WorldWideScience

Sample records for affective style questionnaire

  1. The In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ: an exploratory factorial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana eMazzola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment - the In-Out Dispositional Affective Style Questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ - to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009. The IN-OUT DASQ contains 2 scales of 7 items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE and Other-centric engagement (OCE, as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n= 292 confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n= 300 showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n=153. The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, and therefore the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience.

  2. The In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ): an exploratory factorial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Marano, Giuseppe; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Boracchi, Patrizia; Lanciano, Tiziana; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment – the In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ) – to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009). The IN-OUT DASQ contains two scales of seven items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE) and Other-centric engagement (OCE), as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n = 292) confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n = 300) showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n = 153). The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, though the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience. PMID:25309478

  3. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  4. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  5. AH-Questionnaire: An Adaptive Hierarchical Questionnaire for Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…

  6. Development and Validation of an Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Cano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1, the…

  7. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  8. Assessing explanatory style: the content analysis of verbatim explanations and the Attributional Style Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, P; Castellon, C; Seligman, M E

    1989-01-01

    We compare two methods of assessing explanatory style--the content analysis of verbatim explanations (CAVE) and the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The CAVE technique is a method that allows the researcher to analyze any naturally occurring verbatim materials for explanatory style. This technique permits the measurement of various populations that are unwilling or unable to take the ASQ. We administered the ASQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to 169 undergraduates and content analyzed the written causes on the ASQ for explanatory style by the CAVE technique. The CAVE technique correlated 0.71 with the ASQ (P less than 0.0001, n = 159) and -0.36 with BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 159). The ASQ correlated -0.51 with the BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 160). Both the CAVE technique and the ASQ seem to be valid devices for assessing explanatory style. PMID:2818415

  9. Learning Style Scales: a valid and reliable questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA. The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach’s α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Results: Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach’s α was > 0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were > 0.30 for the items in each component. Conclusion: The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.

  10. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  11. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  12. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  13. Cognitive Style Predictors of Affect Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…

  14. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  15. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  16. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

  17. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.

  18. Evidence of Validity for the Portilho/Banas Teaching Style Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani de Paula Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe use of instruments with evidence of validity in education research brings advances to the production of knowledge. This article reports the stages of a survey of teaching style and the evidence for its validity. One thousand teachers participated in a study of different levels of education. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a structure of four factors in which 55 items had a factorial load greater than .30. The correlation steps made it possible to identify how the four factors are related to each other. As a final result, the questionnaire was composed of 40 items, distributed into groups of 10 items organized by teaching style. Evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency of the items that make up the instrument was seen. Analysis of variance indicated that the scale is sensitive to individual differences in the comparison among the four different teaching styles and the gender and teaching level variables.

  19. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi) Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Zabihollah Abedi; Roqayeh Aliyari; Behzad Zolfaghari; Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods...

  20. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...... maladaptive coping styles may be a target for selective prevention focusing on subgroups at high risk of developing an affective disorder....

  1. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.

  2. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L

    2001-01-01

    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  3. 学习风格量表( Learning Styles Questionnaire)的效度研究%Research on the Effect of Learning Style Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晶晶; 马颖峰

    2011-01-01

    以Learning Styles Questionnaire在国内的使用进行效度研究为目的,在全国范围内选取了304个样本进行测验,问卷回收后利用SPSS15.0和VB6.0对数据进行统计分析,测验量表在中国使用的信度和效度.其结果为:内部一致性系数为r =0.766,复本信度为0.943、0.543、0.695、0.673,效标效度系数为0.626.研究结果表明Learng Styles Questionnaire 在国内使用信度和效度尚可以接受,但有待于进一步提高.

  4. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  5. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Firoozabadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA. Results:The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population. Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies.

  6. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The ques...

  7. The construction and evaluation of a normative learning style preference questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Viljoen

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses

  8. How the Ability to Manage Change Affects Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed how the ability to manage change affects leadership style. The problem addressed in this project was the natural human tendency to resist change and how the inability to mange this tendency can interfere with the development of leadership skills. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how an individual's…

  9. Assessment of Learning Styles of Undergraduate Medical Students Using the VARK Questionnaire and the Influence of Sex and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.

    2014-01-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or…

  10. Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire: An Analysis of its Psychometric Properties in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Freiberg Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire’s psychometric properties were analyzed. In order to do this, two different studies were developed: content and facies validity in one hand, and construct validity procedures in the other. The very first examined items and scale by expert judgment. The second one used principal components analysis (PCA and internal consistency in a preliminary stage, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA in the following. Two independent Argentinian college student samples were analyzed. Content validity results indicate the needing of modifying 8 items. Dichotomous answer scale was preserved. According to the results of construct validity, CPA showed four dimensions with better fit and good internal consistency. Only one of them -pragmatic component- responded to the original model. The remaining factors –assimilatory, convergent, adaptive- were identified as belonging to Kolb´s (1984 theoretical model. Confirmatory factor analysis compared PCA model with Alonso, Gallego and Honey´s model (1994, obtaining a better fit for the first. Results support PCA´s structural dimensions for the questionnaire.

  11. Some psychosocial aspects of nonlethal chondrodysplasias: I. Assessment using a Life-Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A G

    1998-06-16

    Studies concerning the psychosocial aspects of skeletal dysplasias that cause disproportionate short stature have been few and have usually involved small numbers of patients. As part of a study involving patients with chondrodysplasias and their families, an assessment battery of standardised instruments designed to measure depression, anxiety, self-esteem, personal support networks, marital adjustment, and family structure were completed by patients and, in many cases, their sibs, spouses, and/or parents. This first in a series of six papers reports the results of a Life-Styles Questionnaire which provides some insights into the levels of satisfaction with various aspects of life, including friendships, employment, the use of some substances and services, and the impact of the skeletal dysplasia on career, marriage, and childbearing. Results are presented for patients and the unaffected parents of patients. Overall, the study has shown a high level of satisfaction with many aspects of life. However, there are important differences in attitudes between the married and unmarried patients, and in some cases the unaffected parents, in a number of areas including health, overall satisfaction with life, and concerns surrounding child bearing and employment. PMID:9637414

  12. Some psychosocial aspects of nonlethal chondrodysplasias: I. Assessment using a Life-Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A G

    1998-06-16

    Studies concerning the psychosocial aspects of skeletal dysplasias that cause disproportionate short stature have been few and have usually involved small numbers of patients. As part of a study involving patients with chondrodysplasias and their families, an assessment battery of standardised instruments designed to measure depression, anxiety, self-esteem, personal support networks, marital adjustment, and family structure were completed by patients and, in many cases, their sibs, spouses, and/or parents. This first in a series of six papers reports the results of a Life-Styles Questionnaire which provides some insights into the levels of satisfaction with various aspects of life, including friendships, employment, the use of some substances and services, and the impact of the skeletal dysplasia on career, marriage, and childbearing. Results are presented for patients and the unaffected parents of patients. Overall, the study has shown a high level of satisfaction with many aspects of life. However, there are important differences in attitudes between the married and unmarried patients, and in some cases the unaffected parents, in a number of areas including health, overall satisfaction with life, and concerns surrounding child bearing and employment.

  13. Attachment styles in children affected by migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Anna Di Dona,1 Serena Marianna Lavano,2 Michele Roccella,4 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, The Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: In recent years, great attention has been given to the presence of psychological problems and psychiatric comorbidity that are also present in children affected by primary headaches. The relationship between pain and attachment has been identified, and it may be that pain perception may change in relation with specific attachment styles. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalent attachment style and verify its putative relationship and correlation with the main characteristics of migraine attacks, in school-aged children affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 219 children (103 males, 116 females aged between 6 and 11 years (mean 8.96 ± 2.14 years, consecutively referred for MoA compared with 381 healthy controls (174 males, 207 females; mean age 9.01 ± 1.75 years randomly selected from schools. All the children were classified according to the attachment typologies of the Italian modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test; monthly headache frequency and mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children. Headache intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The chi-square test and t-test, where appropriate, were applied, and the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to explore the relationship between the types of attachment

  14. Darwin and the neural bases of emotion and affective style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Richard J

    2003-12-01

    This article presents an overview of ways to think about the brain and emotion and consider the role of evolution and expression in shaping the neural circuitry of affective processing. Issues pertaining to whether there are separate unique neural modules hard-wired for emotion processing or whether affective processing uses more generalized circuitry are considered. Relations between affect and cognition--specifically, memory--are examined from the perspective of overlapping neural systems. The role of individual differences in neural function in affective style are discussed, and the concepts of affective chronometry, or the time course of emotional responding and emotion regulation, are introduced. Finally, the extent to which certain emotional traits can be viewed as trainable skills is considered, and the relevance of work on neural plasticity to the skill framework is addressed. Data from a variety of sources using different types of measures is brought to bear on these questions, including neuroimaging and psychophysiological measures, studies of individuals of different ages ranging from early childhood to old age, studies of nonhuman primates, and observations of patients with localized brain damage. Emotions are viewed as varying in both type and dimension. Honoring brain circuitry in parsing the domain of affects will result in distinctions and differentiations that are not currently incorporated in traditional classification schemes. PMID:14766646

  15. Participation in questionnaire studies among couples affected by breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Participation bias may be a problem in couple-based psychosocial studies. Therefore, it is important to investigate the characteristics associated with participation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether participation in a longitudinal psychosocial questionnaire study among...

  16. Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire - versão portuguesa de autorrelato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Figueiredo Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estilos parentais educativos constituem um conceito central na área de estudos da parentalidade e do desenvolvimento infantil. Neste sentido, décadas de investigação demonstram o impacto dos estilos parentais em vários aspectos do ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e a validade fatorial da versão portuguesa de autorrelato do Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. A amostra foi constituída por 2081 indivíduos portugueses (1085 mães; 996 pais com filhos dos 3 aos 15 anos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória replicaram a estrutura original de três fatores: autoritativo, autoritário e permissivo. Os índices de ajustamento revelaram uma boa adequação do modelo aos dados. Os níveis de consistência interna dos fatores autoritativo e autoritário revelaram-se adequados, mas o fator permissivo apresentou valores ligeiramente abaixo dos aceitáveis. Os valores de validade convergente e discriminante também se revelaram adequados. Apesar dos níveis menos aceitáveis de consistência interna do factor permissivo, o QDEP revelou, em geral, qualidades psicométricas adequadas para fins de investigação e clínicos, permitindo não só a avaliação de estilos parentais como também de diferentes dimensões e comportamentos parentais com impacto relevante no ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente.

  17. Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.

    2014-01-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge...

  18. Identifying and Incorporating Affective States and Learning Styles in Web-based Learning Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Farman Ali Khan; Sabine Graf; Edgar R. Weippl; A Min Tjoa

    2010-01-01

    Learning styles and affective states influence students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for identifying and integrating learning styles and affective states of a learner into web-based learning management systems and therefore provide learners with adaptive courses and additional individualized pedagogical guidance that is tailored to their learning styles and affective states. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the inve...

  19. An adaptive hierarchical questionnaire based on the Index of Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigosa, Álvaro; Paredes Barragán, Pedro; Rodríguez Marín, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. With respect to learning styles, it is possible to decrease the number of versions taking into account the general tendency of the student and not the specific score obtained in each dimension. In this paper we present a new app...

  20. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  1. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  2. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  3. Mastering style – Effects of explicit style-related information, art knowledge and affective state on appreciation of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENNO BELKE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004 have proposed a model of aesthetic experience in which stylistic processing is central for aesthetic experiences of art. Here we present an empirical study which investigates predictions derived from the model. Using modern and contemporary abstract paintings we investigated how their appreciation is affected by style information generalized onto new exemplars of paintings by the same artists. In accordance with the model’s predictions, effects of style processing depend on the affective states of the viewers as well as their ability for cognitive mastery, measured by amount of expertise. The experiment reveals that the examination of style-related cognitive processes is important to psychologically understand the affective, cognitive and presumably self-rewarding aspects of aesthetic experiences.

  4. How failure to align climate and leadership style affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences.......The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences....

  5. A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Deveshwar; Indu Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Current Global Corporative World provides the opportunity to the organizations to interact with various nations across the geographical limits. These interactions grant the cultural and value variations among the nations which recognized as the biggest challenge in front of the corporative managers. Suitability of an organization depends on the Effective leadership style in the complex competitive world. An Effective and Efficient Leadership style is the best tool to face these kinds of chall...

  6. Chinese translation and validation of a parental feeding style questionnaire for parents of Hong Kong preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wilson; Keung, Vera; Lee, Albert; Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a major public health issue in many countries, including China. The importance of parenting relative to the healthy development of children requires the development of instruments for assessing parental influence on child dietary pattern. This study aimed to confirm the internal reliability and validity of a self-report measure on parental feeding styles, including emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, prompting or encouragement to eat, and control over eati...

  7. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  8. Are leaders' well-being, behaviours and style associated with the affective well-being of their employees? A systematic review of three decades of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm;

    2010-01-01

    This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...

  9. Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as affective style. Recent research has begun to dissect the constituents of affective style. The search for these components is guided by the neural systems that instantiate emotion and emotion regulation. In this article, this body of research and theory is applie...

  10. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SJ; Li, L; Thammawijaya, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more lik...

  11. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years. Visual perception scores were measured with a sketch and maternal feeding style was measured with validated "Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire". Results: The parental feeding dimensions "emotional feeding" and "encouragement to eat" subscale scores were low in overweight children according to visual perception classification. "Emotional feeding" and "permissive control" subscale scores were statistically different in children classified as correctly perceived and incorrectly low perceived group due to maternal misperception. Conclusion: Various feeding styles were related to maternal visual perception. The best approach to preventing obesity and underweight may be to focus on achieving correct parental perception of the weight status of their children, thus improving parental skills and leading them to implement proper feeding styles.

  12. QUESTIONNAIRE ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLES FOR BUSINESS AND ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Carmen CISMAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current approach offers an opportunity to analyse the trends in a wide range of educational topics, policies and best practice over the past decade and to assess the challenges lying ahead. We hope that this body of data and information will serve as a valuable source for decision makers in various education areas. Reviewing and reforming educational strategies need to be performed so as to ensure access to high quality instruction and training for all citizens, thus facilitating long-term socio-economic growth and stability. This study analyses the main young adult English learning styles & strategies used in acquiring and improving the communicative competence in English for effectively meeting the demands of the future career. The labour market nowadays is characterized by rapid changes in technology, spectacular developments, higher standards and unprecedented mobility and comfort. All these have essentially changed the way we live and communicate, generating the need for lifelong learning, not only for jobs, but also for active and creative adaptation to the rhythm of common daily life. Foreign language(s communication competences, as well as computer skills, are indispensable for meeting the current employment standards.

  13. Identifying and Incorporating Affective States and Learning Styles in Web-based Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles and affective states influence students’ learning. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for identifying and integrating learning styles and affective states of a learner into web-based learning management systems and therefore provide learners with adaptive courses and additional individualized pedagogical guidance that is tailored to their learning styles and affective states. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the investigation and determination of learning styles and affective states which are important for learning. Phase two consisted of the development of an approach for the identification of learning styles and affective states as well as the development of a mechanism to calculate them from the students’ learning interactions within web-based learning management systems. The third phase was to develop a learning strategy that is more personalized and adaptive in nature and tailored to learners’ needs and current situation through considering learners’ learning styles and affective states, aiming to lead to better learning outcomes and progress.

  14. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    .001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0...

  15. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  16. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  17. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

  18. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Parenting Style and Dimensions Questionnaire: Application for Children`s Health-related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting style is associated with children's health-related behaviors. One of the popularity and applicability assessment tools is Parenting Style and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ that the lack of Iranian version can be seen.This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Iranian version of PSDQ.Materials and Methods: This study was done with randomized cluster sampling on 588 parents. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency and Pearson`s correlation coefficients was used for test-retest reliability and the construct validity. Conformity factor analysis was also applied to determine the construct validity. Results: Cronbach's α coefficient for two authoritative and authoritarian styles with the highest estimated value were 0.86 and it was 0.41 for permissive style. The results of the correlation test in all three afore mentioned styles were significant. Correlation coefficients between authoritative style and its subscales were about 0.86 to 0.89 and between authoritarian style and its subscales were about 0.81 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that goodness-of-fit indices, including CMIN/DF,GFI, CFI, IFI and RMSEA, were 2.1, 0.91, 0.90, 0.90, and 0.04, respectively, which indicated a good the construct validity of instrument.Conclusion: The PSDQ that has been translated into Persian obtained good reliability and validity. PSDQ questionnaire can be considered a useful tool in the assessments and interventions concerning parenting styles used in Iran.

  20. The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Anne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross [1] scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. Methods The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age = 23.3, SD = 3.5; 53.6% female and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age = 36.0 SD = 14.6; 71.2% female. Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with “When I don’t feel well, in order to feel better…”. Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. Results After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach’s α for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ’s construct validity. Conclusions The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration

  1. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Dutch Version of the Responses to Positive Affect Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 698 respondents selected from the community, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008 which measures ruminative and dampening thoughts in response to positive affect. In a first sample ('n' = 170, exploratory factor analyses largely replicated the 3-factor model obtained by Feldman et al. (2008 with the following factors: Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination. The 3-factor model revealed in the first sample was confirmed using confirmatory factor analyses in a second independent sample of 528 respondents. All subscales showed adequate internal consistency and evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of depressive rumination, depressive symptoms, trait hypomania, and positive and negative affect. Results underscore the value of assessing responses to positive as well as negative affect in the study of mood disorders.

  2. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  3. Mood congruent memory in dysphoria: the roles of state affect and cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direnfeld, David M; Roberts, John E

    2006-09-01

    Biases in incidental memory for self-referent adjectives and intentional memory were compared across nondysphoric (ND; n=48), experimentally induced dysphoric (EXP; n=49), and naturally dysphoric (NAT; n=48) individuals. Negative biases, "evenhandedness", and positive biases were demonstrated among NAT, EXP and ND participants, respectively, in terms of incidental memory. Correlation analyses suggested that the effects of cognitive style (self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes, and attributional style) are limited to negative stimuli. Memory for incidental positive stimuli was only predicted by state affect. Groups did not differ in performance on an intentional memory task. Implications for network and schema models of depression are explored.

  4. Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Richard J

    2004-09-29

    One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as affective style. Recent research has begun to dissect the constituents of affective style. The search for these components is guided by the neural systems that instantiate emotion and emotion regulation. In this article, this body of research and theory is applied specifically to positive affect and well-being. The central substrates and peripheral biological correlates of well-being are described. A resilient affective style is associated with high levels of left prefrontal activation, effective modulation of activation in the amygdala and fast recovery in response to negative and stressful events. In peripheral biology, these central patterns are associated with lower levels of basal cortisol and with higher levels of antibody titres to influenza vaccine. The article concludes with a consideration of whether these patterns of central and peripheral biology can be modified by training and shifted toward a more salubrious direction. PMID:15347531

  5. Healthy Life Style Beheviours of The Nurses and The Determination of Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Curcani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out descriptively with the aim of determining the variables affecting healthy life style behaviors of the nurses. METHOD: The study was carried on between the date’s may-June 2007 at Ataturk University Yakutiye Research Hospital on Suleyman Demirel Training and Research Hospitals. The research was carried out with 205 nurses. In the collection of the data survey form including personal behaviors of the nurses, and the Health Promotion Life-Style Profile prepared by researchers were used in the direction of literature. RESULTS: Total score of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses participating in the research was 121.20±18.30, and sub-group scale scores; health responsibility is 20.88±3.76 and physical activities is 14.04±4.22, and nutritional habit is 19.57±3.80, and mental development is 25.36±4.47, and relations between persons is 24.04±4.07, and stress management is 17.09±3.59. There was statistically significant distinction between total score average and the situation of hawing children, and working duration and education level of the nurses (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the end of the result, it was determined that average of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses was middle level and that the most common and most noticeable health life style behaviors of the nurses was mental development, and that the least applied health life style behaviors of the nurses was physical activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 487-492

  6. Smile Intensity and Warm Touch as Thin Slices of Child and Family Affective Style

    OpenAIRE

    Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, we assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality asso...

  7. A MATTER OF STYLE. How Tolerance affects Emotional contagion and Play in the genus Macaca

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2013-01-01

    Between-species or between-population variation in social tolerance can affect the development of social skills or social behaviours, especially in primate species that are often subjected to a great influence of inter-individual social relationships. The 20 macaque species are all organized in multi-male, multi-female groups but vary along a continuum from despotic/intolerant to egalitarian/tolerant social systems. These different social styles influence a wide range of behaviours including ...

  8. Daily diaries and minority adolescents: random coefficient regression modeling of attributional style, coping, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion

    2009-10-01

    Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves. PMID:22029618

  9. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  10. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Gill

    Full Text Available Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ, which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation, and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast. Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ

  11. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi

  12. Factors affecting the opinions of family physicians regarding generic drugs – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Lewek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of factors are believed to exert a negative influence on opinions of physicians about generic drugs.The aim of this study was to survey the opinions of primary care doctors on generics, and determine the factors which may affect them. A questionnaire comprising thirty eight questions was distributed among primary care doctors working in seventy out-patient clinics of the Lodzkie province, Poland, during the period of January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010. A total of170 of 183 participants completed the survey (average age 48.5; 70.0% women: a 92.9%response rate. While 38.8% of physicians claimed that generics were worse than brand name drugs, 54.1% considered them to be better. However, 36.5% of the doctors did not choose generics for their own use. Two key opinions were identified among the responses concerning the effectiveness of generic drugs: use of generic drugs by the physician (p<0.001, and their opinion that pharmacists do inform patients about generic drugs (p<0.05. Although existing evidence confirms that generic and brand name drugs are equally effective, many physicians doubt this, which prevents them from being used as cost effective drug therapy. In order to increase healthcare savings through the use of generics, these factors should be addressed: for example, convincing a physician to adopt generics for personal use may be an efficient way to support more cost effective treatment of his patients.

  13. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  14. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  15. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  16. School Administrator Self-Perceived Leadership Styles Affect on Occupational Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricle, William H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the variables of self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout among school administrators in the states of Texas and Louisiana. The purpose of this study was to investigate if relationships exist between school administrator self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout. A review of the literature…

  17. Parenting style, emotional intelligence, and psycho-behavioral outcomes of Thai adolescents in HIV-affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adolescents children of HIV-infected parents tend to have several psycho-behavioral challenges including functioning at schools and in their families. Objective of this study is to examine 1) the role of parenting style, parent's quality of life, and family functioning in self-esteem and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected adolescents in Thailand, 2) associations of perceived social support, emotional intelligence and self-esteem of HIV-affected adolescents with their stres...

  18. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  19. Learning Styles and Factors Affecting the Learning of General Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Enrick R. Abante; Benjie C. Almendral; Jay-ren E. Manansala; Jovielyn Manibo

    2014-01-01

    Learning or thinking styles refer to the preferred way an individual processes information and also describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. The basic learning styles are visual that uses visual objects such as graphs, charts, pictures, and seeing information; auditory that retains information through hearing and speaking; and kinesthetics that likes to use the hands-on approach to learn new material. Student’s difficulty in learning may be due to differen...

  20. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Üstündag; Ayten Demir Zencirci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and analyzed via basi...

  1. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Üstündag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.

  2. Does student learning style affect performance on different formats of biomechanics examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane

    2012-03-01

    Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format. PMID:22518949

  3. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  4. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Myun Lee

    Full Text Available Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition. A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1 the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2 the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied

  5. Chinese version of looming maladaptive style questionnaire%隐性不适应风格问卷的中文版修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 郭先菊; 郝兴华; 左丽娜; 梁执群; 薛云珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To revise looming maladaptive style questionnaire(LMSQ-R) and examine its reliability and validity.Methods 284 undergraduates were measured preparedly with LMSQ-R,281 university students participated in a retest,using LMSQ-R,fear of negative evaluation scale (FNE),Beck anxiety inventory (BAI),Beck depression inventory (BDI).Results ①The item distinguish analysis was acceptable.②Reliability analysis confirmed that Cronbach α coefficient of LMSQ-R was 0.736,Cronbach α coefficient of the two subscales were 0.593 and 0.636.The test-retest reliability of LMSQ-R ranged from 0.564 to 0.700.③Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the first order six factor-second order two factor model was perfect according to the evaluation criteria.The correlation coefficient between the two subscales was 0.527,the correlation coefficients among the two subscales and the total score ranged from 0.872 to 0.875.The correlation coefficients among the LMSQ-R and FNE,BAI,BDI ranged from 0.872 to 0.875,the results had statistical significance.Conclusion The revised LMSQ-R shows the satisfactory reliability and validity in university students.It can be used as a useful testing tool of LCS in psychological research.%目的 对隐性不适应风格问卷(looming maladaptive style questionnaire,LMSQ-R)进行中文版修订,并考察其信度和效度.方法 用翻译的隐性不适应风格问卷(LMSQ-R)对284名大学生进行预备测试,另外对281名大学生进行隐性不适应风格问卷(LMSQ-R)、惧怕否定评价量表(fear of negative evaluation scale,FNE)、贝克焦虑量表(beck anxiety inventory,BAI)、贝克抑郁量表(Beck depression inventory,BDI)的测定.结果 ①修订的隐性不适应风格问卷具有较好的项目区分度,相关系数在0.606 ~ 0.708之间;②本问卷内部一致性信度为0.736,两个因子的内部一致性信度分别为0.593和0.636,重测信度在0.564~0.700之间;③验证性因素分析结果

  6. Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? : A Multi-Method Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Dotsch, Ron; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Haselager, Pim

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of a robot’s social behavior is to convey the right amount of trustworthiness. Task performance has shown to be an important source for trustworthiness judgments. Here, we argue that factors such as a robot’s behavioral style can play an important role as well. Our approach to st

  7. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following research…

  8. Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A; Förster-Fromme, Karin;

    2013-01-01

    Western style diet fed groups gained significant more weight than the controls and developed a mild non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The presence/absence of functional Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 had no effect on parameters like food intake, weight gain, fasting glucose, and liver damage......In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development...... of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 seems to play a role in regard to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis...

  9. How mothers' parenting styles affect their children's sexual efficacy and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, T W; Semin, G R

    1998-03-01

    The relations among mothers' parenting styles and adolescents' sexual self-efficacy and sexual experience were examined in a sample of 253 British adolescent-mother pairs. Also explored was whether adolescents' self-efficacy would be positively or negatively related to their sexual experience. Mothers' parenting styles were expected to influence children's locus of control, based on the theory that mothers who are involved with their children and mothers who stress independence contribute to the development of an internal locus of control in their children, increasing the children's feelings of sexual self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to test a longitudinal model. The results support the assumption that maternal involvement leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, whereas maternal control was associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. Sexual self-efficacy was associated with higher levels of sexual experience. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  10. How national culture and parental style affect the process of adolescents’ ecological resocialization

    OpenAIRE

    Elodie Gentina; Pallavi Singh

    2015-01-01

    The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries di...

  11. Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A.; Förster-Fromme, Karin; BERGHEIM, INA; Mollenhauer, Jan; Stephan C Bischoff

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in ma...

  12. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  13. Healthy Life Style

    OpenAIRE

    Donát, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with a healthy life style and its influence on the most frequent civilization diseases. In the subsequent parts there has been elaborated a questionnaire with the main topic -- healthy life style. Based on this questionnaire are also the results which confirm or contradict the hypotheses formulated in the process of the presented diploma thesis.

  14. Some Factor Approaches to Second Language Learning Affected by Learners'Characteristics and Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing the learners'characteristics and their learning style,we can draw the conclusion in our teaching preparation that:"The best methods are therefore those that supply'comprehensible input'in low anxiety situations.containing messages that students really want to hear.These methods do not force early production in the second language,but allows students tO produce when they are"ready",recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input,and not from forcing and correcting production."(Krashen,1987)

  15. The affect of parenting style on academic achievement in early years education

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Maria Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Lack of parental involvement is one of the biggest challenges schools face. Due to lack of support or too much interference from the parent the academic learning process of the student is disturbed and delayed. This also puts a lot of stress on the teacher trying to support the student in achieving to the best of his or her abilities as well as managing the parents on the side. The purpose of this study was to investigate how 1) different parenting styles deliver different results and if that...

  16. Fermentation in nutrient salt mixtures affects green Spanish-style Manzanilla table olive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Antonio; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Moreno-Baquero, José María; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    This work studies the effects of the substitution of NaCl with KCl and CaCl2 on the physicochemical, mineral and sensory profile of fermented green Spanish-style Manzanilla olives, using an enlarged centroid mixture design. An increasing presence of CaCl2 in the initial brines improved the colour index, L(∗), b(∗) values, and firmness. The Na in the olives decreased (linearly) while the levels of K and Ca increased (quadratic) as a function of the KCl and CaCl2 concentrations in the initial brines. CaCl2 also improved the retention of Zn and P in the flesh. PLS showed a strong relationship between Ca and bitterness, hardness, fibrousness, crunchiness and saltiness (negative) and allowed for the prediction of sensory attributes (except acid) from the mineral contents in the flesh. Most of the treatments could lead to new green Spanish-style Manzanilla olive presentations with reduced Na and healthier characteristics. PMID:27283650

  17. How National Culture and Parental Style Affect the Process of Adolescents’ Ecological Resocialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gentina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries differs substantially, according to a combination of national cultural values, parental style and influence strategy. French teens exhibit a greater impact than Indian teens on their parents’ eco-behavior and use bilateral influence strategies. In India, not all mothers engage in ecological resocialization, but those who do are susceptible to unilateral strategies. The role of environmental knowledge, and the context and effectiveness of each kind of strategy is discussed. The findings have implications for how public policy officials and agencies can encourage adolescents as key resocialization agents to influence their parents’ pro-environmental consumption by using the most adapted influence strategy across cultures.

  18. Neural plasticity is affected by stress and heritable variation in stress coping style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I.B.; Sørensen, C.; Sandvik, G.K.;

    2012-01-01

    behavioral flexibility in LR compared to HR fish and we hypothesize that this divergence is caused by differences in neural plasticity. Genes involved in neural plasticity and neurogenesis were investigated by quantitative PCR in brains of LR and HR fish at baseline conditions and in response to two......Here we use a comparative model to investigate how behavioral and physiological traits correlate with neural plasticity. Selection for divergent post-stress cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded low- (LR) and high responsive (HR) lines. Recent reports show low...... PCNA and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both lines, whereas LTS stress generally suppressed PCNA and NeuroD expression while leaving BDNF expression unaltered. These results indicate that the transcription of neuroplasticity-related genes is associated with variation in coping style, while...

  19. How do you manage the pressure? : How time, type, complexity and cultural diversity affects the relationship between leadership styles and project success

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Cherro, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between project leadership styles and success when affected by pressures such as time, project type, complexity and cultural diversity. The research examines the two well-known leadership approaches of transformational- and transactional leadership, and argues that transactional leadership, which has less focus on the leader-follower relationship, is more suitable and successful in projects with limited time. The transformational leadership style, which has...

  20. How psychosocial factors affect well-being of practice assistants at work in general medical care? – a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Götz, Katja; Berger, Sarah; Gavartina, Amina; Zaroti, Stavria; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Well-being at work is an important aspect of a workforce strategy. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate psychosocial factors and health and work-related outcomes of practices assistants depending on their employment status in general medical practices. Methods: This observational study was based on a questionnaire survey to evaluate psychosocial aspects at work in general medical practices. A standardized questionnaire was used, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionna...

  1. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  2. 课外学习、他人行为影响个体学风的调查%Investigation on How Extracurricular Learning and Behavior of Others Affect the Individual Style of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世威

    2013-01-01

      课外学习是大学生学习的重要途径,课堂学习和课外学习并不是独立的个体行为,因此课外学习、其他同学的学习行为和其他行为将影响个体的学风。问卷调查印证了这一判断,并反映了一些问题,如课后交流少、课外作业敷衍、拓展阅读不多、网络学术资源利用少、自习室和宿舍存在干扰等。因此,要进一步加强学风建设,还需要从个体、他人和集体交互作用的角度进行努力,强化个体学风的改进,进而促进整体优良学风的建设。%Extracurricular learning was important method for college students' study, while inside and outside the lessons to learn was not independent individual behavior, so extracurricular learning, learning behavior and other acts of the company would affect the individual style of study. The result of questionnaire confirmed this judgment, and reflected a number of problems, such as less exchanging with teachers or classmates after class, homework fudge, insufficient expanding reading, ineffective using academic resources on line in the library, and interference factors in the study room and dormitory. Therefore, in order to further strengthen the construction of style of study, it was important to take measures, from the perspective of the individual, others and group interaction, with the aim to promote overall construction of fine style of study by strengthen the improvement of individual style.

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  4. Asymmetric relationships between attributions and affect in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Cibeles Miralles; José Navarro

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the affect generated by cognitive appraisals of work events in workers daily life. In this relationship, two moderators have been tested, relevance of the event and explanatory style. Seventy-three workers answered an attributional style questionnaire once (between-level data) and also a daily questionnaire (within-level data) about work events and affect for ten days (N = 730 observations).Multilevel analysis results showed that the influence of moderators in the...

  5. The effect of two lottery-style incentives on response rates to postal questionnaires in a prospective cohort study in preschool children at high risk of asthma: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Mark Lonneke B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study’s validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research is scarce. Objectives To study the impact of two strategies to enhance completeness and efficiency in observational cohort studies with follow-up durations of around 2 years. Method and intervention In a factorial design, 771 children between 2 and 5 years old and their parents participating in a prospective cohort study were randomized to three intervention groups and a control group. Three types of lotteries were run: (i daytrip tickets for the whole family to a popular amusement park if they returned all postal questionnaires, (ii €12.50-worth gift vouchers for sending back the questionnaire on time after each questionnaire round and (iii a combination of (i and (ii. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires without any reminder. Secondary outcomes were ‘100% returned with or without reminder’, ‘probability of 100% non-response’, ‘probability of withdrawal’, ‘proportion of returned questionnaires’ and ‘overall number of reminders sent’. Statistical analysis After testing for interaction between the two lottery interventions, the two trials were analysed separately. We calculated risk differences (RD and numbers needed to “treat” and their 95% confidence intervals. Results Daytrip nor voucher intervention had an effect on the proportion of participants who returned all questionnaires (RD −0.01; 95% CI-0.07 – 0.06 and (RD 0.02; 95% CI-0.50 – 0.08, respectively. No effects were found on the secondary outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the idea that lottery-style incentives lead to more complete response to postal questionnaires in

  6. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  7. How Cognitive Styles Affect the Learning Behaviors of Online Problem-Solving Based Discussion Activity: A Lag Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…

  8. Research on Mechanism of Leadership Style Affection on Effectiveness of Human Resource Management%领导风格对企业人力资源管理效能影响机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of corporate governance. Based on existing research results,through questionnaire design,statistical survey,empirical analy-sis,hypothesis testing,mechanism of different leadership styles affection to human resource manage-ment effectiveness was carried out. This will help to improve the human resource management per-formance.%领导是影响企业管理成效的关键因素之一。基于现有研究观点,通过问卷设计、统计调查、实证分析、假设检验等过程,研究不同领导风格对企业人力资源管理效能的影响机制,以期对企业人力资源管理效能提升有所帮助。

  9. The relationship between leadership styles and physical education teachers `creativity

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Mousavi; Akbar Heidary; Farzad Khamse Pour

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to consider the relationship betweenleadership styles and physical education teachers` creativity. Thestatistical sample included 160 physical education administratorsand physical education teachers and research questionnaire wasleadership style (Leadership style assessment questionnaire) andthe creativity questionnaires (Randsepp). Results showed that theaverage leadership style score 127/9 (maximum possible score of200). Average score for male and female physical ed...

  10. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  11. The Dynamics of Mood and Coping in Bipolar Disorder: Longitudinal Investigations of the Inter-Relationship between Affect, Self-Esteem and Response Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Pavlickova; Filippo Varese; Angela Smith; Inez Myin-Germeys; Turnbull, Oliver H.; Richard Emsley; Bentall, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In...

  12. Does Patients’ Attachment Style Affect their Help-Seeking in relation to Cancer-Related Symptoms? – project protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Olesen, Frede;

    to be able to contribute as an explanatory model. This theory describes the evolutionary and developmental origin of patterns of close interpersonal relationships OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present project are to examine whether attachment styles in general practitioners as well as in their patients...... the patients’ first presentation of symptom to the doctor's referral to clarifying investigations at specialists or hospitals. Knowledge about psychological factors that may cause patient and doctor delay is limited, but will be essential in an intervention on preventing delay. The Attachment theory seems...... influence length of patient delay and doctor delay in patients diagnosed with cancer. Interactions between patients’ attachment styles and general practitioners’ attachment styles on patient and doctor delay will also be explored. METHODS: The project is a cross-sectional study based on registry data...

  13. Assessing and Validating a Learning Styles Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCapua, Andrea; Wintergerst, Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    How can learning styles best be measured? Reid's (1984) Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire has been widely used in ESL/EFL research to investigate learning styles. Previous research revealed concerns with the reliability and validity of the PLSPQ, leading the researchers to devise a new Learning Styles Indicator (LSI), based on…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Short-form Version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire%中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的信效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 周丽华; 燕良轼; 苏林雁

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire(CCSQ-SF).415 Chinese undergraduates(306 men,109 women; mean age=19.2 years,SD=1.04)completed the CCSQ-SF along with the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire(HDSQ) and Self-Compassion Scale(SCS).The internal consistency of the CCSQ-SF was high(Cronbach alpha=0.77),and the split-half coefficient and test-retest correlation after 4 weeks were satisfactory(r=0.67 and 0.85,respectively).Pearson correlations of the scores on the CCSQ-SF with the criterion measures(HDSQ and SCS) were in the expected directions.The CCSQ-SF is appropriate for measuring negative cognitive style among Chinese students.%目的:检验中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的信效度.方法:用中文版认知方式问卷(短版)、无望抑郁问卷、自悯量表对415名大学生进行测量,对其中55名大学生四周后重测中文版认知方式问卷(短版).结果:中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的Cronbaeh α系数为0.77,分半信度为0.67,四周的重测信度为0.85;探索性因素分析得一个特征根大于1的因子,解释总变异的40.32%;中文版认知方式问卷(短版)的得分与无望抑郁问卷的得分显著正相关,与自悯量表的得分显著负相关.结论:中文版认知方式问卷(短版)具有较好的信效度,可以用来测量我国大学生的认知方式.

  15. Uma escala de avaliação da empatia: adaptação portuguesa do Questionnaire to Assess Affective and Cognitive Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Feliciano; Santos, Elisabete

    2011-01-01

    Neste estudo, procedeu-se à adaptação portuguesa de uma escala de empatia, ―A Questionnaire to Assess Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Children‖ (QACEC), de Zoll e Enz (2010). A amostra envolveu 328 alunos do ensino básico de escolas de Lisboa, 4º e 6º anos, com sujeitos do género masculino e feminino. A escala apresentou bons índices de consistência interna. Numa análise de componentes principais com rotação varimax, foram identificadas duas dimensões, a afectiva e a cogn...

  16. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  17. Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L

    1998-12-01

    Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080

  18. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  19. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. PMID:24400727

  20. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD.

  1. Cognitive Styles, Demographic Attributes, Task Performance, and Affective Experiences: An Empirical Investigation into Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Core Users

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Tang

    2016-01-01

    System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have ...

  2. Parental stress-coping styles affect the behaviour of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at early developmental stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Gjoen, H.-M.; Pottinger, T.G.;

    2008-01-01

    to environmental stressors, in that they showed a shorter reaction time to low oxygen levels. Previous studies on adult and juvenile individuals from these strains demonstrated a number of correlated physiological and behavioural differences. In yolk-sac larvae, growth and development depended mainly on internal...... factors, which suggest that at least some aspects of stress-coping styles are inherent to the individual, before factors such as social experience or variable access to food resources could modify behavioural strategy....

  3. Do students’ styles of learning affect how they adapt to learning methods and to the learning environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Topal, Kenan; Sarıkaya, Özlem; Basturk, Ramazan; Buke, Akile

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The process of development and evaluation of undergraduate medical education programs should include analysis of learners’ characteristics, needs, and perceptions about learning methods. This study aims to evaluate medical students’ perceptions about problem-based learning methods and to compare these results with their individual learning styles.Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted at Marmara University Medical School where problem-based learning was implemented in the...

  4. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  5. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  6. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  7. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  8. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  9. Reliability and Validity of Affective Style Questionnaire Chinese Revised Version%情感风格问卷(中文)的信效度初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓颖; 周萍; 周总强

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察情感风格问卷(ASQ)的信效度.方法 将情感风格问卷翻译成中文,在311名大学生中施测.结果 情感风格问卷所有条目Cronbach's a系数为0.73,隐藏风格、调节风格与忍受风格的Cronbach's a系数分别为0.79、0.76和0.60,重测信度分别是0.77、0.74和0.84,均具有显著性(P<0.01.探索性因子分析显示中文版ASQ的KMO值为0.858(>0.5),Bartlett's球形检验的卡方值为1747.66(P<0.01),适合因素分析.得出3个因子的累积贡献率为46.39%,各项目在对应的维度上均具有0.45以上的负荷.结论 情感风格问卷(中文)的信度和效度均达到了心理测量学的要求,可以在相关领域使用.

  10. Affective Disposition, Thinking Styles, Neuroticism and Life Satisfaction / Disposición afectiva, estilos de pensamiento, neuroticismo y satisfacción vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The way in which positive and negative affects are perceived may be associated with a distinct pattern of behaviors and attitudes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between various combinations of affections and gender along with tendencies towards neuroticism, rumination, reflection, and life satisfaction. The participants were 348 students, who answered the questionnaire in groups. The euphoric group showed the highest scores of life satisfaction and emotional stability, while the dysphoric group presented the lowest scores. The emotional and apathetic groups showed no significant differences in relation to life satisfaction, depression, anxiety and vulnerability. From these results, it can be assumed that positive affect can lessen the impact that negative affect has on the development of vulnerability and other psychopathological symptoms. Interventions based on positive affect increase might be efficient to prevent vulnerability.

  11. Development of the children's eating behaviour questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, J.; Guthrie, C. A.; Sanderson, S; Rapoport, L.

    2001-01-01

    Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from t...

  12. 把脉员工行为背后的原因:工作归因风格问卷的开发——基于不同产权主体的研究%To Grasp the Reasons behind Employee' s Behavior: The Development of the Work Attributional Style Questionnaire in Chinese Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘静洲; 韩仁生; 周文霞

    2012-01-01

    工作归因风格作为重要的认知方式,对于员工的心理与行为有重要的影响。但是,国内至今没有一套工作归因风格问卷问世。本研究开发中国背景下的工作归因风格问卷。通过访谈、开放式问卷以及参考相关文献,形成工作归因风格问卷的初始条目。经过预测和探索性因素分析,对问卷进一步修改,得到正式问卷。问卷分为:积极和消极两个分问卷,每个分问卷包括5个场景,问题涵盖“内外性”、“稳定性”、“普遍性”三个维度,一共包括30个条目。对正式问卷进行探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等统计分析,结果显示,问卷结构清晰,信效度检验均符合测量学标准。最后,本文探讨了工作归因风格问卷对管理实践的影响和应用,以及研究存在的局限。%Attribution theory has been the important topic in the psychology field. With the development of attribution theory, researchers began to expand on the study of attribution theory to research on organization and management field. But the Chinese researchers didn't pay enough attention to the field of occupational attribution style. There is no a questionnaire of Chinese occupational attributional style. At the same time, exciting work attributional style questionnaires developed in western context, contain some drawbacks, such as low reliability, unstable constructs and so on. Based on this, the present study tries to develop "Chinese Work Attributional Style Questionnaire" (CWASQ) and examine its reliability and validity. The present study developed the Occupation Attributional Style Questionnaire in Chinese context. Through in-terviews, open questionnaires and the relevant literatures, the researcher formed the first draft of the questionnaire.Through exploratory factor analysis, the first one was revised in some aspects. The results of the formal questionnaire' s exploratory factor

  13. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  14. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Jawarneh, Mohammad S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  15. Studying the Relationship between Managers’ Communicative Styles and Employees’ Counterproductive in Shahrbabak Copper complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaaddini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communicative style and method among people are of effective factors on their behaviors. Managers’ communication method by which they behave workers can affect on employees’ behavior. This research studies the relationship between managers’ communicative styles and employees’ counterproductive in Shahrbabak copper complex. Statistical society of the research includes formal employed employees in Shahrbabak copper complex containing 746 people from which 186 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. Data gathering instruments were two questionnaires. Communicative styles standard questionnaire for which validity was obtained 0.92 by Hashemi (2013. Also to measure employees’ counterproductive behaviors a certain questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Every questionnaire’s validity was obtained by Cronbache Alpha method 0.90 and 0.87 respectively. To test hypotheses Pearson & Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS statistical software. According to obtained results it is determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between control and avoidance communicative styles; but there is a reverse relationship between equity, dynamic, entrusting and avoidance communicative styles with counterproductive behaviors. By the way there is no relationship between structuralism communicative style and counterproductive behaviors. Regarding the results from research hypotheses managers are suggested to use inclined dynamic communicative styles more to decrease counterproductive behaviors.

  16. Background shifts affect explanatory style: how a pragmatic theory of explanation accounts for background effects in the generation of explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Parker, Seth; Bradner, Alexandra

    2010-08-01

    Cognitive scientists are interested in explanation because it provides a window into the cognition that underlies one's understanding of the world. We argue that the study of explanation has tended to focus on what makes an explanation "bona fide" as opposed to the processes involved in how the explanation is generated. In the current study, we asked participants to respond to the request for an explanation within a novel domain after we manipulated their initial exposure to the domain, and thus the background of the request. In two experiments, we found evidence that the background shaped participants' interpretations of the prompt for the explanation and that this, in turn, influenced whether they used a causal or functional style of explanation when responding to the prompt. We also asked participants to evaluate a number of explanations and found that the manipulation of the background did not have the same effect on the evaluative tasks. Our data support a pragmatic approach (e.g. The scientific image. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980) to the study of explanation generation, a philosophical approach which argues that the background influences the interpretation of the question, the development of a relevance relation which connects the question and explanation, and the identification of some set of candidate answers. We also suggest there is an important difference between the process of generating an explanation and evaluating an explanation, a difference that has escaped the attention of cognitive scientists thus far. PMID:19859755

  17. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  18. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting. PMID:25956587

  19. A Match or Mismatch Between Learning Styles of the Learners and Teaching Styles of the Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study learning styles because recent studies have shown that a match between teaching and learning styles helps to motivate students´ process of learning. That is why teachers should identify their own teaching styles as well as their learning styles to obtain better results in the classroom. The aim is to have a balanced teaching style and to adapt activities to meet students´ style and to involve teachers in this type of research to assure the results found in this research study. Over 100 students complete a questionnaire to determine if their learning styles are auditory, visual, or kinesthetic. Discovering these learning styles will allow the students to determine their own personal strengths and weaknesses and learn from them. Teachers can incorporate learning styles into their classroom by identifying the learning styles of each of their students, matching teaching styles to learning styles for difficult tasks, strengthening weaker learning styles. The purpose of this study is to explain learning styles, teaching styles match or mismatch between learning and teaching styles, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles among Iranian learners, and pedagogical implications for the EFL/ESL classroom. A review of the literature along with analysis of the data will determine how learning styles match the teaching styles.

  20. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  1. Parenting Styles and Children’s Emotional Development during the First Grade: The Moderating Role of Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Zarra-Nezhad, Maryam; Aunola, Kaisa; Kiuru, Noona; Mullola, Sari; Moazami-Goodarzi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) and children’s emotional development (emotion expression) during the first grade of primary school, and the moderating role of children’s temperament (easy, difficult, and inhibited) in these associations. Mothers and fathers of 152 children responded to a questionnaire concerning their parenting styles and their child’s temperament at the beginning of their child’s fir...

  2. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation.

  3. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Rashid Rehman; Ajmal Waheed

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to coll...

  4. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  5. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  6. The effect of two lottery-style incentives on response rates to postal questionnaires in a prospective cohort study in preschool children at high risk of asthma: A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.B. Van Der Mark (Lonneke); K.E. Wonderen (Karina); J. Mohrs (Jacob); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); M.A. Puhan (Milo); G. ter Riet

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In research with long-term follow-up and repeated measurements, quick and complete response to questionnaires helps ensure a study's validity, precision and efficiency. Evidence on the effect of non-monetary incentives on response rates in observational longitudinal research

  7. The Significance of Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elise

    1998-01-01

    In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…

  8. 独生子女情感障碍患者心理防御机制与人格特征及父母教养方式的研究%Study on correlation of the one-child affective disorder with patients' psychological defense mechanisms,personality characteristics, and parenting styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红霞; 柳群方; 王秋玲; 姚宁; 贺慧丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 为探讨独生子女情感障碍患者人格、心理防御机制及父母教养方式的关系.方法 采用艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)、防御方式问卷(DSQ)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)对住院的100例独生子女情感障碍患者和正常独生子女进行测评,其中患者在自知力恢复以后测评.结果 独生子女情感障碍患者更多地使用投射、抱怨、幻想、退缩、躯体化等不成熟的防御机制,EPQ得分精神质、神经质、内外倾性高于正常独生子女(P<0.01),相关分析发现,精神质、神经质与不成熟防御机制、中间防御机制呈正相关,内外倾性与成熟防御机制呈正相关,独生子女情感障碍患者的父母惩罚、父母拒绝、父亲保护、母亲干涉因子分高于正常独生子女(P<0.01),而父亲温暖因子低于正常独生子女,相关分析发现,父母惩罚、父母拒绝、父母干涉、父亲保护与不成熟防御机制正相关,而父母温暖与不成熟防御机制负相关.结论 独生子女情感障碍患者多使用不成熟防御机制、不良的父母教养方式,存在个性缺陷,且三者之间密切相关.%Objective To explore the association of personality, psychological defense mechanisms, and parenting style with one—child affective disorder. Methods Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) of the parenting styles, Evaluation Scale (EMBU) were used to evaluate 100 one—child emotional disorder inpatients and the normal child as control. The assessments were also made in patients after the in—hospital treatment. Results One —child affective disorder patients were significant (P<0. 01) more projection, complaining, fantasy, withdrawal, soma-tization, immature defense mechanisms such as the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire score psychoti-cism, neuroticism, extraversion inside and outside than the normal one—single child children. Correlation analysis found that spiritual

  9. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  11. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  12. How mantle heterogeneity can affect geochemistry of magmas and their styles of emplacement: a fascinating tale revealed by Etna alkaline lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical investigations of Mt. Etna magmas have led to notable findings on the nature of compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source beneath the volcano. Some of the observed features explain the short-term geochemical variability of volcanic rocks erupted at Mt. Etna in recent times, which are characterized by increase of LILE, 87Sr/86Sr and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb,176Hf/177Hf. This compositional behavior has not attributed exclusively to differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation and effects of volatile flushing. In this study, based on some geochemical similarities of the Etnean and Hyblean alkaline magmas, we have modeled partial melting of a composite source constituted by two rock types, inferred by various observations performed on some Hyblean xenoliths, namely: a spinel lherzolite bearing phlogopite-amphibole and a garnet pyroxenite in form of veins intruded into lherzolite that is interpreted as metasomatic high-temperature fluids (silicate melts) crystallized at mantle conditions. Partial melting modeling has been applied to each rock type and the resulting primary liquids have been then mixed in various proportions. The concentrations of major and trace elements along with the water obtained from the modeling are remarkably comparable with those of Etnean melts re-equilibrated at primary conditions. Different proportions of spinel lherzolite bearing metasomatic phases and garnet pyroxenite can account for the signature of a large spectrum of Etnean alkaline magmas and for their geochemical variability through time. Our study implies that magmas characterized by variable compositions and volatile contents directly inherited from the source can undergo distinct histories of ascent and evolution in the plumbing system at crustal levels, potentially leading to a wide range of eruptive styles. A rather shallow source inferred from the model also excludes the presence of deep mantle structures

  13. Mediationg Role of Mindfulness as a Trait Between Attachment Styles and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.

  14. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.

  15. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Komer, Anne C.; Jason, Leonard A.; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire....

  16. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Belousova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assumed by each participant: function of generating ideas, the function of selection (review and evaluation of information, functions of sense transfer and function of implementation. Thinking of adult, acting as a complex self-organizing system, combines the same functions: generation, selection, sense transfer and implementation. In this connection, we believe that the thinking style is defined as a characteristic set of functions actualized by a person in different situations of the problem solving. Domination of generation function determines the development of initiative thinking style, selection - critical, sense transfer - administrative, implementation - practical. The results of testing the reliability and validity of a new questionnaire for the thinking style diagnostics on a representative sample of Russians are given. The author’s version of the questionnaire is presented.

  17. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458

  18. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  19. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  20. Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

  1. Learning Style Dimensions and Professional Characteristics of Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…

  2. Explanatory Style and College Students with ADHD and LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmulsky, Solvegi; Gobbo, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to measure the causal thinking of 42 college students with diagnosed language-based learning disabilities (LD), ADHD, or co-occurring ADHD and LD. Attribution style, or explanatory style, is a term used to describe the tendencies of individuals to think that the causes of…

  3. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum.......Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  4. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child

  5. The Couples' Gender-Based Communication Questionnaire (CGCQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Daniel; Goldman, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Effective communication is a cornerstone of marital happiness. The Couples' Gender-Based Communication Questionnaire is presented as a method for identifying male-female different communication styles. Suggests that once people realize that their partners have different conversational styles, they are inclined to accept difference without blaming…

  6. LEARNING STYLE PREFERENCES AND BALANCED LEARNERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Just as students have different personalities, so do they have various learning styles. Why Otherwise might two people,compatible in age, intelligence and expectations, exposed to the same amount of opportunity, react so differently?Although an individual's learning style is regarded as relatively fixed and not easily changed, it is possible to help learners explore their own preferences and to shape their learning approaches to meet the demands of the requirements of what they intend to achieve. Using Honey and Mumford's Questionnaire and the systemized theory behind the questionnaire for analysis, this paper presents two arguments: 1. Trainers can help learners identify their learning style preferences and increase their awareness about them.2. Learners can become more effective learners once they are aware of their learning styles and the strong points and weak points of the different styles. The results of the investigation support the two arguments.

  7. Considering learning styles in adaptative web-based education

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Barragán, Pedro; Rodríguez Marín, Pilar

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows a way of using some dimensions of learning styles of students in order to improve the efficiency of adaptive learning systems. Firstly, it reviews the literature and previous work related to the taxonomy of learning styles and its application to web-based education. Later, it introduces the Felder-Silverman learning style model and the procedure of extracting information about students’ learning styles from the Felder-Soloman ILS questionnaire. Then, it presents a me...

  8. influence du style d'encodage sur la production de faux souvenirs

    OpenAIRE

    Dehon, Hedwige; Laroi, Frank; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that there are individual differences in how preexisting (internal) schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the internal and external Encoding Style Questionnaire (ESQ, Lewicki, 2005). Since reliance on preexisting schemata at encoding has been found to increase the production of false memories in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), while item-specific encoding has been sho...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON KNOWLEDGE-BASED CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yueh; Ying Lee; F. Barry Barnes

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how transformational and transactional leadership styles affect knowledge-based customer relationship management implementation in the Taiwanese hotel industry. A model of the relationship was created based on earlier research and used Bass and Avolio’s Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire along with questions to assess a multi-dimensional construct for CRM. The model was tested and modified using structural equation modeling. The results generally support a positive re...

  10. Cognitive motivation correlates of coping style in decisional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Mestdagh, Steven; Van Laethem, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    Can personality traits account for the handling of internal conflicts? The authors explored how individual differences in information-processing style affect coping patterns displayed before making important decisions. Need for cognition and need for cognitive closure were linked to the major tendencies identified in the conflict theory of decision making: vigilance, hypervigilance, and defensive avoidance (buck passing and procrastination). A sample of 1,119 Belgian human resource professionals completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the 18-item short-form Need for Cognition Scale, and the Need for Closure Inventory. Ordinary least squares regression analysis indicated that significant relationships existed between need for cognition, need for closure, and conflict decision-making styles. The authors also found significant effects of gender and age.

  11. The Leadership Styles of the Heads of Physical Education Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrali Hemmatinezhad; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Razavi; Farogh Fathi Kajal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this survey is to study the change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments in the province of Ardebil. 180 heads of sports commissions answered a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). The multi-factor leadership questionnaire includes 41 questions covering three leadership styles of change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered. The validity of questionnaire has been studied and verified through the corrective feedbac...

  12. The Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  13. The impact of teaching styles on students' learning styles and career interests

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wing-yin.; 戴詠賢.

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether or not intellectual styles are value-laden and if they are malleable. This aim was achieved through understanding the types of intellectual styles that teachers and students prefer each other to use in the teaching-learning process. It was further achieved by examining whether or not teaching styles affect students’ learning styles and their career interests. This research employed a mixture of experimental and longitudinal designs as well as a c...

  14. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given....... These findings support the downward extension of cognitive vulnerability constructs to normal emotion and suggest that the constructs have differential effects on the regulation of negative emotion.  ...

  15. Asymmetric relationships between attributions and affect in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibeles Miralles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the affect generated by cognitive appraisals of work events in workers daily life. In this relationship, two moderators have been tested, relevance of the event and explanatory style. Seventy-three workers answered an attributional style questionnaire once (between-level data and also a daily questionnaire (within-level data about work events and affect for ten days (N = 730 observations.Multilevel analysis results showed that the influence of moderators in the relationship of appraisal-affect is asymmetric for positive and negative affect. At within-level there is a moderation of the importance attributed to the event for negative affect, but not for positive affect. In the same line, but in an inter-level relationship, the explanatory style has a moderator effect for negative affect when the event is appraised as important. Nevertheless, such an influence is not found for positive affect. The study provides new elements for a multilevel study of third variables in the daily dynamics of appraisal and affect.

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vaseghi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor. Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, EFL

  17. Students High Achievement on Learning Style Preferences in Chinese Department, Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Go

    2015-02-01

    every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, students individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students learning styles. This study was based on Reids learning styles theory and also uses Reids Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate students learning styles. The main finding of this study is that students learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.

  18. The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAHED ZAHEDANI, ZAHRA; REZAEE, RITA; YAZDANI, ZAHRA; BAGHERI, SINA; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.     Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Conclusion Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes. PMID:27382580

  19. The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students’ transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03. Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001. Conclusion: Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.

  20. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  1. Metric characteristics of Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kozina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967 and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004. The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333 of seventh, eighth and ninth grade students in Slovenia show a three dimensional structure of the questionnaire: (a authoritative parental style and autonomy, (b authoritarian parental style and (c rewarding. Questionnaires' reliability in terms of internal consistency (,72 > α < ,95 as well as sensitivity (average r = ,67 proved to be sufficient. Our results show significant gender differences in perceived authoritative parental style and autonomy as well as low association between school grades and the perceived relationship.

  2. Influence of individual learning styles in online interaction: a case for dynamic frequently asked questions (DFAQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'ambi, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Although current literature on learning styles shows that matching a teacher’s instructional style with the learning styles of students affects performance in a classroom environment, little is known about the influence of learning styles in online interaction. The paper argues that students’ individual learning styles influences how students interact online and that rather than adapt to user’s learning styles, online environments tend to force behavior change on users’ learning styles. The p...

  3. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia. PMID:26077339

  4. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  5. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  6. Styles and Style-Stretching: How are They Related to Successful Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev

    2016-06-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested. PMID:25893275

  7. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  8. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  9. Law school performance predicted by explanatory style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, J M; Monahan, J; Seligman, M E

    1997-01-01

    The explanatory styles of 387 law students were assessed prior to law school using the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Longitudinal performance measures were collected throughout law school and related to each student's initial explanatory style. In contrast to studies with undergraduates, students who made stable, global, and internal attributions for negative events combined with the converse attributions for success (typically called pessimists) outperformed more optimistic students on measures of grade point averages and law journal success. We discuss the limitations of current attributional research methodologies and suggest the prudent and cautious perspective necessary for law or skill-based professions may account for our findings. PMID:9160992

  10. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies. PMID:25153846

  11. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  12. Integration of Leadership Styles of School Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Nebojsa; Oljaca, Milka; Kostovic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Management style can be defined as a special behavior of directors in the work process that affects the performance in an organization, in this case-school. Management style has two related meanings: first is behavior of directors to employees, second is directors' approach in school regarding management, participation of employees in decision…

  13. Elderly age: healthy life style and life activity prolongation

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshkova Elena Vyacheslavovna; Rodionova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna; Mukhina Marina Yurievna; Veretelnikova Yulia Yakovlevna; Chernyshkov Danila Vsevolodovich

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of elderly people’s (aged 55–65) questionnaires concerning the basic precepts of healthy life style for activity prolongation (N = 180). It has been established that the basic principles of healthy life style include regular moderate physical loads, a rational diet, giving up bad habits. Healthy life style popularization may become a promising measure to increase activity motivation of elderly people.

  14. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chayata Viriya; Sutthirak Sapsirin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. The study used the perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) to investigate the learning style preferences and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 designed by Oxford (1990) to find the learning strategy preferences of first year University students at the faculty of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Thailand....

  15. Optimistic explanatory style and the perception of health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; De Avila, M E

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-six adults completed questionnaires that measure explanatory style and perception of health problems. Subjects on the average saw themselves as below average in risk for a variety of health problems. Those subjects with an optimistic explanatory style, who explained bad events with external, unstable, and specific causes, in particular saw themselves as less at risk (r = .30, p explanatory style and perceived risk, which suggests that perceived preventability may mediate this link. PMID:7782467

  16. Perceived Parenting Styles, Personality Traits and Sleep Patterns in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…

  17. Correspondence between Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…

  18. Relationships between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…

  19. Teachers' interpersonal style and its relationship to emotions, causal attributions, and type of challenging behaviors displayed by students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Pavlidou, Kyriaki

    2016-09-01

    Teachers' interpersonal style is a new field of research in the study of students with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors in school context. In the present study, we investigate emotions and causal attributions of three basic types of challenging behaviors: aggression, stereotypy, and self-injury, in relation to teachers' interpersonal style. One hundred and seventy seven Greek general and special educator teachers participated in the study by completing a three-scaled questionnaire. Statistical analysis revealed that the type of challenging behaviors affected causal attributions. According to regression analysis, emotions, teaching experience, expertise in special education, and gender explained a significant amount of variance in interpersonal style. Emotions were found to have a mediating role in the relationship between causal attributions and interpersonal style of "willingness to support," when challenging behaviors were attributed to stable causes or causes under the control of the individual with intellectual disabilities. PMID:26283661

  20. Teachers' interpersonal style and its relationship to emotions, causal attributions, and type of challenging behaviors displayed by students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Pavlidou, Kyriaki

    2016-09-01

    Teachers' interpersonal style is a new field of research in the study of students with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors in school context. In the present study, we investigate emotions and causal attributions of three basic types of challenging behaviors: aggression, stereotypy, and self-injury, in relation to teachers' interpersonal style. One hundred and seventy seven Greek general and special educator teachers participated in the study by completing a three-scaled questionnaire. Statistical analysis revealed that the type of challenging behaviors affected causal attributions. According to regression analysis, emotions, teaching experience, expertise in special education, and gender explained a significant amount of variance in interpersonal style. Emotions were found to have a mediating role in the relationship between causal attributions and interpersonal style of "willingness to support," when challenging behaviors were attributed to stable causes or causes under the control of the individual with intellectual disabilities.

  1. INTERACTION ASPECTS OF DOMINANT STYLES: OF TEACHING AND OF AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETRE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler, Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication: emotional-improvising style, emotional-methodical style, rational-improvising style and rational-methodical style. Methods. To identify the dominant teaching style was built a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The second questionnaire was proposed for a self-evaluative kind of authority expressed in the daily professional work. To identify the dominant type of authority were updated two classifications: traditional axis authoritarian - democratic - laissez-faire and a classification inspired by John RP French and B. Raven expert authority, rewards, position and personal. In this investigation were involved 30 teachers for primary education. Findings and Results. Exists a moderate correlation between rational-improvising style and authoritarian and position styles of authority. Also, indicates significant statistical connection between rational-improviser teaching style and authoritarian, democratic and expert teacher’s authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between rational-methodical style and personal authority. The indexes of correlation indicates significant statistical link between emotional-improvisational style teaching styles and reward and expert authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between emotional-style improvisation and styles of authority laissez-faire, and his model.

  2. Links between Perceived Leadership Styles and Self-reported Coping Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Boštjančič; Maja Pezdir; Janez Stare

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the cur...

  3. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  4. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767

  5. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11 inner cool......, rebelliousness and usability. These factors and their underlying 16 question items comprise the COOL questionnaire. The whole process of creating the questionnaire is presented in detail in this paper and we conclude by discussing our work against related work on coolness and HCI....

  6. Life style and behavior of school children without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

  7. Wesleyan University Student Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, C. Hess

    This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…

  8. Candidature questionnaire Olympic Games 2024

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Contains : Questionnaire Stage 1: Vision, Games Concept and Strategy. - Questionnaire Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding. - Questionnaire Stage 3: Games Delivery, Experience and Venue Legacy.

  9. Removal of Toxic English Teaching & Learning Styles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-xiang, Geng

    2007-01-01

    There are a few unique English teaching and learning styles among some Chinese teachers and learners, which affect their work efficiency or are toxic to their work and study. Some suggestions on getting rid of toxic teaching and learning styles are necessary to the improvement of teaching and learning efficiency. Cultivating healthy styles for…

  10. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  11. The Impact of Mentor Leadership Styles on First-Year Adult Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Staley, Charlesetta

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…

  12. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sibe Doosje; Martijn P.M. de Goede; Lorenz J.P. van Doornen; Rens van de Schoot

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understandi...

  13. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  14. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  15. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; FALLAHZADEH, HOSSEIN; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire ...

  16. A Study on the learning Styles of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Yasuj According to the VARK Model (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Behnam Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.

  17. The Leadership Styles of the Heads of Physical Education Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrali Hemmatinezhad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey is to study the change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments in the province of Ardebil. 180 heads of sports commissions answered a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ. The multi-factor leadership questionnaire includes 41 questions covering three leadership styles of change-oriented, pragmatic, and neutered. The validity of questionnaire has been studied and verified through the corrective feedbacks by the management and programming teachers of physical education, and the stability of questionnaire was determined 86% using Cronbach's alpha. In order to analyze the data, the statistical tests of chi-square and Friedman and Bonferroni post hoc test were used at a significant level (P ≤ 0 / 05. The Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pragmatic, change-oriented, and neutered leadership styles of the heads of physical education departments. Also, there was a significant difference among the priorities of the leadership styles of heads of physical education department. And, the change-oriented leadership style was placed as the first priority, while the pragmatic and neutered styles were considered as next priorities. There are significant differences among the subscales of the change-oriented and pragmatic leadership styles of physical education administrators.

  18. Learning style preferences of medical students: a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Nuzhat; Raneem O. Salem; Mohammed S.A. Quadri; Nasir Al-Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...

  19. Explanatory style and its functional relationship to job satisfaction for employed women age forty and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-06-01

    An assessment of the relationship between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction is presented for 135 employed women age 40 and over who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Although a forced-order multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant correlation between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction, several interesting factors emerged. PMID:8058876

  20. Attachment Styles, Social Skills, and Depression in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H. T. Reis,…

  1. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink; H. Andrea; R. Verheul

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a lar

  2. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interv

  3. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  4. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  5. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Giulia Olivari; Elisabeth Hertfelt Wahn; Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki; Katerina Antonopoulou; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...

  6. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  7. The Discipline Styles of High School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Sağnak, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the discipline styles of high school teachers. The population of this research included students of 10rd grade at central high schools in Niğde. There were 789 students at these high schools in the educational term of 2006-2007. The sample of this study was randomly selected 334 students. The data of the research were collected with an inventory called “Teacher Discipline Style Inventory” developed by Tomal (1999, 2001). The questionnaire is based up...

  8. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  9. An Empirical Study of Leadership Style of Middle Managers in Taiwan’s University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the topic on leadership within the field of librarianship. With a hope to add to the narrative literature of the leadership, the researcher employed literature review and analysis, questionnaires, and statistics analysis, to explore the leadership style of middle managers in the university libraries in Taiwan area. 343 university librarians and 85 department heads participated in this survey. The survey data indicates that there is a discrepancy between middle managers’ self expressed leadership behavior profiles and those perceived by subordinate librarians. And some subordinate librarians’ demographics may affect their perceptions of leadership behavior demonstrated by department heads. [Article content in Chinese

  10. The role of culture in perceptual learning styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم حسینی فاطمی ، پیشقدم

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to determine the role of culture in perceptual learning style (PLS preferences of Iranian English learners, in order to minimize teacher-student style conflict in the classroom. To do this, 400 university students from different fields of study were selected from Allameh Tabatabaee University in Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were asked to answer Reid’s questionnaire (1987 which was designed to specify 6 types of learning styles including: visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, individual and group. The results indicated that: (a the subjects mostly drew on tactile and kinesthetic styles and had the least preference for the individual style of learning. (b No meaningful association was found between gender, age, proficiency and preference for certain style.

  11. The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodyer Ian M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

  12. Satisfaction with Hearing Aids Based on Technology and Style among Hearing Impaired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji- Khiavi, Farzad; Dashti, Rezvan; Sameni, Seyyed-Jalal; Bayat, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most disabling impairments. Using a hearing aid as an attempt to improve the hearing problem can positively affect the quality of life for these people. This research was aimed to assess satisfaction of hearing impaired patients with their hearing aids regarding the employed technology and style. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional research was conducted on 187 subjects with hearing loss who were using a hearing aid. The subjects were over 18 years of age and were using a hearing aid for at least 6 months. The Persian version of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire was the instrument which was used for assessing satisfaction with the hearing aid. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.80 for instrument reliability. Results: A significant difference was observed among satisfaction subscales’ mean scores with hearing aid technology. Also a significant difference was observed between the total satisfaction score and the hearing aid model. With respect to the analysis of satisfaction with the hearing aid and its style, cost and services was the only subscale which showed a significant difference (P=0.005). Conclusion: Respondents using hearing aids with different technology and style were estimated to be quite satisfied. Training audiologists in using more appropriate and fitting hearing aids in addition to using self-reporting questionnaires like SADL for estimating patients’ social condition and participation in their life can essentially change their disability condition and countervail their hearing loss. PMID:27738608

  13. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....

  14. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911

  15. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  16. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  17. Relationship between parental rearing style coping style among middle school students in Kunnming%昆明市中学生父母教养方式与应对方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安艳; 黄莹; 李燕; 陈桂存

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between parental rearing style and middle school students' coping style, and to provide bases for the further intervention. Methods By using Parents Education Style Value Questionnaire and Coping Style Questionnaire to investigate 4 189 middle school students in Kunming. Results There were significant differences between male and female students,difference between middle school and high school in parents' emotional warmth and understanding, severe punishment, resolving problem and seeking social support. Parents' rearing style was apparently correlated with some factors of coping style. Conclusion There are gender differences in parental styles and coping style, and parental rearing pattern obviously affect coping style.%目的 探讨父母教养方式与中学生应对方式的关系,为进一步采取干预措施提供依据.方法 采用父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)、中学生应对方式量表,对分层随机整群抽取的昆明市4 189名中学生进行问卷调查.结果 父母养育方式中的父母情感温暖、理解,惩罚、严厉等因子以及应对方式中的问题解决、寻求社会支持等因子均存在显著性别差异和学段差异.父母养育方式中的各因子与应对方式中的一些因子显著相关.结论 中学生父母教养方式和应对方式有显著的性别、年级差异,中学生的父母教养方式对其应对方式有显著影响.

  18. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Sharon K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Methods Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic. Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7 equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Results Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Conclusions Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become

  19. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  20. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overall...... shape which makes the general analysis and retrieval of such shapes more challenging. Also there is no single way of defining the style as this depends much on the context of the family of shapes used for the analysis. That is why the definition needs to be given through the examples. The straight...... might be unable to find a set descriptors which are independent of a given function. We show how to decouple the effect of the style from that of the function by considering the shapes of the same function but different styles. We also propose a metric coanalysis approach: if two styles are similar...

  1. Assessing Empathy: A Slumdog Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Chapelle Wojciehowski

    2010-01-01

     

    style="font-size: small;">Abstract (E): style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Applying recent theories of embodied cognition to Danny Boyle’s 2008 film style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">...

  2. Interpersonal Teaching Style and Student Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…

  3. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Mon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.

  4. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  5. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259

  6. The related correlation of mental characteristics,coping style,social support and mental health between schizophrenia primary affection and convalescent schizophrenia%首发恢复期精神分裂症患者人格特征、应对方式及社会支持与心理健康的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹华; 李秀英; 王媛; 郭爱宁

    2014-01-01

    合康复计划时,必须基于整合医学视角,积极关注其个性特征、心理健康状况、应对方式、社会支持等方面.%Objective By exploring difference of mental characteristics,coping style,social support and health between schizophrenia primary affection and convalescent schizzy,it's expected that the related rationale will be developed for further formulating treatment for schizophrenia primary affection and convalescent schizophrenia.Methods By taking advantage of symptom checklist,questionnaire of NEO-FFI,Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,social support scale,we compared 150 schizophrenia primary affection who were under the clinic of new antipsychotics and in convalescent period (schizzy group)with 169 normal persons (normal group)on the mental characteristics,coping style,social support and mental health of individual and correlation.Results The following factors of scl-90 showed statistical significance between patient group and normal group:somatization (1.83±0.14) vs.(1.27-±0.48),interpersonal sensitivity(1.96±0.21) vs.(1.65±0.51),depression(1.89±0.24) vs.(1.50±0.59),anxiety(1.69±0.15) vs.(1.39±0.43),photic anxiety (1.56±0.13) vs.(1.23±0.41),psychoticism factors (1.56± 0.14) vs.(1.23±0.41) (all P<0.01).The personality traits differences between patient group and normal group were as follows:neuroticism (3.13± 0.15) vs.(2.61 ± 0.36),extraversion (2.96± 0.31) vs.(3.19± 0.23),agreeableness (3.20± 0.25) vs.(3.48±0.35) and conscientiousness (3.19±0.65) vs.(3.42± 0.16),and all these factors showed statistical significance with P<0.01.The differences of subjective support factors between patients group and normal groups were as follows:subjective support (23.51 ±3.62) vs.(26.29±3.91),objective support (7.35±2.07) vs.(8.91 ± ±2.89),support use (7.61± 1.23) vs.(8.97± 1.35) and total score of supports (37.63± 6.52) vs.(43.51 ± 6.32) and the scores of patients group were poorer than those of normal group(P<0

  7. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed. PMID:8955430

  8. Work reinforcers and explanatory style for women aged 40 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-07-01

    We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292

  9. Web–based learning: Factors affecting students’ satisfaction and learning experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung–Sun; Moore, Joi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how students’ characteristics and behaviors affect their satisfaction and learning experience within Web–based courses. Eighty–two graduate students taking a Web–based course from a Midwest university participated in the study. Web–based questionnaires were used to collect data on student demographics as well as learning experiences and styles. Findings suggest that students’ interaction with classmates and their instructor may have an impact on their satisfaction with...

  10. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Plenty; Susanne Bejerot; Kimmo Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biolo...

  11. A STUDY OF STUDENTS’ LEARNING STYLES AND EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This article reports a study using a self-reporting questionnaire adapted from Reid (1987) toexamine the preferred learning styles of the students majoring in English in Hubei Three Gorges Univer-sity Humanities’ College,Hubei,China.Based on the results the study generated,activities were createdthat could reflect the students’ learning style preferences.These activities were effective in motivatingour students and developing productive language skills.

  12. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style......, or inversely how does his style always/already produce these supplements and deferrals?...

  13. Changes in student learning styles over the course of postgraduate taught programmes and the impact of learning styles on achievement in various assessment modes

    OpenAIRE

    Phalkey, R.; Pritchard, Catherine; Myles, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of students preferred learning styles on their performance has been investigated in medical and nursing education but little has been done for students enrolling on postgraduate taught programmes in Public Health and Epidemiology. Summary of Work: We use the 40 item Honey and Mumford (1986) learning styles questionnaire that identifies four learning styles (Activist, Theorist, Reflector and Pragmatist) and administered it at the start (Oct 2014) and end of the course...

  14. QUESTIONNAIRE 5YR 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    CERN must remain the centre of excellence that it has been for the last sixty years. Therefore, the Organization must continue to be able to attract, motivate and retain the best specialists coming from all the Member States. This is why, every five years, on the occasion of a five-yearly review, our employment conditions are compared with bodies having similar activities.In order to prepare the next five-yearly review, the topics of which will be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has drawn up a questionnaire that gives you the opportunity to tell us what you think about your current employment conditions. You can also indicate how you wish to see them evolve, and to help you we present some proposals for improvement on which you can give your opinion. Above all, do not hesitate, by using the comments’ fields available in the questionnaire, to formulate your own suggestions in all areas of your conditions of employment that are of interest to you. Your replies will hel...

  15. Leadership style and organisational commitment in the mining industry in Mpumalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ereen McLaggan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The mining industry is a notoriously difficult environment in which to achieve positive work outcomes, such as organisational commitment. Therefore it was decided to investigate the association between transformational leadership and organisational commitment at a coal mine in Phola in the Mpumalanga province, a geographical area largely neglected by scientific researchers. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership styles (as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire in the coal mining industry at a specific site in Phola. Motivation for the study: A need was identified for research to be conducted in the coal mining industry in Mpumalanga on a leadership style that enhances organisational commitment. Committed employees represent valuable human capital that should be retained for as long as possible. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design with random sampling (n = 88 was used to collect the necessary data. Both instruments showed acceptable internal consistencies. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between two variables: organisational commitment (for the purposes of this article, this refers to affective commitment and leadership styles (transactional and transformational. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners will benefit from the knowledge gained by the study. Line managers should practise transformational leadership to improve commitment, engagement and satisfaction among their subordinates. Contribution/value add: The findings of this research add to the body of existing knowledge on transformational leadership and commitment. Valuable insights have been gained on the appropriate leadership style needed to improve

  16. Relationship between nurses' leadership styles and power bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Based on the results, two relationships proposed by the SLT (Situational Leadership Theory) were verified: between coercive power and S1 leadership style (telling), and between referent power and S3 leadership style (participating). In other cases, results have been opposite to expectations: the use of power proposed by the model decreases the probability of performing the prescribed leadership style.

  17. Relationship between nurses' leadership styles and power bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Based on the results, two relationships proposed by the SLT (Situational Leadership Theory) were verified: between coercive power and S1 leadership style (telling), and between referent power and S3 leadership style (participating). In other cases, results have been opposite to expectations: the use of power proposed by the model decreases the probability of performing the prescribed leadership style. PMID:19669037

  18. Relation of irrational thinking and the Pessimistic Explanatory Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, D J; Hawley, J L

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between Ellis's construct of irrational thinking and Seligman's construct of explanatory style, with a view toward possibly strengthening the personality theory underlying Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in particular and cognitive-behavior therapies more generally. In this investigation 180 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Attributional Style Questionnaire to measure irrational thinking and explanatory style, respectively. Students who scored higher on Pessimistic Explanatory Style also scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and on Low Frustration Tolerance than did those who were categorized as having an Optimistic Explanatory Style. This indicates support for Ellis's developing personality theory, especially his theoretical account of depression. PMID:11351894

  19. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  20. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  1. Explanatory style change in supportive-expressive dynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jacques P; Abrams, Michael J; Connolly-Gibbons, Mary Beth; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Barrett, Marna S; Rynn, Moira; Siqueland, Lynne

    2005-03-01

    Change in explanatory style (measured by the Attributional Style Questionnaire [ASQ]) has often been considered specific to cognitive therapy (CT). We used data from 59 patients who had received supportive-expressive (SE) dynamic therapy after meeting DSM-III-R criteria for a depressive spectrum disorder and who had completed the ASQ at intake and termination of treatment. We found that depressive symptoms decreased significantly and that explanatory style became more optimistic over the course of treatment. Furthermore, change in ASQ correlated with change in depression. There was some evidence suggesting that ASQ at termination predicted level of depression at follow-up. PMID:15625679

  2. The relationship between humour styles and shyness: an investigation of Turkish university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atılgan Erozkan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between humour styles and shyness. The sample consisted of 640 (330female; 310 male university students. Humour styles and shyness levels of these students were measured by the use of theHumour Styles Questionnaire, and Shyness Scale respectively. To analyze the data, regression analysis and correlation analysiswere employed. A significant effect of humour styles on shyness was detected. All humour styles (affiliative, self-enhancing,aggressive, and self-defeating were found to be significantly correlated to shyness.

  3. Explanatory style and academic performance among college students beginning a major course of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Mary C; Cantrell, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Explanatory style, a cognitive variable, reflects how people typically explain the causes of bad events involving themselves. Explanatory style emerged from the attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness and depression model as a way of explaining individual differences in response to uncontrollability. A central prediction of the reformulation is that people with habitual explanatory tendencies differ, and individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style will be more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms following bad events than individuals with an optimistic explanatory style. 116 upper-level undergraduates beginning a degree program at this university completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Scores were correlated with students' cumulative grade point averages and their total points earned in Consumer Behavior, the first course required in the Marketing major. Students with pessimistic explanatory style scores outperformed colleagues with optimistic explanatory style scores. Implications of these findings and possible explanations for why explanatory style did not correlate in the theoretically predicted way with academic achievement are considered. PMID:12841458

  4. Construct Validity of Self-Concept in TIMSS's Student Background Questionnaire: A Test of Separation and Conflation of Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Self-Concept among Saudi Eighth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Abdelfattah, Faisal A.; Alshumrani, Saleh A.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to: (a) assess if cognitive self-concept (competence) and affective self-concept in mathematics and science are different constructs, (b) evaluate the construct validity of self-concept in the context of conflation and separation, and (c) test if the relationships among cognitive and affective variables are invariant…

  5. The Relationships Among Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Wen Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation at small and medium enterprises as well as their effects on business performance. This study examines how leadership style can affect the development and implementation of entrepreneurial orientation in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan. It is also designed to examine the effects of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Significant conclusions from this...

  6. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  7. Style transformation in natural languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue HU; Xiaoyu GAO; Li LI; Qingshi GAO

    2008-01-01

    To express semantic knowledge of natural lan-guages accurately and unify the processing of languages, the style transformation of natural languages is discussed in an all-round way. The discussion covers purpose, voice, modal, tense, narrow sense of style, number and case. All style transformations may be described accurately by a four-element Descriptive Language of Style Trans-formation (STDL). The transformation between repres-entation of semantic units without style and with style can be converted through style transformation function. Each style transformation function is a difference function in multiple natural languages. Such difference functions can be used to simplify language processing procedure and improve processing quality.

  8. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Soner Cakmak; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Ali Tasdemir; Mahmut Onur Karaytug

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Self-esteem and humor styles are significant factors for being a healthy person. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation ship between self-esteem and humor styles in medical students. Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females) were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high ...

  9. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based on social learning models, is an effective and practical way for treatment of children with incongruent behavior. In this study, we evaluate parenting styles of ADHD children and normal children. Methods. This study was conducted in Zahedan in 2012. Subjects aged 7 to 12. They were divided into patient and normal groups. Parenting styles were evaluated with Baumrind’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS ver.18. Results. The findings showed that the parents of ADHD children have lower permissive score than the normal group, but authoritarian score was lower in the normal group. The authoritative score has no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, age, gender, and parent’s education affected the parenting styles. Discussion. The present study indicates that parents with ADHD children have different parenting styles; and factors like gender and parents education are influential in parenting methods. This finding were also present in some past surveys. Many studies have shown that teaching-parenting styles to parents with ADHD children improves the inner family relationship. Conclusion . The results indicated that parents of children with ADHD are less permissive but more authoritarian in their parenting.

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  12. Birds of a Feather Laugh Together: An Investigation of Humour Style Similarity in Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christian Martin; Campbell, Lorne John

    2016-08-01

    The present research investigated the degree of similarity in humour styles between spouses as assessed with the Humour Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). Furthermore, self-esteem was investigated as a potential moderator of partner humour style similarity. A sample of 116 heterosexual, married couples independently completed questionnaires assessing self-reported humour styles across the 32 item HSQ, as well as global self-esteem. Results indicated that there is significant positive association between the humour styles of married partners. This association was moderated by individual self-esteem. Specifically, participants with high self-esteem were found to have greater humour style similarity with their partners. Similarity was also greater for positive compared to negative types of humour. Implications for the use of dyadic data in investigating the roles of humour within couples are discussed. PMID:27547257

  13. Birds of a Feather Laugh Together: An Investigation of Humour Style Similarity in Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christian Martin; Campbell, Lorne John

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated the degree of similarity in humour styles between spouses as assessed with the Humour Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). Furthermore, self-esteem was investigated as a potential moderator of partner humour style similarity. A sample of 116 heterosexual, married couples independently completed questionnaires assessing self-reported humour styles across the 32 item HSQ, as well as global self-esteem. Results indicated that there is significant positive association between the humour styles of married partners. This association was moderated by individual self-esteem. Specifically, participants with high self-esteem were found to have greater humour style similarity with their partners. Similarity was also greater for positive compared to negative types of humour. Implications for the use of dyadic data in investigating the roles of humour within couples are discussed. PMID:27547257

  14. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing's center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace. Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches o...

  15. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing’s center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace, Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches of new products.

  16. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  17. The Kansei Design Characteristics towards Learning Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeryip Sihombing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The individuals possess unique ways of how they learn. Based on this perspective, each of individuals will approach the general learning experiences in a personal and individualized way related to his/her performance and behavior. This study is to analyze the characteristics of product design using Kansei Engineering approach towards the student learning style based on Felder and Soloman's theory. Using the 8 (eight spectacles designs proposed comparing the emotional feeling towards design of product, the study involved 100 students who are using spectacles as the respondents. Focusing on the perception and input dimensions of the Felder-Soloman learning styles comprised in 22 questions and the Crane cognitive alert styles in 9 questions, the result of study shows that the students who are using spectacles are dominated by “the visual” type of Felder-Soloman learning styles. In addition, based on the using of Kansei Engineering, this study also found that the respondents tend to interpret the rimless design of spectacles as “fragile,” “unattractive,” “old-fashion” product, while the design with thicker frame as “durable,” “attractive,” cool,” “ergonomic” product. In this study, there are also the significant correlations proved against the preferences of product design based on quality affective (Kansei Engineering using learning styles and cognitive alert styles.

  18. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  19. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealor, Andy D; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  20. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  1. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  2. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  3. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  4. Students' Perceptions of Parental Bonding Styles and Their Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyojung; Lee, Jayoung; Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how parental bonding style affects academic burnout in Korean adolescents. Participants were 447 middle school students, who completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. MANCOVA results confirmed that adolescents reporting the optimal bonding parental style, for both mother and…

  5. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  6. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  7. Explanatory style and gambling: how pessimists respond to losing wagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, G D; Peterson, C

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three patrons of a harness racing track completed two measures of explanatory style prior to an afternoon's races. One measure assessed general explanatory style, using bad events taken from the Attributional Style Questionnaire, and the other measure assessed betting-specific explanatory style, using bad events specific to harness race betting. Subjects then kept a diary during the first eight races. After each race, they reported how much they had bet, whether they had won or lost, the major cause of the outcome, their confidence about winning future bets, and whether they were ruminating about past or future races. Explanatory style assessed in both ways had similar correlates. Explanatory style predicted the specific attributions made by subjects for losses. Pessimistic explanatory style (internal + stable + global attributions) predicted rumination following a lost bet, but it was unrelated to expressed confidence. Rumination after a loss was in turn associated with larger wagers on subsequent races and a tendency toward less successful wagers. These results clarify one way in which pessimistic explanatory style results in helplessness, and suggest a path by which problematic gambling may develop. PMID:2076090

  8. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.

  9. Leadership Styles and Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Case from the Private Banking Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Ali Javed; Asad Abbas Jaffari; Muzahir Rahim

    2014-01-01

    This research study shows the relationship of leadership styles with the job satisfaction of employees working in the private banking sector of Pakistan and also depicts which leadership style leaders have adopted most. A questionnaire with five points likert scale was used to collect data on different dimensions of leadership styles and employees? job satisfaction from 230 participants working in five selected private banks of four districts of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The results s...

  10. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...

  11. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, A.I.; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis r...

  12. Good partner, good parent: Caregiving mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style

    OpenAIRE

    Millings, A; Walsh, J.; Hepper, E.; O'Brien, M.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving respon...

  13. Leadership styles used by senior medical leaders : patterns, influences and implications for leadership development

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Ann L N; Johnson, David; Kilner, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinician leadership is important in healthcare delivery and service development. The use of different leadership styles in different contexts can influence individual and organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine the predominant leadership styles used by medical leaders and factors influencing leadership style use. Design: A mixed methods approach was used, combining a questionnaire distributed electronically to 224 medical leaders in acute hospita...

  14. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wichuda Jiraporncharoen; Chaisiri Angkurawaranon; Manoch Chockjamsai; Athavudh Deesomchok; Juntima Euathrongchit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as...

  15. EFFECT OF LEARNING STYLES ON LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Thakkar

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the relationship between different learning styles and learning achievements of students studying at secondary schools. To investigate the relationship two types of data were collected. Firstly information about students learning styles were collected by using learning style questionnaire, secondly information about students’ achievement was taken from the test conducted. The population of the study was students studying in class 9th of 10 defer...

  16. Assessment of Learning Style in a Sample of Saudi Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    BuAli, Waleed Hamad Al; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Muhaidab, Nouria Saab Al

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Background By knowing the different students’ learning styles, teachers can plan their instruction carefully in ways that are capitalized on student preferences. The current research is done to determine specific learning styles of students. Method This cross sectional study was conducted in Al Ahsa College of Medicine from 2011 to 2012. A sample of 518 students completed a questionnaire based on Kolb inventory (LSI 2) to determine their learning style. A s...

  17. Coping, Negative Cognitive Style and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Depressed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    DUNBAR, JENNIFER P.; McKee, Laura; Rakow, Aaron; Watson, Kelly H.; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Coping and negative cognitive style were studied in relation to depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression. In a sample of 165 children (ages 9–15) of depressed parents, the main and interaction effects of coping and negative cognitive style were examined in association with children’s depressive symptoms measured by parent and child report on questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Negative cognitive style was related to three types of coping (primary control, secondary control...

  18. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  19. Young Adults' Coping Style as a Predictor of Their Alcohol Use and Response to Daily Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Kim; Rivet, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective questionnaires and prospective monitoring measures were used to test the trait of coping styles of 105 college students as predictors of their weekly alcohol consumption. Individuals reporting deficits in emotion focused and avoidant coping strategies drank more often than subjects with other styles of coping. Measurement methodology…

  20. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  1. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  2. Raising Aspiration and Widening Participation: Diversity, Science and Learning Styles in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R.; Allan, R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent report by Aimhigher has suggested that an understanding of learning styles can have a positive impact in terms of widening participation. However, in recent years there has been something of a backlash, in the UK at least, against the use of learning styles questionnaires and inventories in the classroom. This article explores this issue…

  3. Parenting Styles of Mothers with Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children and Hearing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Katerina; Hadjikakou, Kika; Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Nicolaou, Nicoletta

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine whether rearing a deaf or hard-of-hearing (d/hh) child would differentiate the parenting and disciplinary preference of parents between the d/hh and the hearing child. The parenting styles of 30 hearing mothers from Cyprus were assessed using the Greek version of the Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire.…

  4. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style and Personality: Direct Influence or Mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Shikai, Noriko; Uji, Masayo; Hiramura, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Nao; Shono, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine the relationships between parenting styles and personality traits over generations, a cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted for fathers and mothers of school-age children of grades 5-9. The parenting styles measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the personality traits measured by the Temperament and…

  6. The Effects of Gender and Years of Teaching Experience on Explanatory Style of Secondary Vocational Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Woolcock-Henry, Constance

    2000-01-01

    Secondary vocational teachers in Georgia (n=219) completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Both males and females had predominantly optimistic explanatory styles. Teachers with 11-20 years of experience were more optimistic overall and regarding negative events than were those who had taught for over 20 years. (SK)

  7. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Mortazanajad; Faride mostafafi; Shahram Vahedi

    2009-01-01

    "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male) aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), ...

  8. The impact of leadership styles on organizational culture in Mapsa company

    OpenAIRE

    Dariush Gholamzadeh; Azadeh Tahvildar Khazaneh; Manijeh Salimi Nabi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of leadership styles on organizational culture by testing a hypothesized model. A quantitative survey using questionnaire was conducted among 93 employees from diverse work units of Mapsa Company in October 2012. They filled out multifactor leadership questionnaire and the Denison organizational culture survey. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that Transformational and Transactional leadership styles could positively influence on organization...

  9. The Relationship among Parenting Styles, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Taran; Siavash Kalantari; Fateme Dahaghin; Zahra Shahsavari Abhari

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship among parenting styles, self-efficacy, and achievement among students. This study used ex post facto research method. The population consisted of all high school students in Zanjan in academic year 2014-2015. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, 400 participants were selected as sample. The Scheffer’s parenting styles questionnaire and Scherrer’s self-efficacy questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed that there was ...

  10. Relationship between the learning style preferences of medical students and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Almigbal, Turky H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identi...

  11. Learning style preferences for Hong Kong GPs recruited in a distance-learning course

    OpenAIRE

    Piterman, L; Lam, TP; McCall, L; B. Klein(Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the learning style preferences of general practitioners in Hong Kong enrolled in a Diploma of Family Medicine course. Design: Participants were invited to fill in the 40-item Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire. Data on instructional preference were gathered using a 47-item structured questionnaire developed for this study. Their assessment scores were also recorded for analysis. Subjects: Students based in Hong Kong and enrolled in the distance learning Postg...

  12. Studying the Mediating Role of Social Growth in the Relationship between Learning Styles and Academic Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Roohollah Panahi; Soltan Ali Kazemi; Azarmedokht Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore the mediating role of social growth in the relationship between learning styles and academic adjustment. The statistical population included senior high school students in Eqlid County among whom 300 students were selected as the statistical sample via multi-stage cluster sampling. The required data were collected using Kolb's learning styles inventory (1985), Whiteman's social growth questionnaire and academic adjustment questionnaire (Sinha & Singh, 199...

  13. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofei Li; Lili Guan; Hui Chang; Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a...

  14. The Effects of Elementary School Principals' Leadership Styles and the Preferred Managerial Styles of Teachers on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Christopher, Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify principal leadership styles and teacher preferred principal leadership styles, as well as to examine the independent and combined effects of these variables on the TAKS Mathematics achievement scores of elementary students. School leadership affects every aspect of an institution. Studies reveal that the…

  15. Explanatory style and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  16. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. PMID:23962403

  17. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.

  18. The effects of explanatory style on concussion outcomes in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapcott, Erin J B; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Loughead, Todd M; Delaney, J Scott

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with an optimistic explanatory style have generally been linked with improved mental and physical health across a variety of chronic and serious conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of explanatory style on recovery time and number of sport-related concussions suffered in the last 12 months. University varsity athletes (n=170) suffering from at least one concussion over the last 12 months from six contact or collision team sports completed both the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Sport History Questionnaire. The results indicated that athletes with an optimistic explanatory style took longer to recover than athletes with a pessimistic or average explanatory style. More specifically, optimistic athletes who suffered a complex concussion (requiring more than 7 days to recover) took significantly longer to return to play. However, the results showed that explanatory style did not influence whether an athlete suffered subsequent concussions. Overall, the current results can be used to better understand the psychology of concussions, as well as concussion prevention efforts and management strategies. PMID:17917166

  19. Impact Of Leadership Styles On Employee Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Clinebell; Vida Škudienė; Renata Trijonyte; James Reardon

    2013-01-01

    This research study examines the relationship between transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership styles and three dimensions of organizational commitment – affective, continuance, and normative in two subsidiaries of one multinational organization. The research findings revealed that transformational leadership has the strongest impact on affective commitment, although transactional leadership also affects affective commitment. Transformational leadership also has a signi...

  20. Don't trust anyone over 30: parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed.

  1. 抑郁症患者中庸思维、反应方式和情绪的关系%Relationship between zhongyong thinking -style, response style and emotion in depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭轶; 李雪晶; 钟婵; 黄新英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨抑郁症患者中庸思维、反应方式和情绪的关系。方法运用中庸思维量表、反应方式问卷、正性负性情绪量表对300例符合ICD-10中抑郁症诊断的患者进行测评,并对三者的关系进行分析。结果沉思与负性情绪呈正相关( r =0.268,P <0.01),分心与正性情绪呈正相关( r =0.359,P <0.01),与负性情绪呈负相关( r =-0.167,P <0.05);中庸思维与分心呈正相关( r =0.242,P <0.01),与负性情绪呈负相关( r=-0.237,P<0.01)。中庸思维调节沉思和负性情绪的关系。结论中庸思维程度不会改变分心对情绪的影响,中庸思维程度越低沉思对负性情绪的影响越大。%Objective To explore the relationship between zhongyong thinking -style ,response style and emotion in depression .Methods Three hundred depression patients in accord with ICD -10 diagnostic criteria were investigated with zhongyong thinking -style scale ,Response Style Questionnaire and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS ) .Results Rumination had positive correlation with negative emotion (r = 0 .268 ,P< 0 .01) .Distraction had positive correlation with positive emotion (r = 0 .359 ,P < 0 .01) and negative correlation with negative emotion (r = - 0 .167 ,P < 0 .05) . Zhongyong thinking -style had positive correlation with distraction (r = 0 .242 ,P< 0 .01) and negative correlation with negative emotion (r = -0 .237 ,P < 0 .01) .Zhongyong thinking -style moderated the relationship between rumination and negative emotion .Conclusions The level of zhongyong thinking -style won't change the influence of distractions on mood .With lower zhongyong thinking -style ,the in‐fluence of rumination on negative emotion will be greater .

  2. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  3. [Empowering leadership style among health care workers. A study on the nurse manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, A; Manganelli Rattazzi, A M; Muraro, M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to supply a contribution to the validity analysis of the Empowering Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ) in the Italian context. The ELQ has been developed in order to measure empowering leadership style in organizational contexts and, in the present work, has been administered to a group of health care workers in order to evaluate the Nurse Manager's leadership style. Three hundred and eleven individuals from an important Local Health Unit of the Veneto Region participated in the study, filling out a self-administered structured questionnaires. Correlations between ELQ, task-oriented, relationship-oriented and transformational leadership stile are addressed. Moreover, the relationships between ELQ, organizational commitment, job burnout, turnover intentions and job satisfaction are analyzed. Exploratory, confirmatory, reliability analyses and path analyses techniques are applied. Results support the main results obtained by the authors of the scale. In addition, with regards to ELQ predictive validity, the selected dependent variables (turnover intentions and job satisfaction) are significantly influenced by some of the ELQ dimensions, via the mediation of affective commitment and job burnout, supporting the value of the ELQ measures in the healthcare context.

  4. Questionnaire de Schwartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los valores puede ser abordado desde múltiples perspectivas (filosófica, psicológica, sociológica, etc.. En Psicología, el análisis de las orientaciones valóricas de los individuos ha cobrado especial importancia a partir de las conceptualizaciones de Schwartz (1992, 2001 quien verificó una estructura de diez valores (Poder, Logro, Hedonismo, Estimulación, Autodirección, Universalismo, Benevolencia, Tradición, Conformidad y Seguridad, los cuales se organizan en cuatro bipolaridades (Autotrascendencia, Autopromoción, Conservación y Apertura al cambio en más de 60 países, dando soporte empírico a la clasificación de los valores humanos. Este estudio tiene como objetivos: (a adaptar y validar el Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ de Schwartz (1992, 2001 y (b verificar si existen diferencias individuales según dos contextos objeto de estudio (civil y militar y según sexo y edad. Se recogieron datos de una población argentina (N = 692 en tres contextos diferentes: (a población civil (n = 471, (b oficiales militares (n = 97 y (c cadetes (n = 124. El estudio permitió verificar parcialmente la estructura de los valores propuestos por el autor. La fiabilidad del PVQ resulta muy adecuada en los tres contextos estudiados. Asimismo se pudo verificar que los civiles están más orientados hacia el logro de objetivos personales (Autopromoción y la independencia para decir y hacer lo que uno quiere (Apertura al cambio, mientras que los militares están más orientados hacia los valores relacionados con el mantenimiento del orden social, la seguridad, la conservación de las tradiciones (Tradición y Conformidad. Por otra parte, los resultados mostraron que no existen diferencias en las orientaciones valóricas según sexo y edad.

  5. Attachment Styles as a Predictor of Relational-Self Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between attachment styles and relational self-construal. The study was carried out with 376 students (223 male, 153 female) enrolled in different faculties of Bayburt University. The data was collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal…

  6. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  7. Parenting Styles and Mental Health of Arab Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…

  8. Faculty Member Perceptions of Academic Leadership Styles at Private Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Lori Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…

  9. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.

  10. Good partner, good parent: responsiveness mediates the link between romantic attachment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory. PMID:23220764

  11. Critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie

    2008-09-01

    Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles. PMID:18786058

  12. The Influences of Cognitive Styles on Individual Learning and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Both individual learning (IL) and collaborative learning (CL) provide students with different benefits. However, previous research indicates that cognitive styles affect students' learning preferences. Thus, it is necessary to examine how cognitive styles influence students' reactions to IL and CL. Among various cognitive styles, Pask's…

  13. An Examination of Learning Style Preferences among Egyptian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Dahawy, Bayoumi; Wang, Chih-husan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine teacher students' learning style preferences and to examine the extent gender, seniority and academic major affect the students' preferences. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  15. Investigating the influence of attachment styles on anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Erozkan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine if there are significant relationships between anxiety sensitivity and attachment styles and if attachment styles predict anxiety sensitivity. Descriptive method was used in this study. The study group is composed by 781 (379 females; 402 males students studying in different departments of the Faculties of Education and Technical Education, and department of physical education and sports teaching of School of Physical Education and Sports at Mugla University. The data were collected using the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-R. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was employed. Attachment styles were found to be significantly correlated to anxiety sensitivity. A significant effect of attachment styles, on anxiety sensitivity was detected.

  16. Explanatory style and Immunoglobulin A (IgA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, F X; Charnetski, C J

    2000-01-01

    The construct of explanatory style has been related to numerous aspects of human psychology, including health. Our research has focused on the effects of various psychological variables on the immune system, in particular Immunoglobulin A (IgA). We had participants fill out the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the predominant measure of explanatory style, and assayed saliva samples for secretory IgA. No relationship was observed between overall ASQ score and IgA, or composite optimism score and IgA. However, we observed significant negative correlations between both the composite pessimism score and IgA, as well as the hopelessness score and IgA. Pessimistic explanatory style may therefore be related to immune system deficits and poor health. PMID:11330488

  17. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  18. The impact of leadership styles on organizational culture in Mapsa company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Gholamzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of leadership styles on organizational culture by testing a hypothesized model. A quantitative survey using questionnaire was conducted among 93 employees from diverse work units of Mapsa Company in October 2012. They filled out multifactor leadership questionnaire and the Denison organizational culture survey. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM showed that Transformational and Transactional leadership styles could positively influence on organizational culture. Laissez-fair leadership has a negative effect on organizational culture. In conclusion, transformational leadership style was recommended to balance all four traits of Denison’s organizational culture.

  19. Learning Style and Problem Solving in Technology Education(I)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Asakawa, Masaki; Tsuzuki, Chie

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines the situation on fostering problem solving ability to clarify how students' learning styles affect it in Technology Education. Leaning styles are classified into three categories: "Versatile and Deep Holist Type", "Deep Serialist Type", and "Surface Type". Problem solving abilities are also classified into three structures: "Thinking Ability", "Affective Domain", and "Skills". As a result, characteristic tendency is found regarding the relation between students' lea...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Learning Styles of Students of USA and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Quamrul H. Mazumder

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare and evaluate the different learning styles of students in Bangladesh and the United States. The objective was to identify the similarities and differences among individual student learning styles using the Fielder-Silverman model and an index of learning styles, which was compiled using student response data from two universities in Bangladesh and one American university. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the factors affecting learning style, such...

  1. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-08-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.

  2. Assessing Empathy: A Slumdog Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Chapelle Wojciehowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

     

    style="font-size: small;">Abstract (E: style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Applying recent theories of embodied cognition to Danny Boyle’s 2008 film style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Slumdog Millionairestyle="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">, this essay contrasts Vittorio Gallese’s notion of the "shared manifold" of human experience to earlier models of identification drawn from Freudian psychology and Alvin Goldman’s simulationist theory of mind, and also proposes a fourth notion of empathy: "getting under the skin." Focusing on style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Slumdogstyle="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">’s "blue boy" scene, which evoked strikingly different reactions from viewers around the world, this essay argues that viewer identification and empathy, while possibly universal phenomena, are simultaneously subject to cultural and historical constraints. Creating emotional bonds between viewers and filmic protagonists thus remains a complicated challenge for filmmakers aiming to reach a global audience.

    style="font-size: small;">

    Abstract (F:

     

    style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">style="font-family: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small

  3. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  4. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices. PMID:12432698

  5. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  6. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  7. The style of group working and its influence on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luiz Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study aims to evaluate the influence of the style of group working in the teams’ performance in a midsize services company in Parana State. For this purpose an exploratory interview was originally performed. Then the questionnaires were applied: Working Group Style, proposed by Parker (1994 and Evaluation of a Success Team, proposed by Chang (1999. Besides the questionnaires, non-participant observations were made that intended to register items which interest the research objectives. Finally, the data analysis was carried out, making intersection with the interviews and the non-participant observations. The results identified some influences of the group working styles in the performance of teams. The different behaviors determined the degree of influence which help or not the performance of teams in this study. Two result matrices were found. The first with a relatively uniform distribution of styles, but presenting lower performance; the second showed a predominant contributor style and a higher performance of teams.

  8. Leadership Styles and Management Skills of Learning Assistance/Developmental Education Program Directors/Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Marie-Elaine Burns

    Leadership styles and management skills needed by directors and coordinators of learning assistance and developmental education were assessed. Based on a literature review, a questionnaire was constructed and then validated by a panel of experts in the field. The questionnaire was sent to 45 selected learning assistance/developmental education…

  9. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  10. 父母教养方式对学前儿童行为问题的影响%How parental rearing styles affect behavior problems of preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕黎

    2015-01-01

    We did this research to prevent those behavior problems of preschool children and provide suggestions and useful measures. Methods: 182 preschool children of 3-6 years old were investigated with PSQ scales and the scales of Parental rearing styles. T-test, X2-test and product-moment coefficient of correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: The total detection rate of psychological behavior problems of 182 preschool children was 13.1%.And detection rate of psychological behavior problems was 12.5% in boys and 14.2% in girls, and there is no significant difference in them(p>0.05). The Parental rearing styles of those children who have behavior problems showed a significant difference compared with normal children (p0.05)。问题组与正常组儿童家庭教养方式差异显著(p<0.05)。结论:父母亲的养育方式与学前儿童多种行为问题密切相关。

  11. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598

  12. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  13. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  14. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  15. CSS - Cascading Style Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Curso "CSS - Cascading Style Sheets" sobre programación web con CSS para el "Máster doble competencia en ciencias informáticas y ciencias sociales" ("Master double competence in computer science and social science"). Proyecto TEMPUS JEP – 26235-2005

  16. Teaching Styles and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Using 24 college and university teachers, this study investigated the effect of teaching styles on adult student learning and analyzed the results of a factor breakdown, interactions between teacher behavior and class and student characteristics, and profiles of teacher effectiveness. Gains in factual information were positively related to teacher…

  17. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  18. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  19. Style over Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Scoring SAT-style exam essays, John S. O'Connor is struck by the disconnection between the subject matter and students' personal lives. Further, O'Connor notes that such tests draw an alarming distinction between writing and "content"--as if the two are unrelated. O'Connor calls for a broader understanding of literacy, and he warns of dire…

  20. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  1. Gender Difference in Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳

    2008-01-01

    This article mainly focused on learning styles and its relative influence on language learning proficiency,as well as gender difference in terms of learning style.Through a litemture review,I found many learning style models.Also,there were many variations among the students in use of these models.The acquaintances of learning style may benefit students and language instructors to adapt teaching and learning to individual differences among students.This can enhance education effectiveness.

  2. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  3. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cumming; G. Fleming; A. Schwienbacher

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  4. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  5. The Myth of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Cedar; Willingham, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. In this article, the authors begin by defining "learning styles"; then they address the claims made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what the authors consider the valid claims of learning-styles theorists. But in separating the wheat from the…

  6. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  7. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  8. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  9. Teaching and Learning Styles in Higher Education: Analysis of Student Teachers’ Preferences in an English Pedagogy Program at Three Chilean Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rojas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the findings of a study conducted in three Chilean universities in 2014. It aims to analyze EFL student teachers’ preferences regarding their teaching and learning styles. 279 participants answered the teaching style inventory and 238 took the learning style questionnaire. These participants are first, third and fifth year student-teachers. This study uses Grasha and Riechman’s model to study teaching and learning styles. These authors propose a classification, cluster grouping and integrated clustering (Lewis, 2014; Grasha y Riechmann, 1975. The findings reveal that all student teachers favor the Facilitator teaching style and the Collaborative learning style.

  10. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  11. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  12. Role of Learning Styles in the Quality of Learning at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid FAROOQ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive, co-relational investigation was to identify the preferred learning styles and their role in quality of performance at secondary, intermediary and university level for language students from six different fields. The association and differences in students’ learning styles related to their demographics were also explored. Data analysis showed that the majority of the students from all the fields in sample showed the diverging style and the accommodating style as their most preferred learning styles. The learner’s gender and nature of house affected the preference for learning styles. Other variables showed no association with learning styles. The learning styles of language students have no relationship with the grades obtained in their previous exams. This study leads to the fact that it should be replicated on a large sample of language learners and comparison should also be made with their current quality of learning/academic performance.

  13. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  14. LEARNING STYLES ADOPTED BY MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay Shah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning results in gain of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some like to learn by seeing, some by hearing and some by demonstration. Learning style influences the retention of information and depth of comprehension. Understanding their preferred learning styles as visual, auditory, read-write or kinesthetic learners will help improve the teaching methods adopted. Role of the educator necessitates making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and incorporating demonstrated principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide student oriented education, producing efficient doctors. A cross-sectional study among 92 medical students of the Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, conducted in 2009. VARK questionnaire was used to access their learning preference. Preference for different learning styles were, visual (V 1.08%, auditory (A 20.65%, reading/writing (R 2.17% and kinesthetic (K 17.39%. 41.30% of the total 92 students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Of the 92 students who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some preferred two modes (bimodal, 31.52%, some preferred three modes (tri-modal, 27.13%, and only one student preferred quadri-modal.

  15. Learning Styles in Foreign Language Teaching/Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Simonova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the teaching and learning process based on the detected student´s learning style. The teaching process is built on the needs analysis questionnaire which defines students´ individual learning styles and summarizes their experience in previous foreign language learning. These results are consequently reflected in the teaching methods and approaches to each student. The paper presents results of students´ opinions reflected in proposals of methods and activities which support the efficiency of the teaching process and students´ motivation towards learning.

  16. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Zarei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present research was to compare the personality characteristics and coping styles of addicted adolescents with normal adolescent. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups (normal adolescent=50 and addicted adolescent=50 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Two instruments included of NEO-FFI personality questionnaire and coping style inventory were administered, then data were analyzed by using of multivariate analysis of variance. Findings: The result revealed that there was significant difference between both group in personality characteristics and coping styles. Neuroticism and emotional focused coping styles in addicted adolescent‌s were higher than normal counterparts, and on agreeableness, conscientiousness and problem solving style were lower than them. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that training of efficient problem solving styles to people in order to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  17. Perceptions of parenting styles in South Africa: The effects of gender and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Vanessa Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style is an area of research which is emerging in South Africa. Previous research notes significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of parenting. In a country as diverse as South Africa, which has also evolved from an era of separatism and segregation, comparing parenting styles across ethnic groups is an interesting topic. This is a comparative study using a cross-sectional design. The Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The final sample consisted of 746 participants with a mean age of 20.48 (SD = 1.96 years; 36% males and 64% females. The results found maternal authoritative parenting style to be the most prevalent across and within groups, but there were also significant differences between and within groups. Fathers’ parenting style was perceived as significantly different in three ethnic groups, but mothers’ parenting styles were not perceived as significantly different.

  18. The Relationship between leadership styles of coaches with motivational climate of Iranian Elite Male Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis Mohammadzade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles of coaches with motivational climate of Iranian elite male Volleyball players. It was survey research and field study. Statistical population was all players in men's volleyball league in Iran. According to the Morgan sampling table, 150 samples were investigated. To collect information, we applied motivational climate Questionnaire (PMCSQ and leadership styles in sports (LSS.The data analysis methods were descriptive statistics, and multivariate regression was used to investigate the relationship between variables. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between the leadership styles of coaches and motivational climate (p<0.05 There was a significant relationship between the authoritative style of leadership styles with positive feedback and motivational climate. Overall, a leadership style of coaches is most important predictive factor of the motivational climate.

  19. Explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, E M; Nagata, D K; Peterson, C

    1997-08-01

    Fifty-nine Asian American and 40 European American college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem. In both groups, a global explanatory style correlated with low self-esteem, but only among European Americans was an internal style associated with low self-esteem. The two groups differed in reported styles of family expressiveness, with Asian Americans indicating more emotional restraint. The participants who reported more negative submissiveness had a more global explanatory style, whereas those who reported more positive dominance had a less global explanatory style. An additional measure developed to assess attribution to collectivities did not distinguish the two groups. Results were discussed in terms of the cross-cultural generality of the learned helplessness reformulation. PMID:9248358

  20. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  1. The subjective dimension of decision making in sport development and validity of the cetd questionnaire of sport decision style Dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte: desarrollo y validación del cuestionario cetd de estilo de decision en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Graupera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the main objectives of sport psychological research is knowing how sportsmen and women understand, perceive, interpret and decide in sport situations. This study presents the results of the development and validation of a questionnaire for analysing the personal dimension of decision making in sport. This instrument permits to explore different aspects of this process such as commitment with the decision training, perceived decisional competence and anxiety with decisional situations. Its psychometric properties permits to say that is an adequate tool for sport psychologists and coaches in order to improve psychological process implied in sport decisions.
    KEY WORDS: Decision making, questionnaire, psychological processes, assessment

     

    Una de los retos de la investigación sobre los procesos psicológicos en el ámbito deportivo es acercarse a la comprensión de lo que percibe, interpreta y decide el deportista ante las situaciones que su deporte le presenta. En el presente estudio se presenta el desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para analizar la dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte. Este instrumento permite explorar aspectos relacionados con la toma de decisiones tales como el compromiso al decidir, la competencia decisional percibida así como la ansiedad y el agobio al decidir.
    Sus características psicométricas permite que se puede considerar adecuados para poder ser empleado por los profesionales del Deporte y la Psicología con intenciones de mejorar los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales de los deportistas participantes en deportes en los que la decisión es fundamental.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Toma de decisiones, Cuestionario, procesos psicológicos, evaluación

  2. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  3. Trust in the medical profession and patient attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust.

  4. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  5. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  6. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves. PMID:26264632

  7. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  8. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  9. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...

  10. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Kadir PALA; ERDEM, MUKADDES

    2011-01-01

    This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relati...

  11. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  12. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  13. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  14. Teachers leadership style and motivating of students

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnat, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    During their work teachers are facing different problems – from educational, disciplinary to motivational ones. Therefore it is important to know the methods or ways to alleviate these problems or even to solve them. All teachers wish to have successful students and therefore it is very important to know how to help students and guide them with the right or the most appropriate methods on their way to knowledge. Because the classroom management style is significantly affecting the motivation ...

  15. Emotional vulnerability and coping styles for resolving decisional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Omari-Asor, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This investigation supplements the study by D. Bouckenooghe, K. Vanderheyden, S. Mestdagh, and S. van Laethem (2007) on the role of cognitive dispositions in coping patterns for resolving decisional conflict. Literature suggests emotional vulnerabilities may significantly affect decision making. Thus, the present authors assessed the role of trait anxiety and depression in decision coping styles as specified by I. L. Janis and L. Mann's (1977) conflict-theory model. The participants--100 young adults--completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (J. A. Taylor, 1953), Beck's Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. M. Garbin, 1988), and the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (L. Mann et al., 1998), which measures 4 coping strategies: vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, and hypervigilance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, revealed trait anxiety and depression as significant predictors of procrastination and hypervigilance. Depression failed to predict buck-passing but functioned as an important moderator variable whereby trait anxiety better predicted hypervigilance in nondepressed participants. Consistent with past research, emotional dispositions failed to predict vigilance. Overall, these findings implicate emotional vulnerabilities in the quality of decision making but raise important questions about their unique and conditional effects. PMID:21834323

  16. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample of Spanish women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebolla, A.; Barrada, J.R.; Strien, T. van; Oliver, E.; Baños, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure

  17. Links between Perceived Leadership Styles and Self-reported Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.

  18. The Relationships Among Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Business Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wen Yang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation at small and medium enterprises as well as their effects on business performance. This study examines how leadership style can affect the development and implementation of entrepreneurial orientation in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan. It is also designed to examine the effects of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Significant conclusions from this study are that different leadership styles may affect business performance; that transformational leadership is significantly more correlated to the business performance than is transactional leadership and passive-avoidant leadership; that entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to performance; and that transformational leadership with higher entrepreneurial orientation can contribute to higher business performance.

  19. Principalship in an Indonesian School Context: Can Principal Decision-Making Styles Significantly Predict Teacher Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between teacher-perceived principal decision-making styles and teacher job satisfaction in schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia. We use the General Decision-making Style instrument, the Job Satisfaction Survey and a demographic questionnaire developed for this study. Our findings show that: 12 out of the 15…

  20. Maternal Emotional Styles and Child Social Adjustment: Assessment, Correlates, Outcomes and Goodness of Fit in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and…

  1. Perception of Hiniku and Oseji: How Hyperbole and Orthographically Deviant Styles Influence Irony-Related Perceptions in the Japanese Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2006-01-01

    Two questionnaire experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of 2 styles (hyperbole and orthographically deviant writing style) on the perception of hiniku, 'quasi-irony', and oseji, 'quasi-flattery', in the Japanese language. In each experiment, stories were constructed in which a speaker made a remark evaluating the addressee's…

  2. Developmental Changes in Conflict Resolution Styles in Parent-Adolescent Relationships: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…

  3. Parenting Styles and Children's Social Skills as Perceived by Jordanian Mothers of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…

  4. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ihmels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10 in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ, a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29 but negatively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22 and permissive scale (r = −0.20. Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2 had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1 or Authoritarian

  5. Parenting styles and home obesogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after

  6. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22) and permissive scale (r = −0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3

  7. Parenting styles and home obesogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after

  8. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  9. STUDY OF LEARNING STYLES AND THEIR ROLES IN THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF PAYAME NOOR UNIVERSITY (PNU)

    OpenAIRE

    GHADERI, Esmaeil; ALIAPOUR, Ahmad; Mahdi Moeni KIA

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a research done to study learning styles and their roles in the academic achievement of the students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Ardebli center, Iran. 184 students (90 male and 94 female students) in the fourth semester are chosen as our sample using Cocran's formula and random sampling. The questionnaire memletics is used to collect data about learning styles. Reliability of this questionnaire is calculated as a=0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. Total average of student...

  10. An Empirical Study on Learning Styles of Ethnic Minorities’Third Lan-guage Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liu

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on learners’individual differences from cognitive and affective perspectives on Second Language Acquisition, while relatively little research has been conducted to survey the role of learning styles empirically. As for third language learners’learning styles, fewer researchers have examined the differences. Using the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) developed by Felder and Soloman, this paper investigates the general distribution of different learning styles among vari-ous ethnic minorities’third language learners, and explores the correlation between learning styles and gender, nationalities. In the end,it presents several pedagogical suggestions, especially for third language learning and teaching.

  11. The association between dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphisms and second language learning style and behavioral variability in undergraduate students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras Atabay, Meltem; Safi Oz, Zehra; Kurtman, Elvan

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) encodes a receptor for dopamine, a chemical messenger used in the brain. One variant of the DRD4 gene, the 7R allele, is believed to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between repeat polymorphisms in dopamine DRD4 and second language learning styles such as visual (seeing), tactile (touching), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving) and group/individual learning styles, as well as the relationships among DRD4 gene polymorphisms and ADHD in undergraduate students. A total of 227 students between the ages of 17-21 years were evaluated using the Wender Utah rating scale and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Additionally, Reid's perceptual learning style questionnaire for second language learning style was applied. In addition, these students were evaluated for social distress factors using the list of Threatening Events (TLE); having had no TLE, having had just one TLE or having had two or more TLEs within the previous 6 months before the interview. For DRD4 gene polymorphisms, DNA was extracted from whole blood using the standard phenol/chloroform method and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Second language learners with the DRD4.7+ repeats showed kinaesthetic and auditory learning styles, while students with DRD4.7-repeats showed visual, tactile and group learning, and also preferred the more visual learning styles [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrated that the DRD4 polymorphism significantly affected the risk effect conferred by an increasing level of exposure to TLE.

  12. A case study to determine stress sources affecting the academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Job stress affects academicians in terms of performance, scientific production, job satisfaction and health. This effect may differ according to the academicians in the structure of the organization. It is possible to mention about positive stress if organization structure positively affects academician, but it is called negative stress if it negatively affects. Lack of fee and powers, injustice employee evaluation, not getting in return for work are important stress sources. In this study, some of the factors that affect stress levels (individual, organizational and physical environmental factors of academicians (professors, associate professors and assistant professors who work in Karadeniz Technical University are investigated by questionnaire method. The survey data is evaluated with Structural Equation Model (SEM which is prepared in statistical package programs SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 16.0 and the results are revealed. As a result, factors effecting academic members' stress levels are determined as individual and organizational factors (p<0,1. Thus, it is concluded that physical environmental factors such as noise, lightening and crowded place do not cause tension on academician

  13. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  14. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista Salman Guraya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students′ learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1 st -5 th year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist and 40 items. Results: Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%. No single learning style predominated; 96 (25% reflectors, 78 (20% theorists, 68 (17% pragmatists, and 37 (9% activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7% students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071 indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each, depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The students in the study preferred diverse learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students′ learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  16. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  17. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  18. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  19. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  20. Generational Differences Impact On Leadership Style And Organizational Success

    OpenAIRE

    Mecca M. Salahuddin

    2011-01-01

    Many factors can affect organizational success. One factor that is important to organizational success is effective leadership.  Research has shown there are differences in leadership style among generations.  A cohort- group whose length approximates the span of life and boundaries and fixed by peer personality defines a generation.  The purpose of this paper is to review the current leadership styles and generational differences literature.  The paper examines whether th...

  1. THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    OMER TURUNC; MAZLUM CELIK; IBRAHIM SANI MERT

    2013-01-01

    Ethical behaviour is one of the dynamics of modern business life of which importance have been increasing. Many factors affect to make the employees behave ethically. Being one of these factors, leader's behaviour is a premise of ethical behaviour as it is of many organizational behaviors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and contingent reward leadership styles, two important leadership styles, on the employees' ethical behaviour. An...

  2. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  3. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  4. Principals’ Leadership Styles and Teachers’ Job Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Adeyemi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 281 secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 240 senior secondary schools was taken and selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Out of the 7460 teachers (including principals in the schools, a sample of 2040 teachers was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. This sample was made up of 240 principals and 1800 teachers. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. These were the principals’ leadership style questionnaire and the teachers’ job performance questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, correlation matrix and the t-test. It was found that the democratic leadership style was the most commonly used leadership style among principals of senior secondary schools in the State. Teachers’ job performance was also found to be at a moderate level in the schools. Teachers’ job performance was found to be better in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style than in schools having principals using democratic or laissez-faire leadership styles. It was recommended that school principals should imbibe a mixture of autocratic and democratic styles of leadership in their school administration in order to enhance better job performance among teachers. The use of the laissez-faire leadership style should be discouraged among school principals, as it could not bring a better job performance among teachers.

  5. MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT, SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Camargo Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relationship among high school students’ mathematics achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension is examined. Subjects were 128 tenth graders of a public school at Bogotá, Colombia. The MSLQ Questionnaire was used to assess students’ level of self-regulation and the EFT test was used to measure students’ field dependence-independence cognitive style. Mathematics achievement was indicated by the grades obtained by the students during the academic year. Results show that self-regulated learning and cognitive style are related to Math achievement, each one separately. Additionally, complex relations between self-regulation and field dependence-independence were found.

  6. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  7. Does Multiple Leadership Styles Mediated by Job Satisfaction Influence Better Business Performance? Perception of MNC Employees in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader Ali Noor Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing leaders today is the need to develop new business models that stress on effective leadership styles, employee job satisfaction and sustainability without sacrificing the financial and non-financial performance. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership styles and business performance of multinational companies operating in Malaysia mediated by job satisfaction. A quantitative study, using self-administered structured questionnaire, are issued using purposive sampling via direct distribution to 150 employees working in MNC. Analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS and Partial Least Square (PLS indicated that spiritual leadership style has the highest significant influence on job satisfaction, followed by authentic leadership style, transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style. In addition, job satisfaction has a mediating effect on the relationship between each of the leadership styles, namely, transactional, transformational, authentic, and spiritual on business performance.

  8. Impact Of Leadership Styles On Employee Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Clinebell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the relationship between transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership styles and three dimensions of organizational commitment – affective, continuance, and normative in two subsidiaries of one multinational organization. The research findings revealed that transformational leadership has the strongest impact on affective commitment, although transactional leadership also affects affective commitment. Transformational leadership also has a significant positive affect on normative commitment. Transactional leadership has a significant positive affect on continuance commitment and positive/avoidant leadership has a significant negative affect on affective commitment.

  9. The effect of Using Mind Mapping and Learning Styles to Geography Learning outcomes of Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Purwoko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Penggunaan Peta Pikiran dan Gaya Belajar terhadap Hasil Belajar Geografi Siswa SMP Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of the use of mind maps, learning styles and inter-action using a mind map learning style on geography learning outcomes. This study was a quasi-experimental study, with a 2 x 3 factorial design study subject consisted of two classes of class VII G as experimental class and class VII F as a control class. Variables consisted of: (1 the dependent variable is the student learning outcomes; (2 the independent variable is the use of mind maps; and (3 is the moderator variable learning styles. Geography learning outcomes were measured using an objective test, whereas learning styles with questionnaires. Measurement data are then analyzed using ANOVA two paths with SPSS v.7. Results of data analysis using ANOVA two path showed that: (1 the use of mind maps significantly effect on learning outcomes geography; (2 learning style does not significantly affect the results of learning geography; and (3 there is no interaction between the use of mind maps and learning style on learning outcomes. Key Words: mind maps, learning styles, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan peta pikiran, gaya belajar dan interaksi penggunaan peta pikiran dengan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar geografi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu, dengan desain faktorial 2 x 3. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari dua kelas yaitu kelas VII G sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VII F sebagai kelas kontrol. Variabel penelitian terdiri dari: (1 variabel terikat adalah hasil belajar siswa; (2 variabel bebas adalah pengguna-an peta pikiran; dan (3 variabel moderator adalah gaya belajar. Hasil belajar geografi diukur menggunakan tes objektif, sedangkan gaya belajar dengan angket. Data hasil pengukuran dianalisis menggunakan anova dua jalur dengan bantuan SPSS v.7. Hasil analisis data

  10. Insomnia and styles of parental authority in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, G S

    1994-06-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that styles of parental authority are related to insomnia in college students. To do this, I asked a large group of university students (N = 757) to respond to a questionnaire that included the items of Buri's Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Coren Insomnia Scale. Analysis suggested that more strict and uncompromising discipline engaged in by authoritarian parents was associated with higher insomnia in young adults, while the firm though flexible and warm discipline associated with the authoritative parents was associated with less insomnia. Further, as fathers' permissiveness increased, insomnia decreased, while mothers' permissiveness seemed to be unrelated to insomnia.

  11. Neuropsychiatric questionnaires in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, C; Palagini, L; Moraes-Fontes, M F; Carli, L; Mauri, M; Bombardieri, S; Mosca, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be affected by a multitude of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms with a wide range of prevalence and severity. Irrespectively from attribution to SLE or other causes, neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms strongly impact short-term and long-term outcomes, thus NP evaluation during routine clinical practice in SLE should be undertaken regularly. The assessment of NP involvement in SLE patients is challenging and the available diagnostic tools fail to guarantee optimal diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity to changes as well as feasibility in routine clinical care. Standardised questionnaires (both physician-administered and self-reported) can offer valuable help to the treating physician to capture all possible NP syndromes; few SLE-specific NP questionnaire have been developed but validation in large cohort or cross-cultural adaptations are still pending. On the other hand, general instruments have been largely applied to SLE patients. Both kinds of questionnaires can address all possible NP manifestations either globally or, more frequently, focus on specific NP symptoms. These latter have been mainly used in SLE to detect and classify mild and subtle symptoms, more likely to be overlooked during routine clinical assessment such as headache, cognitive impairment and psychiatric manifestations. In conclusion, this literature review highlights a clear case for validation studies in this area and the wider implementation of questionnaires to assess NP involvement is still warranted. The broader use of such instruments could have important consequences; first of all, by standardising symptom assessment, a better definition of the prevalence of NP manifestation across different centres could be achieved. Secondly, prospective studies could allow for the evaluation of clinical significance of mild symptoms and their impact on the patient's function and quality of life. PMID:25365091

  12. Parent Questionnaire on Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineland School District, NJ.

    This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Thirty seven questions are listed, covering such factors as family background, language usage at home, and aspirations for the education of the children. Techniques for administering the…

  13. Questionnaire Research in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukiko

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the survey as a research method based on three questionnaire surveys developed and administered in educational settings: (1) a survey exploring the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women completed by 62 respondents; (2) a survey of computer-assisted instruction completed by 111…

  14. Narcotics Center Questionnaire (Spring 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 115 items (multiple choice, yes/no, agree/disagree, or completion) deal with personal and demographic data, general attitudes, attitudes toward institutions (police, American business, Army, etc.),…

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  16. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students’ Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692

  17. The connection between adult partner attachment and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jurič

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.

  18. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Temperament & Personality Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Spanemberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Temperament & Personality Questionnaire (T&P is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate personality styles overrepresented in patients with depression. This report briefly describes the translation and adaptation of the T&P into Brazilian Portuguese.Methods: The procedures, which included 10 steps, followed guidelines for the adaptation of self-report instruments defined by the International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation.Results: The author of the original T&P questionnaire authorized and participated in the translation conducted by the authors and independent native speakers. Evaluation of the translated questionnaire indicated that only minor adjustments were required in the Portuguese version.Conclusions: The Brazilian version of T&P, translated and adapted following a rigid standardized process, is available for use free of charge and may be especially useful in pursuing links between personality styles and depressive conditions.

  19. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  20. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    OpenAIRE

    Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik

    2015-01-01

    The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...

  1. Managerial style in the organization

    OpenAIRE

    Davidová, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the managerial style a leader applies by managing. The aim of this thesis is to determine the managerial style asserted by leading managers of an engineering oraganization, assessment of satisfaction of their subordinates with this style of management, compared with other managers surveyed and drafting of measures to increase employee satisfaction with the manager and the company itself. Theoretical section summarizes the basic knowledge of the issue, practical part analy...

  2. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  3. Characterization of leadership styles by analyzing social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saravia Vergara, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The study presents an analysis of networks to characterize the leadership styles in an institution volunteer, complementary or alternative to classic questionnaires to measure leadership. The study raises test questions to identify friendly relations and prominent leaders in the leadership dimensions of transformational, transactional and passive / avoidant and analyzes, for each of them, the metrics of the network structure as a whole and the role each individual actor. The study exploratory...

  4. Indonesian leadership styles: a mixed-methods approach

    OpenAIRE

    Setiadi, Bernadette; Suryani, Angela; Van de Vijver, Alphonsius Josephus Rachel (Fons); Poortinga, Ype

    2012-01-01

    Indonesian leadership characteristics were examined in three studies, using mixed methods. In the first, qualitative study 127 indigenous characteristics of Indonesian leadership were identified from interviews and focus group discussions with Indonesian managers and staff. In the second study, a questionnaire based on the characteristics found in the first study was administered to Indonesian managers to identify Indonesian leadership styles. Using factor analysis, two highly correlated dime...

  5. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. PMID:25410534

  6. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children.

  7. A Study on Relationship Between Perceptual Learning Styles and Reading Strategies of English Learners in Vocational Colleges%高职英语学习者感知学习风格与阅读策略的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the perceptual learning style preferences and reading strategies of 188 non-English majors from vocational college with the questionnaire of perceptual learning style preferences adapted from PLSP(Joy Reid 1984) and reading strategies questionnaires adapted from SILL(Oxford 1990).Results show that individual and kinesthetic or tactile styles are their major perceptual learning styles while group style is the minor one;strategies of compensation,cognitive and memory are the most frequently used reading strategies while metacognitive and social strategies are the least used.The results suggest that there are significant correlations between perceptual learning styles and reading strategies,and that each style has corresponding strategies and affects the selection and use of strategies.%文章通过Joy Reid(1984)的感知学习风格问卷(PLSP)和基于Oxford(1990)语言学习策略问卷(SILL)改编的阅读策略问卷对非英语专业188名高职英语学习者的感知学习风格和阅读策略进行调查,并分析受试群体的感知风格与阅读策略的特点及两者的相关性。研究结果显示:高职学习者最倾向使用独立和动手、体验风格而少用小组风格,最常用补偿、认知和记忆策略而少用元认知和社会策略;感知风格与阅读策略多处显著相关,每种风格都有其对应的策略,风格影响策略的选择和使用。

  8. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  9. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support. PMID:24686955

  10. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  11. An Investigation into English Perceptual Learning Styles of Rural High School Seniors%农村高三学生英语感知学习风格之调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶晶

    2011-01-01

    对农村高三学生的英语感知学习风格进行的调查结果分析显示:农村高三学生喜欢多种英语感知学习风格,最喜欢动手学习风格,最不喜欢单独学习风格;女生比男生更喜欢听觉学习和体验学习风格;英语水平对感知学习风格没有显著性影响;动手学习风格和写作技能有一定的相关性。英语教师应根据学生的感知学习风格灵活应用多种教学方法,指导学生调整和丰富多种感知学习风格以促进教与学的协调发展。%This paper makes an investigation into perceptual learning styles of rural high school seniors through a questionnaire. The results show that rural high school seniors llke various kinds of learning styles and they like tactile learning style best and individual learning least. Besides,girls prefer auditory learning and kinesthetic learning styles more than boys, students' perceptual learning styles are not significantly affected by English proficiency and tactile learning is partly correlated with the writing skill.English teachers should use diversified teaching methods according to students' perceptual learning styles and guide students to adjust and enrich perceptual learning styles so as to promote coordinated development between teaching and learning.

  12. Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the w...

  13. A Study on Clean Behavior and Life Style among High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 直子; 服部, 洋兒; 金子, 恵一; 平野, 嘉彦; 村松, 園江; 村松, 常司

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted an investigation for clean behavior and daily life style among high school students. As research subjects, 621 high school students were randomly selected, and given a questionnaire containing life style patterns, reasons for cleaning body, hygiene-related knowledge and self-esteem. As a result, in factor analysis of clean behavior, five factors, common evasion, clean custom strict enforcement, body surface clean maintenance, oral hygiene consciousness and environmental clea...

  14. Social Workers as Senior Executives: Does Academic Training Dictate Leadership Style?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Goldkind; Manoj Pardasani

    2013-01-01

    The range and patterns of leadership styles in human service organizations are important for social work educators and their students to understand if social work administrators are to compete successfully in the marketplace for executive director and other top management roles. Using a sample of executive directors of human service organizations located in a state in the Northeast section of the U.S., the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to explore their leadership style. ...

  15. The Study on the Relations among Perfectionism & Coping Style & Interpersonal Relationship of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofeng Zhang; Pingping Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The target of this thesis is to study the relations among the perfectionism, the coping style and the interpersonal relationship of university students. The main study methods are to make the use of Frost multi-dimensional perfectionism scale, coping style questionnaire and university student interpersonal relationship comprehensive diagnostic scale to measure 350 university students. The results of the study show that: (1) There is a significant negative correlation between the perfectionism...

  16. Image-Technologies in the Formation of Female Management Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar B. Valiyeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article targets to reveal attractive invariants in female management style. The author researches the styles and strategies of female management based on two main methods: а the method of lenient interview, used for specifics of female management detection and evaluation of a woman-in-chief themselves, b questionnaires of a team management and the personnel of the companies about the level of satisfaction with the management and features of the female head.

  17. Assessing the effects of leadership styles on employees’ outcomes in international luxury hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, TA; Park, S.; Cabrera, YA

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of transformational, transactional, and non-transactional leadership on hotel employees’ outcomes including extra effort, perceived efficiency, and satisfaction with managers. Employees from eleven 4-star hotels in Spain provided the collected data. A series of statistical analyses (1) identify the elements of three leadership styles using a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ-5X); (2) examine the effect of leadership styles on employees’ outcomes. The r...

  18. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all...

  19. The Relationship between Gifted Students’ Attitudes towards Science and Technology and their Learning and Motivation Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kahyaoğlu; Ata Pesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the re-lationship between gifted students’ learning and motivation styles towards science learn-ing and their attitudes towards science and technology courses. Participants included 30 gifted students who were identified by a spe-cial exam and were accepted to the Science and Art Centers for special education. In the research, Learning Style Scales, Motivation to-ward Science Learning Questionnaire and At-titude towards Science Courses Scales were used t...

  20. Investigating the Relationship between Preferred Learning Styles and the Amount of Innovation among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Malekian; Maryam Kanaany

    2013-01-01

    This survey has been prepared in order to investigate the relationship between preferred thinking styles and tendency of higher education students toward innovation. This is a descriptive- correlative survey and its population consists of 90 persons from thirteen majors of M.A in Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah branch so that it has been done via classified-random sampling method. The tools used in survey included thinking styles questionnaire by Sternberg Wagner to determine preferred th...

  1. Relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-ye Yang; Jing-jing Ye; Feng Zhou; Jue-jun Li; Qiu-yu Huang; Li-hong Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the hospital, in order to identify nursing measures. Methods: Chinese versions of the Mishel Uncertainty In Illness Scale (MUIS), Brief Profile Of Mood States (BPOMS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) were used to assess uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style, respectively, in 126 patients with TMD. Results:...

  2. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  3. Factors affecting acceptability to young cancer patients of a psychoeducational video game about cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Pamela M; Beale, Ivan L

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether an action video game about cancer would be acceptable to adolescent and young adult cancer patients as a tool for learning about cancer and self-care during treatment. Interviews about a proposed video game were conducted with 43 young cancer patients, who also completed questionnaires measuring personality and adaptive style. Data were analyzed to assess the overall acceptability of the proposed video game and to reveal any factors associated with measures of acceptability. Most participants expressed willingness to play the game and a moderate degree of interest in it. Cancer content in the game was not a deterrent for most participants. Game acceptability was not affected by personality variables or adaptive style. It is concluded that an action video game using cancer themes could be useful to nurses as a tool to improve understanding and self care of adolescent and young adult cancer patients.

  4. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  5. Leadership styles and its relationship with subordinates' self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.

  6. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  7. Revisiting a neglected construct: parenting styles in a child-feeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.

  8. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichuda Jiraporncharoen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3% participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.

  9. Learning styles of students of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Rashidi-jahan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the learning styles of students may help educational planning and improve the learning. This study aims to assess learning styles, and relevant determinants, of students who study in various disciplines of medical sciences at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 students from BUMS were selected randomly. Data were collected sing the Kolb learning style questionnaire during April/May 2012. One-way ANOVA, Student t-test, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.3±7.0, majority of them were males. The preferred learning styles were diverger (76.7%, accommodator (12.8%, assimilator (7.8% and converger (2.8% respectively. The results showed that the factors such as age, sex, marriage status, father and mother education, grade point average (GPA and academic degree could be important to determine learning style characteristics of students. The findings also indicate that the preferred learning style among the students with different GPAs or academic degrees are not different considerably. Conclusion: Regarding the most preferred leaning style by the, proper planning to address proper teaching styles according to the preferred learning styles is necessary.

  10. Consistency analysis of parenting styles in Thailand during children's first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphaibul, Rutja; Wittayasooporn, Jariya; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2012-09-01

    This descriptive study identifies and examines the consistency of parenting styles during the first year of their children's lives. The data were collected from interviewing 4088 parents or primary care takers of the 6 month old infants during the third wave of data collection of The Prospective Cohort of Thai Children project. The instrument used was the Infant Parenting Styles Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, which reflected parental responses to infant care in five different situations. After the answers were categorized into controlling, reasoning, overprotection, and neglectful parenting styles, the weighted kappa was used for the consistency analysis. The findings revealed that during the first 6 months of life, the overprotection style was the most common, followed by the reasoning style. The controlling and neglectful styles were very seldom used. The consistency of the parental styles in the same care givers using the kappa values showed that agreement between each of the styles was very low (-0.0419 to 0.0688). This suggests that parenting styles during the first year of life seem to occur in random patterns.

  11. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse;

    2013-01-01

    The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire (OM-6) is the most frequently used instrument to measure health related quality of life in children with otitis media. The main objectives of this study are 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the OM-6 into Danish, and 2) to assess important psychometric...... properties including structural validity and interpretability of the OM-6 in a Danish population of children suffering from otitis media....

  12. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  13. Correlation between Students’ Self-Efficacy and Teachers’ Educational Leadership Style in Iranian Midwifery Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Sahebzad, Elahe Sadegi; Rasoulighasemlouei, Seyedehsahel; Khavandi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy is believe in and feeling of ability to complete work. One of these factors is educational teachers’ role. This study aimed to determine relationship between teachers’ leadership style and students’ self-efficacy in midwifery students. Method: This Study is a cross sectional correlation study. Sampling was conducted in midwifery students in Bachelor Science degree in 2013. Data collection tools were multi leadership questionnaire and self-efficacy clinical performance. After explaining the goals of study, 97 students completed the questionnaire. Scoring the questionnaire was based on a Liker’s scale (0-5). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Correlation coefficient test was adopted to investigate the relationship and p value was considered 0.05. Result: Mean of self-efficacy scores were 116.12 (24.66.). In 53.3% of the cases, self-efficacy was good, in 42.2% moderate and in 4.3%, it was bad. The majority of the students (88.9%) reported that their teachers had an idealized style in leadership. About 94.6% of the students with good self- efficacy believed that their teachers’ leadership style was transformational style. There was a significant correlation between self- efficacy and leadership style (p<0.05). Conclusions: Results showed that transformational style is appropriate for midwifery teachers. PMID:26925916

  14. Occupational therapy students' learning styles and application to professional academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titiloye, Victoria Moji; Scott, Anne Hiller

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods of optimizing students' learning have been a major concern of educators over time. If occupational therapy educators know the students' learning styles at the onset of their training, teaching can be designed to enhance students' optimal learning throughout their education. This study determined learning styles of 201 junior students (age range = 18-57, mean age = 30.9), enrolled in an urban occupational therapy program from 1990 to 1999. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, a 12-item questionnaire, was administered to the students in the spring of their junior years. Their learning styles were determined using Kolb's criteria. Results yielded: variations in students' preferred learning styles in each class from year to year; higher percentage of convergers (mean = 35%), fewer divergers (mean = 18%). Overall, students were mostly convergers (mean = 35%) and assimilators (mean = 25%). Applications of the findings to teaching students are discussed. PMID:23944342

  15. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  16. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...

  17. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  18. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predi...

  19. Grades 1-12 Thai Students’ Learning Styles according to Kolb’s Model

    OpenAIRE

    Khajornsak Buaraphan

    2015-01-01

    This survey research aims to explore grades 1-12 students’ learning styles according to Kolb’s model. The data was collected from 9,600 students in 120 schools, which located in 20 provinces in six regions of Thailand. The Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ) adapted from Kolb’s model of learning styles were sent to the sample by post and 77.5% of them were returned. The respondents were 7,444 students (59.3% female, 40.7% male) aged from 7 to 19 years old. In data analysis, the respondents’ p...

  20. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

  1. Explanatory Style of Secondary Vocational Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen C.; Smith, Bettye P.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the explanatory style of secondary vocational education in Georgia (n=219) indicated that most had an optimistic explanatory style. Business teachers were most likely and agriculture teachers least likely to use this style. (JOW)

  2. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

  3. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  4. On Ernest Hemingway's "Iceberg Style"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰凤

    2009-01-01

    Hemingway is a great stylist and one of the most important writers of the 20th-century America. His influence is world-wide and his distinctive writing style---the "Iceberg Style" even caused a stylistic revolution in the field of literature all over the world.Hemingway always tries his best to avoid using kinds of ways to depict things or piling big words and gorgeous adjectives.On the contrary, he always adopts direct description and short sentences which are precise, laconic, bright and vivid.Therefore, his "Iceberg Principle" is also called "Telegraphic Style". His writing style only serves his particular characters and theme. The uniqueness of Hemingway's "Iceberg Style" will be emphasized in this paper.

  5. Typology of Family Parenting Styles and Its Influence on Male Adolescents’ Tendency to Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting styles questionnaire and investigator made questionnaire of tendency to drug were completed by selected sample. Typology of family parenting styles was extracted by combining parental and maternal parenting styles. Because of low frequency of some kind of parenting styles, only 6 parenting styles were entered in the analysis and adolescents’ anxiety and depression were compared in various styles by running of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Scheffe Follow up test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that adolescents achieve the most positive outcomes and the least tendency to drugs, when both of parents are authoritative. Also, the greatest tendency has been seen in adolescents with two indulgent parents or at least one indulgent parent. Discussion: These findings indicate the importance of parental control on adolescents' attitudes to drug.

  6. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization......Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...

  7. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  8. ANALYZING THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND HEALTHY LIFE STYLE BEHAVIORS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut DÜNDAR; Aktuğ, Zait Burak; YETİŞ, Ümit; Talha MURATHAN; Fatih MURATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Students can develop a life style that will negatively affect their health due to their leaving from the family environment they have been accustomed to, their being open to external effects and their making their own choices significantly in university years concurrent with their youth. It is also possible for the young to carry this life style into their life after their education at university. In the research, it was aimed to analyze the physical activity levels and healthy life style beh...

  9. Does a student's preference for a teacher's instructional style matter? An analysis of an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tin-chun Lin

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that a student's preference for a teacher's instructional style indirectly affects a student's grade performance positively and significantly is posed and accepted. In this analysis, one additional higher scale used to indicate student preferences for a teacher's instructional style is estimated to indirectly enhance students' grade performance by 2.302 points; a 1% increase in a student's rating of preference for a teacher's instructional style is estimated to lead to a 1.2039...

  10. Effects of Gender Differences on Leadership Styles Through the Impact on School Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Nebojsa

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of existence of differences between women and men regarding management style in the school. The aim of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are differences in the management style in the school regarding gender of the school principal. The sample included 35 randomly chosen school principals in Serbia. The research obtained results according to which the gender of the school principal does not affect his/her working style and ori...

  11. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  12. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  13. Questionnaires in dictionary use research: A reexamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The present paper re-examines the usefulness of questionnaires in dictionary use research, using Glynn Hatherall's well-known criticism of questionnaires as a starting point. It is argued here that charges directed at questionnaires apply equally easily to the alternatives suggested by Hatherall. It is claimed that some research questions require a questionnaire approach. It is also demonstrated through example that unreliability of questionnaire-based studies may well result from design fact...

  14. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.

  15. Evaluating your personal management style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D H

    1982-01-01

    Every medical group manager develops his own managerial leadership style. This style is based on personal background and education, an individual conception of what management and leadership are, and analysis and application of management theory. The author identifies many responsibilities that an administrator must assume to effectively manage--responsibilities which are closely tied to employee motivation. Motivational theories are discussed, as well as the application of techniques based on principles. The author has also distilled what he considers to be the essential qualities of a successful management style.

  16. Evaluating your personal management style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D H

    1982-01-01

    Every medical group manager develops his own managerial leadership style. This style is based on personal background and education, an individual conception of what management and leadership are, and analysis and application of management theory. The author identifies many responsibilities that an administrator must assume to effectively manage--responsibilities which are closely tied to employee motivation. Motivational theories are discussed, as well as the application of techniques based on principles. The author has also distilled what he considers to be the essential qualities of a successful management style. PMID:10261817

  17. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  18. The match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies in fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Ooijen-van der Linden, L. van; Lumley, M.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Middendorp, H. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals differ in their style of processing emotions (e.g., experiencing affects intensely or being alexithymic) and their strategy of regulating emotions (e.g., expressing or reappraising). A match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies is propo

  19. Emotional climate and feeding styles: observational analysis of dinner in low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulgent feeding styles have been associated with a higher risk for childhood overweight. The processes through which feeding styles impact child weight are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (affect, tone of voice, gest...

  20. The Accident. Parenting Styles: Avoiding the Extremes. Student Guide--Footsteps. Report Number 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sharon; And Others

    This student guide for a program on styles in parenting discusses how attitudes toward childrearing have changed over the past 50 years, how children are affected by some extreme approaches to childrearing, and how a parenting style that is neither overpermissive nor overprotective is most likely to enhance children's growth. Designed around a…