Freund, H J

    2000-06-01

    Ten fluent speakers and nine developmental stutterers read isolated nouns aloud in a delayed reading paradigm. Cortical activation sequences were mapped with a whole-head magnetoencephalography system. The stutterers were mostly fluent in this task. Although the overt performance was essentially identical in the two groups, the cortical activation patterns showed clear differences, both in the evoked responses, time-locked to word presentation and mouth movement onset, and in task-related suppression of 20-Hz oscillations. Within the first 400 ms after seeing the word, processing in fluent speakers advanced from the left inferior frontal cortex (articulatory programming) to the left lateral central sulcus and dorsal premotor cortex (motor preparation). This sequence was reversed in the stutterers, who showed an early left motor cortex activation followed by a delayed left inferior frontal signal. Stutterers thus appeared to initiate motor programmes before preparation of the articulatory code. During speech production, the right motor/premotor cortex generated consistent evoked activation in fluent speakers but was silent in stutterers. On the other hand, suppression of motor cortical 20-Hz rhythm, reflecting task-related neuronal processing, occurred bilaterally in both groups. Moreover, the suppression was right-hemisphere dominant in stutterers, as opposed to left-hemisphere dominant in fluent speakers. Accordingly, the right frontal cortex of stutterers was highly active during speech production but did not generate synchronous time-locked responses. The speech-related 20-Hz suppression concentrated in the mouth area in fluent speakers, but was evident in both the hand and mouth areas in stutterers. These findings may reflect imprecise functional connectivity within the right frontal cortex and incomplete segregation between the adjacent hand and mouth motor representations in stutterers during speech production. A network including the left inferior frontal

  19. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James E

    2011-11-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears the retinal image of peripheral stimuli. We previously found that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters presented in the near fovea by degrading image quality and exacerbating crowding effect from adjacent letters. The present study examined whether TCA has a significant effect on near foveal and peripheral word identification, and whether within-word orthographic facilitation interacts with TCA effect to affect word identification. Subjects were briefly presented a 6- to 7-letter word of high or low frequency in each trial. Target words were generated with weak or strong horizontal color fringe to attenuate the TCA in the right periphery and exacerbate it in the left. The center of the target word was 1°, 2°, 4°, and 6° to the left or right of a fixation point. Subject's eye position was monitored with an eye-tracker to ensure proper fixation before target presentation. They were required to report the identity of the target word as soon and accurately as possible. Results show significant effect of color fringe on the latency and accuracy of word recognition, indicating existing TCA effect. Observed TCA effect was more salient in the right periphery, and was affected by word frequency more there. Individuals' subjective preference of color-fringed text was correlated to the TCA effect in the near periphery. Our results suggest that TCA significantly affects peripheral word identification, especially when it is located in the right periphery. Contextual facilitation such as word frequency interacts with TCA to influence the accuracy and latency of word recognition.

  20. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers.

  1. Representation of Teachers’ Identity in EFL Classroom Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinarni Susilowati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This sociocultural linguistic study aimed investigating the teachers’ identity representation in their classroom interactions. This study was conducted by considering the significant roles the teachers played in orchestrating classroom activities which involved the accumulation of the teachers’ efforts, values and beliefs. The findings revealed that the teachers exposed their identity in differentways for both different roles and local positioning which were culturally, socially, politically, and religiously constructed. The teachers also perceived their identity which could be clustered into four broad areas which showed their understanding and the significant functions of their identity representation. Some pedagogical implications were derived from these findings Key Words: teachers’ identity representation, classroom interactions

  2. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna;

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  3. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  4. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N

  5. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  6. A Newly Invented Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芹

    2004-01-01

    It's not only rocket scientists and journalists who are following the course of "Shenzhou V', or "Divine Vessel V'. There are also lexicographers, or dictionary compilers. The flight of the spacecraft last week might help put some new words into orbit.

  7. New Words and Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ To start with, I mention that certain new words and expressions are used relatively often by journalists when they compose reports and articles. Their writing is said to be all right for a newspaper, but that lacks imagination and beauty. Examples:

  8. Hemispheric specialization and independence for word recognition: a comparison of three computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Scott A; Reggia, James A

    2004-06-01

    Two findings serve as the hallmark for hemispheric specialization during lateralized lexical decision. First is an overall word advantage, with words being recognized more quickly and accurately than non-words (the effect being stronger in response latency). Second, a right visual field advantage is observed for words, with little or no hemispheric differences in the ability to identify non-words. Several theories have been proposed to account for this difference in word and non-word recognition, some by suggesting dual routes of lexical access and others by incorporating separate, and potentially independent, word and non-word detection mechanisms. We compare three previously proposed cognitive theories of hemispheric interactions (callosal relay, direct access, and cooperative hemispheres) through neural network modeling, with each network incorporating different means of interhemispheric communication. When parameters were varied to simulate left hemisphere specialization for lexical decision, only the cooperative hemispheres model showed both a consistent left hemisphere advantage for word recognition but not non-word recognition, as well as an overall word advantage. These results support the theory that neural representations of words are more strongly established in the left hemisphere through prior learning, despite open communication between the hemispheres during both learning and recall.

  9. Word-Induced Measures on Compact Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Gene S

    2011-01-01

    Consider a group word w in n letters. For a compact group G, w induces a map G^n \\rightarrow G$ and thus a pushforward measure {\\mu}_w on G from the Haar measure on G^n. We associate to each word w a 2-dimensional cell complex X(w) and prove in Theorem 2.5 that {\\mu}_w is determined by the topology of X(w). The proof makes use of non-abelian cohomology and Nielsen's classification of automorphisms of free groups [Nie24]. Focusing on the case when X(w) is a surface, we rediscover representation-theoretic formulas for {\\mu}_w that were derived by Witten in the context of quantum gauge theory [Wit91]. These formulas generalize a result of Erd\\H{o}s and Tur\\'an on the probability that two random elements of a finite group commute [ET68]. As another corollary, we give an elementary proof that the dimension of an irreducible complex representation of a finite group divides the order of the group; the only ingredients are Schur's lemma, basic counting, and a divisibility argument.

  10. Social representation of the kinesiotherapist profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAŞE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of COR. Working method was based on the questionnaire. Interpretation of results, the first two items of the questionnaire was done through word association technique, developed by P. Verges (1 and an alternative method for determining the structure and organization of elements representation proposed by. C. Havârneanu (2. Qualitative analysis reveals that students’ specialization Physical Therapy and Special Motricity believes that a therapist uses therapy as a strategy to work, and it must be applied professionally. Respondents considered, as shown in the data collected, that this profession is subject to skills, education, cognitive baggage, all sending to knowledge, experience and passion. The core refers to the complex representation obtained thanks cognitive process by which individuals or groups in familiar transforms abstract and it integrates knowledge of their system.

  11. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue...... that students’ context awareness can significantly be enhanced by the use of appropriate external representations which guide them to activate context inducing cognitive processes. By embedding such representations in a case based learning environment we expect to guide students’ processing of the rich...

  12. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  13. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  14. Integration of parafoveal orthographic information during foveal word reading: beyond the sub-lexical level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Vitu, Françoise; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Prior research has shown that processing of a given target word is facilitated by the simultaneous presentation of orthographically related stimuli in the parafovea. Here we investigate the nature of such spatial integration processes by presenting orthographic neighbours of target words in the parafovea, considering that neighbours have been shown to inhibit, rather than facilitate, recognition of target words in foveal masked priming research. In Experiment 1, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to manipulate the parafoveal information subjects received while they fixated a target word within a sentence. In Experiment 2, we used the Flanking Letters Lexical Decision paradigm to manipulate parafoveal information while subjects read isolated words. Parafoveal words were either a higher-frequency orthographic neighbour of targets words (e.g., blue-blur) or a high-frequency unrelated word (e.g., hand-blur). We found that parafoveal orthographic neighbours facilitated, rather than inhibited, processing of the target. Thus, the present findings provide further evidence that orthographic information is integrated across multiple words and suggest that either the integration process does not enable simultaneous access to those words' lexical representations, or that lexical representations activated by spatially distinct stimuli do not compete for recognition.

  15. A word-count approach to analyze linguistic patterns in the reflective writings of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching reflection and administering reflective writing assignments to students are widely practiced and discussed in medical education and health professional education. However, little is known about how medical students use language to construct their narratives. Exploring students’ linguistic patterns in their reflective writings can facilitate understanding the scope and facets of their reflections and their representational or communication approaches to share their experiences. Moreover, research findings regarding gender differences in language use are inconsistent. Therefore, we attempted to examine how females and males differ in their use of words in reflective writing within our research circumstance to detect the unique and gender-specific approaches to learning and their applications. Methods: We analyzed the linguistic profiles of psychological process categories in the reflective writings of medical students and examined the difference in word usage between male and female medical students. During the first year of a clinical rotation, 60 fifth-year medical students wrote reflective narratives regarding pediatric patients and the psychosocial challenges faced by the patients and their family members. The narratives were analyzed using the Chinese version of Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (CLIWC, a text analysis software program. Multivariate procedures were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cognitive words were most pervasive, averaging 22.16%, whereas perceptual words (2.86% were least pervasive. Female students used more words related to positive emotions and sadness than did male students. The male students exceeded the female students only in the space category. The major limitation of this study is that CLIWC cannot directly acquire contextual text meanings; therefore, depending on the research topic, further qualitative study of the given texts might be necessary. Conclusions: To enhance students

  16. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children's Lexical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words' rated body-object interaction (BOI) in children's visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children's BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words' child-BOI and also words' imageability on children's responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6-7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children's auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning.

  17. Lexical Characteristics of Spanish and English Words and the Development of Phonological Awareness Skills in Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The lexical restructuring model (LRM) is a theory that attempts to explain the developmental origins of phonological awareness (PA). According to the LRM, various characteristics of words should be related to the extent to which words are segmentally represented in the lexicon. Segmental representations of words allow children to access the parts…

  18. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  19. The Influence of Initial Exposure on Lexical Representation: Comparing Early and Simultaneous Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Galles, N.; Echeverria, S.; Bosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of L2 words and non-words was analysed in a series of three experiments. Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, differing in terms of their L1 and the age of exposure to their L2 (since birth-simultaneous bilinguals-or starting in early childhood-early sequential bilinguals), were asked to perform a lexical decision task on Catalan words…

  20. The Role of Accentual Pattern in Early Lexical Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn M.; Nakai, Satsuki; DePaolis, Rory A.; Halle, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between prosodic and segmental aspects of infant representations for speech was explored using the head-turn paradigm, with untrained everyday familiar words and phrases as stimuli. At 11 months English-learning infants, like French infants (Halle & Boysson-Bardies, 1994), attended significantly longer to a list of familiar lexical…

  1. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  2. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed.

  3. Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, Cathy; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth; Cohen, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by this theory, and particularly the presence or absence of impairments in non-symbolic quantity processing. We describe two acalculic patients, one with a focal lesion of the left parietal lobe and Gerstmann's syndrome and another with semantic dementia with predominantly left temporal hypometabolism. As predicted by a quantity deficit, the first patient was more impaired in subtraction than in multiplication, showed a severe slowness in approximation, and exhibited associated impairments in subitizing and numerical comparison tasks, both with Arabic digits and with arrays of dots. As predicted by a verbal deficit, the second patient was more impaired in multiplication than in subtraction, had intact approximation abilities, and showed preserved processing of non-symbolic numerosities.

  4. Recipes: beyond the words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made.

  5. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  6. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  7. Hypnosis: medicine's dirty word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, William N

    2006-10-01

    This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".

  8. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  9. The Importance of Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet

    2002-01-01

    Living in China without knowing its language, I found myself in a strange si-lence. Yet out of this silence came a beatiful lesson. I learned that without words to highlight our differences, the language of emo-tion reveals us to be the same. We all love, hope, fear and dream. We long for ac-ceptance. We thrive in warm families. We all laugh and cry.

  10. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  11. Embedded Data Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.

  12. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  13. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the computa

  14. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  15. WORD OF THE MONTH: Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Etymology is the study of the history and origin of words and the way they' ve changed throughout history. The word etymology itself comes from two Greek words: "etumon" (which means "true sense" ), and "logia" (which means "study" ). The origin of words

  16. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  17. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  18. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...... of physical data referents – the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds – and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded...

  19. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  20. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    How often a given word is used, relative to other words, can convey information about the word's linguistic utility. Using Google word data for 3 languages over the 209-year period 1800-2008, we found by analyzing word use an anomalous recent change in the birth and death rates of words, which indicates a shift towards increased levels of competition between words as a result of new standardization technology. We demonstrate unexpected analogies between the growth dynamics of word use and the growth dynamics of economic institutions. Our results support the intriguing concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition which evolves according to selection laws that are related to social, technological, and political trends. Specifically, the aggregate properties of language show pronounced differences during periods of world conflict, e.g. World War II.

  1. Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands).

  2. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation.

  3. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  4. Social Representations of Responsibility in Guatemalan Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility is a key concept in the twentieth century because it establishes a connection between the individual and society. Recent studies analyze the responsibility as a relational concept that connects the individual to an event and its outcomes. In that sense, the responsibility may be linked to Markova perspective on dialogicality and social representations because it activates the Ego-Alter-Object dynamic: being responsible for something (Ego toward someone (Alter, and in relation to an instance (object. This paper analyzes the social representations of responsibility in a sample of 296 university students from Guatemala, who answered six stimulus words I Responsible, I Irresponsible, Responsible Guatemalan, Irresponsible Guatemalan, Responsible European and Irresponsible European, using the natural semantic networks technique. Subsequently two questionnaires were made; one about responsibility and irresponsibility on a personal, in group and out group level, based on semantic networks obtained. Finally, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were made.

  5. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balass, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Nelson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonol

  6. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  7. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  8. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  9. That's More Like It: Multiple Exemplars Facilitate Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E.; Ranson, Samantha L.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates learning words facilitates categorisation. The current study explores how categorisation affects word learning. In the current study, we investigated whether learning about a category facilitates retention of newly learned words by presenting 2-year-old children with multiple referent selection trials to the same object…

  10. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  11. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of a Method for Content Determination of Polysaccharide in Membranous milkveteh root Applied in Fisheries Yu Xiao-qing et al. (1) Abstract Some chemical component in the traditional Chinese medicine Membranous milkvetch root can improve the ability of disease-prevention of animal and it can be applied in fisheries. In the paper, the method about content determination of polysaccharide in the root was established based on orthogonal experimental design Key words medicine; polysaccharide in Membranous milkvetch root; method of determination

  12. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  13. Distinct effects of memory retrieval and articulatory preparation when learning and accessing new word forms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nora

    Full Text Available Temporal and frontal activations have been implicated in learning of novel word forms, but their specific roles remain poorly understood. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examines the roles of these areas in processing newly-established word form representations. The cortical effects related to acquiring new phonological word forms during incidental learning were localized. Participants listened to and repeated back new word form stimuli that adhered to native phonology (Finnish pseudowords or were foreign (Korean words, with a subset of the stimuli recurring four times. Subsequently, a modified 1-back task and a recognition task addressed whether the activations modulated by learning were related to planning for overt articulation, while parametrically added noise probed reliance on developing memory representations during effortful perception. Learning resulted in decreased left superior temporal and increased bilateral frontal premotor activation for familiar compared to new items. The left temporal learning effect persisted in all tasks and was strongest when stimuli were embedded in intermediate noise. In the noisy conditions, native phonotactics evoked overall enhanced left temporal activation. In contrast, the frontal learning effects were present only in conditions requiring overt repetition and were more pronounced for the foreign language. The results indicate a functional dissociation between temporal and frontal activations in learning new phonological word forms: the left superior temporal responses reflect activation of newly-established word-form representations, also during degraded sensory input, whereas the frontal premotor effects are related to planning for articulation and are not preserved in noise.

  14. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  15. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research.

  16. Contending with foreign accent in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Hollich, George; Seidl, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers' abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2 ; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English speaker, success of those aged 2 ; 0 was restricted. Specifically, toddlers aged 2 ; 0 failed to generalize words when trained by the native English speaker and tested by the Spanish-accented speaker. Data suggest that exposure to foreign accent in training may promote generalization of newly learned forms. These findings are considered in the context of developmental changes in early word representations.

  17. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Hautala

    Full Text Available Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  18. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  19. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes of Chinese Compound Words in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Wen; Yang, Ke-Yu; Yan, Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Character order information is encoded at the initial stage of Chinese word processing, however, its time course remains underspecified. In this study, we assess the exact time course of the character decomposition and transposition processes of two-character Chinese compound words (canonical, transposed, or reversible words) compared with pseudowords using dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli appearing at 30 ms per character with no inter-stimulus interval. The results indicate that Chinese readers can identify words with character transpositions in rapid succession; however, a transposition cost is involved in identifying transposed words compared to canonical words. In RSVP reading, character order of words is more likely to be reversed during the period from 30 to 180 ms for canonical and reversible words, but the period from 30 to 240 ms for transposed words. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the holistic representation of the base word is activated, however, the order of the two constituent characters is not strictly processed during the very early stage of visual word processing.

  20. WH-words are not ‘interrogative’ pronouns : the derivation of interrogative interpretations for constituent questions

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Heike

    2010-01-01

    I discuss the status of WH-words for interrogative interpretations, and show that the derivation of constituent questions evolves from a specific interplay of syntactic and semantic representations with pragmatics. I argue that WH-pronouns are not ‘interrogative’. Rather, they are underspecified elements; due to this underspecification, WH-words can form a constitutive part not only of interrogative, but also of exclamative and declarative clauses. WH-words introduce a variable of a particula...

  1. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Emily S.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Neural representations of words are thought to have a complex spatio-temporal cortical basis. It has been suggested that spoken word recognition is not a process of feed-forward computations from phonetic to lexical forms, but rather involves the online integration of bottom-up input with stored lexical knowledge. Using direct neural recordings from the temporal lobe, we examined cortical responses to words and pseudowords. We found that neural populations were not only sensitive to lexical status (real vs. pseudo), but also to cohort size (number of words matching the phonetic input at each time point) and cohort frequency (lexical frequency of those words). These lexical variables modulated neural activity from the posterior to anterior temporal lobe, and also dynamically as the stimuli unfolded on a millisecond time scale. Our findings indicate that word recognition is not purely modular, but relies on rapid and online integration of multiple sources of lexical knowledge. PMID:26072003

  2. Ordering ambiguity versus representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza de Dutra, A [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ , Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, C.P. 205, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-06

    In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases.

  3. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  4. Reliability of familiarity rating of ordinary Japanese words for different years and places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Smigeaki; Kasahara, Kaname; Kondo, Tadahisa

    2007-11-01

    Two-word familiarity sets were measured in different years (1995 and 2002) and places (Kanto and Kinki, in Japan) for a large number of Japanese words, to examine the reliability of familiarity ratings. The correlation between the word familiarities of the two sets was extremely high (r = .958, N = 10,515). It is suggested that familiarity rating, at least for ordinary words found in a dictionary, is very reliable and not greatly affected by differences in years and places.

  5. Function, anticipation, representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  6. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  7. Mandated political representation and crimes against the low castes

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Victoire

    2016-01-01

    Mandated political representation over the last twenty years has had a different impact on the reporting of crime by the low castes than what is observed for the reporting of crime by women. I exploit the timing of the implementation of mandated political representation of the low castes to examine its effect on crime reports by these people. Mandated political representation of the low castes in India appears to affect the declaration of crime only for two very specific crime categories: ide...

  8. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.

  9. Acquiring Word-Meaning Mappings for Natural Language Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a system, WOLFIE (WOrd Learning From Interpreted Examples), that acquires a semantic lexicon from a corpus of sentences paired with semantic representations. The lexicon learned consists of phrases paired with meaning representations. WOLFIE is part of an integrated system that learns to transform sentences into representations such as logical database queries. Experimental results are presented demonstrating WOLFIE's ability to learn useful lexicons for a database interface in four different natural languages. The usefulness of the lexicons learned by WOLFIE are compared to those acquired by a similar system, with results favorable to WOLFIE. A second set of experiments demonstrates WOLFIE's ability to scale to larger and more difficult, albeit artificially generated, corpora. In natural language acquisition, it is difficult to gather the annotated data needed for supervised learning; however, unannotated data is fairly plentiful. Active learning methods attempt to select for annotation...

  10. Words don't come easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    of reading, and with the use of functional imaging techniques. Extant evidence for (and against) cerebral specialization for visual word recognition is briefly reviewed and found inconclusive.                       Study I is a case study of a patient with a very selective alexia and agraphia affecting...... reading and writing of letters and words but not numbers. This study raised questions of "where" in the cognitive system such a deficit may arise, and whether it can be attributed to a deficit in a system specialized for reading or letter knowledge. The following studies investigated these questions...... in the visual domain.                       An important account postulates that an area in the mid-fusiform gyrus - The visual word form area - is specialized for reading (in literate adults). Study II is a PET study investigating activity in this area during performance of tasks with pictures and words...

  11. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... psychophysical experiments. Using briefly presented single stimuli (words and letters), we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously we find...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  12. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  13. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the Estrogen Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A in Marine Sediments by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Deng Xu-xiu et al. (1) Abstract Octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A are recognized environmental endocrine disruptors. A quantitative method was established for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A in marine sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The test sample was extracted by methanol with ultrasonic technique, purified with copper powder and carbon solid phase extraction column, and derived with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Then the analytes were separated on HP-5ms column and determined by gas chromatography-mass. The recovery of the method was between 84.3% and 94.5%, and the LOQ of 4-N- octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was 0.25 g/kg, 0.15 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg. Key words octylphenol; nonylphenol; bisphenol A; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  14. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  15. Use your words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    "Use your words!" is a phrase admonishing preschoolers to divert their action-proneness to thought and language. Freud's injunction against acting out had a similar aim, placing control over drives in the domain of "inner language." The twenty-first-century psychoanalyst continues to employ models that depend on mentalization viewed from two angles-neural inhibition and social discourse. Psychoanalysts bolster their position by borrowing from the basic scientific work in each area. The recent focus on enactments, intersubjectivity, and social constructivism is reconsidered from an historical vantage point, as is the work that seeks to reconcile recent findings in neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience. Freud's vision included a holistic hope that a comprehensive science of human beings might be achieved by understanding derived from biological inquiry and the artifacts of social and cultural narratives. The author's experience in both domains is recounted, and a new reconciliation of disparate approaches is offered in linguistic complementarity.

  16. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  17. Slang Word Identification on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Rushabh Shroff; Amitash Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly known that people use different words to refer to the same things. We aim to find such similar words and classify their usage based on location. We believe this can have multiple real world usage. Such analysis could help linguistic scientists and aid in linguistic training. If a beverage selling company needed to advertise their product, they could tailor their advertisements to use words based on the map above to connect better with the audience so this d...

  18. Words Used in English Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超慧; 郭星余

    2008-01-01

    With the support of some pieces of English advertisement,express the general principles used in the written language of English advertisement,based on the characteristic of advertisement.In the passage,adjective,verb,pronoun,compound word,coinage and connotative word are analyzed to find the basic rules of words used in English advertisement,which can be used to guise the choice of language in advertisements.

  19. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities.

  20. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  1. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  2. Retrieving words from their "meanings"

    OpenAIRE

    Durgar El-Kahlout, İlknur; Durgar El-Kahlout, Ilknur

    2003-01-01

    The human brain is the best memory that can record and keep a huge number of information for a long time. Words, their meanings, domains, relationships between different words, and the grammars of languages are well organized in the linguistic component of brain. While speaking or writing, we can generally express our thoughts and feelings by words without thinking for a long time what the correct words can be. But, sometimes things do not go like clockwork even for human brain. In our daily ...

  3. Multimodal representations in collaborative history learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the question: How does making and connecting different types of multimodal representations affect the collaborative learning process and the acquisition of a chronological frame of reference in 12 to 14-year olds in pre vocational education? A chronological frame of refe

  4. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics.

  5. The Study of the word 'Dahyu'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    معینی سام معینی سام

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the roots of many Persian words are unclear, a researcher should study the vocalic evolution of these words to get to the root. The word Dahyu is one of these words. From Indo-European period to modern Persian, this word has had many different meanings. The writer of this article, studies the different meanings of this word. To reach to the earlier form of the word, the writer has studied the history of the word, from its Indo-European form to modern Persian. In the end, the writer has constructed the most probable root for this word. Key Words: Dahyu, Dasyu, Avesta, Yasht, Old Persian.

  6. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  7. Words as Things: Development of Word Concept by Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of word is discussed in terms of specific advantages that might be available to bilingual children when compared with their monolingual peers. Three studies are reviewed in which bilingual children show more advanced understanding of some aspects of the concept of word than do monolingual children (Author/LMO)

  8. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory.

  9. Representation, interaction, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Richard

    2007-09-10

    What the participants share, their common "sense" of the world, creates a foundation, a framing, an orientation that enables human actors to see and act in coordination with one another. For recurrent activities, the methods the participants use to understand each other as they act change, making the intersubjective space in which actors operate richer and easier to produce. This article works through some of the issues that emerge from a close examination of intersubjectivity as it is managed through representation and interaction. The data that are presented document, in detail, a sequence of related interactions, within and across episodes of cooperation, where continuity and change can be observed. The emergence of conversational structure and coordinating representations are significant milestones in the long-term development of a representational practice that support the runtime co-construction of intersubjective space. Conversational structures emerge interactively to mediate recurrent points of coordination in the domain activity, and only secondarily the conversation itself. Coordinating representations change the representational practice of the participants by making it easier to manage their "shared view" of the collective work, enabling the participants to make progress, expand the field of the common activity, while exhibiting more control of if and when explicit grounding occurs.

  10. fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words.

  11. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  12. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  13. Words or meaning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dodds

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - In the following pages, a brief, personal outline of the history of translation is sketched, so as to determine the whys and wherefores of the form/content dichotomy that seems to be plaguing translators and translation theorists incessantly. From the outset, in Classical times, sense rules supreme. In the late middle ages with the advent of Bible translation in Europe, the word – being the word of God – assumes new-found importance, especially as any deviation from it implies heresy. With Neo-Classicism and the Age of Enlightenment, the original tenets of antiquity unsurprisingly make their comeback, though somewhat short-lived this time. With the Romantics and post-Romantics, foreign lands and cultures gain ever greater interest, as indeed do their various forms of expressions. In contemporary Europe, over the last hundred years or so, with its preoccupation for markets and product diversification, the two schools of thought seem to co-habit quite comfortably, notwithstanding modern linguistic theory that renders form and content into indivisible components of language, thus making the dichotomy fatuous. Riassunto - Nelle pagine seguenti si delinea brevemente una traccia personale della storia della traduzione in modo da determinare i motivi della dicotomia forma/contenuto che pare affliggere costantemente i traduttori e teorici della traduzione. Fin dall'inizio dell’epoca classica, il senso regna sovrano. La parola è considerata spesso niente più di un veicolo modesto per la sublimità del pensiero. Soltanto nel tardo medioevo, con l'avvento della traduzione della Bibbia in Europa, la parola,essendo la parola di Dio, assume una nuova importanza, in quanto ogni deviazione da essa significa un’eresia. Con il Neoclassicismo e l’Illuminismo non sorprende che i principi originali dell'antichità facciano ritorno, anche se solo per breve tempo. Con il Romanticismo e il post-Romanticismo, cresce l’interesse per le

  14. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  15. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  16. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    Buxbaum, Marcella Ottolenghi

    2001-01-01

    This practical, inexpensive volume features over 1,000 common French words, each accompanied by a French sentence demonstrating proper usage. Also included are definitions arranged by such categories as family, food, numbers, and more. (These words are not repeated in the alphabetical section.) A page of Vocabulary Tips explains how to easily recognize hundreds of French/English cognates.

  17. A word by any other intonation: fMRI evidence for implicit memory traces for pitch contours of spoken words in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inspector

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41, temporal areas (BA 21 22 bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.

  18. Dissociation and Association of the Embodied Representation of Tool-Use Verbs and Hand Verbs: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua; Bi, Yanchao; Liu, Youyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Embodied semantic theories suppose that representation of word meaning and actual sensory-motor processing are implemented in overlapping systems. According to this view, association and dissociation of different word meaning should correspond to dissociation and association of the described sensory-motor processing. Previous studies demonstrate…

  19. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  20. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  1. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars...... to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories...

  2. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  3. Presidents' words - Gianni Deroma

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Gianni Deroma This week we publish the last contributions in the 'Words of presidents' series by giving the floor to Gianni Deroma (2007-2010) and Michel Goossens (2011-2015). "Tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti" This Latin adage has marked my years with the Staff Association (SA). For someone like me, coming from the technical world, the discovery of the importance of the role played by legal matters in the defence of the staff illustrates a new reality and incarnates my years spent with the SA. We, members of personnel, as citizens have as reference the democratic societies in which we live. CERN is not a democracy. The Member States, the Director-General have full powers, or almost. Contrary to citizens of states, we do not elect our leaders. So in that context is it useful to have a Staff Association? Or does it only serve as a necessary alibi for those who have the power? This is where a legal approach makes sense, in counterbalancing the power of our governing ...

  4. Presidents' words - Michel Goossens

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Michel Goossens Already at the beginning of 1955, just a few months after the creation of CERN, the members of the Organization's staff who then numbered less than 200, realized that they had to organize themselves into a corporate body to ensure a formal representation with Management and Member States. The Staff Association was born. As the 27th President of the Staff Association since its inception 60 years ago my task is highly interesting and rewarding, with plenty of responsibility, yet not always simple. Indeed, chosen by one’s peers as primus inter pares, the president is like the conductor of an orchestra, who must first convince his musicians to study the score together, before playing it in harmony. Of course, in my position I can rely on the solid foundations laid by my 26 predecessors, as well as the enthusiasm, loyalty, continuous efforts and perseverance of a core of dedicated collaborators, the elected delegates to the Staff Council. The strength of the Staff Associati...

  5. Effects of Ease-of-Pronunciation on Non-Word Memory and Product Judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    The ease or difficulty of pronunciation can affect judgments. We experimentally show that linguistic fluency has a direct effect on liking and a U-shaped effect on memory of non-words. We further demonstrate that the fluency of novel, fictitious non-word brand names affects novelty and performance...

  6. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  7. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  8. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  9. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  10. Spectral representation of fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Bazen, Asker M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Akkermans, Anton H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Most fingerprint recognition systems are based on the use of a minutiae set, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and directions suffering from various deformations such as translation, rotation and scaling. The spectral minutiae representation introduced in this paper is a novel m

  11. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  12. Sociocognitive Perspectives on Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elin K.; Shaw, Debora

    1998-01-01

    Discusses research dealing with the cognitive aspects of formal systems of knowledge representation. Highlights include the origins and theoretical foundations of the cognitive viewpoint; cognition and information science; cognitivism, mentalism, and subjective individualism; categorization; mental models; and sociocognitive approaches to indexing…

  13. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  14. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera Arévalo, Humberto Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan stu...

  15. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan students.

  16. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  17. A New Indexing Method Based on Word Proximity for Chinese Text Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lin; SUN Yufang

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel text representation and matching scheme for Chinese text retrieval. At present, the indexing methods of Chinese retrieval systems are either character-based or word-based. The character-based indexing methods, such as bi-gram or tri-gram indexing, have high false drops due to the mismatches between queries and documents. On the other hand, it's difficult to efficiently identify all the proper nouns, terminology of different domains, and phrases in the word-based indexing systems. The new indexing method uses both proximity and mutual information of the word pairs to represent the text content so as to overcome the high false drop, new word and phrase problems that exist in the character-based and word-based systems. The evaluation results indicate that the average query precision of proximity-based indexing is 5.2% higher than the best results of TREC-5.

  18. Rapid word identification in pure alexia is lexical but not semantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R B; Lott, S N

    2000-05-01

    Following the notion that patients with pure alexia have access to two distinct reading strategies-letter-by-letter reading and semantic reading-a training program was devised to facilitate reading via semantics in a patient with pure alexia. Training utilized brief stimulus presentations and required category judgments rather than explicit word identification. The training was successful for trained words, but generalized poorly to untrained words. Additional studies involving oral reading of nouns and of functors also resulted in improved reading of trained words. Pseudowords could not be trained to criterion. The results suggest that improved reading can be achieved in pure alexia by pairing rapidly presented words with feedback. Focusing on semantic processing is not essential to this process. It is proposed that the training strengthens connections between the output of visual processing and preexisting orthographic representations.

  19. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: A developmental embodied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'angiulli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization, followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors (part 2: matching visualization. Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e. < 300 ms was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e. 300-699 ms and late (i.e. 700-1000 ms ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a post-anterior pathway sequence: occipital, parietal and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an ant-posterior pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying

  20. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: a developmental embodied approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Griffiths, Gordon; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization), followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors; part 2: matching visualization). Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e., words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e., 300-699 ms) and late (i.e., 700-1000 ms) ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a "post-anterior" pathway sequence: occipital, parietal, and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an "ant-posterior" pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly, for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying representations.

  1. A Matter of Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozza, Vittoria; Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Automatic quality evaluation of Web information is a task with many fields of applications and of great relevance, especially in critical domains, like the medical one. We move from the intuition that the quality of content of medical Web documents is affected by features related with the specifi...

  2. Mapping Persian Words to WordNet Synsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lexical ontologies are one of the main resourcesfor developing natural language processing and semantic web applications. Mapping lexical ontologies of different languagesis very important for inter-lingual tasks. On the other hand mapping approaches can be implied to build lexical ontologies for a new language based on pre-existing resources of other languages. In this paper we propose a semantic approach for mapping Persian words to Princeton WordNet Synsets. As there is no lexical ontology for Persian, our approach helps not only in building one for this language but also enables semantic web applications on Persian documents. To do the mapping, we calculate the similarity of Persian words and English synsets using their features such as super-classes and subclasses, domain and related words. Our approach is an improvement of an existing one applying in a new domain, which increases the recall noticeably.

  3. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  4. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  5. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  6. How to Memorize English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓丽

    2016-01-01

    Language is a complicated system, which mainly contains phonology, vocabulary, grammar. The vocabulary is just like stocks used to build the house of a language. Lexicon is fundamental material in language learning. The author attempts to explore English word formation form morphemes. The morpheme, can be considered as“the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words”. Morphemes are classified into prefix, root and suffix. In order to have a good command of words, English learners could adopt the rules of word formation from morphemes to enlarge vocabulary efficiently.

  7. Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Team, Training

    2011-01-01

    The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

  8. “Without love you can not develop a good work”: analysis of social representation of teachers inclusion on school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia Rodrigues Albuquerque

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational legislation, and the National Policy on Education in Brazil highlight the Special Education as a means of education, offered, preferably in the regular school network, whose guiding principle is the inclusion. This article presents the results of a study of social representations to include school teachers between the public network developed in the Graduate Program in Education at the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Participants in the survey are 43 teachers of students with disabilities in the municipal network of Jaboatao of Exmouth-EP. Data were collected through the free association of words and the results indicate that the inclusion in school social representation of teachers is an act of love. The character of the emotional evocations excels is in the social representations of students with disabilities affecting the meaning of inclusion as a right of a student with disabilities. Thus, the Special Education, despite its merits and achievements, such as social right constitutionally guaranteed to persons with disabilities continues to be denied.

  9. From Word Alignment to Word Senses, via Multilingual Wordnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.

  10. The ERP signature of the contextual diversity effect in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Behavioral experiments have revealed that words appearing in many different contexts are responded to faster than words that appear in few contexts. Although this contextual diversity (CD) effect has been found to be stronger than the word-frequency (WF) effect, it is a matter of debate whether the facilitative effects of CD and WF reflect the same underlying mechanisms. The analysis of the electrophysiological correlates of CD may shed some light on this issue. This experiment is the first to examine the ERPs to high- and low-CD words when WF is controlled for. Results revealed that while high-CD words produced faster responses than low-CD words, their ERPs showed larger negativities (225-325 ms) than low-CD words. This result goes in the opposite direction of the ERP WF effect (high-frequency words elicit smaller N400 amplitudes than low-frequency words). The direction and scalp distribution of the CD effect resembled the ERP effects associated with "semantic richness." Thus, while apparently related, CD and WF originate from different sources during the access of lexical-semantic representations.

  11. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Reilly

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog. Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment" as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate" as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  12. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment") as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate") as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  13. Clustering of neural code words revealed by a first-order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2016-06-01

    A network of neurons in the central nervous system collectively represents information by its spiking activity states. Typically observed states, i.e., code words, occupy only a limited portion of the state space due to constraints imposed by network interactions. Geometrical organization of code words in the state space, critical for neural information processing, is poorly understood due to its high dimensionality. Here, we explore the organization of neural code words using retinal data by computing the entropy of code words as a function of Hamming distance from a particular reference codeword. Specifically, we report that the retinal code words in the state space are divided into multiple distinct clusters separated by entropy-gaps, and that this structure is shared with well-known associative memory networks in a recallable phase. Our analysis also elucidates a special nature of the all-silent state. The all-silent state is surrounded by the densest cluster of code words and located within a reachable distance from most code words. This code-word space structure quantitatively predicts typical deviation of a state-trajectory from its initial state. Altogether, our findings reveal a non-trivial heterogeneous structure of the code-word space that shapes information representation in a biological network.

  14. Meaning representation for automatic indexing of Arabic texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhouche Abdelali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of indexing is to identify the words that represent the main idea of a paragraph or a specific text, in the framework of the representation of the meaning in an automatic treatment (NLP of the Arabic; we propose a model based on conceptual vectors. These vectors try to represent the whole of ideas contained in textual segment (word, expression, texts. This model lean on modern linguistic conception the semantic field theory. By basing itself on the semantic relations (synonymy, homonymy between the words, we use these fields for the construction of semantic field data base and of a vectorial space then we calculate the meaning of textual segments in the semantic fields. Finally we use this model for indexing the text.

  15. 日本江户时代外来语特征考察--以内容和表记方法为中心%On the Characteristics of Loan Words in the Edo Era of Japan:A Study Centering on Content and Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣; 刘一然

    2015-01-01

    日本江户时代的外来语主要来自葡萄牙、西班牙与荷兰,其中荷兰源外来语在数量上占据了主导地位。从江户时代前期到后期,与衣食住行相关的词汇乃至与知识、学问、科学相关的词汇显著增加,这些变化表明日本社会对于西方文明的吸收正由物质层面扩展到精神层面。从表记方法上看,在音译词汇中笔画简洁的片假名逐渐取代笔画复杂的汉字。%Most of the loanwords in the Edo Era were borrowed from Portuguese,Spanish and Dutch,and among them,words of Dutch origin had the largest number. From earlier Edo Era to later that era,the number of words related with food,clothing,shelter and means of traveling and even those with knowledge,learning and science increased significantly. Such changes indicate that Japanese society was steering away from the material level to the spiritual one in its absorption of Western civilization. Moreover,judging from the writing system,katakana,with its simpler strokes,was gradually replacing the more complex Chinese characters.

  16. A new geometric approach to Sturmian words

    CERN Document Server

    Matomäki, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new geometric approach to Sturmian words by means of a mapping that associates certain lines in the n x n -grid and sets of finite Sturmian words of length n. Using this mapping, we give new proofs of the formulas enumerating the finite Sturmian words and the palindromic finite Sturmian words of a given length. We also give a new proof for the well-known result that a factor of a Sturmian word has precisely two return words.

  17. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  18. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...... one has to assign to social media as a source of reputation for companies and brands, which eventually impact consumers’ choices....

  19. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  20. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  1. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  2. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  3. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  4. Word Associations as a Tool for Assessing Conceptual Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Korfiatis, Konstantinos J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we have applied a word association procedure for assessing conceptual change in science education, leaning on the presuppositions of the theory of social representations. The proposed method was applied both before and after a university population ecology course. Our results have shown that the teaching procedure can change…

  5. The Meaning of English Words across Cultures, with a Focus on Cameroon and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2009-01-01

    A word, even when considered monosemic, generally has a cluster of meanings, depending on the mental representation of the referent by the speaker/writer or listener/reader. The variation is even more noticeable across cultures. This paper investigates the different ways in which cultural knowledge helps in the interpretation of English lexical…

  6. Spelling Pronunciation and Visual Preview Both Facilitate Learning to Spell Irregular Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations and previewing the spelling patterns on…

  7. An ordinal approach to computing with words and the preference-aversion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Computing with words (CWW) explores the brain’s ability to handle and evaluate perceptions through language, i.e., by means of the linguistic representation of information and knowledge. On the other hand, standard preference structures examine decision problems through the decomposition of the p...

  8. The Efficacy of Using Diagrams When Solving Probability Word Problems in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Brian D.; Staley, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown a deleterious effect of visual representations on college students' ability to solve total- and joint-probability word problems. The present experiments used conditional-probability problems, known to be more difficult than total- and joint-probability problems. The diagram group was instructed in how to use tree…

  9. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    2015-07-16

    Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA) algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs) representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  10. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  11. How New Words Are Formed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU He

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and culture, English vocabulary change rapidly. English has always been in a state of evolution. In recent years new words enter the English language at an increasing rate. This paper makes an attempt to analyze eight ways of new English word formation, creating, blending, shortening, functional shift, back-formation, affixation, com⁃pounding and borrowing—by presenting mainly English examples.

  12. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  13. Zipf's Law for Word Frequencies: Word Forms versus Lemmas in Long Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro; Boleda, Gemma; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is a fundamental paradigm in the statistics of written and spoken natural language as well as in other communication systems. We raise the question of the elementary units for which Zipf's law should hold in the most natural way, studying its validity for plain word forms and for the corresponding lemma forms. We analyze several long literary texts comprising four languages, with different levels of morphological complexity. In all cases Zipf's law is fulfilled, in the sense that a power-law distribution of word or lemma frequencies is valid for several orders of magnitude. We investigate the extent to which the word-lemma transformation preserves two parameters of Zipf's law: the exponent and the low-frequency cut-off. We are not able to demonstrate a strict invariance of the tail, as for a few texts both exponents deviate significantly, but we conclude that the exponents are very similar, despite the remarkable transformation that going from words to lemmas represents, considerably affecting all ranges of frequencies. In contrast, the low-frequency cut-offs are less stable, tending to increase substantially after the transformation.

  14. Interfering with free recall of words: Detrimental effects of phonological competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Priselac, Sandra; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-09-01

    We examined the effect of different distracting tasks, performed concurrently during memory retrieval, on recall of a list of words. By manipulating the type of material and processing (semantic, orthographic, and phonological) required in the distracting task, and comparing the magnitude of memory interference produced, we aimed to infer the kind of representation upon which retrieval of words depends. In Experiment 1, identifying odd digits concurrently during free recall disrupted memory, relative to a full attention condition, when the numbers were presented orthographically (e.g. nineteen), but not numerically (e.g. 19). In Experiment 2, a distracting task that required phonological-based decisions to either word or picture material produced large, but equivalent effects on recall of words. In Experiment 3, phonological-based decisions to pictures in a distracting task disrupted recall more than when the same pictures required semantically-based size estimations. In Experiment 4, a distracting task that required syllable decisions to line drawings interfered significantly with recall, while an equally difficult semantically-based color-decision task about the same line drawings, did not. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the degree of memory interference experienced during recall of words depends primarily on whether the distracting task competes for phonological representations or processes, and less on competition for semantic or orthographic or material-specific representations or processes.

  15. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  16. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  17. Succinct Representation of Well-Spaced Point Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    A set of n points in low dimensions takes Theta(n w) bits to store on a w-bit machine. Surface reconstruction and mesh refinement impose a requirement on the distribution of the points they process. I show how to use this assumption to lossily compress a set of n input points into a representation that takes only O(n) bits, independent of the word size. The loss can keep inter-point distances to within 10% relative error while still achieving a factor of three space savings. The representation allows standard quadtree operations, along with computing the restricted Voronoi cell of a point, in time O(w^2 + log n), which can be improved to time O(log n) if w is in Theta(log n). Thus one can use this compressed representation to perform mesh refinement or surface reconstruction in O(n) bits with only a logarithmic slowdown.

  18. [My dependent body: social representations of diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Rodrigues, Ivaneide Leal Ataíde; Vaconcelos, Esleane Vilela; Dos Santos, Lucialba Maria Silva; Souza, Ralrizônia Fernandes; da Conceição, Vander Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at identifying social representations of diabetic clients on your body after the amputation, and analyze the relationship of these representations to the care of themselves. The research was a qualitative, exploratory, with the use of the social representations theory and case study method. The scenario was a hospital in the city of Belém, Pará, 20 subjects participated. The data collection techniques were: a free association of words and watch free. After examining three categories emerged: the healthy body - term health of living well, the body work - the perfection and beauty in daily life, The body amputated - the limitation caused by amputation; and the amputated body and its relation to the care of themselves. It is clear concern to recover the lost welfare.

  19. Learning Multisensory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    people’s performances in visual-haptic and visual-auditory environments. People are extraordinarily good at learning information via one sensory...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0183 Learning Multisensory Representations Robert Jacobs UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER Final Report 05/23/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...Materiel Command REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is

  20. Non-Representational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  1. Comprehension and Representation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉萍

    2010-01-01

    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.

  2. MENTAL STATE REPRESENTATION: SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Oktyabrinovich Prokhorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of statement of the problem of states in psychology, the study of “sensuous” tissue – the mental state representation-takes a fundamental meaning. The problem is concluded in the following questions: “How is mental state represented in the consciousness of an individual?”, “What is the specificity of the mental state representation as distinguished from the subject-matter representation?”, “What are the mechanisms of the mental state representation occurrence and the peculiarities of its dynamics? The study of the mental state representation will allow to explain its specificity and difference from the figurative representation, the peculiarities of state explication as a representation in the consciousness and its relation with other elements of consciousness, will allow to show the regularities of the mental state representation development and its dynamics, factors, which influence the specificity of its occurrence, the regulatory role of the state representation in the vital function. From these perspectives, the article presents the results of the study of spatiotemporal characteristics of the mental state representation; reveals the peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations: Relieves, specificity, magnitude, variability of indicators, changes of structural characteristics in time spans; considers the age-specific peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations in terms of organization, stability, coherence and differentiated nature of spatiotemporal structures with the representatives of certain age groups.

  3. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eDe Cat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1 had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2, and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e. incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit versus reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish. The EEG data, analysed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the reversed constituent order. Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers - the licit order in their L1- supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1.

  4. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  5. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  6. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  7. WordNet-based lexical semantic classification for text corpus analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jun; WANG Lu-da; LI Zu-de; ZHANG Zu-ping; YANG Liu

    2015-01-01

    Many text classifications depend on statistical term measures to implement document representation. Such document representations ignore the lexical semantic contents of terms and the distilled mutual information, leading to text classification errors. This work proposed a document representation method, WordNet-based lexical semantic VSM, to solve the problem. Using WordNet, this method constructed a data structure of semantic-element information to characterize lexical semantic contents, and adjusted EM modeling to disambiguate word stems. Then, in the lexical-semantic space of corpus, lexical-semantic eigenvector of document representation was built by calculating the weight of each synset, and applied to a widely-recognized algorithm NWKNN. On text corpus Reuter-21578 and its adjusted version of lexical replacement, the experimental results show that the lexical-semantic eigenvector performsF1 measure and scales of dimension better than term-statistic eigenvector based on TF-IDF. Formation of document representation eigenvectors ensures the method a wide prospect of classification applications in text corpus analysis.

  8. How the Clustering of Phonological Neighbors Affects Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a new scientific field known as network science has been emerging. Network science is concerned with understanding the structure and properties of networks. One concept that is commonly used in describing a network is how the nodes in the network cluster together. The current research applied the idea of clustering to the study of…

  9. ERP profiles for face and word recognition are based on their status in semantic memory not their stimulus category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne

    2014-04-04

    Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects׳ long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces.

  10. The Effects of Using Drawings in Developing Young Children's Mathematical Word Problem Solving: A Design Experiment with Third-Grade Hungarian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikos, Csaba; Szitanyi, Judit; Kelemen, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of a design experiment developed for third-grade students in the field of mathematics word problems. The main focus of the program was developing students' knowledge about word problem solving strategies with an emphasis on the role of visual representations in mathematical modeling. The experiment…

  11. Tracking lexical consolidation with ERPs: Lexical and semantic-priming effects on N400 and LPC responses to newly-learned words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.; Takashima, A.; Hell, J.G. van; Janzen, G.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel words can be recalled immediately and after little exposure, but require a post-learning consolidation period to show word-like behaviour such as lexical competition. This pattern is thought to reflect a qualitative shift from episodic to lexical representations. However, several studies have

  12. Cross-linguistic experiments in word-form recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn

    2001-05-01

    When do children first represent word forms without experimental training or contextual support? Both English- and Welsh-learning children were tested, replicating Halle and Boysson-Bardies (1994: French, 11 months.). Twelve children acquiring English showed word-form recognition by 11 months (Vihman et al., in press); 12 Welsh children showed the effect at 12 months but a separate sample of 12 tested at 11 months did not (Vihman and DePaolis, 1999). A subsequent study of 16 children using event-related potentials (ERPs) showed word-form recognition within 250 ms for English at 11 months (Thierry et al., 2003). Attempts to locate the age of onset longitudinally proved problematic: Repeated tests of single samples of English and Welsh monolingual children (12 each) at 9, 10, 11, and 12 months showed that infant episodic memory interferes sufficiently with longitudinal observation based on a single set of stimuli to preclude drawing any conclusions. Cross-sectional samples of monolingual English and Welsh children (24 each) are currently being tested at 9 to12 months, using both head turn and ERPs, as are English/Welsh bilingual children at 11 months. These studies should yield solid information as to the age of onset of spontaneous word form representation. [ESRC support is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    compatible with numerous etiological factors. Multiple clinical forms can be differentiated in accordance with the persistence of parasitic areas, the degree of fragmentation, and the formation of sutures. We use this approach to account for an empirical study concerning the analysis of analogical representations in schizophrenia. We used the Parallel Visual Information Processing Test (PVIPT) which assesses the analysis of interfering visual information. Subjects were asked to connect several small geometric figures printed on a transparency. The transparency was displayed above four photographs which were the interfering material. Then, subjects completed three tasks concerning the photographs: a recognition task, a recall task, and an affective qualification task. Using a case-by-case study, this test allows us to access the defense processes of the subjects, which is not possible with the usual methods in cognitive psychopathology. Twelve clinically-stable schizophrenic subjects participated in the study which also included a self-assessment of alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We obtained 2 main results: (a) creation of items in recall or false recognition by 8 subjects, and (b) lack of the usual -negative correlations between the alexithymia score and the recall, recognition and affective qualification scores in the PVIPT. These 2 results contrast with what has been previously observed for alexithymia using the same methodology. The result (a) confirms an interfering activation in schizophrenic memory, which can be interpreted in our framework as indicative of parasitic areas. The creation of items suggests the formation of sutures between the semantic content of photographs and some delusional fragments. The result (b) suggests that the apparent alexithymia in schizophrenia is a defense against interfering activation in parasitic areas. We underline the interest of individual protocols to exhibit the dynamic interplay between an interfering activity in

  14. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  15. Computational modeling and elementary process analysis in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1994-12-01

    An attempt is made to isolate the assumptions that make a connectionist approach to visual word recognition distinctive. These include the commitment to distributed representations, the claim that there is no distinction between lexical and nonlexical systems in the naming task, and the claim that it is possible to map from orthography to meaning without using localized representations. It is argued that merely demonstrating that a network model can perform these tasks is not sufficient and that a detailed theory of how the network performs its tasks must accompany the simulation, because a simulation is not equivalent to an explanation. It is argued that further progress requires detailed modeling and experimental study of the elementary processes assumed to be involved in networks and that it is premature to dismiss alternative models of lexical access such as serial search models.

  16. Covariant representations of subproduct systems

    CERN Document Server

    Viselter, Ami

    2010-01-01

    A celebrated theorem of Pimsner states that a covariant representation $T$ of a $C^*$-correspondence $E$ extends to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra of $E$ if and only if $T$ is isometric. This paper is mainly concerned with finding conditions for a covariant representation of a \\emph{subproduct system} to extend to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra. This framework is much more general than the former. We are able to find sufficient conditions, and show that in important special cases, they are also necessary. Further results include the universality of the tensor algebra, dilations of completely contractive covariant representations, Wold decompositions and von Neumann inequalities.

  17. The socially-weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan eSumner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: Words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially-idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially-weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially-idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.

  18. Comparing ease-of-processing values of the same set of words for native English speakers and Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroomi

    2009-12-01

    Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy of English word translation by Japanese university students (Takashima, H. Eigo goi chishiki no keisei [The structure of English lexical knowledge of Japanese college students], 2002). Correlations among these ease-of-processing values were all significant, suggesting substantial commonalities between native English speakers and Japanese learners. Regression analyses, however, showed that some factors differentially affect ease of processing for natives and Japanese. Comparison of the predicted and the observed values of translation accuracy revealed specific differences of lexical knowledge between native speakers and Japanese learners. Loanword effect on translation accuracy and translation errors similar to dyslexic/aphasic reading errors were observed, suggesting the possibility of insufficient orthographic/phonological activation and the possibility of the use of first language phonological representations. The implications of these results for the study of second/foreign language lexical processing are discussed.

  19. Multiple Uses of a Word Study Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Orlins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies that illustrate the multiple uses of word sorts, a word study phonics technique. Case study children were Sara, a second grader, who had difficulty with reading basic words and John, a third grader, who had difficulty with spelling basic words. Multiple baseline designs were employed to study the effects of…

  20. Time course of implicit processing and explicit processing of emotional faces and emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Jellinghaus, Anne; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-05-01

    Facial expressions are important emotional stimuli during social interactions. Symbolic emotional cues, such as affective words, also convey information regarding emotions that is relevant for social communication. Various studies have demonstrated fast decoding of emotions from words, as was shown for faces, whereas others report a rather delayed decoding of information about emotions from words. Here, we introduced an implicit (color naming) and explicit task (emotion judgment) with facial expressions and words, both containing information about emotions, to directly compare the time course of emotion processing using event-related potentials (ERP). The data show that only negative faces affected task performance, resulting in increased error rates compared to neutral faces. Presentation of emotional faces resulted in a modulation of the N170, the EPN and the LPP components and these modulations were found during both the explicit and implicit tasks. Emotional words only affected the EPN during the explicit task, but a task-independent effect on the LPP was revealed. Finally, emotional faces modulated source activity in the extrastriate cortex underlying the generation of the N170, EPN and LPP components. Emotional words led to a modulation of source activity corresponding to the EPN and LPP, but they also affected the N170 source on the right hemisphere. These data show that facial expressions affect earlier stages of emotion processing compared to emotional words, but the emotional value of words may have been detected at early stages of emotional processing in the visual cortex, as was indicated by the extrastriate source activity.

  1. Residual Representations of Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Saller, H

    2001-01-01

    Spacetime is modelled by binary relations - by the classes of the automorphisms $\\GL(\\C^2)$ of a complex 2-dimensional vector space with respect to the definite unitary subgroup $\\U(2)$. In extension of Feynman propagators for particle quantum fields representing only the tangent spacetime structure, global spacetime representations are given, formulated as residues using energy-momentum distributions with the invariants as singularities. The associatated quantum fields are characterized by two invariant masses - for time and position - supplementing the one mass for the definite unitary particle sector with another mass for the indefinite unitary interaction sector without asymptotic particle interpretation.

  2. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  3. Identifying Trends in Word Frequency Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Whichard, Zakary L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2013-04-01

    The word-stock of a language is a complex dynamical system in which words can be created, evolve, and become extinct. Even more dynamic are the short-term fluctuations in word usage by individuals in a population. Building on the recent demonstration that word niche is a strong determinant of future rise or fall in word frequency, here we introduce a model that allows us to distinguish persistent from temporary increases in frequency. Our model is illustrated using a 108-word database from an online discussion group and a 1011-word collection of digitized books. The model reveals a strong relation between changes in word dissemination and changes in frequency. Aside from their implications for short-term word frequency dynamics, these observations are potentially important for language evolution as new words must survive in the short term in order to survive in the long term.

  4. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  5. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  6. Word learning under infinite uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.

  7. Study on the application of fuzzy words in advertising language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晋芳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays,to impress and entice consumers more effectively,fuzzy words are naturally adopted by advertisers in language of advertising.1.Introduction In the contemporary society,advertising may be regarded as an indispensable element of our culture because it affects every aspect of our daily life.So,there is an urgent need for the systematical study

  8. Inferences and Word Associations of Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Markham, Rosalyn; Hlavacek, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of children (ages 6-12) with visual impairments (n=15) and sighted children (n=15) on two tasks involving inferences found some differences between the two groups when the information was visual, but not when it was nonvisual. Visual impairment affected some aspects of a word association task. (Contains references.)…

  9. Semi-supervised word polarity identification in resource-lean languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdarbehbahani, Iman; Shakery, Azadeh; Faili, Heshaam

    2014-10-01

    Sentiment words, as fundamental constitutive parts of subjective sentences, have a substantial effect on analysis of opinions, emotions and beliefs. Most of the proposed methods for identifying the semantic orientations of words exploit rich linguistic resources such as WordNet, subjectivity corpora, or polarity tagged words. Shortage of such linguistic resources in resource-lean languages affects the performance of word polarity identification in these languages. In this paper, we present a method which exploits a language with rich subjectivity analysis resources (English) to identify the polarity of words in a resource-lean foreign language. The English WordNet and a sparse foreign WordNet infrastructure are used to create a heterogeneous, multilingual and weighted semantic network. To identify the semantic orientation of foreign words, a random walk based method is applied to the semantic network along with a set of automatically weighted English positive and negative seeds. In a post-processing phase, synonym and antonym relations in the foreign WordNet are used to filter the random walk results. Our experiments on English and Persian languages show that the proposed method can outperform state-of-the-art word polarity identification methods in both languages.

  10. Orthographic versus semantic matching in visual search for words within lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Laure; Rouet, Jean-François; Ros, Christine; Vibert, Nicolas

    2012-03-01

    An eye-tracking experiment was performed to assess the influence of orthographic and semantic distractor words on visual search for words within lists. The target word (e.g., "raven") was either shown to participants before the search (literal search) or defined by its semantic category (e.g., "bird", categorical search). In both cases, the type of words included in the list affected visual search times and eye movement patterns. In the literal condition, the presence of orthographic distractors sharing initial and final letters with the target word strongly increased search times. Indeed, the orthographic distractors attracted participants' gaze and were fixated for longer times than other words in the list. The presence of semantic distractors related to the target word also increased search times, which suggests that significant automatic semantic processing of nontarget words took place. In the categorical condition, semantic distractors were expected to have a greater impact on the search task. As expected, the presence in the list of semantic associates of the target word led to target selection errors. However, semantic distractors did not significantly increase search times any more, whereas orthographic distractors still did. Hence, the visual characteristics of nontarget words can be strong predictors of the efficiency of visual search even when the exact target word is unknown. The respective impacts of orthographic and semantic distractors depended more on the characteristics of lists than on the nature of the search task.

  11. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

  12. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word c....... While such an “oracle” method is not identified, evaluations indicate that unsupervised word cluster are most beneficial in sentences without unknown words....

  13. A Harmony Search Algorithm with Multi-pitch Adjustment Rate for Symbolic Time Series Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almahdi M. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation task in time series data mining has been a critical issue because the direct manipulation of continuous, high-dimensional data is extremely difficult to complete efficiently. One time series representation approach is a symbolic representation called the Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX. The main function of SAX is to find the appropriate numbers of alphabet symbols and word size that represent the time series. The aim is to achieve the largest alphabet size and maximum word length with the minimum error rate. The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated approach for a symbolic time series data representation that attempts to improve SAX by improving alphabet and word size. The Relative Frequency (RF binning method is employed to obtain alphabet size and is integrated with the proposed Multi-pitch Harmony Search (HSMPAR algorithm to calculate the optimum alphabet and word size. RF is used because of its ability to obtain a sufficient number of intervals with a low error rate compared to other related techniques. HSMPAR algorithm is an optimization algorithm that randomly generates solutions for alphabet and word sizes and selects the best solutions. HS algorithms are compatible with multi-pitch adjustment. The integration of the RF and HSMPAR algorithms is developed to maximize information rather than to improve the error rate. The algorithms are tested on 20 standard time series datasets and are compared with the meta-heuristic algorithms GENEBLA and the original SAX algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method generates larger alphabet and word sizes and achieves a lower error rate than the compared methods. With larger alphabet and word sizes, the proposed method is capable of preserving important information.

  14. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  15. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  16. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  17. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  18. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  19. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gotseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  20. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.L. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive i