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Sample records for affective symptoms

  1. Basic symptoms in schizophrenic and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, H; Gross, G; Klosterkötter, J; Huber, G

    1989-01-01

    The study compares schizophrenic and affective psychoses with regard to basic symptoms. 30 patients in schizophrenic pre-, intra-, and postpsychotic basic stages and 30 patients in endogenous-depressive phases were examined according to the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The most important result is that certain cognitive basic symptoms and cenesthesias which are decisive for the development of florid productive-psychotic phenomena are found more frequently in the group of schizophrenias.

  2. Symptom dimensions of affective disorders in migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M. A.; Pijpers, J. A.; Wardenaar, K. J.; van Zwet, E. W.; van Hemert, A. M.; Zitman, F. G.; Ferrari, M. D.; Penninx, B. W.; Tervvindt, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A strong association has been established between migraine and depression. However, this is the first study to differentiate in a large sample of migraine patients for symptom dimensions of the affective disorder spectrum. Methods: Migraine patients (n = 3174) from the LUMINA (Leiden Univ

  3. Somatic/affective symptoms, but not cognitive/affective symptoms, of depression after acute coronary syndrome are associated with 12-month all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Thombs, Brett D.; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donna E.; Abbey, Susan E.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Symptom dimensions of post myocardial infarction (MI) depression may be differently related to prognosis. Somatic/affective symptoms appear to be associated with a worse cardiac outcome than cognitive/affective symptoms. We examined the relationship between depressive symptom dimensions

  4. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

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    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  5. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

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    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  6. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

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    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  7. Prediction of symptoms of emotional distress by mood regulation expectancies and affective traits.

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    Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry

    2014-12-01

    Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change.

  8. The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms.

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    Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms.

  9. The interaction of borderline personality disorder symptoms and relationship satisfaction in predicting affect.

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    Kuhlken, Katherine; Robertson, Christopher; Benson, Jessica; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that stable, marital relationships may have overall prognostic significance for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, research focused on the impact of nonmarital, and perhaps short-term, romantic relationships is lacking. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of the interaction of BPD symptoms and relationship satisfaction on state negative affect in college undergraduates. It was predicted that individuals who scored higher on measures of BPD symptoms and who were in a satisfying romantic relationship would report less negative affect than comparable individuals in a less satisfying romantic relationship. Questionnaires assessing BPD symptoms, relationship satisfaction, and negative affect were administered to 111 women, the majority of whom then completed daily measures of relationship satisfaction and negative affect over a 2-week follow-up period. Hierarchical multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling were used to test the hypotheses. The interaction of BPD symptoms with relationship satisfaction was found to significantly predict anger, as measured at one time point, suggesting that satisfying romantic relationships may be a protective factor for individuals scoring high on measures of BPD symptoms with regard to anger.

  10. Negative Affect and Child Internalizing Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Perfectionism.

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    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Separate lines of research have linked the temperament factor negative affect and perfectionism with internalizing disorders. Despite theory, no previous studies have connected these lines of research to examine internalizing pathology. The current study tested a path model to investigate the mediating effect of perfectionism domains on the relation between negative affect and child anxiety, worry, and depression symptoms. Participants were 61 parent-child dyads recruited from the community. Children were 7-13 years old (54.1 % male; 88.2 % Caucasian). Overall the model fit the data well. Analyses indicated that separate domains of perfectionism mediated separate relations between negative affect and child anxiety, worry, and depression symptoms. The findings suggest that domains of perfectionism may be implicated in specific paths between negative affect and child anxiety, depression, and worry. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. Sensory Clusters of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Affective Symptoms

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    Ben-Sasson, A.; Cermak, S. A.; Orsmond, G. I.; Tager-Flusberg, H.; Kadlec, M. B.; Carter, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show variability in their sensory behaviors. In this study we identified clusters of toddlers with ASDs who shared sensory profiles and examined differences in affective symptoms across these clusters. Method: Using cluster analysis 170 toddlers with ASDs were grouped based on parent…

  12. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

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    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.

  13. Role of adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms on transactional emotion recognition: context and state affect matter.

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    Luebbe, Aaron M; Fussner, Lauren M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Early, Martha C; Bell, Debora J

    2013-12-01

    Depressive symptomatology is associated with impaired recognition of emotion. Previous investigations have predominantly focused on emotion recognition of static facial expressions neglecting the influence of social interaction and critical contextual factors. In the current study, we investigated how youth and maternal symptoms of depression may be associated with emotion recognition biases during familial interactions across distinct contextual settings. Further, we explored if an individual's current emotional state may account for youth and maternal emotion recognition biases. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 128) completed measures of depressive symptomatology and participated in three family interactions, each designed to elicit distinct emotions. Mothers and youth completed state affect ratings pertaining to self and other at the conclusion of each interaction task. Using multiple regression, depressive symptoms in both mothers and adolescents were associated with biased recognition of both positive affect (i.e., happy, excited) and negative affect (i.e., sadness, anger, frustration); however, this bias emerged primarily in contexts with a less strong emotional signal. Using actor-partner interdependence models, results suggested that youth's own state affect accounted for depression-related biases in their recognition of maternal affect. State affect did not function similarly in explaining depression-related biases for maternal recognition of adolescent emotion. Together these findings suggest a similar negative bias in emotion recognition associated with depressive symptoms in both adolescents and mothers in real-life situations, albeit potentially driven by different mechanisms.

  14. Applications of Text Messaging, and Bibliotherapy for Treatment of Patients Affected by Depressive Symptoms

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    Taleban, Roya; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Moafi, Mohammad; Jiryaee, Nasrin; Khadivi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensity of depressive symptoms could be exacerbated due to the paucity of appropriate treatments. We assessed the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and text messaging, which aimed at amelioration of patient's behavior and consciousness, which could lead to suicide prevention. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial implemented in rural health centers of Isfahan district (Iran). Health centers were assigned in three trials consisting of the booklet, text messaging, and control groups. Each group consisted of 70 patients. Inclusion criteria were being affected by depressive symptom, <18 years, and cell phone accessibility. Mental retardation, drug and alcohol abuse, visual disability, dementia, suicide attempt history, electrotherapy, and receiving psychological interventions were our not met criteria. Our patient outcomes comprised intensity of depressive symptom and treatment compliance. The first two trials were requested to study instructive booklets in 30 days while the second cohort was demanded to study the booklet in accordance with the daily delivered text messaging. Results: Out of 210 individuals, 198 patients finished this study. The intensity of depressive symptom was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction (F = 12.30, P < 0.001). Based on treatment compliance, the interactive effect of group factor and the time factor was statistically significant. Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment. PMID:27076884

  15. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

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    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  16. [Self-experienced vulnerability, prodromic symptoms and coping strategies before schizophrenic and affective episodes].

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    Bechdolf, A; Halve, S; Schultze-Lutter, F; Klosterkötter, J

    1998-08-01

    For the first time, the present study explores self-experienced vulnerability, prodromal symptoms and coping strategies preceding schizophrenic and affective episodes. 33 schizophrenic and 29 depressive patients were assessed retrospectively for preepisodic alterations by means of the "Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms- BSABS" after complete recovery from the acute episode. 97% of the schizophrenic and 93% of the depressive patients showed preepisodic alterations. In the schizophrenic group the first alteration occurred with a median of 10 weeks and in the depressive group with a median of 18 weeks before the onset of the acute episode. With regard to self-experienced vulnerability depressive cases were significantly less tolerant to stress, i.e work under time pressure or unusual, unexpected requirements. With regard to prodromal symptoms schizophrenics showed significantly more often interpersonal irritation and certain perception and thought disturbances, whereas depressive patients reported more often adynamia and certain disturbances of proprioception. 73% of the schizophrenic patients and 90% of the depressive patients reacted to early symptoms with coping strategies. The preepisodic alterations in schizophrenic patients could be described in terms of mild psychotic productivity, early symptoms of depressive patients could be described as a mild depressive syndrome. Prospective studies are necessary to show if assessment of mild psychotic productivity could be used for early diagnosis and early intervention in schizophrenia.

  17. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary-care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia.

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    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2015-10-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modelling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β = -0.10, P fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β = -0.36, P fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden.

  18. Cognitive-Affective Predictors of the Uptake & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Uptake of, & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in Breast Cancer Survivors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Suzanne M. Miller...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cognitive-Affective Predictors of the Uptake of, & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Approximately 20-30% of women develop lymphedema (LE) following breast cancer treatment. Effective symptom management

  19. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

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    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  20. Unraveling the relationship between trait negative affectivity and habitual symptom reporting.

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    Katleen Bogaerts

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In two studies, we aimed at further elucidating the relationship between trait negative affectivity (NA and habitual symptom reporting (HSR by relating these variables to measures of executive function, trait questionnaires, and effects of emotion induction. METHODS: Healthy female participants (N = 75 were selected on their scores for trait NA and for the Checklist for Symptoms in Daily Life. Three groups were compared: (1 low NA-low HSR; (2 high NA-low HSR; and (3 high NA-high HSR (low NA-high HSR did not occur. In study 1, participants underwent a Parametric Go/No-go Task and a Stroop Color-Word test, and trait questionnaires measured alexithymia and absorption. Forty-five participants (N = 15 in each group were further engaged in study 2 to induce state NA using an affective picture paradigm. RESULTS: Impaired inhibition on the Stroop and Go/No go Task characterized high trait NA, but not high HSR, whereas alexithymia and absorption were elevated in HSR, regardless of trait NA. Negative picture viewing induced elevated state NA in all groups, but only high HSR also reported more bodily symptoms. This effect was moderated, but not mediated by state NA. CONCLUSION: High trait NA is a vulnerability factor but not a sufficient condition to develop HSR. Deficient inhibition is related to the broad trait of NA, whereas the moderating effect of state NA on symptom reporting is specific for high HSR. Understanding processes related to alexithymia and absorption may specifically help to explain elevated HSR.

  1. Health-related stress, affect, and depressive symptoms experienced by caregiving mothers of adults with a developmental disability.

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    Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne

    2004-09-01

    The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions.

  2. Did depressive symptoms affect recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease?

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    Adriana Vélez Feijó

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Vélez Feijó1, Carlos RM Rieder3, Márcia LF Chaves21Medical Sciences Post-Graduate Course; 2Internal Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Clinic Coordinator, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilObjective: Evaluate the influence of depressive symptoms on the recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, and identify types of emotion on spoken sentences.Methods: Thirty-five PD patients and 65 normal participants were studied. Dementia was checked with the Mini Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and DSM IV. Recognition of emotional prosody was tested by asking subjects to listen to 12 recorded statements with neutral affective content that were read with a strong affective expression. Subjects had to recognize the correct emotion by one of four descriptors (angry, sad, cheerful, and neutral. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was employed to rate depressive symptoms with the cutoff 14.Results: Total ratings of emotions correctly recognized by participants below and above the BDI cutoff were similar among PD patients and normal individuals. PD patients who correctly identified neutral and anger inflections presented higher rates of depressive symptoms (p = 0.011 and 0.044, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the normal group.Conclusions: Depression may modify some modalities of emotional prosody perception in PD, by increasing the perception of non-pleasant emotions or lack of affection, such as anger or indifference.Keywords: emotional prosody, Parkinson’s disease, depression, emotion

  3. Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus.

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    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2014-05-14

    Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates.

  4. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

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    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine.

  5. Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, Rinka M P; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-01-01

    During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two

  6. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

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    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  7. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

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    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  8. Extranasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis are difficult to treat and affect quality of life

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    Veeravich Jaruvongvanich

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Extranasal symptom scores correlated well with physical health and mental health in allergic rhinitis patients. Assessment of extranasal symptoms should be included to evaluate disease severity and assess therapeutic outcomes. Clinical trial NCT02000648, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  9. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

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    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.

  10. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.

  11. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  12. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVELong-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal...... symptoms.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSFifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid...... autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved treatment modalities targeting pharmacological neuroprotection or neuromodulation....

  13. Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.

  14. Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety During Pregnancy Affect Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg-Eddes, T. van; Groot, L. de; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  15. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  16. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  17. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Alison J.; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism.

  18. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Whalley, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  19. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....

  20. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  1. Prodromal Symptoms and Atypical Affectivity as Predictors of Major Depression in Juveniles: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the long-term morbidity of juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD), it is timely to consider whether more effort should be dedicated to its primary and secondary prevention. Methods: We reviewed studies of prodromal symptoms that may herald a first episode pediatric MDD and considered whether that literature has made an…

  2. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  3. Applications of text messaging, and bibliotherapy for treatment of patients affected by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Taleban

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment.

  4. Assessment of Affects: Comparison of Ratings of Prestructured Images with Symptom Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.; Strauss, Billie S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on assessments of four affects (anxiety, depression, anger, and contentment) using three different measures. Results show that staff members (n=44) reported lower levels of dysphoric affect than 40 psychiatric inpatients. Findings show that therapists can predict affects that are suggested by prestructured visual elements used in the…

  5. Seasonal variation in affective and other clinical symptoms among high-risk families for bipolar disorders in an Arctic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Pirkola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In bipolar disorder (BD, seasonality of symptoms is common and disturbances in circadian rhythms have been reported. Objectives: We identified high-penetrance families in a geographically restricted area in Northern Fennoscandia and studied the seasonal variation of clinical symptoms among BD subjects and their healthy relatives. Design: We explored the clinical characteristics of subjects living in Northern Fennoscandia, with extreme annual variation in daylight. Among known indigenous high-risk families for BD, we compared the affected ones (N=16 with their healthy relatives (N=15, and also included 18 healthy non-related controls from the same geographical area. Seasonal fluctuation in clinical measures was followed up at the 4 most demarcated photoperiodic time points of the annual cycle: around the summer solstice and autumn equinox in 2013, the winter solstice in 2013/2014, and the spring equinox in 2014. In the baseline, lifetime manic symptoms [Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ] and morningness–eveningness questionnaire type (MEQ were registered, whereas in the follow-up, depressive [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI] and distress [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12] symptoms and alcohol consumption and sleep were recorded. Results: Possibly indicative or statistically significant differences in symptoms between the affected subjects and their healthy relatives were the BDI winter (13.3 vs. 2.6, t=−2.51, p=0.022 and spring scores (12.6 vs. 3.2, t=−1.97, p=0.063 and GHQ winter (4.2 vs. 0.82, t=−2.08, p=0.052 and spring scores (3.8 vs. 0.82, t=−1.97, p=0.063. Scores were higher among the affected subjects, exceeding a possibly diagnostic threshold (10 and 3 at all the time points, and without the notable seasonality which was observed among the healthy relatives. In the overall population, MDQ and MEQ scores had an inverse correlation (−0.384, significant at 0.016, indicating increased lifetime manic behaviour among

  6. Severity of negative symptoms significantly affects cognitive functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia: the slowing in cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia S. Galaverna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown a decreased overall cognitive performance, and it was found that processing speed and working memory functions are affected. The aim of this study was to describe the general cognitive performance of patients with chronic schizophrenia and analyze its relationship with the severity of psychotic symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients diagnosed with DSM IV-TR schizophrenia disorder were examined for symptom improvement, measured by scales SAPS and SANS. Participants also completed the full scale WAIS-III. Results: The results show a generalized cognitive deficit, reflected in the low level of general intelligence, as well as the different index that comprise the scale. The most compromised index was the processing speed. The correlations showed that the overall severity of negative symptoms significantly affects cognitive functioning of chronic patients. The formal thought disorder and alogia significantly correlated with almost all the WAIS-III measures. Conclusions: Multiple studies of specific cognitive domains in schizophrenia have shown that deficits in processing speed are the core element of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. We support the hypothesis about the slowing in cognitive processing affect both the performance of the basic and more complex cognitive task.

  7. Depressive symptom trajectories in women affected by breast cancer and their male partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of breast cancer patients and their partners based on distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms, to examine how relationship quality and medical and sociodemographic factors were associated with these trajectories, and to explore...... whether patients and partners had similar trajectories. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort of couples dealing with breast cancer was established in Denmark. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at baseline and 5 and 12 months later. Sociodemographic...... and medical characteristics were retrieved from registers. A trajectory finite mixture model was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: The trajectories of depressive symptoms over time were analyzed in 546 patients and 508 partners. Among patients, 13 % had a high stable trajectory, 38 % an intermediate...

  8. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  9. Psychotic-affective symptoms and multiple system atrophy expand phenotypes of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2012-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by ataxic gait, slow saccades and peripheral neuropathy. Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism could be a clinical phenotype of SCA2, especially those of Chinese origin. In addition to these motor symptoms, SCA2 has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction, with only rare reports of psychosis. The authors report the presence of severe psychosis, major depression and multiple system atro...

  10. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  11. Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

  12. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.

  13. The Effects of Trauma History and Prenatal Affective Symptoms on Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Putnam, Frank W; Pressman, Eva K; Rubinow, David R; Putnam, Karen T; Matthieu, Monica M; Gilchrist, Michelle A; Jones, Ian; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal maternal mood may inform the adverse obstetric outcomes seen in disadvantaged populations. The contribution of having a trauma history is not well studied. We examined the impact of trauma exposure and mood symptoms on obstetric outcomes in 358 women. Women with antecedent trauma were more likely to have a history of depression, odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [1.81, 4.42], were younger at their first pregnancy, 18.86 years versus 20.10 years, and had a higher number of previous pregnancies, 2.01 versus 1.54, compared to those with no trauma exposure. Women with prenatal anxiety had significantly smaller babies than nonanxious women, 3,313.17 g, (SD = 441.58) versus 3,429.27 g, (SD = 437.82) Trauma history magnified the effects of maternal prenatal mood on birthweight; the moderating effect was limited to those who first experienced a trauma under 18 years of age. Childhood trauma exposure increased vulnerability for low birthweight delivery associated with prenatal mood disturbance. Screening pregnant women for trauma history and current mood symptoms is indicated.

  14. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Haeng Hur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total. The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05. There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05. These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  15. Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Balle, Maria; Sesé, Albert

    2010-10-01

    The relationship between negative affectivity (NA) and emotion regulation (ER) in determining anxiety and depressive symptomatology was examined in a large (n=1441) sample of adolescents (12-17 years old). Two models, diverging only as to inclusion or exclusion of a path from NA to negative ER, were analyzed through structural equation modeling; the goal was to explore the mediational or non-mediational role of ER in determining anxiety symptoms. The models yielded similar adequate fit to data, indicating that both NA and negative ER contribute to anxiety symptoms which, in turn, significantly determine depressive symptomatology. The mediational model better captures the relationships revealed in the data, with NA determining negative ER to a great extent. Additionally, most individuals scoring highly in NA also tend to score highly in negative ER, indicating that adolescents with heightened NA are prone to a dysfunctional style of ER.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation for treatment of seasonal affective symptoms in healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter;

    2014-01-01

    : This study was a randomized, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including healthcare professionals employed in psychiatric and somatic hospitals. 3345 healthcare professionals were invited to participate, 50 participants were screened, and 34 were able to complete the study. The main......, absenteeism from work and 25(OH)D. RESULTS: There were no significant between-group differences in SIGH-SAD sums at 12 weeks (p = 0.7 (CI: - 3.27 to 4.81)). However, there was a significant improvement of primary SIGH-SAD over time from inclusion (autumn-winter) to the completion of the study (winter......-5) as well as the exploratory outcome measures (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, absenteeism from work and 25(OH)D. Thus, the study failed to demonstrate an effect of vitamin D on SAD symptoms, but our findings may be limited by confounders. Furthermore, the study was underpowered and did...

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in trauma-exposed college students: the role of trauma-related cognitions, gender, and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Hajcak, Greg; Simons, Robert F; Foa, Edna B

    2007-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates a prominent role for trauma-related cognitions in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study utilized regression analysis to examine the unique relationships between various trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms after controlling for gender and measures of general affective distress in a large sample of trauma-exposed college students. In terms of trauma-related cognitions, only negative cognitions about the self were related to PTSD symptom severity. Gender and anxiety symptoms were also related to PTSD symptom severity. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  18. Dynamic modulation of inflammatory pain-related affective and sensory symptoms by optical control of amygdala metabotropic glutamate receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussy, C; Gómez-Santacana, X; Rovira, X; De Bundel, D; Ferrazzo, S; Bosch, D; Asede, D; Malhaire, F; Acher, F; Giraldo, J; Valjent, E; Ehrlich, I; Ferraguti, F; Pin, J-P; Llebaria, A; Goudet, C

    2016-12-20

    Contrary to acute pain, chronic pain does not serve as a warning signal and must be considered as a disease per se. This pathology presents a sensory and psychological dimension at the origin of affective and cognitive disorders. Being largely refractory to current pharmacotherapies, identification of endogenous systems involved in persistent and chronic pain is crucial. The amygdala is a key brain region linking pain sensation with negative emotions. Here, we show that activation of a specific intrinsic neuromodulatory system within the amygdala associated with type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu4) abolishes sensory and affective symptoms of persistent pain such as hypersensitivity to pain, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, and fear extinction impairment. Interestingly, neuroanatomical and synaptic analysis of the amygdala circuitry suggests that the effects of mGlu4 activation occur outside the central nucleus via modulation of multisensory thalamic inputs to lateral amygdala principal neurons and dorso-medial intercalated cells. Furthermore, we developed optogluram, a small diffusible photoswitchable positive allosteric modulator of mGlu4. This ligand allows the control of endogenous mGlu4 activity with light. Using this photopharmacological approach, we rapidly and reversibly inhibited behavioral symptoms associated with persistent pain through optical control of optogluram in the amygdala of freely behaving animals. Altogether, our data identify amygdala mGlu4 signaling as a mechanism that bypasses central sensitization processes to dynamically modulate persistent pain symptoms. Our findings help to define novel and more precise therapeutic interventions for chronic pain, and exemplify the potential of optopharmacology to study the dynamic activity of endogenous neuromodulatory mechanisms in vivo.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.223.

  19. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  20. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth E; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis.

  1. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  2. Lifestyle factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a cross-sectional study of healthy 19864 adults using FSSG scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a very common disorder worldwide, comprised of reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD. As more than half of GERD patients are classified into the NERD group, precise evaluation of bothersome epigastric symptoms is essential. Nevertheless, compared with many reports targeting endoscopic reflux esophagitis, large-scale studies focusing on GERD symptoms have been very scarce. Methods To elucidate lifestyle factors affecting GERD symptoms, 19,864 healthy adults in Japan were analyzed. Sub-analyses of 371 proton pump inhibitor (PPI users and 539 histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA users were also performed. Using the FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD score as a response variable, 25 lifestyle-related factors were univariately evaluated by Student's t-test or Pearson's correlation coefficient, and were further analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Results Average FSSG scores were 4.8 ± 5.2 for total subjects, 9.0 ± 7.3 for PPI users, and 8.2 ± 6.6 for H2RA users. Among the total population, positively correlated factors and standardized coefficients (β for FSSG scores are inadequate sleep (β = 0.158, digestive drug users (β = 0.0972 for PPI, β = 0.0903 for H2RA, and β = 0.104 for others, increased body weight in adulthood (β = 0.081, dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.061, the habit of midnight snack (β = 0.055, lower body mass index (β = 0.054, NSAID users (β = 0.051, female gender (β = 0.048, lack of breakfast (β = 0.045, lack of physical exercise (β = 0.035, younger age (β = 0.033, antihyperglycemic agents non-users (β = 0.026, the habit of quick eating (β = 0.025, alcohol drinking (β = 0.025, history of gastrectomy (β = 0.024, history of cardiovascular disease (β = 0.020, and smoking (β = 0.018. Positively correlated factors for PPI users are female gender (β = 0.198, inadequate sleep (β = 0.150, lack of breakfast

  3. Negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction cigarette smoking outcome expectancies: incremental validity for anxiety focused on bodily sensations and panic attack symptoms among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology.

  4. Modeling psychotic and cognitive symptoms of affective disorders: Disrupted latent inhibition and reversal learning deficits in highly stress reactive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C

    2010-09-01

    Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  5. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  6. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems.

  7. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  8. Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A

    1999-06-01

    The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.

  9. Selective deficits in semantic verbal fluency in patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kravariti, Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is likely to represent a trait characteristic of bipolar disorder, but the extent to which it comprises \\'core\\' deficits as opposed to those secondary to longstanding illness or intellectual decline is unclear. We investigated neuropsychological performance in an epidemiologically derived sample of patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania, compared to community controls.

  10. Arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter microsatellites in schizophrenia: a study of the effect of the "risk" allele on clinical symptoms and facial affect recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimbet, Vera; Alfimova, Margarita; Abramova, Lilia; Kaleda, Vasily; Gritsenko, Inga

    2015-02-28

    We studied AVPR1A RS3 polymorphism in schizophrenic patients and controls. AVPR1A RS3 was not associated with schizophrenia. The allele 327bp implicated in autism and social behavior was associated with negative symptoms and tended to be linked to patient facial affect recognition suggesting its impact on schizophrenia social phenotypes.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  12. Childhood Factors Affecting Persistence and Desistence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adulthood : Results From the MTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Sibley, Margaret H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Howard, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine childhood factors that predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persistence and desistence in adulthood. Method: Regression analyses were used to determine associations between childhood factors and adult ADHD symptom persistence in 453 participants (mean age,

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom burden and gender each affect generalization in a reward- and punishment-learning task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kevin D.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Re-experiencing, which includes intrusive memories or flashbacks of the trauma, is a core symptom cluster of PTSD. From an associative learning perspective, this cluster may be attributed to cues associated with the trauma, which have come to elicit symptoms in a variety of situations encountered in daily life due to a tendency to overgeneralize. Consistent with this, prior studies have indicated that both individuals with clinically diagnosed with PTSD, and those with self-reported symptoms who may not meet full diagnostic criteria, show changes in generalization. Building on prior research, the current study examined whether PTSD symptom burden, but also gender, veteran status, and combat experience–all associated with PTSD vulnerability–modulate learning and generalization in a computer-based task. Participants were presented with stimulus compounds consisting of a foreground and background that could be predictive of reward, punishment or no outcome. Learning was followed by a generalization test where these components were recombined to form novel configurations. An interaction between PTSD symptom burden and gender was found where females with more severe PTSD symptoms showed no evidence of sensitivity to the background. This result is consistent with increased generalization, and may indicate a decrease in the ability to process cue configurations leading to re-experiencing in a variety of situations. Further work is indicated to help elucidate the cognitive processes driving gender differences that may confer vulnerability to PTSD. PMID:28196108

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom burden and gender each affect generalization in a reward- and punishment-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radell, Milen L; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W; Myers, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Re-experiencing, which includes intrusive memories or flashbacks of the trauma, is a core symptom cluster of PTSD. From an associative learning perspective, this cluster may be attributed to cues associated with the trauma, which have come to elicit symptoms in a variety of situations encountered in daily life due to a tendency to overgeneralize. Consistent with this, prior studies have indicated that both individuals with clinically diagnosed with PTSD, and those with self-reported symptoms who may not meet full diagnostic criteria, show changes in generalization. Building on prior research, the current study examined whether PTSD symptom burden, but also gender, veteran status, and combat experience-all associated with PTSD vulnerability-modulate learning and generalization in a computer-based task. Participants were presented with stimulus compounds consisting of a foreground and background that could be predictive of reward, punishment or no outcome. Learning was followed by a generalization test where these components were recombined to form novel configurations. An interaction between PTSD symptom burden and gender was found where females with more severe PTSD symptoms showed no evidence of sensitivity to the background. This result is consistent with increased generalization, and may indicate a decrease in the ability to process cue configurations leading to re-experiencing in a variety of situations. Further work is indicated to help elucidate the cognitive processes driving gender differences that may confer vulnerability to PTSD.

  15. Patient-Provider Interactions Affect Symptoms in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Dossett

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the benefits that some patients derive from complementary and integrative medicine (CIM are related to the therapies recommended or to the consultation process as some CIM provider visits are more involved than conventional medical visits. Many patients with gastrointestinal conditions seek out CIM therapies, and prior work has demonstrated that the quality of the patient-provider interaction can improve health outcomes in irritable bowel syndrome, however, the impact of this interaction on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of conducting a 2 x 2 factorial design study preliminarily exploring the impact of the patient-provider interaction, and the effect of an over-the-counter homeopathic product, Acidil, on symptoms and health-related quality of life in subjects with GERD.24 subjects with GERD-related symptoms were randomized in a 2 x 2 factorial design to receive 1 either a standard visit based on an empathic conventional primary care evaluation or an expanded visit with questions modeled after a CIM consultation and 2 either Acidil or placebo for two weeks. Subjects completed a daily GERD symptom diary and additional measures of symptom severity and health-related quality of life.There was no significant difference in GERD symptom severity between the Acidil and placebo groups from baseline to follow-up (p = 0.41, however, subjects who received the expanded visit were significantly more likely to report a 50% or greater improvement in symptom severity compared to subjects who received the standard visit (p = 0.01. Total consultation length, perceived empathy, and baseline beliefs in CIM were not associated with treatment outcomes.An expanded patient-provider visit resulted in greater GERD symptom improvement than a standard empathic medical visit. CIM consultations may have enhanced placebo effects, and further studies to assess the active components of this

  16. The cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist CI-988 failed to affect CCK-4 induced symptoms in panic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanMegen, HJGM; Westenberg, HGM; denBoer, JA; Slaap, B; vanEsRadhakishun, F; Pande, AC

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B) receptor antagonist CI-988 on symptoms elicited by the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK4) were studied in DSM-IIIR patients with panic disorder. The study employed a double-blind, two-period incomplete block design. Patients (n = 14) received two differe

  17. Affect and Mindfulness as Predictors of Change in Mood Disturbance, Stress Symptoms, and Quality of Life in a Community-Based Yoga Program for Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Mackenzie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the psychological determinants by which benefits are accrued via yoga practice in cancer-related clinical settings. Using a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach, associations between affect, mindfulness, and patient-reported mental health outcomes, including mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQL, were examined in an existing seven-week yoga program for cancer survivors. Participants (N=66 were assessed before and after the yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Decreases in mood disturbance and stress symptoms and improvements in HRQL were observed upon program completion. Improvements in mood disturbance and stress symptoms were maintained at the three- and six-month follow-ups. HRQL exhibited further improvement at the three-month follow-up, which was maintained at the six-month follow-up. Improvements in measures of well-being were predicted by initial positive yoga beliefs and concurrently assessed affective and mindfulness predictor variables. Previous yoga experience, affect, mindfulness, and HRQL were related to yoga practice maintenance over the course of the study.

  18. Uraemic pruritus markedly affects the quality of life and depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseł, Joanna; Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of uraemic pruritus on patients' wellbeing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of uraemic pruritus on quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients with end-stage renal disease. A total of 200 haemodialysis patients were included into the study. The prevalence of uraemic pruritus was 38%. Patients with uraemic pruritus had significantly lower quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire compared to the remaining of analysed subjects. Among patients with uraemic pruritus, 64.5% individuals also showed impaired skin-related quality of life evaluated with Dermatology Life Quality Index. The quality of life impairment correlated with uraemic pruritus intensity assessed with VAS and the 4-item itch questionnaire. Depression level significantly correlated with quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with uraemic pruritus intensity. Our study underscores that uraemic pruritus should be regarded as an important health problem among haemodialysis patients.

  19. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  20. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Faye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD, quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II. Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were “sensations of shortness of breath or smothering,” “feeling of choking,” and “fear of dying” found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1. Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability.

  1. Childhood trauma is associated with a specific admixture of affective, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms cutting across traditional diagnostic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, M; Viechtbauer, W; Gunther, N; van Zelst, C; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; Bak, M; van Winkel, R; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses link childhood trauma to depression, mania, anxiety disorders, and psychosis. It is unclear, however, whether these outcomes truly represent distinct disorders following childhood trauma, or that childhood trauma is associated with admixtures of affective, psychotic, anxiet

  2. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio......-demographic and medical factors associated with HRQoL at the time of diagnosis. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter survey study that included patients who were referred for a diagnostic evaluation due to non-specific cancer symptoms. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale before and after...... completing the diagnostic evaluation. The baseline and follow-up EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores were compared with reference populations. The impact of socio-demographic and medical factors on HRQoL at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression. Results A total of 838 patients participated...

  3. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact...... of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with HRQoL at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter survey study that included patients who were referred for a diagnostic evaluation due to non-specific cancer symptoms. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality...... of life scale before and after completing the diagnostic evaluation. The baseline and follow-up EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores were compared with reference populations. The impact of socio-demographic and medical factors on HRQoL at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression. RESULTS...

  4. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  5. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  6. How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2008-10-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management.

  7. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-02-28

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors.

  8. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  9. Knowing Right from Wrong, but Just Not Always Feeling it: Relations Among Callous-Unemotional Traits, Psychopathological Symptoms, and Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in 8-to 12-Year-Old Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.; Benjamins, C.; Muris, P.E.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research expands our understanding of cognitive and affective morality by exploring associations with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 46 8- to 12-year-old boys from the community who completed the Affective Morality Index, the Youth Self-Repo

  10. Progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among those severely affected by multiple sclerosis: a mixed-methods cross-sectional study of Black Caribbean and White British people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Koffman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis is now more common among minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about their experiences, especially in advanced stages. We examine disease progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among Black Caribbean (BC and White British (WB people severely affected by MS. DESIGN: Mixed methods study of 43 BC and 43 WB people with MS (PwMS with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS ≥6 involving data from in clinical records, face-to-face structured interviews and a nested-qualitative component. Progression Index (PI and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS were calculated. To control for selection bias, propensity scores were derived for each patient and adjusted for in the comparative statistical analysis; qualitative data were analysed using the framework approach. RESULTS: Median EDSS for both groups was (6.5; range: 6.0-9.0. Progression Index (PI and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS based on neurological assessment of current EDSS scores identified BC PwMS were more likely to have aggressive disease (PI F = 4.04, p = 0.048, MSSS F = 10.30, p<0.001. Patients' reports of the time required to reach levels of functional decline equivalent to different EDSS levels varied by group; EDSS 4: BC 2.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years (U = 258.50, p = 0.013, EDSS 6∶6.1 years BC v/s WB 12.7 years (U = 535.500, p = 0.011, EDSS 8: BC 8.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years. Both groups reported high symptom burden. BC PwMS were more cognitively impaired than WB PwMS (F = 9.65, p = 0.003. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews provides correspondence with quantitative findings; more BC than WB PwMS referred to feelings of extreme frustration and unresolved loss/confusion associated with their rapidly advancing disease. The interviews also reveal the centrality, meanings and impact of common MS-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in diagnosis should be avoided and more frequent

  11. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part II: fever, depressive affect, and mobility problems clarify an influential symptom pair (pain–fatigue/weakness and cluster (pain–fatigue/weakness–sleep problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur1,2 1School of Social Work and the Center for Health Innovation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; 2Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Background: Most patients with advanced cancer experience symptom pairs or clusters among pain, fatigue, and insomnia. However, only combinations where symptoms are mutually influential hold potential for identifying patient subgroups at greater risk, and in some contexts, interventions with "cross-over" (multisymptom effects. Improved methods to detect and interpret interactions among symptoms, signs, or biomarkers are needed to reveal these influential pairs and clusters. I recently created sequential residual centering (SRC to reduce multicollinearity in moderated regression, which enhances sensitivity to detect these interactions. Methods: I applied SRC to moderated regressions of single-item symptoms that interact to predict outcomes from 268 palliative radiation outpatients. I investigated: 1 the hypothesis that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems, predicts depressive affect only when fever presents, and 2 an exploratory analysis, when fever is absent, that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems × depressive affect, predicts mobility problems. In the fever context, three-way interactions (and derivative terms of the four symptoms (pain, fatigue/weakness, fever, sleep problems are tested individually and simultaneously; in the non-fever context, a single four-way interaction (and derivative terms is tested. Results: Fever interacts separately with fatigue/weakness and sleep problems; these comoderators each magnify the pain–depressive affect relationship along the upper or full range of pain values. In non-fever contexts, fatigue/weakness, sleep problems, and depressive affect comagnify the relationship between pain and mobility problems. Conclusion: Different mechanisms

  12. High Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Relation to Social Factors in Affected Population One Year after the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Tsujiuchi

    Full Text Available This study investigated post-traumatic stress symptoms in relation to the population affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, one year after the disaster. Additionally, we investigated social factors, such as forced displacement, which we hypothesize contributed to the high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Finally, we report of written narratives that were collected from the impacted population.Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, questionnaires were sent to 2,011 households of those displaced from Fukushima prefecture living temporarily in Saitama prefecture. Of the 490 replies; 350 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine several characteristics and variables of social factors as predictors of probable post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD.The mean score of IES-R was 36.15±21.55, with 59.4% having scores of 30 or higher, thus indicating a probable PTSD. No significant differences in percentages of high-risk subjects were found among sex, age, evacuation area, housing damages, tsunami affected, family split-up, and acquaintance support. By the result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors of probable PTSD were chronic physical diseases (OR = 1.97, chronic mental diseases (OR = 6.25, worries about livelihood (OR = 2.27, lost jobs (OR = 1.71, lost social ties (OR = 2.27, and concerns about compensation (OR = 3.74.Although there are limitations in assuming a diagnosis of PTSD based on self-report IES-R, our findings indicate that there was a high-risk of PTSD strongly related to the nuclear disaster and its consequent evacuation and displacement. Therefore, recovery efforts must focus not only on medical and psychological treatment alone, but also on social and economic issues related to the displacement, as well.

  13. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  14. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  15. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  16. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  17. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters or ...

  18. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmbeck, F.; Boyette, L.L.; van der Valk, R.; Meijer, C.; Dingemans, P.; Van, R.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.S.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2015-01-01

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-

  19. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child

  20. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  1. Do concomitant pain symptoms in patients with major depression affect quality of life even when taking into account baseline depression severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Zbigniew Kadziola,3 Victoria Moneta,4 Xiaomei Peng,5 Roberto Brugnoli,6 Josep Maria Haro41Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Eli Lilly Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Università di Roma, “Sapienza,” Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD may suffer from concomitant pain symptoms. The aim of this study is to determine whether the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS influences quality of life when taking into account baseline depression severity.Methods: Patients with a new or first episode of MDD (n = 909 were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study in East Asia. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, Somatic Symptom Inventory, and EuroQoL questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS were assessed at baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. The presence of PPS was defined as a mean score of ≥2 on the Somatic Symptom Inventory pain-related items. Regression analyses determined predictors of quality of life at 3 months, adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, overall severity, and quality of life at baseline.Results: PPS were present (PPS+ at baseline in 52% of patients. During the 3-month follow-up, EQ-VAS scores improved from 47.7 (standard deviation [SD] 20.6 to 72.5 (SD 20.4, and EQ-5D improved from 0.48 (SD 0.34 to 0.80 (SD 0.26. At 3 months, mean EQ-VAS was 66.4 (SD 21.2 for baseline PPS+ patients versus 78.5 (SD 17.6 for baseline PPS- patients, and mean EQ-5D was 0.71 (SD 0.29 versus 0.89 (SD 0.18. PPS+ at baseline was a significant predictor of quality of life at 3 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and baseline clinical variables

  2. Analysis of changes in traumatic symptoms and daily life activity of children affected by the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused tremendous damage and traumatized a number of people, including children. This study aimed to compare traumatic symptoms and daily life activity among children 20 months after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami with those observed after 8 months. METHODS: The study comprised two groups. The first comprised 12,524 kindergarten, elementary school, and junior high school children in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, who were evaluated 8 months after the disaster. The second comprised 10,597 children from the same place who were evaluated 20 months after the disaster. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a questionnaire on children's daily life were distributed to the children. An effective response was obtained from 11,639 (92.9%, 8 months after and 10,597 (86.9%, 20 months after children. RESULTS: The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in junior high school girls than in boys. The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in 4th-6th grade girls than in boys after 8 months. Elementary and junior high school children evaluated after 20 months had a significantly lower PTSSC-15 score than those evaluated after 8 months. The number of children having breakfast was significantly higher after 8 months than that after 20 months. In both the groups, children of all grades who had breakfast had a significantly lower PTSSC-15 score than those who did not have breakfast. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that traumatic symptoms and daily life activity of children who survived the earthquake and tsunami improved over time.

  3. A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance: A Preliminary Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimated that major depression is the fourth most significant cause of disability worldwide for people aged 65 and older, where depressed older adults reported decreased independence, poor health, poor quality of life, functional decline, disability, and increased chronic medical problems. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1 to develop a low-cost point-of-care testing system for psychomotor symptoms of depression and (2 to evaluate the system in community dwelling elderly in India. The preliminary results from the cross-sectional study showed a significant negative linear correlation between balance and depression. Here, monitoring quantitative electroencephalography along with the center of pressure for cued response time during functional reach tasks may provide insights into the psychomotor symptoms of depression where average slope of the Theta-Alpha power ratio versus average slope of baseline-normalized response time may be a candidate biomarker, which remains to be evaluated in our future clinical studies. Once validated, the biomarker can be used for monitoring the outcome of a comprehensive therapy program in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the frequency of falls can be monitored with a mobile phone-based application where the propensity of falls during the periods of psychomotor symptoms of depression can be investigated further.

  4. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Vanmeenen, Kirsten M; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group) or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group) completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment). This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight into how

  5. Learning to obtain reward, but not avoid punishment, is affected by presence of PTSD symptoms in male veterans: empirical data and computational model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Myers

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms include behavioral avoidance which is acquired and tends to increase with time. This avoidance may represent a general learning bias; indeed, individuals with PTSD are often faster than controls on acquiring conditioned responses based on physiologically-aversive feedback. However, it is not clear whether this learning bias extends to cognitive feedback, or to learning from both reward and punishment. Here, male veterans with self-reported current, severe PTSD symptoms (PTSS group or with few or no PTSD symptoms (control group completed a probabilistic classification task that included both reward-based and punishment-based trials, where feedback could take the form of reward, punishment, or an ambiguous "no-feedback" outcome that could signal either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. The PTSS group outperformed the control group in total points obtained; the PTSS group specifically performed better than the control group on reward-based trials, with no difference on punishment-based trials. To better understand possible mechanisms underlying observed performance, we used a reinforcement learning model of the task, and applied maximum likelihood estimation techniques to derive estimated parameters describing individual participants' behavior. Estimations of the reinforcement value of the no-feedback outcome were significantly greater in the control group than the PTSS group, suggesting that the control group was more likely to value this outcome as positively reinforcing (i.e., signaling successful avoidance of punishment. This is consistent with the control group's generally poorer performance on reward trials, where reward feedback was to be obtained in preference to the no-feedback outcome. Differences in the interpretation of ambiguous feedback may contribute to the facilitated reinforcement learning often observed in PTSD patients, and may in turn provide new insight

  6. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

  7. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilo Franzoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

  8. How Do You Feel? Self-esteem Predicts Affect, Stress, Social Interaction, and Symptom Severity during Daily Life in Patients with Chronic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severi...

  9. The Mediator Roles of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem between the Affective Components of Psychological Well-Being and the Cognitive Symptoms of Problematic Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with cognitions about problematic Internet use have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediator roles of both life satisfaction and self-esteem between affective components of subjective well-being and cognitions about problematic Internet use. For this purpose, the…

  10. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action.

  11. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of fearful and sad distraction on target processing in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity symptoms and affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eSinghal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used event-related brain potentials (ERP as neural markers of cognitive operations to examine emotion and attentional processing in a population of high-risk adolescents with mental health problems that included ADHD, anxiety, and depression. We included a healthy control group for comparison purposes, and employed a modified version of the emotional oddball paradigm, consisting of frequent distracters (scrambled pictures, infrequent distracters (sad, fearful, and neutral pictures and infrequent targets (circles. Participants were instructed to make a right hand button press to targets and a left hand button press to all other stimuli. EEG/ERP recordings were taken using a high-density 256-channel recording system. Behavioral data showed that for both clinical and non-clinical adolescents, reaction time was slowest in response to the fearful images. Electrophysiological data differentiated emotion and target processing between clinical and non-clinical adolescents. In the clinical group we observed a larger P100 and Late Positive Potential (LPP in response to fearful compared to sad or neutral pictures. There were no differences in these ERPs in the healthy sample. Emotional modulation of target processing was also identified in the clinical sample, where we observed an increase in P300 amplitude, and a larger sustained LPP in response to targets that followed emotional pictures (fear & sad compared to targets that followed neutral pictures or other targets. There were no differences in these target ERPs for the healthy participants. Taken together, we suggest that these data provide important and novel evidence of affective and attention dysfunction in this clinical population of adolescents, and offer an example of the disruptive effects of emotional reactivity on basic cognition.

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  14. 玉树地震后幸存者的创伤后应激症状、生活满意度与积极情感/消极情感%Relationship between post-traumatic symptoms, life satisfaction and positive affect,negative affect in survivors after the Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金凤; 赵品良; 史占彪; 王力; 王文忠; 张镇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relations of positive affect and negative affect to post-traumatic symptoms and the life satisfaction in survivors after the Yushu Earthquake. Methods: Totally 505 residents in Yushu earthquake disaster area were assessed with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Results: The PCL-C score showed the prevalence of post-traumatic symptoms in this sample was 32.7%, the HSCL-25 score showed the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms was 53. 3% and 47.1 %, respectively. Women, Tibetan and survivors with low education level had higher preva-lence of the above symptoms (P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that the NA score of PANAS had positive correlation with PCL-C score, the depression and anxiety symptoms'score of HSCL-25 (β=0.59,0.62,0.59; Ps<0.05),and had negative correlation with SWLS score (β= -0.15, P<0.05).The PA score of PANAS had negative correlation with the anxiety symptoms' score of HSCL-25, had positive correlation with the depression symptoms'score of HSCL-25 and SWLS score (β =0.10,0. 38; Ps <0.05). The elders' PCL-C and SWLS score were higher than the young (β = 0.10,0.12; Ps <0.05). Women's PCL-C scores, depression and anxiety symptoms 'scores of HSCL-25 were higher than men's (β=0.11,0.11; Ps <0.05). The Tibetan's SWLS score was higher than the non-Tibetan's (β =0.16, P <0.05). Conclusion: It suggests that after the Yushu Earthquake, the negative affect in survivors may be the risk factor for post-traumatic symptoms, and have negative effect on life satisfaction, while the positive affect could relieve survivors'anxiety symptoms and improve their life satisfaction.%目的:了解玉树震后幸存者的创伤后应激症状和生活满意度状况及其与积极情感/消极情感的关系.方法:在地震后3.5

  15. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  16. Analysis of joint pain symptom and its related affecting factors in menopausal women%更年期妇女骨关节痛症状发生及其相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凤; 李长滨; 邵红芳; 陶敏芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the occurrence situation of bone pain symptom and its related affecting factors in menopausal women. Methods:The data of patients with menopausal disease in our hospital from January 1 to June 30,2011 were analyzed by using following scales: (1)self-designed questionnaire to investigate the general condition of patients; (2) internationally accepted score scales such as modified Kupperman scale and MRS scale to evaluate severity of menopausal symptoms and the quality of life; (3) applying dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXEA) to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in order to know patients' osteoporosis degree. Results:(1) In our study, the occurrence rate of menopausal joint pain was 77.0%. (2) This study results showed that the occurrence of joint pain in menopause had no significant correlation with osteoporosis,but it was significantly associated with body mass index(BMI). (3)Kupperman scores were related to the severity degree of bone pain. The bone pain symptom was more serious in the patients with high level of MRS. Conclusions:Joint pain is a common symptom to be treated for menopausal women, which is significantly correlated with the level of BMI, but not with osteoporosis. It affects women's life quality.%目的 探讨更年期妇女骨关节痛症状发生状况及其相关影响因素. 方法 研究对象选取对2011年1月1日至2011年6月30日在上海交通大学附属第六人民医院更年期专病门诊就诊的患者.研究方法:(1)采用自行设计的问卷对患者一般情况进行调查;(2)采用改良Kupperman评分、MRS评分等量表进行更年期症状及患者生活质量进行评估;(3)采用双能X线进行骨密度测定. 结果 (1)更年期骨关节痛的发生率为77.0%;(2)更年期骨关节痛的发生与骨质疏松无明显相关性,与体重指数(BMI)显著相关,BMI越高,骨关节痛发病率越高;(3) Kupperman评分和MRS评分的高低与骨关节痛发病严重程度有相关性,

  17. Administration of a Multi-Strain Probiotic Product to Women in the Perinatal Period Differentially Affects the Breast Milk Cytokine Profile and May Have Beneficial Effects on Neonatal Gastrointestinal Functional Symptoms. A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic (n = 33 or a placebo (n = 33 daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Results: Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. Conclusion: High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants.

  18. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone ...

  19. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  20. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  1. 脑梗死后出现抑郁焦虑症状的影响因素分析%Analysis of factors affecting the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 张垚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of anxiety and depression after cerebral infarction.Methods using the self rating Depression Scale (SDS), self ratingAnxiety Scale (SAS) were performed in 200 patients by grading the risk factors ofdepression and anxiety after cerebral infarction analysis.Results multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors after cerebral infarction, including different lesion location,duration, marital status, there is no concomitant diseases, times of cerebral infarction,family history, the degree of neural function defect.Conclusion the common symptoms of depression and anxiety after stroke, and is affected by many factors, seriously affect therecovery of neural function and daily ability recovery, should be paid attention to.%目的:探讨脑梗死后抑郁焦虑症状的影响因素。方法采用自评抑郁量表(SDS)、自评焦虑量表(SAS)对200例患者进行评分测定,对脑梗死后抑郁焦虑状态的危险因素进行分析。结果多因素分析提示脑梗死后的危险因素包括不同病变部位、病程、婚姻状况、有无伴发疾病、脑梗死次数、家族史、神经功能缺损程度。结论脑卒中后的抑郁焦虑症状常见,且受多种因素影响,严重影响神经功能康复和日常能力的恢复,应予以重视。

  2. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment.

  3. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  4. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  5. A race riot's effect on psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Gillespie, D P; Lindenthal, J J

    1975-09-01

    Certain individually stressful events have been observed to increase the psychological distress of persons affected; reduced psychological distress following other events has been attributed to collective processes, including increased group cohesion. These possibilities are investigated by contrasting reported symptom levels of 938 adults interviewed before, during, and after a racial riot. White suburbanites interviewed after the riot and urban black women interviewed during the riot report significantly fewer psychological symptoms. Hypotheses of seasonal symptom changes, sampling biases, and the absence of symptom changes among relatively unimpaired respondents are rejected, suggesting that reductions in symptom level are associated with the riot. Serious methodological problems are raised by our finding that such events may significantly affect not only rates but also patterns of reported psychological symptoms obtained through epidemiological studies.

  6. 地震灾害后不同受灾人群身心应激症状影响度分析%The Physical and Mental Stress Symptoms Effect of Population with Different Affect After the Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵来军; 程晶晶; 陈誉承

    2011-01-01

    面对地展带来的巨大灾难,通过探讨地及后不同类型灾民身心应激症状的影响度,有利于有针对性地对灾民进行心理救助,减轻灾害影响,提高灾害救援效果.本文将地震后灾民身心应激症状分解为4个指标,即生理症状、认知症状、情绪症状和行为症状.采用突变级数法构建了地震灾害后灾民身心应激症状突变模型,并以"5.12"泣川地展为例做实证研究.对不同类型受灾人群身心应激症状影响度进行了分析.通过对比研究发现,不同类型人群身心应激症状所受影响程度不同,女性、中老年组以及重灾区人群身心应激症状最严重.即使同一类人群,在面对同样灾害时,其在生理症状、认知症状、情绪症状和行为症状4个方面所受影响程度也不同.本文采用突变模型对地震灾害后灾民身心应激症状进行研究,所得结论与既往相关研究结论基本一致,表明模型的评价结果可靠、有效,为灾后减灾工作提供了新的思路和方法.%While facing the huge earthquake, the physical and psychological assistance for victims is deemed necessary. Exploring the physical and psychological symptoms for different types of victims is beneficial to reduce the impact of disasters and improve the effect of the assistance. The physical and psychological stress symptoms are characterized by four indicators based on the prior related literature,namely, physical symptoms, cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, and behavioral symptoms. The catastrophe progression method is applied to build a physical and psychological stress symptoms catastrophe model for the earthquake victims and "5.12" Wenchuan earthquake is used as an example for the empirical research. According to demographic characteristics, the victims of Wenchuan earthquake are categorized by gender, age, and extent of earthquake impact. The impact of the earthquake on different types of victims is analyzed and it is

  7. A Dementia Case Presenting with Psychotic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a progressive clinical syndrome in which affected areas of brain function may be affected, such as memory, language, abstract thinking, problem solving and attention. Psychotic symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations and delusions, which usually occur in the dementia. In this paper, a dementia case presenting with psychotic symptoms is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 482-486

  8. Negative symptoms in psychometrically defined schizotypy: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M

    2016-06-30

    People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  9. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  10. Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Gout may be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be vague and could be from other ...

  11. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not for as long as 3 weeks. Early Symptoms In those who have been vaccinated: In most ...

  12. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  13. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  14. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  15. Psychiatric symptoms as pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders are typically seen as the causes of their symptoms. This makes sense in many fields of medicine, but not in psychiatry where symptoms constitute disorders: the notion that mental disorders cause symptoms is a tautology. Biological psychiatry tries to circumvent this logical fallacy by tryi

  16. Mere end hver tiende har symptomer på vinterdepression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a syndrome of classical depressive symptoms such as reduced energy, initiative and mood combined with atypical symptoms of increased appetite, weight and sleep duration. The symptoms recur each winter and disappear again in spring or early summer. The prevalence...

  17. Fibromyalgia Syndrome Symptoms and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Alice; Bernard, Amy L.; Edsall, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed fibromyalgia syndrome support group members about characteristics of the disease and how it affected their lives. Respondents had symptoms for many years before being diagnosed. Symptoms varied tremendously on a daily and yearly basis, so disease management was in a constant state of flux. Most symptoms significantly impacted quality of…

  18. Musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Cuccherini, B A; Seiger, L A

    1994-02-01

    This study ascertained the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians, in order to evaluate the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) in this population. We adapted the CTD surveillance questionnaire used by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to assess the prevalence of neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, back, and knee symptoms in the year prior to the survey. Questionnaires were completed by 308 apprentices and journeymen enrolled in training classes at the local union hall. The participants were relatively young individuals, and 86% of the participants were currently working as electricians. Participants reported a high prevalence of symptoms which occurred more than three times during the past year or which lasted more than 1 week. Back symptoms and hand/wrist symptoms were experienced most frequently, by about half the population, while elbow symptoms were reported by only 15% of participants. Symptom prevalence was lower, but still notable, when defined as symptoms which had occurred at least once a month or lasted more than a week in the past year. Eighty-two percent of participants reported at least one musculoskeletal symptom using the most inclusive definition, while 57% reported two or more symptoms. This survey highlights that: 1) low back discomfort is common in young construction workers, and resulted in medical care, missed work, or light duty for almost 35% of the participants; 2) neck discomfort is also very common and required doctor visits or work modification for almost one quarter of the participants; 3) these construction workers continued to work with symptoms that are classifiable as a CTD; and 4) history of injury is correlated with the subsequent prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  19. 失眠症状对突发性耳聋患者影响的临床分析%Clinical analysisof insomnia symptoms in patients with sudden deafness affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔锦; 孙书臣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize and report on sudden sensorineural hearing loss of 167 patients who with symp-toms of insomnia,and discuss the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia and the relationship between sudden sensorineural hearing loss.Methods statistics undergraduate from 2012 to 2014 in the hospital treated 167 cases of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss,among which 65 were male,female 102 cases,age from 21 to 84 years old.The average age of 54.1 years.Among them on the chief complaint within 1 week before the onset of symptoms of insomnia of 119 cases.71.25%of the charge hospital-ized patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.And some of these patients psychological assessment and CPC sleep monito-ring.Results about more than 70%of the patients with sudden deafness occurred on the before the onset of insomnia,the more tired,working pressure,tension and other mental factors.To improve sleep after drug treatment,patientsclinical symptoms im-proved significantly.Conclusion in the process of sudden deafness treatment,for the treatment of insomnia can be more active to improve patients complained of the wall of the ear tinnitus and stuffy feeling.%目的总结并报告突聋伴随失眠症状患者167例,并探讨失眠症状的出现与突聋之间的关系。方法统计本科在2012—2014年共住院收治突发性耳聋患者167例,其中男性65例、女性102例,年龄21~84岁,平均年龄54.1岁。其中入院时主诉发病前1周内出现失眠症状者119例,占收住院突聋患者71.25%。对其中部分患者进行心理评估及心肺耦合分析(CPC)睡眠监测。结果约70%以上的突聋患者在发病前均出现了失眠症状,其多为劳累、工作压力大、紧张等精神因素导致。在给予改善睡眠药物治疗后,患者的临床症状改善明显。结论在突发性耳聋治疗过程中,针对失眠症状的治疗可改善患者对耳鸣及耳堵闷感的抱怨程度。

  20. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  1. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  2. Trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard

    2016-01-01

    . The aim of PTF3 was to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairments in trauma-affected refugees as well as research predictors for treatment outcome. The patients included were 207 adult refugees diagnosed......-reported depression and anxiety symptoms measured on Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-reported social functioning measured on the Social Adjustment Scale Self Report, short version (SAS-SR), and observer-rated depression and anxiety symptoms assessed on the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Ratings Scales......=0.06). The only item from the rating scale that was significantly correlated to outcome on HTQ was job status, while a number of other items were significantly related to changes in depression and anxiety symptoms. The size of correlation coefficients was, however, modest. In addition, we found...

  3. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  4. INFLUENCING OF FAMILY AFFECTION ON MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS AND DEPRESSION OF PERIMENOPAUSE PERIOD OF RURAL AREAS WOMEN%婚姻家庭对农村妇女围绝经期综合症及抑郁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓军; 陈长香; 付丽; 马素慧; 岳静玲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand Symptoms of menopausal and depression and their influencing factors of rural areas women in their perimenopause period, so as to provide countermeasures. [Methods] With stratified random sampling, aged 45-55 years were selected from Heilongjiang, Hebei, shan'xi, Shanxi and Henan province. Basic information questionnaire, Kupperm an score sheet, self-rating depress ion scale (SDS) and AGAR were adopted. [Results] Among the 884 subjects, 41.18% of them had depression. 15.05% of them were suspected to have depression, and 26.13% of them were diagnosed with depression. 79.30% reported premenopausal syndromes The rate of depression in women with long-time work and high pressures, poor quality of marriage, illness partner, divorced, low family income, big children burden; , addicted to cigarette or alcohol, bland diet and poor sleeping quality was higher than that of Perimenopausal Women (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) . The women with perimenopausal syndrome had significant higher rate of depression. [Conclusion] The incidence of menopausal symptoms and perimenopausal depression were higher and the influencing factors were complex, the problems should to be attach importance of interstitial texture.%[目的]了解农村妇女围绝经期综合症、抑郁症状及其影响因素,为采取应对措施提供依据. [方法]2010年1~3月选取黑龙江,河北,陕西,山西,河南5省45 ~55岁妇女,采用自编一般情况调查表、更年期Kupperman评分量表、抑郁评分量表(CES - D)进行调查. [结果]884名调查对象中,抑郁总发生率为41.18%,可疑抑郁者15.05%,肯定抑郁者26.13%;围绝经期综合征发生率为79.30%;婚姻质量差、伴侣患病、离异、全家经济收入低、子女负担重者等发生围绝经期抑郁症的频率或程度高,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05或P<0.01);且围绝经期综合征程度超重,抑郁发生率越高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]农村妇女

  5. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p ....5 symptoms (p migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p 

  6. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisThese symptoms may be from BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA or POST-NASAL DRIP.Self CareThese illnesses need prescription treatments. See your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA dry barking cough ...

  7. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tetanus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tetanus Home About Tetanus Causes and Transmission Symptoms and ...

  8. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  9. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  10. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p symptoms was statistically...

  11. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor ... on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not need treatment ...

  12. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Options Join the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD is ... or Dementia plus one or more suggestive features. Symptoms Explained In this section we'll discuss each ...

  13. Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... symptoms and treatments. Migraine and Other Vascular Headaches—Symptoms and Diagnosis Migraine: The most common of vascular ...

  14. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents with autistic children%孤独症患儿父母压力和情绪变化及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚云; 杜亚松; 李惠琳; 张喜燕; 安宇; 吴柏林

    2012-01-01

    [Objectives] To examine the parenting stress and mental health status and related factors associated with parenting stress in parents of children with autism. [Methods] Participants in this study were 196 parents of autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV and 144 parents of normal children. The parents in two groups finished Parenting Stress Index(PSI) , Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS). Parents of autistic children also completed Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS). [Results! 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially higher scores of stress in the child domain , parent domain and total PSI than that of parents with normal children(P = 0. 000) ;2)Fathers and mothers of children with autism had higher SDS and SAS scores than those of parents of normal children (P = 0. 000). Mothers of children with autism reported higher scores in both SDS and SAS than those of the fathers(P = 0. 000) ;3)Elevated depression scores were more common in mothers of children with autism than those of fathers with autistic children and parents of normal children. There was no difference in elevated depression and anxiety scores between fathers of autistic children and parents of normal children;4)Parenting stress was positively correlated with severity of symptom of autistic children,children's behavior problems,SDS and SAS scores of parents of autistic children;5)Regression analysis indicated that ABC score,anxious level of mothers and age of autistic children were the related factors of parenting stress,accounting for 54. 9% of the total variatio. [Conclusions! Parents with autistic children experienced higher level of stress,depression and anxiety than that of parents with normal children. Mothers of autistic children were more vulnerable to suffer from depression than fathers and parents of normal children. Behavior problems of autistic children was the major predictor of parenting stress.%[目

  15. Anorexia Nervosa: Its Symptoms and Possible Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, David E.

    This document presents a definition and description of anorexia nervosa as a disorder that occurs predominantly in girls and that can affect 1 out of every 250 girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The existence of a distorted mental body image among anorexics is discussed and symptoms of the disorder are described, including amenorrhea…

  16. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  17. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... contact with specialist care were obtained from the National Patient Register and the National Health Insurance Service Registry, while information about socioeconomic status was collected from Statistics Denmark. Main outcome measures were percentages of patients having contact with specialist care...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...

  18. Social Sensations of Symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs...... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Affective Disorder Accompanied by Psychotic Symptoms%伴随精神病性症状的情感障碍诊断与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 刘建萍

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨伴随精神病性症状的情感障碍的临床诊断与治疗方法.方法:选取2011年2月~2012年2月在我院治疗的380例情感障碍患者临床资料作为研究对象,平均分成2组,对照组予以阿米替林联合阿立哌唑治疗,观察组予以帕罗西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗,比较2组治疗的临床效果以及副作用情况.结果:2组间治疗后临床效果无明显的差异性,p>0.05,无统计学意义;但是对照组的口干、恶心呕吐、出汗、失眠、静坐不安、视物模糊的副作用的发生率分别为4.0%、5.3%、8.2%、7.5%、6.8%、8.5%;而观察组的口干、恶心呕吐、出汗、失眠、静坐不安、视物模糊的副作用的发生率分别为2.6%、3.9%、5.9%、7.2%、5.18%、6.0%.2组间在失眠上无明显的差异性,p>0.05,无统计学意义.但是其他的副作用则有明显的差异性,p0.05), they had no statistical significances. But the complications incidence rate of the control group, containing the dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, sweating, insomnia, meditation disturbed and blurred vision separately were 4.0%、5.3%、8.2%、7.5%、6.8%、8.5%; while the observation groups separately were 2.6%、3.9%、5.9%、7.2%、5.18%、6.0%. The vomiting of the two groups had no obviously differences (P>0.05), they had statistical significances. But other complications of the two groups had significant differences (P<0.05), they had statistical significances. Conclusions: The paroxetine combined with aripiprazole was obviously effective and safe for the treatment of affective disorder.

  20. Signs and Symptoms (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  1. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  2. Symptoms%症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome K. Jerome; 孙宝成; 徐彬

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was my liver that was out of order. I knew it was my liver that was out of order, because I had just been reading a patent liver-pill circular1, in which were detailed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was out of order. I had them all.

  3. FORSTÅ DINE SYMPTOMER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle

    Hvis du tit har smerter og andre fysiske symptomer - og lægen har svært ved at finde ud af, hvad du fejler - kan det være, du har en funktionel lidelse. Funktionel lidelse betyder, at kroppen reagerer medsymptomer, når du er udsat for psykiske belastninger. Symptomerne er lige så virkelige og...

  4. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enamel • Unexplained infertility, recurrent miscarriage • Osteopenia (mild) or osteoporosis (more serious bone density problem) • Peripheral Neuropathy • Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression How do these symptoms tend to appear in children and adults? Children tend to have the more classic signs ...

  5. Emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette K; Nielsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    . A negative classroom climate was associated with emotional symptoms (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and so was being part of classrooms with a high prevalence of bullying (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.0-1.60). CONCLUSION: Female sex, low OSC, single parent family, exposure to bullying and a high prevalence of bullying...

  6. Musculoskeletal System Symptoms in Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Akin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Methods: One hundred and twenty-three patients (100 female, 23 male who visited the nuclear medicine department for thyroid gland scintigraphy were included in our study. According to thyroid hormone levels, patients were allocated into five categories: hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism, and hypothyroidism. Before neurological and musculoskeletal examinations, a standardized symptom questionnaire was completed including questions about sensory symptoms, muscle weakness, restricted joint mobility, musculoskeletal pain. Neurological examination, range of motion of joints, effusion or swelling of joints was assessed. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis was done by the clinical and radiological characteristics. The diagnosis of FMS was made according to criteria of American College of Rheumatology. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, a T-score ≤ -2.5 was classified as osteoporosis, whereas a T-score between -2.5 and -1.0 was classified as osteopenia. Thyroid status was determined by serum TSH levels. Results: Eighty-one percent of the patients were female (100 and 19% were male (23. Mean age of female patients was 49.99±15.27 years (range 20-87 and mean age of male patients was 61.8±12.33 years (range 34-88. When divided according to thyroid status, 21.1% (n=26 had hyperthyroidism, 21.1% (n=26 had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 49.6% (n=61 were euthyroid, 4.9% (n=6 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 3.3% (n=4 were hypothyroid. None of 59% of patients had any musculoskeletal diagnosis. Osteoporosis was the most common problem, affecting 23.7% of patients Conclusion: The presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in patients with goiter should be considered and investigated. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 261-269

  7. A multivariate exploration of basic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I Alex; Ciani, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between the different categories of basic symptoms (BS). Researchers of the Bonn School have accurately described the progression from second-level BS (relatively characteristic BS) to first-rank Schneiderian symptoms. Using a multiple regression model, the present study tried to investigate which kind of dynamic deficiencies (DDs; uncharacteristic first-level BS) mostly lead to each type of second-level BS. A group of 108 patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia completed an inventory on BS, with all items in strict accordance with those of the Bonn Scale. Five dependent variables (cognitive thought disorders, cognitive perception disorders, cognitive action disorders, increased impressionability, cenesthesias) and four independent variables (DDs with direct negative symptoms, DDs with indirect negative symptoms, affective DDs, relational DDs) were considered. Among the significant findings, a widespread contribution of DDs with indirect negative symptoms to most of the dependent variables, and the special role of DDs with direct negative symptoms as a predictor of cognitive thought disorders, must be emphasized. Suggestions for further multivariate studies in the field of BS are presented.

  8. Therapeutic Yoga: Symptom Management for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kim A; MacDonald, Megan

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, affecting over 2.3 million people worldwide. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the age of disease onset is typically between 20 and 40 years, with a higher incidence in women. Individuals with MS experience a wide range of symptoms, including declining physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms (e.g., fatigue, imbalance, spasticity, chronic pain, cognitive impairment, bladder and bowel dysfunction, visual and speech impairments, depression, sensory disturbance, and mobility impairment). To date, both the cause of and cure for MS remain unknown. In recent years, more individuals with MS have been pursuing alternative methods of treatment to manage symptoms of the disease, including mind-body therapies such as yoga, meditation, breathing, and relaxation techniques. It has been suggested that the practice of yoga may be a safe and effective way of managing symptoms of MS. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the most relevant literature on exercise and mind-body modalities to treat MS symptoms and, more specifically, the benefits and potential role of yoga as an alternative treatment of symptom management for individuals with MS. The article also discusses future directions for research.

  9. The role of stress in IBS symptom severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Pletikosic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as a biopsychosocial disorder, the result of a complex combination of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. Personality traits, affective status and stress are some of the relevant factors contributing to lower quality of life and symptom exacerbation in IBS patients. In order to examine the role of stress in IBS symptom exacerbation, the aims of this study were to explore the relationship of daily stressful events and symptom severity in a prospective manner and to explore the roles of neuroticism, anxiety, depression and stress in the vicious circle of symptom perpetuation. A total of 49 patients with IBS reported their symptom severity and daily stressful events intensity each day for 14 consecutive days. They also completed the Big five personality inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-trait anxiety inventory. Cross-correlation analyses were performed on the time series data for daily stress and symptom severity for each participant separately. Four different patterns of relationships were found in different subgroups of participants: positive cross-correlations of symptom severity and stress intensity on the same day; higher symptom severity on days following stressful days; lower symptom severity on days following stressful days; and lower stress intensity on days following severe symptoms. Using average scores for daily stress and symptom severity, as well as scores for neuroticism, anxiety and depression, we performed a path analysis to test a model of symptom exacerbation. It showed that, on the group level, average stress intensity predicts average symptom severity. Neuroticism and anxiety were not significant predictors of symptom severity, while depression showed a marginally significant relationship with symptom severity, mediated by stress intensity. In conclusion, depression and daily stress seem to be important contributors to the vicious circle of IBS symptom

  10. Disasters and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories…

  11. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  12. Side of symptom onset affects motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Borm, G.F.; Kappelle, A.C.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    The healthy brain appears to have an asymmetric dopamine distribution, with higher levels of dopamine in the left than in the right striatum. Here, we test the hypothesis that this neurochemical asymmetry renders the right striatum relatively more vulnerable to the effects of dopaminergic denervatio

  13. Metacognition, affect regulation and symptom expression: a transdiagnostic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Andrew

    2011-11-30

    The editors of this special section commissioned this commentary to bring together some of the conceptual, empirical and measurement issues arising from this series of articles. This commentary explores metacognition in relation to its neurobiology, and diverse syndromes and clinical phenotypes, including schizophrenia, alexithymia, and personality disorders, as well as its relation to assessment and prospects for the further delineation of mechanisms of change in psychological therapy.

  14. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  15. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Santos da Luz1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%, auricular fullness (30.5% and humming (27.5, being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p=0,000 and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.

  16. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  17. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  18. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  19. Gynecological management of premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P

    2010-10-01

    The vast majority of menstruating women experience uncomfortable symptoms during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycles. Although many women do not require specific treatment of their symptoms, approximately 20% to 50% report moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms and about 5% meet the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the most severe manifestation of premenstrual symptoms. While the etiology of premenstrual symptoms remains unclear, several theories have implicated sex steroids and neurotransmitters in the development and manifestation of symptoms. Further complicating the delineation of etiology is that premenstrual symptoms can be somatic, psychological, or behavioral, as well as a combination of all three. Developing successful interventions for premenstrual symptoms has thus been challenging, with interventions focused on a particular aspect of premenstrual symptomatology. Treatments for premenstrual symptoms include lifestyle changes, cognitive behavioral therapies, and pharmacologic agents including ovulation suppression regimens, antidepressant medications, and anxiolytics.

  20. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  1. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterkötter, J; Ebel, H; Schultze-Lutter, F; Steinmeyer, E M

    1996-01-01

    Although the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) [13] has come into use in several European countries, its diagnostic validity has not yet been sufficiently examined. That is why we have assessed BSABS items on a sample of 243 consecutive admissions to the Department of Psychiatry at the RWTH University, Aachen, and 79 psychologically healthy persons. Then, a cluster analysis was calculated to identify the empirical item-grouping. Five well-interpretable BSABS subsyndromes were found. In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses were computed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of these subsyndromes. We were able to show that every BSABS subsyndrome separates at least schizophrenic, organic mental and affective disorders from personality, neurotic and substance-induced disorders, as well as from psychological health. Furthermore, the subsyndrome "information processing disturbances" differentiates between schizophrenic and organic mental disorders, on the one hand, and affective disorders, on the other, and additionally, the subsyndrome "interpersonal irritation" between schizophrenics and all other persons examined.

  2. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... Contents What are some of the symptoms of celiac disease? Some people with celiac disease may not ...

  3. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... turn Javascript on. Photo courtesy of ABC News Symptoms Mild: Person may remain conscious or be briefly ...

  4. Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... to view a larger version of the image Symptoms It is very important to learn the signs ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  6. Symptoms in patients with takotsubo syndrome: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826

  7. Symptom Clusters among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knishkowsky, Barry; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines recurrent psychosomatic symptoms and symptom clusters among Israeli school children (n=259). Results of a questionnaire that asked about the frequency of 8 psychosomatic and 8 organic complaints indicated that girls had a higher prevalence than boys for 8 of the symptoms, and that abdominal pain and headache were each reported as an…

  8. [Acute urologic symptoms associated with uterine myoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, E L; Alexsandro da Silva, E; Pereiro, B; Roque Devesa, A; Zungri Telo, E

    1999-01-01

    While prevalence of uterine leiomyoma is high, its presentation affecting the urinary tract is uncommon. We contribute the cases of two adult women with symptoms of nephritic colic and urinary retention. Etiology was acute obstruction of the urinary tract due to previously asymptomatic urine myomas. Management in both patients was surgery, using hysterectomy to resolve the urinary obstruction. A brief review of the literature is included.

  9. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  10. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim eCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  11. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  12. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sendela

    2015-10-01

    Depressive symptoms were observed in 1 out of 12 T1D children in a primary school and in 1 out of 5 teenagers. Depressive symptoms may affect metabolic control and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms in T1D school children is needed.

  13. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  14. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  15. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson’s Disease Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of <21/30. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms was determined using the NMSQuest. The severity of nonmotor symptoms and the quality of life were assessed using validated disease-specific questionnaires (PDQ-39 and NMSS. Results. A total of 113 patients consisting of 60 males and 53 females were recruited. The median duration of illness was 5.0 (2.0–8.0 years. The prevalence rate of nonmotor symptoms in our cohort was 97.3%. The most common reported nonmotor symptom in our cohort was gastrointestinal (76.1%. We found that the severity of the nonmotor symptoms was associated with poorer quality of life scores (rs: 0.727, P<0.001. Conclusions. Nonmotor symptoms were highly prevalent in our patients with Parkinson’s disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  16. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950416 A clinicopathological study on mental andnervous symptoms in uremia.CUI Xiaoying(崔晓英),et al.Dept Intern Med,202nd Hosp,PLA,Shenyang110003.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1995;28(1):26-28.Mental and nervous symptoms,brainstem auditoryevoked potential(BAEP),brain computed tomography(CT) scans and pathological changes were studied in34 uremic patients.It was shown that mental depres-sion was the most common symptom.The latency of

  18. Symptom severity of depressive symptoms impacts on social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  20. Persistent Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent negative symptoms represent an alternative approach for assessing negative symptoms in the context of clinical trials. Persistent negative symptoms are designed to capture those symptoms that lead to functional impairment but are currently understudied and for which there are no currently available effective treatments. Persistent negative symptoms differ from the 2 most commonly used approaches: primary, enduring negative symptoms or deficit symptoms and negative symptoms broadly ...

  1. Validation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seul-Ah; Kim, Keun-Hyang; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test th...

  2. Overactive bladder symptom score to evaluate efficacy of solifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming; Wang Jianye; Yang Yong; An Ruihua; Wen Jianguo; Guan Zhichen; Zheng Shaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) is a series of symptoms with high prevalence in elderly people.This study was conducted using the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) to evaluate the efficacy of solifenacin succinate for the treatment of OAB.Methods This was a prospective,multicenter,single-arm,12-week study that enrolled 241 OAB patients.The patients received 5-10 mg/day solifenacin.Changes in OABSS,symptoms from voiding diary,perception of bladder condition (PPBC) score,international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated at weeks 0,4,and 12.The relationship between OABSS and PPBC score or parameters of voiding diary was also evaluated.Results At baseline,the mean OABSS for all patients was 9.41±2.40,and was reduced significantly at week 12 (-3.76 points; 61.21%,P <0.0001).The OABSS subscore,PPBC score,IPSS,and QOL were also significantly reduced during the study (P <0.0001).The overall incidence of adverse events was 19.91% (44 cases).The gastrointestinal system was the most commonly affected (11.31%).Around 5.88% of the cases had adverse events related to the genitourinary system.There was a strong correlation between OABSS and urinary symptoms that was recorded in the 3-day voiding dairy.Conclusions We showed that solifenacin was clinically effective for relieving OAB symptoms,considering the balance between efficacy,patients' well-being,and tolerability.OABSS integrates four OAB symptoms into a single score and can be a useful tool for research and clinical practice.

  3. Nonmotor symptoms in a malaysian Parkinson's disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Shahrul; Khairul Anuar, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Hui Jan; Nafisah, Wan Yahya; Raymond, Azman Ali; Hanita, Othman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of Parkinson's disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  4. Symptoms in Children After Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Atay Turan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of symptoms resulted from chemotherapy in children. Materials and Methods: In this study 46 children and adolescents who had chemotherapy in a pediatric oncology clinic of an oncology hospital were included. Sociodemographic questionnaire and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (10-18 years were used as data collection tool. Results: In this survey the mean age of children with cancer was 13.47±2.14 years and the majority of them (41.3% were monitored with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnosis. The most common symptoms in children who had chemotherapy in hospital were fatigue (76.1%, feeling nervous (69.6%, alopecia (65.2%, nausea (60.9% and feeling sad (60.9%, while the least common symptoms were swelling in the arms/legs (8.7% and problems in urination (6.5%. The most troublesome symptoms were dizziness (66.6%, difficulty in swallowing (64.3%, pain (47.8% and hair loss (43.4%. Conclusions: It was seen that the children still experience high prevalence of post-treatment symptoms, they had more intense psychological symptoms and physical symptoms caused more discomfort.

  5. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  6. Betahistine for symptoms of vertigo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdin, Louisa; Hussain, Kiran; Schilder, Anne G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertigo is a symptom in which individuals experience a false sensation of movement. This type of dizziness is thought to originate in the inner ear labyrinth or its neural connections. It is a commonly experienced symptom and can cause significant problems with carrying out normal activi

  7. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  8. [Somatic symptoms in those hospitalized for dizziness or vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Tsutumi, Tomoko; Arai, Motohiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-09-01

    Anxiety and depression greatly affect the prognosis of and burden on subjects seen for dizziness or vertigo, who usually report multiple somatic symptoms. We studied the prevalence of these symptoms in 145 subjects hospitalized for dizziness or vertigo and taking part in 4-day group vestibular rehabilitation. Questionnaires given to determine the prevalence of somatic symptoms assessed headache, insomnia, diarrhea, constipation, stomachache, chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, general fatigue, and stress. Quantitation used aerical rating scale (NRS). Anxiety and depression were assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Disability due to dizziness was assessed using the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI). We conducted correlational analysis between dizziness and somatic symptoms. The top four average NRS scores for somatic symptoms were dizziness at 3.5 +/- 2.8, general fatigue at 2.8 +/- 2.6, insomnia at 2.4 +/- 2.6, and headache at 1.8 +/- 2.3. These symptoms resembled those reported for subjects with anxiety and depression. The correlation between headache and dizziness NRS scores was R = 0.48 (P dizziness reported several somatic symptoms related to anxiety and depression attributable to dizziness. This underscores the need to treat these somatic symptoms when treating subjects seen chiefly dizziness or vertigo.

  9. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eYoung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, network approaches to symptom interaction (i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., McNally, Robinaugh, Wu, Wang, Deserno, & Borsboom, 2014, for PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NLDST. The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (Young, 2011 to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning and universal (e.g., causal processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.

  10. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved) that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; (1)]. However, network approaches to symptom interaction [i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., (2), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth non-linear dynamical systems theory (NLDST). The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (3) to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning) and universal (e.g., causal) processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments. PMID:26635639

  11. Menopausal Symptoms and Sleep Quality During Menopausal Transition and Postmenopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Zhang; Yao-Qin Wang; Mei-Qin Yan; Zhao-Ai Li; Xiu-Ping Du; Xue-Qing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Menopausal symptoms and sleep difficulty were physiological processes that were affected by genetic and other factors.This study was to investigate the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and sleep quality in menopausal transition (MT) and postmenopause (PM) women in Taiyuan,Shanxi.Methods:A community-based survey of women's menopausal symptoms and sleep quality was conducted between July 2012 and May 2013 at six municipal districts ofTaiyuan,Shanxi.A sample of 2429 women aged 40-59 years was divided into four groups:early MT,late MT,early PM,and late PM.Sleep quality in the past 2 weeks before the interview was recorded.The data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0.Results:The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was 49.8%.Mild,moderate,and severe symptoms were observed in 28.9%,18.5%,and 2.5% of participants,respectively.The highest prevalence of menopausal symptoms occurred in the early postmenopausal stage;the subsequences were the late postmenopausal stage and the early MT stage.Interestingly,among the 13 items of modified Kupperman index,the five most common symptoms were fatigue,arthralgia and myalgia,decreased libido,insomnia,and nervousness.Meanwhile,55% perimenopausal women had poor sleep.Conclusions:Menopausal symptoms are common but mild among women in Taiyuan,Shanxi during MT and PM.In these stages,the prevalence of poor sleep is high.

  12. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    to symptoms than less severely affected individuals, and the number of symptoms was more predictive for severity than the number of exposures. Most predictive for the severity of reported symptoms were CNS-symptoms other than headache (OR = 3.2, P ... (OR = 2.0, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CNS-symptoms except from headache were a main characteristic of individuals severely affected by common chemical exposures in a general population-based sample...

  13. Symptom severity and viral protein or RNA accumulation in lettuce affected by big-vein disease Severidad de síntomas y acumulación de proteínas o ARN virales en lechugas afectadas por la enfermedad de las venas grandes

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Araya; Elizabeth Peña; Erika Salazar; Lisset Román; Claudia Medina; Roxana Mora; Agustín Aljaro; Inés-Marlene Rosales

    2011-01-01

    Big-vein disease (BVD) is a widespread and economically damaging disease in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Typical symptoms are chlorotic clearing around leaf veins, leaf deformations, and impaired head development. In this research, we studied the relationship between symptom intensity and protein and viral RNA accumulation in infected plants. Naturally infected lettuce plants, from the field or greenhouse, were classified according to their symptomatology: mild, moderate, severe, and symptoml...

  14. Turning symptoms into allies: utilization approaches with posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M

    1993-01-01

    Adult patients with symptoms connected to the trauma of childhood sexual abuse often present in therapy with multiple symptoms and life difficulties and offer a challenge to even the most experienced clinician. In this paper, I describe my work with three such patients who were crippled in different ways by symptoms that had proved resistant to years of various therapeutic interventions. In every case, I accepted and utilized these symptoms as positive resources for successful and rapid change. Patients were then taught self-utilization approaches which allowed them to sustain and extend initial improvements. I conclude that the indirect utilization principle introduced by Milton Erickson provides an effective method to use in approaching some of the more persistent patterns of posttraumatic symptomatology related to childhood sexual abuse.

  15. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  16. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  17. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  19. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  20. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  1. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  2. Impact of nasal symptoms on the evaluation of asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chia; Chang, Po-Hung; Wu, Pei-Wen; Wang, Chun-Hua; Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Che; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Lee, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-01

    The united airways concept suggests that patients with asthma typically exhibit parallel inflammation in the upper airway. The resulting nasal symptoms should reduce quality of life and substantially affect the evaluation of asthma control among these patients. This study aimed to assess the association of nasal symptoms with the evaluation of asthma control.Fifty-eight patients with asthma and persistent nasal symptoms were prospectively recruited for evaluations of their sinonasal symptoms and asthma control in a cross-sectional study from August 2013 to June 2016. Participants underwent thorough nasal endoscopy, sinus computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, the asthma control test (ACT), and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) questionnaires to evaluate their asthma control and sinonasal symptoms.There was a significant association between ACT and SNOT-22 scores. Among patients with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis, ACT scores were closely related to the symptoms of cough, post-nasal discharge, dizziness, waking up at night, absence of a good night's sleep, and waking up tired. Among patients with asthma and chronic rhinitis, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was closely related to the symptoms of needing to blow nose, runny nose, and cough. Patients with emergency clinic visits during the previous 3 months had relatively high SNOT-22 scores, especially for the symptoms of sneezing, runny nose, nasal blockage, cough, and dizziness.Sinonasal symptom severity was closely associated with measured asthma control status among patients with asthma and persistent nasal symptoms. Therefore, upper and lower airway inflammations should be considered and treated simultaneously.

  3. Familial aggregation of schizophrenia-like symptoms in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D; DiGiacomo, L; Lipe, H; Bird, T D

    1998-07-10

    An increased incidence of schizophrenia-like symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD) has been well-documented in the past. The reasons for this association, however, have never been explained. At the University of Washington Medical Genetics Clinic, we had the opportunity to evaluate a unique juvenile-onset HD proband who had schizophrenia-like symptoms. This patient was referred to our clinic because of new onset of somatic delusions and command auditory hallucinations early in the course of her illness. Since we had already evaluated other affected individuals in her family, we selected another family with a nonpsychotic juvenile-onset proband for comparison. Using these two families in a small case-control study, we investigated the following hypotheses which could explain the association between schizophrenia-like symptoms and HD: first, schizophrenia-like symptoms may be related to the number of CAG repeats in the HD gene; second, schizophrenia-like symptoms may segregate in certain HD families, for unknown reasons; and third, there may coincidentally be an unrelated gene for schizophrenia in certain HD families. Comparisons of clinical characteristics and the HD genotype showed that family history of schizophrenia-like symptoms segregated with the HD gene; however, age of onset of HD, size of CAG repeat, and sex of the transmitting parent were not associated with psychotic symptoms. Further genetic and neurobiological studies are necessary to investigate the potential mechanism underlying this association.

  4. Evidence-based approaches to other symptoms in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney Morss; Apostol, Colleen C

    2010-01-01

    Dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, and sleep disturbances are common and distressing in advanced cancer. We updated previous systematic reviews of how these symptoms can be alleviated with targeted literature searches. The approach to these symptoms requires comprehensive symptom assessment; treating underlying causes when benefits exceed risks; prioritizing treatment, as patients usually have many symptoms; and addressing psychosocial and spiritual distress. For dyspnea, evidence supports systemic opioids and nonpharmacological treatments such as a fan. The strongest evidence supports metoclopramide for cancer-related nausea and octreotide for bowel obstruction. For anorexia, enteral or parenteral nutrition is indicated with obstruction and expected prognosis of at least 6 weeks. Evidence supports several drugs for appetite affecting quality of life. For fatigue, evidence supports psychosocial interventions and methylphenidate. For insomnia, evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy in cancer; no sleep agents have superior effectiveness.

  5. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  6. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  7. What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the case. Hormone therapy such as estrogen or birth control pills, given to reduce menopausal symptoms, may cause these endometriosis symptoms to continue. Endometriosis-Related Pain Researchers know that pain is a primary symptom ...

  8. Avolition, Negative Symptoms, and a Clinical Science Journey and Transition to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William T; Frost, Katherine H; Whearty, Kayla M; Strauss, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    The concepts and investigations reviewed above suggest the following * Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome that can be deconstructed into meaningful domains of psychopathology. * Individual patients vary substantially on which domains are present as well as severity. * Negative symptoms are common in persons with schizophrenia, but only primary negative symptoms are a manifestation of schizophrenia psychopathology in the "weakening of the wellsprings of volition" sense that Kraepelin described. * The failure to distinguish primary from secondary negative symptoms has profound consequences as viewed in the vast majority of clinical trials that report negative symptom efficacy without regard for causation and without controlling for pseudospecificity. * Schizophrenia is now broadly defined with positive psychotic symptoms, and a subgroup with primary negative symptoms is a candidate disease entity. * Evidence of negative symptoms as a taxon supports the separate classification of persons with primary negative symptoms. * Negative symptoms are an unmet therapeutic need. * Two factors best define the negative symptom construct and these may have different pathophysiological and treatment implications. * The avolitional component may not be based on a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, but difficulty using mental representations of affective value to guide decision-making and goal-directed behavior. Part II in this volume by Strauss et al. will address the range of laboratory-based investigations of negative symptoms, clarify current hypotheses and theories concerning negative symptom pathology, and address future directions for negative symptom research and clinical care.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Scientists believe that changes in the brain may ...

  10. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  11. Depressive symptom clusters are differentially associated with atherosclerotic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Marijnissen, R. M.; Holewijn, S.; Franke, B.; Purandare, N.; de Graaf, J.; den Heijer, M.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background. Depression increases the risk of subsequent vascular events in both cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Atherosclerosis, the underlying process leading to vascular events, has been associated with depression. This association, however, may be confounded by the somatic-affective symptoms be

  12. Effects of ondansetron on gastrointestinal symptoms in carcinoid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; de Vries, EGE; Leijsma, MK; Kema, IP; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    The effect of short-term treatment with the highly selective serotonin receptor antagonist ondansetron on symptoms and gastric emptying in 11 carcinoid patients was studied. Diarrhoea improved in 6 of 6 patients, nausea in 3 of 4 patients. Flushing was not affected. The rate of gastric emptying incr

  13. Cultural comparison of symptoms in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Bossola, Maurizio; Fried, Linda F; Giungi, Stefania; Tazza, Luigi; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Luciani, Giovanna; Kimmel, Paul L

    2008-10-01

    Although symptoms are common and frequently severe in patients on maintenance hemodialysis, little is known about the relationship between cultural background and symptom burden. The aim of this study was to explore differences in the prevalence and severity of symptoms between American and Italian hemodialysis patients. We administered the 30-item Dialysis Symptom Index to American and Italian patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis during routine dialysis sessions. The prevalence and severity of individual symptoms were compared between patient populations, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Multivariable logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to assess the independent associations of cultural background with the prevalence and severity of symptoms, respectively. We enrolled 75 American and 61 Italian patients. American patients were more likely to be black (36% vs. 0%, P<0.001) and diabetic (53% vs. 13%, P<0.001). Italian patients were more likely to report decreased interest in sex, decreased sexual arousal, feeling nervous, feeling irritable, and worrying (P<0.001, respectively). Adjustment for demographic and clinical variables had no impact on these cultural differences in symptom prevalence. The median severity of 11 symptoms including muscle soreness, muscle cramps, and itching was greater among Americans (P<0.001, respectively), although nearly all of these differences were rendered nonstatistically significant with adjustment for race, diabetes, and/or Kt/V. Italian patients receiving chronic hemodialysis report a greater burden of symptoms than American patients, particularly those related to sexual dysfunction and psychosocial distress. These findings suggest that cultural background may affect adaptation to chronic hemodialysis therapy.

  14. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  15. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from...... a prospective community cohort telephone survey of adults with diabetes (N= 1,314). Diabetes complications and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report (Diabetes Complications Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively) at baseline and annually for 5 years. Statistical models adjusted...... for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and diabetes characteristics. RESULTS: The number of diabetes complications at baseline was positively associated with a greater risk of elevated depressive symptoms, with the highest risk found for those with 4-6 complications at baseline (RR= 2.73, 95% CI= [1.64, 4...

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Autism Symptom-Related Traits in Probands and Parents: Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Schellenberg, Gerard; Bernier, Raphael; Abbott, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Autism susceptibility genes likely have effects on continuously distributed autism-related traits, yet few measures of such traits exist. The Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale (BPASS), developed for use with affected children and family members, measures social motivation, social expressiveness, conversational skills, and flexibility. Based…

  17. Coparenting Problems with Toddlers Predict Children's Symptoms of Psychological Problems at Age 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomo; Christopher, Caroline; Mann, Tanya; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether coparenting during toddlerhood predicts children's later symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, affective disorder, and somatic complaints. When children were 2 years old, 108 middle-class nonclinical families were observed in triadic interactions to assess two domains of dyadic coparenting (competitive and cooperative), as well as each parent's individual competitive behavior toward the spouse. Teachers and mothers reported children's symptoms of psychological problems at age 7. Independent of cooperative coparenting and each parents' individual harsh parenting, competitive coparenting predicted children's symptoms of ADHD and ODD. Interactions with child gender indicated that competitive coparenting predicted ADHD symptoms in boys (not in girls) and teacher-reported (not mother-reported) somatic complaints in girls (not in boys). ODD and ADHD symptoms were also predicted by fathers' (not mothers') individual competitive behaviors. The children of parents who were both low in competitive behaviors had the lowest teacher-rated symptoms of affective disorder.

  18. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...

  20. Functional bowel symptoms and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2013-10-01

    It is well recognised that ingestion of food is a trigger for functional bowel symptoms, particularly those associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients often use manipulation of diet as a means of controlling symptoms. Despite description of multiple dietary methods, few have scientific backing or quality evidence of efficacy. One approach is to define how specific food components influence the pathophysiology of IBS and then rationally design dietary approaches. For example, short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP)) cause luminal distension, which is a major stimulus for the development of symptoms in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. By determining food content of FODMAP, a diet in which foods low in FODMAP are favoured over those high in FODMAP can be designed. Observational, comparative and randomised controlled treatment and rechallenge studies have shown that such an approach is efficacious in the majority of patients with IBS. The low FODMAP diet is now the primary dietary therapy for such patients. Similar approaches can be applied to other food components, including proteins (such as gluten), fats and natural bioactive food chemicals. Such approaches have suggestions of efficacy, but the evidence base remains underdeveloped. An additional and important consideration for any dietary therapy is its nutritional adequacy and potential adverse health effects. Dietary manipulation is now a key management strategy in patients with functional bowel symptoms. Future well-designed interventional studies will lead to refinement of dietary approaches taken and to a better understanding of their long-term safety.

  1. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  2. The Signaling Theory of Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander Steinkopf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Placebo research shows that the subjective quality of care and social support, as well as the patients’ expectations of treatment, influence therapeutic outcomes. However, this phenomenon, known as the placebo effect, does not usually cure the disease, but rather can provide symptomatic relief: It may soothe symptoms such as pain, swelling, or nausea that constitute part of an immune response. The function of this mechanism remains unclear. This article puts forward the Signaling Theory of Symptoms (STS as a possible explanation. According to STS, discernible aspects of an immune response, such as pain, swelling, or nausea, not only serve a defensive and healing function but also a signaling function: symptoms signal the need for care and treatment to potential helpers. Once help and treatment are granted, the signaling function is fulfilled and the symptoms diminish. This mechanism may have been a significant advantage in preindustrial environments, when sufferers depended on extensive social support and personal treatment. Nowadays, from the point of view of modern materialist medicine, the mobilization of social support no longer seems so crucial, and thus the placebo effect has been assigned a somewhat mysterious quality.

  3. Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-07-01

    Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.

  4. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010381 Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome:retrospective study in forty-five patients. GUAN Yuzhou(管宇宙),et al. Dept Neurol,PUMC & CAMS,Bejing 100730. Chin J Neurol 2010;331-334. Objective To analyze the symptoms and signs in forty-five Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome (LEMS)patients

  5. Symptoms as the main problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Rask, Mette Troellund

    2016-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger tilfredsheden hos patienter, der blev afsluttet i almen praksis uden specifik diagnose, dvs. hvor lægen efter afsluttet konsultation kun kunne anføre "symptom" eller "problem" som slutdiagnose. Det drejer sig om ca. 1/3 af alle helbredsrelaterede konsultationer i almen....... Tidligere undersøgelser af patienter med medicinsk uforklarede symptomer (MUS) eller funktionelle lidelser har ligeledes vist utilfredshed blandt patienterne, men denne undersøgelse peger nu på, at utilfredsheden også findes hos den store gruppe af patienter, der henvender sig med almindelige symptomer. Da...... håndtering af patienter med symptomer såvel i tidlig fase som ved langvarige tilstande er en kerneopgave for almen praksis, tyder patienternes tilbagemelding på, at der er behov for øget fokus på dette område i forskning, undervisning og den kliniske hverdag. Undersøgelsen bygger på spørgeskemaoplysninger...

  6. The effect of pramipexole on depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-02-02

    Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist that has been used to treat both motor and non-motor symptoms associated with PD. We conducted a study to elucidate the effect of pramipexole on each of the depressive symptoms as assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Twenty patients with PD were treated with pramipexole 1.5-3.0 mg daily for 2-3 months. The SDS and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Score (UPDRS) were measured in each subject before and after the treatment. Both the SDS and the UPDRS decreased significantly after treatment with pramipexole. Individual assessment of each item in the SDS indicated that "crying spell", "confusion", "psychomotor retardation", "emptiness", and "dissatisfaction" symptoms improved significantly following treatment, while "depressed affect", "decreased libido", "constipation", and "indecisiveness" symptoms were worse after the treatment. As the symptom of "indecisiveness" did not respond to treatment, it might be an essential symptom in patients with PD.

  7. The effect of soy intake on menopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pérez-Rovira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The menopause is characterized by a reduction in ovarian function and estrogen production. Altogether, these changes together lead to a series of disorders that may affect the woman’s life style. Currently, medicine, influenced by the pharmaceutical industry, is prone to act aggressively against any symptoms, resulting in. polymedicated population. Doctors usually prescribe treatments such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT, to help them manage menopause symptoms. However, recently, several studies have reported adverse effects associated with this treatment. The influence of diet on several chronic diseases in western societies is currently well known. Therefore, dietary therapies, including dietary soy and isoflavone supplements, have been proposed for the reduction of menopause symptoms. Several published studies have suggested isoflavones, which have a great estrogenic power, as an HRT alternative for the relief of menopause symptoms. However, our current understanding on the effects of isoflavone supplements on the menopause symptoms is limited, and scientific publications show heterogenous results. Due to those arguments, the objective of this review is to address some of the mechanisms of isoflavones and their role in the menopausal period, postulating that, as food supplements, they could be used as a complementary therapy for menopause symptoms.

  8. In palliative cancer care symptoms mean everything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, S.C.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis aims to provide deeper insight into symptoms of cancer patients in palliative care, in order to improve the adequacy of decision-making for optimizing symptom control. Several aspects of symptoms and symptom management were investigated as were some aspects of communication and consultati

  9. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms.

  10. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  11. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction.

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  13. The Development of a Comprehensive Instrument to Measure Symptom Distress in Women After Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    out of 100 women have been recruited. The most common symptoms are: insomnia , fatigue, poor concentration, and diminished outlook; the most...distressful are: menopausal symptoms, muscle and joint pains, and peripheral neuropathies and affect functioning, quality of life, and last well into a year...arise. It has been postulated that weight gain, menopausal symptoms, and sexuality become prominent sources of symptom distress in the months and years

  14. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  15. Clinical symptoms and symptom signatures of Alzheimer's disease subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Flory, Michael; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves several different mechanisms. Over 99% of AD patients suffer from the sporadic form of the disease. Based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42), total tau, and ubiquitin--the markers associated with the histopathological hallmarks of the disease (Aβ plaques and abnormally hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles)--previous studies identified five subgroups of AD. Here we report the potential diagnostic predictive value of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in aged individuals for AD and differences in the prevalence of these symptoms in the CSF marker-based subgroups of the disease. Analysis of 196 clinically diagnosed AD or Alzheimer with Lewy body, and 75 non-AD neurological and non-neurological control cases, all from a single center, showed that the presence of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, or tremors individually, or the presence of any of these, could diagnose AD with sensitivities and specificities of 14% and 99%; 30% and 99%; 15% and 99%; 16% and 100%; 16% and 96%; and 47% and 92%, respectively. The pattern of the prevalence of the above symptoms varied from AD subgroup to subgroup. Presence of any of these symptoms, as well as presence of each individual symptom except tremors, significantly differentiated AD subgroups from the predominantly control cluster. These findings encourage the exploration of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in identifying various subgroups of AD for stratification of patients for clinical trials to develop therapeutic drugs. This study is for the special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease honoring Inge Grundke-Iqbal who made several seminal contributions in AD research.

  16. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.

  17. Bilastine for the relief of allergy symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádaba Díaz de Rada, B; Azanza Perea, J R; Gomez-Guiu Hormigos, A

    2011-04-01

    Bilastine is a potent inhibitor of the histamine H1 receptor. It was recently approved in 28 countries of the European Union for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria in adults and children older than 12 years. Data from preclinical studies confirmed its selectivity for the histamine H1 receptor over other receptors, and demonstrated antihistaminic and antiallergic properties in vivo. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients have shown that bilastine does not affect driving ability, cardiac conduction or alertness. Bilastine has demonstrated a good safety profile, without serious adverse effects or antimuscarinic effects in clinical trials. There were no significant changes in laboratory tests, electrocardiograms or vital signs. In clinical studies, oral treatment with bilastine 20 mg once daily improved allergic rhinitis with greater efficacy than placebo and comparable to cetirizine and desloratadine. Bilastine 20 mg was more effective than placebo and equivalent to levocetirizine in chronic urticaria, relieving symptoms, improving quality of life and controlling sleep disorders.

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  19. Patients' Contexts and Their Effects on Clinicians' Impressions of Conduct Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Marsh, Jessecae K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether contextual information about patients' clinical presentations affected clinicians' judgments of conduct disorder symptoms. Forty-five clinicians read vignettes describing hypothetical patients who displayed one conduct disorder symptom alongside information about the patients' home, school, and peer…

  20. The impact of somatic symptoms on the course of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; de Boer, Marrit K.; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Somatic symptoms have been suggested to negatively affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Mechanisms behind this association, however, remain elusive. This study examines the impact of somatic symptoms on MDD prognosis and aims to determine whether this effect can be explai

  1. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings.

  2. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term.

  3. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  4. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  5. Cholecystic fistula with atypical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Hasbak, P.; From, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report a patient with spontaneous cholecystocolonis fistula secondary to cholelithiasis. A 93 year-old woman was admitted because of weight loss, diarrhoea and upper abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed air in the biliary tract and cholescientigraphy revealed a fistula between the g...... the gallbladder and right colon. Using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography a calculus was extracted from the bile duct and the symptoms disappeared Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/14...

  6. High-dose thiamine improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Antonio; Pala, Maria Immacolata; Tundo, Silvia; Matteucci, Pietro

    2013-05-20

    Living with fibromyalgia means living with chronic pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and other associated key symptoms. To date, pharmacotherapy generally produces modest benefits. Some observations indicate that the large majority of symptoms of fibromyalgia could be the clinical manifestation of a mild thiamine deficiency due to a dysfunction of the active transport of thiamine from the blood to the mitochondria or to enzymatic abnormalities. Between June and July 2011, we recruited three female patients affected by fibromyalgia. We proceeded with the study of the patients' history, a physical examination, an evaluation of chronic widespread pain using the Visual Numeric Scale and an evaluation of the fatigue using the Fatigue Severity Scale were also performed. The levels of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate in the blood were determined. After the therapy with high doses of thiamine, in the patients, there was an appreciable improvement of the symptoms.

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  8. Investigation of Common Symptoms of Cancer and Reliability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To identify cancer distribution and treatment requirements, a questionnaire on cancer patients was conducted. It was our objective to validate a series of symptoms commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods: The M. D. Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory (MDASI) was used with 10 more TCM items added. Questions regarding TCM application requested in cancer care were also asked. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in 340 patients from 4 hospitals in Beijing and Dalian. SPSS and Excel software were adopted for statistical analysis. The questionnaire was self-evaluated with the Cronbach's alpha score. Results: The most common symptoms were fatigue 89.4%, sleep disturbance 74.4%, dry mouth 72.9%, poor appetite 72.9%, and difficulty remembering 71.2%. These symptoms affected work (89.8%), mood (82.6%),and activity (76.8%), resulting in poor quality of life. Eighty percent of the patients wanted to regulate the body with TCM. Almost 100% of the patients were interested in acquiring knowledge regarding the integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine (WM) in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer. Cronbach's alpha score indicated that there was acceptable internal consistency within both the MDASI and TCM items, 0.86 for MDASI, 0.78 for TCM, and 0.90 for MDASI-TCM (23 items). Conclusions: Fatigue, sleep disturbance, dry mouth, poor appetite, and difficulty remembering are the most common symptoms in cancer patients. These greatly affect the quality of life for these patients. Patients expressed a strong desire for TCM holistic regulation. The MDASI and its TCM-adapted model could be a critical tool for the quantitative study of TCM symptoms.

  9. Post-discharge symptoms following fast-track colonic cancer surgery: a phenomenological hermeneutic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Dreyer, Pia; Egerod, Ingrid;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain knowledge of patients' experiences of postoperative symptoms during the initial two weeks following fast-track colonic cancer surgery. METHOD: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with seven colonic cancer patients two weeks post hospital discharge. Analysis was performed using...... a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. RESULTS: During the first two weeks after discharge the patients experienced unfamiliar symptoms that affected their everyday lives. Despite distressing symptoms, they applied a "wait-and-see" strategy, and only reacted when symptoms became intolerable. The patients failed...

  10. Symptom severity and viral protein or RNA accumulation in lettuce affected by big-vein disease Severidad de síntomas y acumulación de proteínas o ARN virales en lechugas afectadas por la enfermedad de las venas grandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Araya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Big-vein disease (BVD is a widespread and economically damaging disease in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Typical symptoms are chlorotic clearing around leaf veins, leaf deformations, and impaired head development. In this research, we studied the relationship between symptom intensity and protein and viral RNA accumulation in infected plants. Naturally infected lettuce plants, from the field or greenhouse, were classified according to their symptomatology: mild, moderate, severe, and symptomless. Coat protein accumulation was evaluated by a double antibody sandwich/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA, and RNA levels were studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR. Virus coat protein accumulation did not differ for the two viruses associated with this disease among lettuce plants showing different symptom severity. Similarly, abundance of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV-RNA3 or Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV-RNA-2 were not different (P > 0.05 for diverse big vein disease severity rating scales. This suggests that symptom severity expressed by big-vein diseased lettuce plants did not necessarily reflect the accumulation of viruses associated with this disease in the host. Therefore, lettuce plants showing mild symptoms of BVD do not necessarily present lower virus levels than plants showing more severe symptomatology.La enfermedad de las venas grandes de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. es de origen viral, está ampliamente distribuida en el mundo, y provoca graves daños económicos en este cultivo. Los síntomas típicos de la enfermedad son clorosis alrededor de las venas, deformación de hojas y ausencia de formación de cabezas. En este trabajo se estudió la relación entre la intensidad de síntomas y la acumulación de proteínas y ARNs de origen viral en plantas afectadas por esta enfermedad. Lechugas infectadas naturalmente, provenientes de campo y de

  11. Effect of aqueous Glycyrrhza globra extract on menopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moslemizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Most women consider menopausal symptoms as natural period in their life. Many of them experienced some problems before and after the condition. There are many side effects of hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.In different regions with various diet regimens, menopausal symptoms are different. Glycyhrhza glabra has constituents with estrogen like activity. In this study for the first time aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract was evaluated for decreasing menopausal symptoms.Materials and Methods: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract prepared by maceration method. The extract was concentrated and then powdered. The powder used as 250 mg capsule and standardized by glycyrrhizha content. After matching for age, menopausal age and BMI, 29 and 24 women were allocated in case and control groups respectively. Three 250 mg capsules were prescribed per day to women in case group and women in control group received placebo. The mean number of hot flashes and degree of menopausal symptoms, KI (Kupperman Index were calculated every two weeks and classified as; without symptom, weak, medium and severs. Data were analyzed using T-test and the effects of drug on hot flash and KI were assessed in different weeks.Results: The mean age and menopausal age were 50.5 ± and 48± respectively. Results showed that the mean numbers of hot flashes, KI and FSH decreased significantly in case group but they were not significant in control group. Also estradiol hormone increased significantly in case group.Conclusion: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra affects hot flash and KI and is a simple and cheap drug for menopausal symptoms without any side effects.

  12. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  13. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  14. Association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna de Abreu Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A total of 239 individuals aged 10-17 years were randomly selected from schools located in the catchment area of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED was used to evaluate the presence of anxiety symptoms, and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, to evaluate alcohol use. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (53.1% reported having already used alcohol. Of these, 14 individuals showed problematic alcohol use (5.8% . There was no association between lifetime use of alcohol and anxiety symptoms, but mean SCARED scores in individuals with problematic alcohol use was higher if compared to those without problematic use, even after adjustment for age and gender (29.9±8.5 vs. 23.7±11.8, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation of a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use early in life.

  15. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies and massage aromatherapy (7 studies were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy.

  16. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy.

  17. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement.

  18. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  19. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  20. 10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a symptom of Alzheimer's or another dementia . Alzheimer's is a brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. There are 10 warning signs and symptoms. Every individual may experience one or more of ...

  1. What Are the Symptoms of Menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of menopause? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... longer than a week. A common symptom of menopause is the appearance of hot flashes (sometimes called ...

  2. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  3. What Are the Symptoms of Pelvic Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pelvic pain? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The symptoms of pelvic pain vary from woman to woman. Pelvic pain can ...

  4. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms and Diagnosis Glaucoma can develop in one or ...

  5. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation....... The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among...... these, 30 (22%) had contacted the healthcare system. Antecedent symptoms (symptoms >24 hours before death) were present in 34 (25%) patients. Prodromal symptoms (symptoms ≤24 hours before death) were present in 23 (17%) patients. Cardiac symptoms included chest pain (n = 16, 12%), dyspnea (n = 18, 13...

  6. Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... area where Lyme disease occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, ...

  7. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also ... a Confidential Online Mood Disorder Screening Signs and symptoms of depression Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells ...

  8. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  9. Mediationg Role of Mindfulness as a Trait Between Attachment Styles and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.

  10. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and slee

  11. Schmerz: Symptom, Folge, Behandlung bei Multipler Sklerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidegg S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schmerz ist ein viel häufigeres Symptom bei Patienten mit Multipler Sklerose als angenommen. In 5,5 % der Patienten ist Schmerz ein vorherrschendes Symptom, entweder alleine oder in Kombination mit anderen Symptomen, z. B. der Spastizität. Häufigste Symptome sind ein zentral neuropathischer Schmerz, die Allodynie und Hyperalgesie sowie Trigeminusneuralgien.

  12. Visual signs and symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies ('Lewy body dementia' or 'diffuse Lewy body disease') (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia to affect elderly people, after Alzheimer's disease. A combination of the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is present in DLB and the disorder is classified as a 'parkinsonian syndrome', a group of diseases which also includes Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and multiple system atrophy. Ch...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the dumps or blue for a few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. ... and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. RODOLFO : ...

  14. Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: results from a daily monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-03-01

    Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women.

  15. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  16. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  17. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain.

  18. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  19. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  20. Characterization of symptoms and edema distribution in premenstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacani PM

    2015-03-01

    upper limb, and proximal lower limb. Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, menstrual cycle, edema, women’s health, affective symptoms, body surface area

  1. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  2. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.

  3. Skin symptoms in bakery and auto body shop workers: Associations with exposure and respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrandale, V.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Redlich, C.A.; Holness, D.L.; Heederik, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of skin exposure, studies of skin symptoms in relation to exposure and respiratory symptoms are rare. The goals of this study were to describe exposure-response relationships for skin symptoms, and to investigate associations between skin and respiratory symptoms in b

  4. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  5. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  6. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings. 416....928 Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings. (a) Symptoms are your own description of your physical... symptom(s), we will accept as a statement of this symptom(s) the description given by the person who...

  7. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930605 A study on clinical evaluation of theSHH for SAH.SONG Donglin(宋东林),et al.Dept Neurol,General Hosp,Air Force,PLA.,Beijing,100036.Chin J Nerv & Ment Dis 1993;19(1):6-8.The clinical evaluation of subhyaloid hemor-rhage(SHH)in 609 cases with subarachnoidhemorrhage(SAH)was studied by analysing 62patients with SHH(in both eyes in 35 cases andone eye in 27 cases).A comparision study be-tween the SHH group and non-SHH group wasmade,showing that the clinical symptoms in theSHH group were more severe,and had higher in-tracranial pressure and higher mortality.The au-topsy showed that in the 6 cases of SHH with oneeye the damaged eye was located on the same sidewith ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  8. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  9. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, pparents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  10. Momentary symptoms of borderline personality disorder as a product of trait personality and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Johanna; Carpenter, Ryan W; Lane, Sean P; Trull, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Past studies identify Five Factor Model (FFM) domains that are characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD), including those associated with specific BPD symptoms, at a between-person level. The present study replicated these between-person associations and extended past research by assessing whether the FFM explains within-person variance in the manifestation of momentary BPD symptoms in the presence or absence of close social contact (CSC). We measured CSC and the BPD core symptoms negative affectivity, impulsivity, and interpersonal problems in 74 BPD patients and in a clinical control group of 40 depressed patients over the course of 28 days, 6 times a day. The FFM domains showed specificity in predicting momentary BPD symptoms and interacted with CSC in doing so. In particular, for BPD individuals only, momentary impulsivity and interpersonal problems were associated with higher neuroticism and extraversion and lower agreeableness, and these associations were especially strong in situations involving CSC. Negative affectivity was predicted by neuroticism for both groups of individuals, and this association was generally unaffected by CSC. Overall, experiencing CSC was positively associated with momentary BPD symptoms. Thus, both the FFM and CSC were associated with BPD patients' experience of symptoms in everyday life. Furthermore, specific FFM trait domains were particularly impactful in contexts where BPD symptoms are more likely to be manifested, providing further evidence that person-by-situation interactions are important for understanding BPD symptoms in the moment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  12. Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately.

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  14. Controlling Your Symptoms of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disease that affects the tubes in your lungs that carry air (oxygen). These tubes are called airways. In people with asthma, the airways can be sensitive to pollen, dust mites, animal dander, chemicals, tobacco smoke, wood Visit your doctor to talk about your health ...

  15. Bipolar affective disorder and creativity: implications and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, N C; Glick, I D

    1988-01-01

    Research on the relationship between creativity and mental illness is summarized, and studies documenting a relationship in writers between creativity and affective illness (particularly bipolar illness) are described. Writers have a high prevalence of affective illness, and both affective illness and creativity have increased frequency in their first-degree relatives. The clinical management of the creative individual is challenging. In general, creative individuals are most productive when their affective symptoms are under good control.

  16. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan

    2013-03-14

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  19. Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Mobedi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Many herbal treatments for menopause symptoms contain and its components such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-PN, isoxanthohumol and xanthohumol. Recent in-vivo studies have highlighted the ability of 8-prenylnaringenin to reduce serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to increase serum prolactin levels and uterine weight, and to induce vaginal hyperplastic epithelium. Previous research has shown that hops extract can strongly bind to both estrogen receptors, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, and upregulate presenelin-2 and progesterone receptor mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Numerous clinical trials have documented significant reductions in the frequency of hot flushes following the administration of hop-containing preparations. Nevertheless, further clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted to confirm such benefits. PMID:27617238

  20. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in schizophrenia: a Janus Bifrons effect on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Matteo; Ottoni, Rebecca; Paglia, Francesca; Ossola, Paolo; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    The impact of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on functioning in schizophrenia is still debated. This study investigated the relationship between OC symptoms and functioning along a severity gradient of obsessive-compulsive dimension. Sixty patients affected by schizophrenia completed the SCID-IV, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. The relationship between functioning and obsessive-compulsive dimension was described by a reverse U-shaped curve; functioning was positively related to the presence of mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms and inversely related to moderate and severe symptoms, after controlling for the severity of positive, negative, disorganization and general psychopathological symptoms. The role of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on social functioning in schizophrenia occurs along a severity continuum with a gradual transition from a positive correlation (from absent to mild symptoms) to an inverse correlation (for symptoms ranging from moderate to severe) and independently from schizophrenia symptom dimensions.

  1. TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION IN NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The cardinal clinical features of PD are motor and include bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor with an asymmetric pattern. Apart from these, various nonmotor symptoms (NMS also occur in PD and constitute a major clinical symptoms. NMS can present at any stage of the disease including early and pre-motor phase of PD. Management of PD requires recognition of both motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as an understanding of the relationship between these symptoms and how they can be affected by treatments for PD. Therapy should be individualized for each patient, as treatments for the motor symptoms of PD can improve some nonmotor symptoms while they can worsen others. Some non-motor symptoms, including depression, constipation, pain, genitourinary problems, and sleep disorders, can be improved with antiparkinsonian drugs . Other non-motor symptoms can be more refractory and need the introduction of novel non-dopaminergic drugs in association with rehabilitation programs . In the future, development of treatments that can slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease and its multicentric neurodegeneration are the best hope of ameliorating non-motor symptoms

  2. Visual Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Simmons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are common developmental disorders thought to affect more than 1% of the UK population (Baird et al, 2006, The Lancet 368, 210. Whilst the current official diagnostic criteria for ASD concentrate on signs and symptoms associated with social behaviour, it is also well known that sensory difficulties are a major factor in the presentation of this condition (Simmons et al, 2009, Vision Research 49, 2705. Over the past few years we have been investigating these sensory symptoms of ASD using a combination of questionnaire and focus group data, with the aim of clarifying precisely what they are. Concentrating on the visual symptoms, our questionnaire data revealed that individuals with higher levels of autistic traits complained of more visual symptoms than those with lower trait levels. Specific issues highlighted included problems with bright light, especially artificial lighting and, more specifically, flicker from fluorescent lighting (a particular problem in supermarkets. Some individuals also complained of specific colours in artificial lights. Note that the symptoms associated with these aversions could be particularly strong and involve headache and nausea. The focus group (n = 6 of adults with ASD revealed more detail about these issues. It became clear that low-frequency visual flicker, once noticed, can be hard to divert attention from. Also, seeing certain colours (eg, red would “hurt”. Another symptom reported by a number of individuals is distress caused by strongly repetitive patterns like shelving or grids. General sensory issues highlighted by the focus group included the importance of having control over sensory stimulation in order to reduce sensory stress and how certain types of sensory stimulation could be calming in some situations (although none of our sample reported visual calming experiences other than seeking out natural lighting. Our data provide a fascinating insight into the complex

  3. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...... of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures...... for the association between participant status (case vs control) and presence of symptoms (yes vs no). RESULTS: In overt autoimmune hypothyroidism, 94·9% of women and 91·3% of men (P = 0·62) reported at least one of the hypothyroidism-associated symptoms, with tiredness as the most common symptom followed by dry skin...

  4. Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

  5. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  6. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty. There is a clear need to increase the awareness of hypogonadism throughout the medical profession, especially in primary care physicians who are usually the first port of call for the patient. Hypogonadism can significantly reduce the quality of life and has resulted in the loss of livelihood and separation of couples, leading to divorce. It is also important for doctors to recognize that testosterone is not just a sex hormone. There is an important research being published to demonstrate that testosterone may have key actions on metabolism, on the vasculature, and on brain function, in addition to its well-known effects on bone and body composition. This article has been used as an introduction for the need to develop sensitive and reliable assays for sex hormones and for symptoms and treatment of hypogonadism.

  7. An n=1 Clinical Network Analysis of Symptoms and Treatment in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmi, Laila; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic relationships between the symptoms of psychosis can be shown in individual networks of psychopathology. In a single patient, data collected with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM–a method to construct intensive time series of experience and context) can be used to study lagged associations between symptoms in relation to illness severity and pharmacological treatment. Method The patient completed, over the course of 1 year, for 4 days per week, 10 daily assessments scheduled randomly between 10 minutes and 3 hours apart. Five a priori selected symptoms were analysed: ‘hearing voices’, ‘down’, ‘relaxed’, ‘paranoia’ and ‘loss of control’. Regression analysis was performed including current level of one symptom as the dependent variable and all symptoms at the previous assessment (lag) as the independent variables. Resulting regression coefficients were printed in graphs representing a network of symptoms. Network graphs were generated for different levels of severity: stable, impending relapse and full relapse. Results ESM data showed that symptoms varied intensely from moment to moment. Network representations showed meaningful relations between symptoms, e.g. ‘down’ and ‘paranoia’ fuelling each other, and ‘paranoia’ negatively impacting ‘relaxed’. During relapse, symptom levels as well as the level of clustering between symptoms markedly increased, indicating qualitative changes in the network. While ‘hearing voices’ was the most prominent symptom subjectively, the data suggested that a strategic focus on ‘paranoia’, as the most central symptom, had the potential to bring about changes affecting the whole network. Conclusion Construction of intensive ESM time series in a single patient is feasible and informative, particularly if represented as a network, showing both quantitative and qualitative changes as a function of relapse. PMID:27643994

  8. Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chue P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Chue,1 Justine K Lalonde21Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Roche SAS, Medical Affairs Department, Boulogne-Billancourt, FranceAbstract: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3 with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed

  9. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Ore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS. Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073% for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3% decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p < 0.0001. Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2% than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%, p < 0.0001. Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89. The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  10. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease? The signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease ( ... will have signs and symptoms of the disease. Heart Disease Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the major ...

  11. Children's perception of physical symptoms: The example of asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.; Lahey, B.B.; Kazdin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces symptom perception as a concept to explain and understand the discordance between objective and subjective symptoms of disease. Contemporary models describing symptom perception and factors that influence these symptom perceptual processes are evaluated in light of recent empirical advant

  12. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks ... symptoms are called silent heart attacks. Most Common Symptoms The most common warning symptoms of a heart ...

  13. The impact of congenital and childhood myotonic dystrophy on quality of life: a qualitative study of associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Luebbe, Elizabeth; Eastwood, Eileen; Chin, Nancy; Moxley, Richard T; Heatwole, Chad R

    2014-07-01

    This study systematically evaluated the symptoms associated with congenital and childhood myotonic dystrophy, and how these symptoms affect health related quality of life. We conducted interviews with patients affected by congenital or childhood myotonic dystrophy and their affected parent to identify which symptoms have the greatest effect on their lives. Each interview was recorded, coded, and analyzed using a qualitative framework technique. In 34 interviews with 13 parents and 21 patients, we identified 189 symptoms, representing 22 themes in physical, emotional, social, and disease-specific quality of life. Communication difficulties, cognitive impairment, and social role limitations were the most frequently identified themes. These interviews identified multiple themes and symptoms, some previously under-recognized, which play a key role in the disease burden associated with congenital and childhood myotonic dystrophy.

  14. Lower-leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease are associated with anxiety, depression, and anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2009-01-01

    were associated with mood states such as anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (i.e. lack of positive affect). A cohort of consecutive PAD patients (n = 628) from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the San Diego...... Claudication questionnaire. The ankle-brachial index and clinical factors were assessed in all patients at baseline. Anxiety was present in 29%, depressive symptoms in 30%, and anhedonia in 28% of patients. Pain at rest was independently associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (ORs between......Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) report diverse clinical manifestations that are not always consistent with classic intermittent claudication. We examined the degree to which atypical exertional leg symptoms, intermittent claudication, and exertional leg symptoms that begin at rest...

  15. Health Care Communication and Agreement and Disagreement About Symptoms Within the Context of Multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, Morgan K; Allen, Rebecca S; Halli-Tierney, Anne D; Scogin, Forrest; Kvale, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Informal caregivers for older adults often act as medical 'proxies' based on their assumed knowledge of the care recipient's illness-related symptoms. Differences between symptom descriptions given by care recipients and caregivers, however, raise questions about the validity of proxy reports. Community-dwelling caregivers and their care recipients with chronic, multi-morbid conditions revealed similar numbers of symptoms reported as well as average symptom distress. Dyads with care recipients who scored higher on negative affect were more likely to have significantly lower. Results suggested the possibility of identifying and intervening with dyads who may be 'at-risk' for divergent symptom reporting. This awareness may increase the ability to engage in informed and shared medical decision making throughout the illness trajectory.

  16. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  17. Cortisol secretion in children with symptoms of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Wilson, Philip; Young, David; Wallace, Alan Michael; Gorski, Charlotta; Follan, Michael; Smillie, Maureen; Puckering, Christine; Barnes, James; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2013-08-30

    Maltreated children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) have severe problems with social relationships and affect regulation. An association between early maltreatment and changes in the daily rhythm of cortisol secretion has already been reported for maltreated toddlers. We sought to find out whether such changes were apparent in school-age children with symptoms of RAD, who had experienced early maltreatment but were currently adopted in well-functioning families. We recruited 66 children: 34 adopted children, aged 5-12 years, with an early history of maltreatment and with social difficulties such as indiscriminate friendliness; and 32 age- and sex-matched comparison children with no history of maltreatment or social difficulties. Daily rhythms of cortisol production were determined from saliva samples collected over 2 days. The adopted group had significantly lower absolute levels of cortisol compared to the control group, but a typical profile of cortisol secretion. There was no association between cortisol secretion and symptom scores for psychopathology.

  18. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students in Hanover, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12, maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33, and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39 with self reported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32 and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52. As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression.

  20. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...

  1. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...

  2. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  3. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  4. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's facial emotions: examining the depression-inhibition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N; Lusk, Kathryn; Perfect, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    Vibrant expression of emotion is the principal means infants and young children use to elicit appropriate and timely caregiving, stimulation, and support. This study examined the depression-inhibition hypothesis: that declines in mothers' support as their depressive symptoms increase inhibit children's emotional communication. Ninety-four mothers and their 14- to 27-month-olds interacted in a university playroom. Based on microanalytic coding of discrete facial displays, results supported three components of the hypothesis. (a) As mothers' depressive symptoms increased, children displayed less facial emotion (more flat affect, less joy, less sadness, less negative). (b) Mothers' low emotional and behavioral support predicted children's low facial communication and mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion. (c) Children who were passive with mothers behaviorally expressed emotion infrequently. Children's passivity mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion displays. Contrary to modeling and contagion theories, mothers' facial displays did not mediate relations between their depressive symptoms and children's facial displays. Nor were the outcomes children experienced regulating their facial displays. Rather, findings suggest that, even when depressive symptoms are modest, young children inhibit emotion as mothers' depressive symptoms increase to withdraw from unresponsive mothers, which may adversely affect children's subsequent relationships and competencies.

  5. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  6. Psychosocioeconomic study of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maju Mathew Koola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of studies done on medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS in Kerala, India. The objective of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and other clinical variables associated with this condition. Materials and Methods: The clinical sample was taken from the General Medicine Clinic of a tertiary care hospital, in Kerala. The referred cases meeting the criteria (N=48 for medically unexplained physical symptoms were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. The medical doctor with experience in psychiatry completed the questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients were middle-aged females from rural areas. The most common symptom reported was headache. Most of the patients had symptoms for five years or more and had seen two-to-five consultants. A majority of the patients had undergone special investigations and a few had expensive and invasive investigations. Cluster C personality disorders were the most common associated personality disorders with medically unexplained physical symptoms. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first psychosocioeconomic study on medically unexplained physical symptoms, done in Kerala, India. Medically unexplained physical symptoms cause loss of productivity and economic burden and are a major public health problem. Future studies are warranted focusing on non-pharmacological treatment, psycho-education on mind-body association, and medical models on specific cytokines associated with medically unexplained physical symptoms for personalized management, and to examine the effect of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  7. Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects? Many congenital heart defects cause few or no signs and symptoms. A ... lips, and fingernails) Fatigue (tiredness) Poor blood circulation Congenital heart defects don't cause chest pain or other painful ...

  8. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  9. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  10. Symptoms and syndromes of bodily distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Per; Toft, Tomas; Hansen, Morten Steen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical complaints not attributable to verifiable, conventionally defined diseases, i.e., medically unexplained or functional somatic symptoms, are prevalent in all medical settings, but their classification is contested as numerous overlapping diagnoses and syndrome labels have been...... introduced. This study aims to determine whether functional somatic symptoms cluster into distinct syndromes and diagnostic entities. METHODS: The 978 consecutively admitted patients from a neurological department (n = 120), a medical department (n = 157), and from primary care (n = 701) were interviewed...... using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) diagnostic instrument. RESULTS: Patients complained of a median of five functional somatic symptoms; women of six, men of four (p symptoms stood out as distinctive for patients with multiple symptoms. Principal...

  11. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known how...... different measures of fatigue are associated with depressive symptoms among general older populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults reporting mobility-related or general feelings fatigue. The study population consisted...... of 75-year-old community-living individuals (n = 561). Both, mobility-related and general fatigue, were associated in a stepwise relationship with depressive symptoms: a higher level of fatigue was related to higher level of depressive symptoms. Especially major general fatigue was strongly associated...

  12. Symptoms of Nerve Dysfunction After Hip Arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Thorborg, Kristian; Kraemer, Otto

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the rate, pattern, and severity of symptoms of nerve dysfunction after hip arthroscopy (HA) by reviewing prospectively collected data. The secondary purpose was to study whether symptoms of nerve dysfunction were related to traction time...... year after HA concerning symptoms of nerve dysfunction, possible localization, and erectile dysfunction. Fifty patients participated and returned fully completed questionnaires. Patients reporting symptoms of nerve dysfunction 1 year after HA were re-examined. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 50 patients (46......%) reported symptoms of nerve dysfunction during the first week after HA; this was reduced to 14 patients (28%) after 6 weeks, 11 patients (22%) after 26 weeks, and 9 patients (18%) after 1 year. One patient experienced temporary erectile dysfunction. No difference in traction time between patients...

  13. Delirium after a traumatic brain injury: predictors and symptom patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewong, Jutaporn; Maneeton, Benchalak; Maneeton, Narong; Vaniyapong, Tanat; Traisathit, Patrinee; Sricharoen, Natthanidnan; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2017-01-01

    Background Delirium in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common, may be predictable, and has a multifaceted symptom complex. This study aimed to examine: 1) the sum score of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and if its component scores could predict delirium in TBI patients, and 2) the prominent symptoms and their courses over the first days after TBI. Methods TBI patients were recruited from neurosurgical ward inpatients. All participants were hospitalized within 24 hours after their TBI. Apart from the sum score of GCS, which was obtained at the emergency department (ED), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnostic criteria for delirium were applied daily. The severity of delirium symptoms was assessed daily using the Delirium Rating Scale – Revised-98 (DRS-R-98). Results The participants were 54 TBI patients with a mean GCS score of 12.7 (standard deviation [SD] =2.9). A total of 25 patients (46.3%) met the diagnosis of delirium and had a mean age of 36.7 years (SD =14.8). Compared with 29 non-delirious patients, 25 delirious patients had a significantly lower mean GCS score (P=0.04), especially a significantly lower verbal component score (P=0.03). Among 18 delirious patients, four symptoms of the DRS-R-98 cognitive domain (orientation, attention, long-term memory, and visuospatial ability) were moderate symptoms (score ≥2) at the first day of admission. After follow-up, three cognitive (orientation, attention, and visuospatial ability) and two noncognitive symptoms (lability of affect and motor agitation) rapidly resolved. Conclusion Almost half of patients with mild to moderate head injuries may develop delirium in the first 4 days after TBI. Those having a low GCS score, especially the verbal component score, at the ED were likely to have delirium in this period. Most cognitive domains of delirium described in the DRS-R-98 were prominent within the first 4 days of TBI with delirium. Three cognitive and two noncognitive

  14. The symptom intensity scale, fibromyalgia, and the meaning of fibromyalgia-like symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize a scale for the measurement of fibromyalgia (FM)-like symptoms; to investigate whether FM is a discrete disorder; to understand the significance of FM-like symptoms; and to investigate causal and noncausal factors in the development of such symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated

  15. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  16. Determinants of Menopausal Symptoms among Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Setorglo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The onset of menopause is unique to every woman with varying symptoms which have implications on health and well-being. This study evaluated the perception, knowledge and beliefs about menopause and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 280 menopausal women aged 45 years and older in the Accra Metropolis of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and experience of menopausal symptoms were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric data on weight, height, % body fat and MUAC were also taken. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented as means and frequencies. Predictors of menopausal symptoms were determined by logistic regression. The mean age of onset of menopause was (48±2.9 years with 98.2% having some knowledge of the signs and symptoms of menopause. The most frequently reported menopausal symptoms by the women were: night sweats (83.2%, hot flashes (76.4%, mood swings (72.5% and vaginal dryness (71.4%. The significant predictors for the occurrence of the most common symptoms reported were: age at onset of menstruation, age of start of menopause, body weight and % body fat. There was a decreased risk of experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness as age at menopause increased. Menopausal transition was determined by both vasomotor and urogenital symptoms. Counseling and support are needed to enable women manage the symptoms better. Most women have heard of and know what menopause is.

  17. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  18. Treatment of negative symptoms: Where do we stand, and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, André; Lincoln, Tania M; Bruggeman, Richard; Melle, Ingrid; Arends, Johan; Arango, Celso; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2016-06-09

    Negative symptoms, e.g. social withdrawal, reduced initiative, anhedonia and affective flattening, are notoriously difficult to treat. In this review, we take stock of recent research into treatment of negative symptoms by summarizing psychosocial as well as pharmacological and other biological treatment strategies. Major psychosocial approaches concern social skills training, cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis, cognitive remediation and family intervention. Some positive findings have been reported, with the most robust improvements observed for social skills training. Although cognitive behavior therapy shows significant effects for negative symptoms as a secondary outcome measure, there is a lack of data to allow for definite conclusions of its effectiveness for patients with predominant negative symptoms. With regard to pharmacological interventions, antipsychotics have been shown to improve negative symptoms, but this seems to be limited to secondary negative symptoms in acute patients. It has also been suggested that antipsychotics may aggravate negative symptoms. Recent studies have investigated glutamatergic compounds, e.g. glycine receptor inhibitors and drugs that target the NMDA receptor or metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor, but no consistent evidence of improvement of negative symptoms was found. Finally, some small studies have suggested improvement of negative symptoms after non-invasive electromagnetic neurostimulation, but this has only been partly replicated and it is still unclear whether these are robust improvements. We address methodological issues, in particular the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and treatment response, and suggest avenues for future research. There is a need for more detailed studies that focus on different dimensions of negative symptoms.

  19. Nonmotor Symptoms and Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Joon Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS is an established treatment for the motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition to improvements in motor symptoms, many studies have reported changes in various nonmotor symptoms (NMSs after STN DBS in patients with PD. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, apathy, anxiety, and impulsivity, can worsen or improve depending on the electrical stimulation parameters, the locations of the stimulating contacts within the STN, and changes in medications after surgery. Global cognitive function is not affected by STN DBS, and there is no increase in the incidence of dementia after STN DBS compared to that after medical treatment, although clinically insignificant declines in verbal fluency have been consistently reported. Pain, especially PD-related pain, improves with STN DBS. Evidence regarding the effects of STN DBS on autonomic symptoms and sleep-related problems is limited and remains conflicting. Many symptoms of nonmotor fluctuations, which are occasionally more troublesome than motor fluctuations, improve with STN DBS. Although it is clear that NMSs are not target symptoms for STN DBS, NMSs have a strong influence on the quality of life of patients with PD, and clinicians should thus be aware of these NMSs when deciding whether to perform surgery and should pay attention to changes in these symptoms after STN DBS to ensure the optimal care for patients.

  20. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  1. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed.

  2. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.

  3. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  4. Psoriasis: symptoms, treatments and its impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Liz

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis affects between 1% and 3% of the population and there is no cure for this chronic skin disease. This article gives an overview of the condition and available treatments. It focuses on managing symptoms, the range of medications available and the impact this chronic condition can have on a sufferer's quality of life. The article looks at medication non adherence remaining the biggest obstacle to management of the condition and the debilitating effect psoriasis can have on an individual's self-esteem and general well-being. It concludes by considering the role of patient support services such as the touch programme.

  5. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Primeau, Loree A; Levine, Ruth E; Olson, Gayle L; Wu, Z Helen; Berenson, Abbey B

    2006-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the distribution of anxiety symptoms among pregnant, non-pregnant, and postpartum women of lower socioeconomic status. Participants were 807 women who were pregnant (24-36 weeks), postpartum (2-8 weeks), or not pregnant. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed by the state-trait anxiety index and the Beck depression inventory, respectively. English and Spanish versions of the instrument were available. Group differences in anxiety were evaluated using analysis of variance. Multivariate regression was performed to evaluate differences in anxiety while controlling for marital status, education, race/ethnicity, employment, cohabitation, income, parity, history of depression/anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Anxiety scores were lower among postpartum women relative to pregnant and non-pregnant women (both P < 0.001), who did not differ (P = 0.99). After controlling for depressive symptoms and patient characteristics, anxiety remained lowest among postpartum women. Additionally, history of depression/anxiety and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of anxiety in the multivariate analysis. Comparatively low anxiety and depressive symptoms were observed among women who were 2-8 weeks postpartum. Anxiety symptoms that occur postpartum may not appear until later in the postpartum period.

  6. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  7. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, Robert M; Baldwin, Lauren; Woolum, Dylan; Elliott, Erika; Wijers, Christiaan; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Miller, Rachel W; DeSimone, Christopher P; Ueland, Frederick R; Kryscio, Richard J; Nagell, John R van; Pavlik, Edward J

    2017-03-20

    To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS). Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073%) for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3%) decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89). The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of postconcussive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Thomas W; Arciniegas, David

    2002-01-01

    Postconcussive symptoms such as headache, dizziness, irritability, and difficulties with memory and attention are reported frequently after traumatic brain injuries (TBI) of all severities. The etiology of these symptoms in individuals with mild TBI has been a subject of some controversy with theories ranging from neural damage to malingering. Furthermore, although the term postconcussive syndrome is commonly used clinically and in the scientific literature, it is not clear that postconcussive symptoms constitute a syndrome per se. Instead, it may be the case that the various symptoms that commonly co-occur after TBI are relatively independent consequences of a single neurological event. In other words, because the locations and severity of injury vary between individuals despite ostensibly similar injuries, it follows that there should be variations in symptom type and severity between individuals as well. This article reviews the sequelae and natural course of recovery from mild TBI, the evidence regarding both persistent postconcussive symptoms and the postconcussive syndrome, and outlines an approach to the assessment and treatment of individuals with these symptoms after TBI.

  9. Maternity blues in Italian primipara women: symptoms and mood states in the first fifteen days after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussu, Pietro; Quatraro, Rosa Maria

    2013-07-01

    The maternity blues is the most commonly observed puerperal mood disturbance. In Italy, the mother's daily affective experience after childbirth has not yet been published. During each of the first 15 days after the birth of the child, 36 primipara women completed the Kellner Symptoms Questionnaire (SQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). We found that the mothers studied showed both psychological symptoms and mood disturbances of slight entity. Conversely, somatic symptoms were particularly acute in the first few days after childbirth. In this same period, slight anxiety symptoms, confusion, and bewilderment may develop.

  10. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  11. Vulvar symptoms in paediatric and adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piippo, S; Lenko, H; Vuento, R

    2000-04-01

    Vulvovaginal symptoms in children and young adolescents are not yet very well understood, nor is the actual incidence known. This study evaluates the character and possible infectious aetiology of vulvar symptoms of females aged up to 16 y. The signs, symptoms and bacteriological findings of 68 consecutive cases were studied. The study was conducted in the University Hospital of Tampere at a special gynaecological consultation clinic for children and adolescents. Sixty-eight patients were included in the study: 48 girls (71%) were prepubertal, at Tanner stage M1P1, 26 patients were 2-4-y-old and 15 were 5-7-y-old. The duration of symptoms was known for 46 patients: 41% had had symptoms for >1 mo and 20% for >6 mo. Forty-eight patients had abnormal clinical findings on examination and 16 (33%) of them had an infectious aetiology. Streptococcus pyogenes infection was identified in 11 (16%) patients, all of whom had symptoms. Candida was identified in 6 (9%) patients. No infectious aetiology was found among 26 patients who had symptoms and abnormal clinical findings. Vulvovaginal symptoms during childhood are more common among younger children (<7 y). In 67% of patients no infectious aetiology could be found. Samples for microbiological culture should be taken from symptomatic patients and symptomatic areas. Cultures of Candida and bacteria are necessary but usually sufficient. If a microbiological aetiology is established, treatment can be assigned accordingly. Patients with vulvar symptoms and findings but with an unclear aetiology need support and advice on proper hygiene and can intermittently use mild corticosteroids locally.

  12. Predictors of neurobehavioral symptoms in a university population: a multivariate approach using a postconcussive symptom questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Reinhardt, Lindsay E; Barry, David M

    2013-10-01

    Several factors have been linked to severity of postconcussive-type (neurobehavioral) symptoms. In this study, predictors of neurobehavioral symptoms were examined using multivariate methods to determine the relative importance of each. Data regarding demographics, symptoms, current alcohol use, history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), orthopedic injuries, and psychiatric/developmental diagnoses were collected via questionnaire from 3027 university students. The most prominent predictors of symptoms were gender, history of depression or anxiety, history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or learning disability diagnosis, and frequency of alcohol use. Prior mild TBI was significantly related to overall symptoms, but this effect was small in comparison to other predictors. These results provide further evidence that neurobehavioral symptoms are multi-determined phenomena, and highlight the importance of psychiatric comorbidity, demographic factors, and health behaviors to neurobehavioral symptom presentation after mild TBI.

  13. Multiple perspectives on symptom interpretation in primary care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Pedersen, Anette Fischer;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment and management of symptoms is a main task in primary care. Symptoms may be defined as 'any subjective evidence of a health problem as perceived by the patient'. In other words, symptoms do not appear as such; symptoms are rather the result of an interpretation process. We a......, including medicalisation of normal phenomena and devaluation of medically unexplained symptoms. Future research in primary care could gain from exploring symptoms as a generic phenomenon and raised awareness of symptom complexity....

  14. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  15. [Psychiatric symptoms can reveal Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thusgaard, Helle; Arnfred, Sidse Marie H

    2013-02-01

    Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed by physical characteristics, i.e. low height and infertility. This case report presents a woman, who was referred to a chromosome analysis at the age of 35 years, due to a specific pattern of psychiatric symptoms. She felt childish, had strong emotional bonds to her family, yet lacked friendships and intimate relationships. She had moderate symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder with a sexual content. Confronted with this constellation of symptoms, psychiatrists and psychologists should be aware of Turner syndrome.

  16. Pizotifen relieves acute migraine symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Kamrul Huda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Various pharmacological agents are used for the treatment of migraine. In the last five years, various drug companies in Bangladesh have been marketing pizotifen as a preventive treatment of all types of migraine. Pizotifen is a serotonin antagonist acting mainly at the 5-HT1, 5-HT2A and 5HT2C receptors. It also has some activity as an antihistamine (1. Pizotifen is a well-established preventative therapy of migraine. I would like to report my own experience in using pizotifen in treating the acute attacks of migraine. Pizotifen was prescribed as acute therapy in 11 patients, 6 females (4 had migraine without aura and 2 had migraine with aura and 5 males (all had migraine without aura. Three female and 5 male patients, who had migraine without aura, reported no beneficial effect of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. Three female patients (two with migraine with aura and one with migraine without aura had their headache relieved by use of pizotifen as treatment for the acute attacks. This is an initial observation about the effectiveness of pizotifen as acute therapy in migraine. However, this could be simply a placebo affect. Nevertheless, it will be worth exploring the role of pizotifen as a therapeutic agent for acute attacks of migraine by conducting well-designed randomized, controlled studies.

  17. Assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: Toward improving accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The issue of this article concerned the discussion about tools frequently used tools for assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms of patients with dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. The aims were to discuss the main tools for evaluating behavioral disturbances, and particularly the accuracy of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician Rating Scale (NPI-C. The clinical approach to and diagnosis of neuropsychiatric syndromes in dementia require suitable accuracy. Advances in the recognition and early accurate diagnosis of psychopathological symptoms help guide appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. In addition, recommended standardized and validated measurements contribute to both scientific research and clinical practice. Emotional distress, caregiver burden, and cognitive impairment often experienced by elderly caregivers, may affect the quality of caregiver reports. The clinician rating approach helps attenuate these misinterpretations. In this scenario, the NPI-C is a promising and versatile tool for assessing neuropsychiatric syndromes in dementia, offering good accuracy and high reliability, mainly based on the diagnostic impression of the clinician. This tool can provide both strategies: a comprehensive assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia or the investigation of specific psychopathological syndromes such as agitation, depression, anxiety, apathy, sleep disorders, and aberrant motor disorders, among others.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Aggression: A Within-Person Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-04-06

    Theoretical and empirical work suggests that aggression in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) occurs primarily in the context of emotional reactivity, especially anger and shame, in response to perceived rejection. Using intensive repeated measures, we examined a within-person process model in which perceived rejection predicts increases in aggressive urges and behaviors via increases in negative affect (indirect effect) and in which BPD symptoms exacerbate this process (moderated mediation). Participants were 117 emerging adult women (ages 18-24) with recent histories of aggressive behavior who were recruited from a community-based longitudinal study of at-risk youth. Personality disorder symptoms were assessed by semistructured clinical interview, and aggressive urges, threats, and behaviors were measured in daily life during a 3-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Multilevel path models revealed that within-person increases in perceived rejection predicted increases in negative affect, especially in women with greater BPD symptoms. In turn, increases in negative affect predicted increased likelihood of aggressive urges or behaviors. Further analysis revealed that BPD symptoms predicted greater anger and shame reactivity to perceived rejection, but not to criticism or insult. Additionally, only anger was associated with increases in aggression after controlling for other negative emotions. Whereas BPD symptoms exacerbated the link between perceived rejection and aggression via increases in negative affect (particularly anger), this process was attenuated in women with greater antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These findings suggest that anger reactivity to perceived rejection is one unique pathway, distinct from antisocial personality disorder, by which BPD symptoms increase risk for aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Multidimensional assessment of neuro-psychiatric symptoms in patients with low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: A clinical rating scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergei Mechtcheriakov; Ivo W Graziadei; André Kugener; Julia Wiedemann; Chantal Galbavy; Hartmann Hinterhuber; Josef Marksteiner; Wolfgang Vogel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of a new clinical rating scale for a standardized assessment of cirrhosis-associated neuro-psychiatric symptoms.METHODS: Forty patients with liver cirrhosis (LC, with or without low-grade hepatic encephalopathy) were invest-igated using a clinical neuro-psychiatric rating scale based on a comprehensive list of neurological, psychomotor,cognitive, affective, behavioral symptoms, and symptoms of disturbed bioregulation.RESULTS: The analysis revealed that the majority of cirrhotic patients showed, besides characteristic neurological symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, various psychomotor,affective and bioregulatory symptoms (disturbed sleep and sexual dysfunction). Patients were impaired in the following subscales: sleep and biorhythm disorder (75.0% of patients), Parkinsonoid symptoms (25.0%), affective symptoms (17.5%), and psychomotor retardation (12.5%).The increase of total neuro-psychiatric clinical score was significantly associated with the degree of hepatic enceph-alopathy.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a substantial number of patients with LC and low-grade hepatic encephalopathy manifest various clinical neuro-psychiatric symptoms. The use of a rating scale, which explores clinical dimensions of hepatic encephalopathy, would improve the management of patients with LC.

  20. Family Functioning and Illness Perception of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis, Living without Skin Symptoms, but with Psychosomatic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain. R. Rodríguez-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease.This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents’ perceptions of their child’s disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child’s atopic dermatitis. Pearson’s correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child’s atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child’s daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  1. Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms as Predictors of the Content of Their Facebook Communication and Responses Received from Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2016-09-01

    This research examined how adolescents' internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and loneliness, relate to the content of their Facebook communication and the responses they receive from peers on Facebook. Participants (n = 125, 56 female, age 18) reported on their internalizing symptoms in the summer following 12(th) grade, and downloaded an application to their Facebook account that stored the content of all of their Facebook communication to secure, online archive. Two months of participants' status updates and comments and peers' comments were coded for content. Relations between internalizing symptoms and Facebook communication differed for girls and boys. For girls, internalizing symptoms predicted several types of Facebook content: negative affect, somatic complaints and eliciting support. In contrast, internalizing symptoms were not related to boys' Facebook posts. Relations between internalizing symptoms and peers' responses on Facebook also differed by gender. For girls, internalizing symptoms positively predicted receiving more peer comments expressing negative affect, and peer responses offering support. For boys, internalizing symptoms did not predict any of the measured peer responses. These findings suggest that girls prone to internalizing symptoms use Facebook in ways that appear similar to co-rumination, by expressing problems to friends and receive possibly reinforcing feedback in return.

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  3. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  4. Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer can cause any of the following ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  5. ACUTE SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS OF HEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Paula Magalhães de Deus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Chronic Kidney Disease and the number of patients on renal replacement therapies have become more frequent in recent decades. Even with new technologies used in hemodialysis, which result in greater patient safety, acute symptoms and complications after the procedure may still occur. Recognizing these complications and knowing how to manage them is crucial to ensure a better quality of life for these patients. Content: This is a literature search on symptoms related to hemodialysis, carried out in electronic databases: Periodicals CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel Training, Brazil, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, LILACS and Pubmed, from which 30 articles were selected on the main complications observed and described during the course of hemodialysis. Conclusion: There was a prevalence of symptoms related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance and hemodynamic changes, especially headache. KEYWORDS: Renal Insufficiency Chronic; Symptoms; Renal Dialysis.

  6. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  7. What Are the Symptoms of Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... decline and inability to breathe. 2 , 3 , 4 Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation. (2008). Respiratory issues in osteogenesis imperfecta. Retrieved ...

  8. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Pediatric Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of California, San Francisco, examined the frequency of cranial autonomic symptoms in all pediatric and adolescent patients with migraine seen in 4 different clinical settings during July 2010 to June 2012.

  9. Symptoms and biomarkers associated with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line L; Thuesen, Betina H; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify possible early predictors (symptoms and biomarkers) of celiac disease, compare symptoms before and after screening, and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of serologic screening for celiac disease in an adult Danish population. METHODS: This cross-sectional population......-based study was based on the 5-year follow-up of the Health2006 cohort, where 2297 individuals were screened for celiac disease; 56 were antibody positive and thus invited to clinical evaluation. Eight were diagnosed with biopsy-verified celiac disease. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to antibody......-positive individuals 19 months after the clinical evaluation to obtain information on their symptoms and their experience with participation in the screening. RESULTS: Before screening, participants subsequently diagnosed with celiac disease did not differ from the rest of the population with respect to symptoms...

  10. Symptoms of Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Loss of a Loved One Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people ... person might be getting worse—going into a major depression. About 1 in 5 bereaved people will develop ...

  11. Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used in combination with antihistamines. Long-term usage of spray decongestants can actually make symptoms worse, ... Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  12. Lower Back Pain Symptom Checker Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the back. Some causes and treatment of back pain are described in this chart.Our trusted Symptom ... Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back Pain Menstrual Cycle Problems Mouth Problems Mouth Problems in ...

  13. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

  14. Confusing or Ambiguous Upper Gut Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also referred to as hiatus hernia ] is an anatomical abnormality, not a symptom, and its presence or ... Function Gut Microbiota and Brain-Gut Interactions in Functional GI Disorders Tips & Daily Living Personal Relationships Holiday ...

  15. Home Care Nursing Improves Cancer Symptom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  17. Presenting Symptoms of Chiari Type I Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and radiographic predictors of neurologic symptoms were investigated in a population-based retrospective study of 51 children identified with Chiari I malformation at the University of California, and Kaiser Department of Radiology, San Francisco.

  18. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion...... into controlled clinical studies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the agreement between in- and post-seasonal ratings of seasonal symptoms, and to investigate whether the effect of SIT could be detected retrospectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five birch pollen-allergic patients were allocated to SIT or placebo...... in a double-blind study. Assessment of severity of symptoms from the nose, eyes and lungs were performed daily during the season 2000, and post-seasonally 6 months after the season in 1999 and 2000. A four-point verbal descriptor scale (VDS-4) was used at all occasions. A mean in-seasonal symptom rating...

  19. Ecological momentary assessment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Relationships to effort-based decision making and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Erin K; Culbreth, Adam J; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-01-01

    Negative symptoms are a core clinical feature of schizophrenia, but conceptual and methodological problems with current instruments can make their assessment challenging. One hypothesis is that current symptom assessments may be influenced by impairments in memory and may not be fully reflective of actual functioning outside of the laboratory. The present study sought to investigate the validity of assessing negative symptoms using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants with schizophrenia (N = 31) completed electronic questionnaires on smartphones 4 times a day for 1 week. Participants also completed effort-based decision making and reinforcement learning (RL) tasks to assess the relationship between EMA and laboratory measures, which tap into negative symptom relevant domains. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that clinician-rated and self-report measures of negative symptoms were significantly related to negative symptoms assessed via EMA. However, working memory moderated the relationship between EMA and retrospective measures of negative symptoms, such that there was a stronger relationship between EMA and retrospective negative symptom measures among individuals with better working memory. The authors also found that negative symptoms assessed via EMA were related to poor performance on the effort task, whereas clinician-rated symptoms and self-reports were not. Further, they found that negative symptoms were related to poorer performance on learning reward contingencies. The findings suggest that negative symptoms can be assessed through EMA and that working memory impairments frequently seen in schizophrenia may affect recall of symptoms. Moreover, these findings suggest the importance of examining the relationship between laboratory tasks and symptoms assessed during daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Depressive symptoms, HIV medication adherence, and HIV clinical outcomes in Tanzania: a prospective, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya M Belenky

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms have been shown to independently affect both antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and HIV clinical outcomes in high-income countries. We examined the prospective relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence, virologic failure, and suppressed immune function in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. Data from 403 study participants who were on stable ART and engaged in HIV clinical care were analyzed. We assessed crude and adjusted associations of depressive symptoms and ART adherence, both at baseline and at 12 months, using logistic regression. We used logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the association and 95% confidence intervals (CI between depressive symptoms and both virologic failure and suppressed immune function. Ten percent of participants reported moderate or severe depressive symptoms at baseline and 31% of participants experienced virologic failure (>150 copies/ml over two years. Depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of reported medication nonadherence at both baseline (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1-unit increase = 1.18, 95% CI [1.12, 1.24] and 12 months (OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.03, 1.14]. By contrast, increases in depressive symptom score were inversely related to both virologic failure (OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.87, 1.00] and immune system suppression (OR = 0.88, 95% CI [0.79, 0.99], though the association between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes was less precise than for the association with nonadherence. Findings indicate a positive association between depressive symptoms and nonadherence, and also an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes, possibly due to informative loss to follow-up.

  1. Interpreting angina: symptoms along a gender continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Shannon, Harry S; Velianou, James L; Giacomini, Mita

    2016-01-01

    Background ‘Typical’ angina is often used to describe symptoms common among men, while ‘atypical’ angina is used to describe symptoms common among women, despite a higher prevalence of angina among women. This discrepancy is a source of controversy in cardiac care among women. Objectives To redefine angina by (1) qualitatively comparing angina symptoms and experiences in women and men and (2) to propose a more meaningful construct of angina that integrates a more gender-centred approach. Methods Patients were recruited between July and December 2010 from a tertiary cardiac care centre and interviewed immediately prior to their first angiogram. Symptoms were explored through in-depth semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed concurrently using a modified grounded theory approach. Angiographically significant disease was assessed at ≥70% stenosis of a major epicardial vessel. Results Among 31 total patients, 13 men and 14 women had angiograpically significant CAD. Patients describe angina symptoms according to 6 symptomatic subthemes that array along a ‘gender continuum’. Gender-specific symptoms are anchored at each end of the continuum. At the centre of the continuum, are a remarkably large number of symptoms commonly expressed by both men and women. Conclusions The ‘gender continuum’ offers new insights into angina experiences of angiography candidates. Notably, there is more overlap of shared experiences between men and women than conventionally thought. The gender continuum can help researchers and clinicians contextualise patient symptom reports, avoiding the conventional ‘typical’ versus ‘atypical’ distinction that can misrepresent gendered angina experiences. PMID:27158523

  2. 症状要素与症状规范化%Symptom Elements and Symptom Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国; 王永炎

    2012-01-01

    本文着重论述了症状要素的概念及其与症状规范化的关系,是关于症状术语规范化的思路与方法.症状要素是症状描述或症状术语中抛开部位的部分,大部分为症状的性质,多个同类症状经常含有共同的因素."要"是简要、重要,不可或缺,也就是症状中不可或缺的重要因素.症状要素分为感觉异常、功能障碍……等20余类.症状要素+解剖部位+症状清单,三者相结合将最终实现症状术语规范化.%The article mainly deals with the concept of symptom elements and the relationship with symptom standardization, and provides thoughts and methods of standardization of symptom terms. Symptom elements are description of symptoms, or the part of symptom terms that are irrelevant to diseased sites. Symptom elements provide the nature of symptoms, so symptoms of a same kind often share common elements. Elements are inseparable to symptoms, and are classified into 20 categories, such as sensory abnormality, functional obstacle. The combination of symptom elements and anatomical parts and symptom lists can achieve eventually the standardization of symptom terms.

  3. [Three patients with the same diagnosis but very different symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas

    2015-01-02

    We present three cases of patients with a thoracic disc herniation with misinterpretation of the initial symptoms. In a first case, pulmonary symptoms were prominent; in a second case, the patient complained of cardiac symptoms; and in a third case, the patient reported neurological symptoms. Ineffective investigation of thoracic symptoms should raise the suspicion of a thoracic disc herniation.

  4. Progression of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiping Xia; Zhi-Hong Mao

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically manifested by a triad of cardinal motor symptoms - rigidity,bradykinesia and tremor - due to loss of dopaminergic neurons.The motor symptoms of PD become progressively worse as the disease advances.PD is also a heterogeneous disease since rigidity and bradykinesia are the major complaints in some patients whereas tremor is predominant in others.In recent years,many studies have investigated the progression of the hallmark symptoms over time,and the cardinal motor symptoms have different rates of progression,with the disease usually progressing faster in patients with rigidity and bradykinesia than in those with predominant tremor.The current treatment regime of dopamine-replacement therapy improves motor symptoms and alleviates disability.Increasing the dosage of dopaminergic medication is commonly used to combat the worsenirtg symptoms.However,the drug-induced involuntary body movements and motor comphcations can significantly contribute to overall disability.Further,none of the currently-available therapies can slow or halt the disease progression.Significant research efforts have been directed towards developing neuroprotective or disease-modifying agents that are intended to slow the progression.In this article,the most recent clinical studies investigating disease progression and current progress on the development of disease-modifying drug trials are reviewed.

  5. Longitudinal relations between symptoms, neurocognition and self-concept in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eHesse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. Method: We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms and self-concepts were assessed at two time points twelve months apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model. Results: Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts twelve months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. Conclusion: The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of one year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed

  6. The Phenomenology of Delirium: Presence, Severity, and Relationship between Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenke Boettger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the phenomenological characteristics of delirium based on the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS in order to explore the presence, severity of, and relationship between symptoms. Methods. An analysis of 100 cases of delirium recruited at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC was performed. Sociodemographic and medical variables, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS subitems, and Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS were analyzed of respect of the phenomenological characteristics and their interrelationship. Results. The most severe and frequent symptoms were recorded in the cognitive domain, psychomotor behavior, sleep-wake cycle, and disturbance of consciousness. Within the cognitive domain, concentration was the most severely affected task. The severity of impairment in most domains increased with delirium severity, whereas perceptual disturbances and delusions were independent of delirium severity. Advanced age and the prevalence of dementia increased with delirium severity in contrast to the functional status which declined. The presence of perceptual disturbances and delusions was independent of cognitive impairment and psychomotor abnormality, however, associated with the disturbances of consciousness and attention. Conclusion. Cognition, in particular concentration, was the most severely affected domain. Advanced age and the prevalence of dementia contributed to more severe delirium. Perceptual disturbances and delusions were independent of delirium severity; however, they were associated with disturbances of consciousness and attention.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak YS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Young-Sook Kwak, Young-Eun Jung, Moon-Doo Kim Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD persists into adulthood in a high proportion of cases, causing social difficulties and affective problems. We evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD and the correlates thereof in Korean college students. Methods: A total of 2,172 college students, stratified to reflect geographical differences, were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, depression, and related factors. Results: ADHD symptoms were found in 7.6% of college students. Univariate analysis revealed that younger students had higher rates of ADHD symptoms than did older students. We found significant associations between ADHD symptoms and problematic alcohol use, depression, and lifetime suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that ADHD symptoms in adults were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23–6.80; P<0.001 and overweight or obesity (OR =1.50; 95% CI 1.02–2.22; P=0.040, after controlling for sex and age. Conclusion: These results have implications in terms of the mental health interventions required to assess problems such as depression, alcohol use, obesity, and suicidality in young adults with ADHD symptoms. Keywords: depression, adult ADHD, alcohol problem, obesity  

  8. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  9. Negative symptom improvement during cognitive rehabilitation: results from a 2-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Greenwald, Deborah P; Hogarty, Susan S; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-08-30

    Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n=58) were randomized to 2 years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d=0.61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed.

  10. Avolition and expressive deficits capture negative symptom phenomenology: implications for DSM-5 and schizophrenia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Julie W; Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Mendelsohn, Erika; Prudent, Vasthie; Stanford, Arielle D; Malaspina, Dolores

    2011-02-01

    The DSM-5 formulation presents an opportunity to refine the negative symptom assessments that are crucial for a schizophrenia diagnosis. This review traces the history of negative symptom constructs in neuropsychiatry from their earliest conceptualizations in the 19th century. It presents the relevant literature for distinguishing between different types of negative symptoms. Although a National Institute of Mental Health consensus initiative proposed that there are five separate negative symptom domains, our review of the individual items demonstrates no more than three negative symptom domains. Indeed, numerous factor analyses of separate negative symptom scales routinely identify only two domains: 1) expressive deficits, which include affective, linguistic and paralinguistic expressions, and 2) avolition for daily life and social activities. We propose that a focus on expressive deficits and avolition will be of optimum utility for diagnosis, treatment-considerations, and research purposes compared to other negative symptom constructs. We recommend that these two domains should be assessed as separate dimensions in the DSM-5 criteria.

  11. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Parkinson's Nonmotor Symptoms following Unilateral DBS: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hwynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD management has traditionally focused largely on motor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN and globus pallidus internus (GPi are effective treatments for motor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs may also profoundly affect the quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate NMS changes pre- and post-DBS utilizing two recently developed questionnaires. Methods. NMS-Q (questionnaire and NMS-S (scale were administered to PD patients before/after unilateral DBS (STN/GPi targets. Results. Ten PD patients (9 STN implants, 1 GPi implant were included. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified utilizing NMS-Q in pre-surgical patients were gastrointestinal (100%, sleep (100%, and urinary (90%. NMS sleep subscore significantly decreased (−1.6 points ± 1.8, =0.03. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified in pre-surgical patients using NMS-S were gastrointestinal (90%, mood (80%, and cardiovascular (80%. The largest mean decrease of NMS scores was seen in miscellaneous symptoms (pain, anosmia, weight change, and sweating (−7 points ± 8.7, and cardiovascular/falls (−1.9, =0.02. Conclusion. Non-motor symptoms improved on two separate questionnaires following unilateral DBS for PD. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine their clinical significance as well as to examine the strengths/weaknesses of each questionnaire/scale.

  12. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  13. Development of a symptom assessment instrument for chronic hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Symptom Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Rotondi, Armando J; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Switzer, Galen E

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, severity, or impact of symptoms in hemodialysis patients because of the lack of a validated symptom assessment instrument. We systematically developed an index to assess physical and emotional symptom burden in this patient population. We employed four steps in the generation of this index: a review of dialysis quality-of-life instruments, three focus groups, experts' content validity assessment, and test-retest reliability measurement. Seventy-five symptoms were identified. Of these, 46 appeared in > or = 4 of the instruments/focus groups and were considered for inclusion. Twelve were grouped into other symptom constructs and experts judged four of the remaining items not to be pertinent, leaving 30 items in the new index. Overall kappa statistic was 0.48+/-0.22. These steps allowed the systematic development of a 30-item symptom assessment index for hemodialysis patients. Additional reliability and validity testing is needed prior to its widespread use.

  14. Self-reported symptoms and healthcare seeking in the general population -exploring "The Symptom Iceberg"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has illustrated that the decision-making process regarding healthcare seeking for symptoms is complex and associated with a variety of factors, including gender differences. Enhanced understanding of the frequency of symptoms and the healthcare seeking behaviour in the general...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...... of 44 different symptoms covering a wide area of alarm symptoms and non-specific frequently occurring symptoms were selected based on extensive literature search. Further, items regarding contact to the GP were included. Data on socioeconomic factors were obtained from Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  15. Work participation and health-related characteristics of sickness absence beneficiaries with multiple somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, M B D

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: In 2011-2012, 736 (34%) of 2172 sick-listed individuals completed a posted questionnaire and were included. Main outcome was self-reported employment status. The Symptom Check List (SCL-SOM)'s sum score (0-48) was categorized in high (>18) and low (≤18) levels. Previous employment, sick-listing......Objectives: The primary aim was to study whether high levels of multiple symptoms influenced sick-listed individuals' employment status or desire to return to work (RTW) and whether this was associated with social relations at work. Study design: A cross-sectional study nested in a clinical trial...... unemployed was higher for this group than for those with a low score. Adjusting for general health reduced the association between symptoms and unemployment, whereas problems with social relations only affected it marginally. Conclusions: Sick-listed individuals reporting high levels of symptoms were more...

  16. Managing myelodysplastic symptoms in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available R Ria, M Moschetta, A Reale, G Mangialardi, A Castrovilli, A Vacca, F DammaccoDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Section of Internal Medicine and Clinical Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, ItalyAbstract: Most patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are elderly (median age range 65 to 70 years; as a consequence, the incidence and prevalence of these diseases are rising as the population ages. Physicians are often uncertain about how to identify patients who may benefit from specific treatment strategies. The International Prognostic Scoring System is a widely used tool to assess the risk of transformation to leukemia and to guide treatment decisions, but it fails to take into account many aspects of treating elderly patients, including comorbid illnesses, secondary causes of MDS, prior therapy for MDS, and other age-related health, functional, cognitive, and social problems that affect the outcome and managing of myelodysplastic symptoms. Patients with low-risk disease traditionally have been given only best supportive care, but evidence is increasing that treatment with novel non-conventional drugs such as lenalidomide or methyltransferase inhibitors may influence the natural history of the disease and should be used in conjunction with supportive-care measures. Supportive care of these patients could also be improved in order to enhance their quality of life and functional performance. Elderly patients commonly have multiple medical problems and use medications to deal with these. In addition, they are more likely to have more than one health care provider. These factors all increase the risk of drug interactions and the consequent treatment of toxicities. Manifestations of common toxicities or illnesses may be more subtle in the elderly, owing to age-associated functional deficits in multiple organ systems. Particularly important to the elderly MDS patient is the age-related decline in normal bone

  17. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Chifumi Iseki; Taiga Furuta; Masao Suzuki; Shingo Koyama; Keiji Suzuki; Tomoko Suzuki; Akiyo Kaneko; Tadamichi Mitsuma

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our departmen...

  18. Pharmacological treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Czobor, Pal

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment of negative symptoms is one of the most important unmet needs in schizophrenic disorders. Because the evidence on current psychopharmacological treatments is unclear, the authors reviewed the findings published to date by searching PubMed with the keywords negative symptoms, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glutamatergic compounds, monotherapy and add-on therapy and identifying additional articles in the reference lists of the resulting publications. The findings presented here predominantly focus on results of meta-analyses. Evidence for efficacy of current psychopharmacological medications is difficult to assess because of methodological problems and inconsistent results. In general, the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) do not appear to have good efficacy in negative symptoms, although some show better efficacy than first-generation antipsychotics, some of which also demonstrated efficacy in negative symptoms. Specific trials on predominant persistent negative symptoms are rare and have been performed with only a few SGAs. More often, trials on somewhat persistent negative symptoms evaluate add-on strategies to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Such trials, mostly on modern antidepressants, have demonstrated some efficacy. Several trials with small samples have evaluated add-on treatment with glutamatergic compounds, such as the naturally occurring amino acids glycine and D-serine and new pharmacological compounds. The results are highly inconsistent, although overall efficacy results appear to be positive. The unsatisfactory and inconsistent results can be partially explained by methodological problems. These problems need to be solved in the future, and the authors propose some possible solutions. Further research is required to identify effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  19. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease? A common symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD) ... and Symptoms of Heart Problems Related to Coronary Heart Disease Some people who have CHD have no signs ...

  20. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Heart Disease? Some people who have diabetic heart disease (DHD) ... when it's given right after symptoms occur. Coronary Heart Disease A common symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD) ...

  1. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia? The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue ( ... mild symptoms or none at all. Complications of Anemia Some people who have anemia may have arrhythmias ( ...

  2. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Fanconi Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Fanconi Anemia? Major Signs and Symptoms Your doctor may suspect ... sisters also should be tested for the disorder. Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  3. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia? Lower than normal numbers of red blood cells, ... most of the signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia. Signs and Symptoms of Low Blood Cell Counts ...

  4. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure? The most common signs and symptoms of heart ... in your lungs. The condition requires emergency treatment. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms The image shows the major ...

  5. Hypothyroidism:Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table ... of its symptoms are seen in other diseases, hypothyroidism usually cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms alone. ...

  6. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease? Major Signs and Symptoms One of the main symptoms during the early part of Kawasaki disease, called the acute phase, is fever. The fever ...

  7. Premonitory symptoms in migraine: an electronic diary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giffin, N J; Ruggiero, L; Lipton, R B

    2003-01-01

    Migraine is frequently associated with nonheadache symptoms before, during, and after the headache. Premonitory symptoms occurring before the attack have not been rigorously studied. Should these symptoms accurately predict headache, there are considerable implications for the pathophysiology...

  8. Signs and Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Due to the ... urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents. Early Symptoms Early symptoms include fatigue, fever and muscle aches, ...

  9. Neural substrates of motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a resting FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsun Yoo

    Full Text Available Recently, non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD have been considered crucial factors in determining a patient's quality of life and have been proposed as the predominant features of the premotor phase. Researchers have investigated the relationship between non-motor symptoms and the motor laterality; however, this relationship remains disputed. This study investigated the neural connectivity correlates of non-motor and motor symptoms of PD with respect to motor laterality.Eight-seven patients with PD were recruited and classified into left-more-affected PD (n = 44 and right-more affected PD (n = 37 based on their MDS-UPDRS (Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor examination scores. The patients underwent MRI scanning, which included resting fMRI. Brain regions were labeled as ipsilateral and contralateral to the more-affected body side. Correlation analysis between the functional connectivity across brain regions and the scores of various symptoms was performed to identify the neural connectivity correlates of each symptom.The resting functional connectivity centered on the ipsilateral inferior orbito-frontal area was negatively correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms, and the connectivity of the contralateral inferior parietal area was positively correlated with the severity of motor symptoms (p 0.3.These results suggest that the inferior orbito-frontal area may play a crucial role in non-motor dysfunctions, and that the connectivity information may be utilized as a neuroimaging biomarker for the early diagnosis of PD.

  10. Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects II: Signs, Symptoms and Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Heinen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with signs, symptoms and course in spasmodic torticollis (ST. Two hundred and fifty-six patients were included in the study, 59.3% women, 40.7% men. The mean age was 49.1 years. Rotating torticollis out-numbered latero- and antero-retrocollis. A family history of ST occurred in 3.1% of the total sample. First degree relatives were affected in 2.3%. Thirty-four per cent of the patients had additional dystonic symptoms. Most frequently these affected the upper extremities (13%, and less often the legs. Of the patients 19.1% had experienced a period of complete remission. The correlations between the severity of the signs and the neurological symptoms are surprisingly weak.

  11. Endotyping early childhood asthma by quantitative symptom assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Asthmatic symptoms in young children reflect a heterogeneous group of diseases. Symptoms remain the primary end-point in both research and clinical management, but there is a need for standardized symptom assessment.......Asthmatic symptoms in young children reflect a heterogeneous group of diseases. Symptoms remain the primary end-point in both research and clinical management, but there is a need for standardized symptom assessment....

  12. Time series models of symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Kupper, Zeno

    2002-12-15

    The symptom courses of 84 schizophrenia patients (mean age: 24.4 years; mean previous admissions: 1.3; 64% males) of a community-based acute ward were examined to identify dynamic patterns of symptoms and to investigate the relation between these patterns and treatment outcome. The symptoms were monitored by systematic daily staff ratings using a scale composed of three factors: psychoticity, excitement, and withdrawal. Patients showed moderate to high symptomatic improvement documented by effect size measures. Each of the 84 symptom trajectories was analyzed by time series methods using vector autoregression (VAR) that models the day-to-day interrelations between symptom factors. Multiple and stepwise regression analyses were then performed on the basis of the VAR models. Two VAR parameters were found to be associated significantly with favorable outcome in this exploratory study: 'withdrawal preceding a reduction of psychoticity' as well as 'excitement preceding an increase of withdrawal'. The findings were interpreted as generating hypotheses about how patients cope with psychotic episodes.

  13. Symptoms of craniomandibular disorder among elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, R K; Loh, T; Neo, J; Khoo, J

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the subjective symptoms of craniomandibular disorder and the restriction in maximal mandibular opening of 891 elderly Singaporean citizens. A distribution of 22% of subjects (20% of the women and 26% of the men) reported subjective symptoms of craniomandibular disorders. The most common single symptom reported was occasional to frequent clicking sounds from the temporomandibular joints (in 15% of subjects). The other single symptoms were reported only occasionally in 2-6% of subjects. Nineteen per cent of the subjects had some restriction in maximal interincisal opening (30-39 mm) and about 1% of subjects were severely restricted in maximal opening (less than 30 mm). Subjectively evaluated limitation of wide mandibular opening was recorded for only 2% of the subjects. Background factors included general musculo-skeletal problems (54%), perceived fair to poor general health (29%), headaches (33%), work-related stress (24%), oral parafunctional clenching (4%) and grinding activity (4%). This paper confirms earlier reports that the subjective signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorder tend to diminish in elderly people.

  14. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  15. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  16. 'Postconcussive' symptoms in persons with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, G L; McCracken, L M

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the base rate of cognitive and neurobehavioural complaints in patients with chronic pain (N = 170) who had not sustained a head injury. The patients completed a packet of questionnaires that contained numerous questions regarding physical, cognitive, and psychological symptoms. The 'postconcussive-like' symptoms were selected and analysed. Specific symptom endorsement rates ranged from 5% to 76.5%. Disturbed sleep, fatigue, and irritability were reported by the majority of chronic pain patients. Cognitive complaints relating to forgetfulness (29%), difficulty maintaining attention (18%), and difficulty with concentration or thinking (16.5%) were endorsed by a significant minority of patients. Most patients (80.6%) endorsed three or more symptoms from Category C of the DSM-IV Postconcussional Disorder research criteria. This study further illustrates that postconcussive-like symptoms are not unique sequelae of mild head injury, and the presence of chronic pain should be considered when interpreting patients' physical, cognitive, and psychological complaints following closed head injury.

  17. Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Gruen, R J; DeLongis, A

    1986-03-01

    In this study we examined the relation between personality factors (mastery and interpersonal trust), primary appraisal (the stakes a person has in a stressful encounter), secondary appraisal (options for coping), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and somatic health status and psychological symptoms in a sample of 150 community-residing adults. Appraisal and coping processes should be characterized by a moderate degree of stability across stressful encounters for them to have an effect on somatic health status and psychological symptoms. These processes were assessed in five different stressful situations that subjects experienced in their day-to-day lives. Certain processes (e.g., secondary appraisal) were highly variable, whereas others (e.g., emotion-focused forms of coping) were moderately stable. We entered mastery and interpersonal trust, and primary appraisal and coping variables (aggregated over five occasions), into regression analyses of somatic health status and psychological symptoms. The variables did not explain a significant amount of the variance in somatic health status, but they did explain a significant amount of the variance in psychological symptoms. The pattern of relations indicated that certain variables were positively associated and others negatively associated with symptoms.

  18. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Santiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

  19. Presenting symptoms of children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard; Olesen, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Almen praksis er involveret i det diagnostiske forløb hos 4 ud af 5 børn med kræft. De hyppigste symptomer er smerte, en knude/en hævelse og træthed. Disse tre symptomer ses hos 20-25 % af alle børn med kræft. Bleghed, feber, hovedpine og opkast ses hos mellem 10-15 % af børn med kræft. Klassiske...... hos 5 % af de børn, der fik konstateret knoglekræft. Vha et spørgeskema til praktiserende læger indsamledes data om symptomer, der sås i almen praksis og lægens tolkning af symptomerne. Symptomerne klassificeredes efter ICPC-2. Viden om symptomer og kliniske fund hos børn med kræft i almen praksis er...... relevant i forbindelse med uddannelse af alment praktiserende læger og udviklingen af kliniske retningslinjer, herunder kræftpakke for børnekræft. Den lave forekomst af alarmsymptomer har mulig indflydelse på tiden fra symptom præsentation i almen praksis til diagnose....

  20. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Pneumonia » Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Explore Pneumonia Pneumonia Causes Risk Factors Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  1. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    patients with Graves' thyrotoxicosis. A control group of 34 individuals matched for age, education and premorbid intelligence was also included. At baseline all patients and control subjects were examined with psychiatric rating scales and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The effect of treatment...

  2. Mindfulness, health symptoms and healthcare utilization: Active facets and possible affective mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Butler, Haley F

    2014-01-01

    Prior work has linked mindfulness with superior physical and psychological health outcomes. However, studies to date have infrequently tested the unique contributions of individual mindfulness facets, inadequately tested links between facets and healthcare utilization, and have not tested whether depression or anxiety may influence these links. In the current report, 40 young, middle aged and older adults (N = 121) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, health, healthcare utilization and depression/anxiety. As expected, global trait mindfulness did not predict outcomes while individual mindfulness facets predicted both objective and subjective health as well as healthcare utilization. Across models, observe scores - the tendency to attend to thoughts, sensations and feelings - predicted poorer, and non-reactivity scores better, outcomes even when controlling for demographic and health confounds. Depressed and anxious emotion reduced some but not all mindfulness-health links. Results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which greater mindfulness may facilitate better health and health behaviour.

  3. Natural products and no-hormone therapy for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms affecting menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urdinola

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among menopausal women receiving hormone therapy, whether combinedor with estrogens alone, there has always been a great worryabout the side effects or the potential development of cancer.This is especially true among women that have survived breastcancer, in the event the disease may reoccur. However there arealternatives for women not willing to take these standard therapiesfor their estrogen deficiency. This revision presents the up-to-dateevidence about the efficiency and safety of these compounds usedto treat this problem.

  4. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.......Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies....

  5. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  6. Nutrition impact symptoms, handgrip strength and nutritional risk in hospitalized patients with gastroenterological and liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Naver, Astrid; Bisgaard, Karen;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is common among patients with diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Nutritional intake may be negatively affected by nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). Therefore, the aims were to assess: 1) the prevalence of NIS in this group of patients and 2) the relationship ...

  7. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  8. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

  9. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  10. Metacognition and social cognition in schizophrenia : Stability and relationship to concurrent and prospective symptom assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, Jay A.; Renard, Selwyn; Fogley, Rebecca L.; Leonhardt, Bethany L.; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Kelly D.; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia has been linked with deficits in the ability to form complex representa- tions about oneself and others. Less clear is whether these deficits are stable over time, and whether they are related to symptoms. Method: We assessed metacognition capacity, affect recognition, execu

  11. Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? Evidence from three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Alina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic...

  12. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psycho

  13. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psych

  14. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Staffan; Mani, Maria; Lundberg, Kristina; Holmström, Mats

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

  15. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  16. Transient Neurological Symptoms after Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has been used for more than 50 years for spinal anesthesia and has a remarkable safety record. In 1993, a new adverse effect, transient neurologic toxicity was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Transient neurological symptoms have been defined as pain in the lower extremities (buttocks, thighs and legs after an uncomplicated spinal anesthesia and after an initial full recovery during the immediate postoperative period (less than 24 h. The incidence of transient neurological symptoms reported in prospective, randomized trials varies from 4% to 37%. The etiology of transient neurological symptoms remains unkonwn. Despite the transient nature of this syndrome, it has proven to be difficult to treat effectively. Drug or some interventional therapy may be necessary. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 33-44

  17. [Validity of assessment of schizophrenic basic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, R; Hitschfeld, K; Wall, E; Wagner, H B

    1997-03-01

    A study on the concept and measurement of the basic disorders of schizophrenia is presented. A total of 151 male adult psychiatric inpatients (51 with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and alcoholism, 50 schizophrenics and 50 alcoholics) were included. The aims of this study were: (1) the replication of the previous finding that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FBF) contains items that discriminate between schizophrenia and alcoholism; (2) an empirical comparison between FBF and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS); (3) testing the relationship between basic and negative versus positive symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Regarding (1), the former result was replicated. Regarding (2), FBF subscales and BSABS categories were shown to be significantly but weakly related, even if identical symptoms were included in the inquiry. Regarding (3), FBF and BSABS were found to be more closely related to negative than to positive PANSS items. Theoretical implications and consequences for further research are discussed.

  18. Depersonalization and basic symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea; Salvatore, Paola

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the classic psychopathologic notion of depersonalization in the light of the Basic Symptom paradigm. A sample of 57 chronic schizophrenics was cross-sectionally assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and contextually with specific scales testing positive, negative, depressive and alexithymic dimensions. In order to categorize depersonalized vs. nondepersonalized patients three specific BSABS items explicitly identifying the allo-/auto-/somatopsychic domains of depersonalization were used, according to the wernickian threefold definition. Depersonalized schizophrenics showed a semiological profile that was distinct from that of nondepersonalized schizophrenics (as regards basic, positive, depressive symptoms and alexithymia); patients with multiple co-occurring forms of depersonalization revealed higher levels of cognitive disturbance, lowering of stress threshold and greater alexithymia. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  19. Methylphenidate-induced mania-like symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dose of methylphenidate is known to cause adverse effects (psychosis or mania, albeit in a small number of cases. Signs and symptoms of adverse effects usually disappear on stopping the medicine. Data regarding the safety of methylphenidate in comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and mental retardation are nonexistent. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with ADHD and mental retardation treated with methylphenidate, who developed mania like symptoms requiring inpatient treatment. The index case required psychopharmacological intervention with sodium valproate and olanzapine as the symptoms did not subside even after 3 days. This case highlights the fact that one has to exercise caution while prescribing methylphenidate in patients with comorbid ADHD and mental retardation.

  20. Anxiety symptoms in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Reyes, Darcel

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most frequent symptoms recognized by providers who care for persons living with HIV disease (PLWH). This evidence-based review of anxiety and HIV disease includes an overview of anxiety symptoms, their prevalence in PLWH, and co-existing mood and behavioral disorders. Harmful physiologic effects are also highlighted. Valid and reliable clinical measurement tools used for assessing anxiety include the Clinical Diagnostic Questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Profile of Mood States, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapy as a recommended intervention for the treatment of anxiety symptoms and/or anxiety disorders in PLWH. Medications for use with more severe and disabling anxiety are discussed, as well as evidence based on expert opinion for anxiety self-management.

  1. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual...... between professional caregivers and residents. Depressive symptoms were measured by a questionnaire sent to all professional caregivers at the 10 eldercare homes. We constructed two samples for analysis: a) a sample of 95 directly observed professional caregivers with full information on covariates, and b...

  2. Initial symptoms and clinical features in osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sujia Wu; Xing Shi; Jianling Zhao; Yurong Wang; Jun Zhang; Liwu Zhou; Yuexian Cheng; Guangxin Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish the initial symptoms and physical signs of osteosarcoma from the records of the first medical visit and to identify early characteristics of the diseases to shorten the delay of diagnosis. Methods: A group of patients with osteosarcoma in extremities was identified from Nanjing Jinling Hospital. Records from the first medical visit due to symptoms and physical signs related to the bone tumor were obtained from 71 patients with osteosarcoma. Results: The results of the data recorded about the first medical visit,reasons for consultation, pain,trauma,initial diagnosis,delay in diagnosis were reported respectively. Conclusion: Pair an initial symptom of osteosarcoma, and was intermittent but not frequently felt at night. A history of trauma was common, but the clinical course often diverged from what was expected from trauma. The most important clinical feature was a palpable mass. This finding emphasizes that a thorough physical examination is absolutely necessary.

  3. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: new pharmacological approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovighi, M-A; Palomba, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The management of negative symptoms appears to be a major challenge because of functional disability induced by these symptoms and their relative resistance to treatments currently on the market. The aim of this article is to review new approaches that may enable optimal management of these symptoms. First, we describe the methodological difficulties that hindered the development and evaluation of specific treatment, and objectives currently defined to enable the development of new pharmacological approaches. Then we present the monotherapy and adjuvant therapies that have been assessed, including first and second generation antipsychotics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, cholinergic and glutamatergic agents, the oxytocin, hormones and more invasive therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Other molecules are under development and evaluation such alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists.

  4. Symptom scoring systems to diagnose distal polyneuropathy in diabetes : the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.G.; Smit, A.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Links, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To provide one of the diagnostic categories for distal diabetic polyneuro-pathy,several symptom scoring systems are available, which are often extensive andlack in validation. We validated a new four-item Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) scorefor diagnosing distal diabetic polyneuropathy. MET

  5. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  6. Parental recognition of postconcussive symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Penelope K; Penprase, Barbara; Kepros, John P; Dunneback, James

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of current emergency department discharge instructions and parental recognition of symptomatology requiring further care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well understood. A convenience sample of 105 parents of children aged 5 to 17 years who were seen and discharged from the pediatric emergency department with TBI was identified. Parents were surveyed by telephone 2 to 5 days after injury and a questionnaire was completed regarding identification of TBI symptoms. This study demonstrated that despite verbal and written discharge instructions, many parents with symptomatic children reported that their children were asymptomatic, and unable to identify postconcussive symptoms in their children.

  7. Symptom removal: the nineteenth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre

    2002-10-01

    It has been said that traditional clinical hypnotists, essentially those practicing before 1900, made excessive use of symptom removal to the detriment of their patients. However, statements of this kind have never been documented. This article is based on a search of the relevant literature that examines the hypnotic methods and results of that era. One finding is that available clinical data support the claim that clinical hypnotists practicing before 1900 made considerable use of symptom removal. The data also indicate that they achieved substantial success without any detrimental effects. This information is considered relevant for the scientifically based practice of hypnosis.

  8. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  9. Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian L; Waltz, Jennifer

    2008-12-01

    Neff's (2003a, 2003b) notion of self-compassion emphasizes kindness towards one's self, a feeling of connectedness with others, and mindful awareness of distressing experiences. Because exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) may be associated with self-criticism and avoidance of internal experiences, the authors examined the relationship between self-compassion and PSS. Out of a sample of 210 university students, 100 endorsed experiencing a Criterion A trauma. Avoidance symptoms significantly correlated with self-compassion, but reexperiencing and hyperarousal did not. Individuals high in self-compassion may engage in less avoidance strategies following trauma exposure, allowing for a natural exposure process.

  10. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

  11. The range of symptoms in refugees of war: the New Mexico Refugee Symptom Checklist-121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Warner, Teddy D; Krakow, Barry; Jenkins, Janis; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    The range of symptoms experienced by refugees of war has not been empirically assessed. The New Mexico Refugee Symptom Checklist-121 (NMRSCL-121) was developed utilizing established guidelines and evaluated for its psychometric properties. Community-dwelling Kurdish and Vietnamese refugees reported 48 (SD = 31) persistent and bothersome somatic and psychological symptoms on the NMRSCL-121. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the total scale and for most subscales were acceptable, and construct and concurrent validity for the NMRSCL-121 data was shown. There were modest ethnic group differences on symptom severity and psychometric properties of NMRSCL-121 subscales. The NMRSCL-121 produces reliable and valid assessments of a wide range of symptoms in 2 broad community samples of displaced adult refugees.

  12. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    cognitive dysfunction seem to be core predictors of affective illness. It is possible to identify a cluster of prodromal symptoms encompassing subclinical anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher neuroticism and cognitive problems. The cognitive problems may further be related to the cross-sectional finding...

  13. Self-efficacy for managing pain, symptoms, and function in patients with lung cancer and their informal caregivers: associations with symptoms and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Garst, Jennifer; McBride, Colleen M; Baucom, Donald

    2008-07-15

    This study examined self-efficacy for managing pain, symptoms, and function in patients with lung cancer and their caregivers, and associations between self-efficacy and patient and caregiver adjustment. One hundred and fifty-two patients with early stage lung cancer completed measures of self-efficacy, pain, fatigue, quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Their caregivers completed a measure assessing their self-efficacy for helping the patient manage symptoms and measures of psychological distress and caregiver strain. Analyses indicated that, overall, patients and caregivers were relatively low in self-efficacy for managing pain, symptoms, and function, and that there were significant associations between self-efficacy and adjustment. Patients low in self-efficacy reported significantly higher levels of pain, fatigue, lung cancer symptoms, depression, and anxiety, and significantly worse physical and functional well being, as did patients whose caregivers were low in self-efficacy. When patients and caregivers both had low self-efficacy, patients reported higher levels of anxiety and poorer quality of life than when both were high in self-efficacy. There were also significant associations between patient and caregiver self-efficacy and caregiver adjustment, with lower levels of self-efficacy associated with higher levels of caregiver strain and psychological distress. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that patient and caregiver self-efficacy for managing pain, symptoms, and function may be important factors affecting adjustment, and that interventions targeted at increasing self-efficacy may be useful in this population.

  14. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  15. Social affiliation and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Examining the role of behavioral skills and subjective responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Park, Stephanie G; Catalano, Lauren T; Bennett, Melanie E

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by profound impairment in the motivation for social affiliation. Negative symptoms are associated with such impairment but the contribution of behavioral skill deficits is unclear. In this study we utilized a novel video paradigm to assess performance-based affiliative behavioral skills in individuals with schizophrenia (N=48) and community controls (N=29). Individuals with schizophrenia displayed significant impairment in behavioral affiliative skills compared to controls; however, in response to the affiliative interaction the groups did not differ on self-reported affective responding, appraisal of the interaction partner, or desire to interact with the partner in the future. Importantly, within the patient group more severe negative symptoms (particularly those related to motivation and pleasure) were associated with poorer affiliative social skills and this relationship was independent of instrumental (non-social) skills, depression or positive symptoms. More severe negative symptoms were also associated with less positive affect in response to the interaction and less positive appraisals of the interaction partner. Self-reported social anhedonia was related to patients' diminished willingness to interact with the partner in the future. These results demonstrate that negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to both affiliative skill deficits and less affiliative subjective responses to interaction partners.

  16. Examining the dimensional structure models of secondary traumatic stress based on DSM-5 symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordeno, Imelu G; Go, Geraldine P; Yangson-Serondo, April

    2017-02-01

    Latent factor structure of Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) has been examined using Diagnostic Statistic Manual-IV (DSM-IV)'s Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) nomenclature. With the advent of Diagnostic Statistic Manual-5 (DSM-5), there is an impending need to reexamine STS using DSM-5 symptoms in light of the most updated PTSD models in the literature. The study investigated and determined the best fitted PTSD models using DSM-5 PTSD criteria symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine model fit using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale in 241 registered and practicing Filipino nurses (166 females and 75 males) who worked in the Philippines and gave direct nursing services to patients. Based on multiple fit indices, the results showed the 7-factor hybrid model, comprising of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behavior, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors has excellent fit to STS. This model asserts that: (1) hyperarousal criterion needs to be divided into anxious and dysphoric arousal factors; (2) symptoms characterizing negative and positive affect need to be separated to two separate factors, and; (3) a new factor would categorize externalized, self-initiated impulse and control-deficit behaviors. Comparison of nested and non-nested models showed Hybrid model to have superior fit over other models. The specificity of the symptom structure of STS based on DSM-5 PTSD criteria suggests having more specific interventions addressing the more elaborate symptom-groupings that would alleviate the condition of nurses exposed to STS on a daily basis.

  17. Patterns of depressive symptoms in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos I. Triantafyllou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and extent of depressive symptoms among patients with epilepsy.Methods:Ninety patients were investigated over a three-month period: 42 were suffering from generalized epilepsy, 29 from focal epilepsy and 19 from undetermined epilepsy. All completed the Zung self-rating scale for assessment of the depressive symptoms.Results:Sixty-seven patients felt stigmatized because of epilepsy (67%: 73.6% in the undetermined epilepsy group, 55.1% in the focal epilepsy group and 88% in the generalized epilepsy group. Moreover, among the 90 epileptic patients studied, symptoms of irritability, indecisiveness, personal devaluation and emptiness showed a constant increasing trend for their presence from the undetermined epilepsy group through the generalized epilepsy group to the focal epilepsy group.Conclusions:These findings indicate that although the focal epilepsy patients felt less stigmatized, they did not differ greatly in terms of depressive symptoms, in relation to the undetermined epilepsy and generalized epilepsy patients.

  18. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The thesis “Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease” is part of the PROPARK study, a longitudinal cohort study of approximately 400 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who are profiled on genotype, phenotype, disability, and global outcomes of health, using valid and reliable assessment instru

  19. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg

    2013-01-01

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated...

  20. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  1. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  2. Improving Symptom Control in Early Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Hauser, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by a severe loss of pigmented dopamine-producing nigro-striatal neurons. Symptomatic therapies provide benefit for motor features by restoring dopamine receptor stimulation. Studies have demonstrated that delaying the introduction of dopaminergic medical therapy is associated with a rapid decline in quality of life. Nonmotor s...

  3. Correlates of psychotic symptoms among elderly outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, S; Laurie, S

    1999-05-01

    Psychotic symptoms presenting in late life can offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. In this study, 140 geriatric outpatients were prospectively examined for psychotic symptoms and assessed on a number of demographic and clinical variables. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Exam. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by DSM-III-R criteria. Twenty-seven per cent (N = 38) had psychotic symptoms, delusions being the most common type. Patients with psychosis were significantly more likely to have a previous history of psychosis, to have a lower MMSE and to live in a nursing home. Four diagnoses accounted for 79.5% of all psychotic patients. In order of frequency, these were dementia, major depression, delirium and organic psychosis (organic hallucinosis, organic delusional disorder). Psychotic patients were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia, delirium or organic psychosis than non-psychotics, but depression was significantly more likely to occur in patients without psychosis. Although psychotic symptoms occur in a variety of illnesses, elderly patients with psychosis should be carefully evaluated for these disorders.

  4. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic.

  5. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  6. Huge Pericardial Cyst Misleading Symptoms of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktürk Fındık

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial cysts are rare benign congenital mediastinal lesions. It accounts 30% of all mediastinal cysts. They are usually asemptomatic. They can produce the compression of the mediastinal structures typically caused the symptoms of dyspnea, thoracic pain, tachicardia and cough due to the unusual large size of the cyst. It can performed symptoms of lung atelectasia. The case was a sixty-five years old woman followed with a diagnosis of COPD for seven years. The patient was admitted to our center with the diagnosis of elevation of the right hemidiaphragm on chest radiography. The computed tomography revealed a cystic lesion adjacent to the right hemidiaphragm and cyst excision was performed via right thoracotomy. Patient%u2019s postoperative clinical findings indicated that the symptoms of COPD regressed completely and the patient did not require any further bronchodilator therapy. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate that the pericardial cysts can be missed in chest radiographs and impression of cysts may cause COPD like symptoms in these patients.

  7. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  8. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  9. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, André M

    2004-01-01

    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  10. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  11. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice.

  12. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, Andre; Hoek, Hans W.; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to

  13. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  15. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) carries a relatively higher mortality and morbidity than adult MS. Paediatric MS symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event have never before been characterised in a Danish setting. The aim of this study was to compare...

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Primary Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Pirjo; Sourander, Andre; Metsahonkala, Liisa; Aromaa, Minna; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of psychiatric symptoms with migraine and tension-type headache in children. Method: A questionnaire completed by 1,135 Finnish children in the sixth grade identified 154 children with migraine, 138 with tension-type headache, and 407 children who were headache-free. Seventy children were randomly selected…

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  18. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  19. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  20. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…