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Sample records for affective lability scale

  1. Assessment of Affect Lability: Psychometric Properties of the ALS-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardi, Anna; Imperatori, Claudio; Amati, Italia; Balsamo, Michela; Innamorati, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Affect lability, an important aspect of emotion dysregulation, characterizes several psychiatric conditions. The short Affective Lability Scales (ALS-18) measures three aspects of changeability between euthymia and affect states (Anxiety/Depression, AD; Depression/Elation, DE; and Anger, Ang). The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of an Italian version of the ALS-18 in a sample of adults recruited from the general population. The sample was composed of 494 adults (343 women and 151 men) aged 18 and higher (mean age = 31.73 years, SD = 12.6). All participants were administered a checklist assessing socio-demographic variables, the ALS-18 and measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit of the three-factor model (RMSEA = 0.061, 95% CI = 0.054/0.069; CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.055), and the presence of a higher-order general factor. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all the lower-order dimensions and the general factor (ordinal α > 0.70). The ALS-18 was significantly associated with concurrent measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. These findings indicate that the ALS-18 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect lability, although discriminant validity of subdimensions scores could be problematic.

  2. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-André Henden

    Full Text Available The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation

  4. Trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students: Identifying the roles of negative and positive affect lability in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Bold, Krysten W; Contractor, Ateka A; Sullivan, Tami P; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2018-04-01

    Trauma exposure is linked to heavy drinking and drug use among college students. Extant research reveals positive associations between negative affect lability and both trauma exposure and alcohol use. This study aimed to extend past research by using daily diary methods to test whether (a) individuals with (versus without) trauma exposure experience greater negative and positive affect lability, (b) negative and positive affect lability are associated with heavy drinking and drug use, and (c) negative and positive affect lability mediate the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use. Participants were 1640 college students (M age=19.2, 54% female, 80% European American) who provided daily diary data for 30days via online surveys. Daily diaries assessed negative and positive affect and substance use (i.e., percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, total number of drugs used). Individuals with (versus without) a history of trauma exposure demonstrated higher levels of negative and positive affect lability. Negative, but not positive, affect lability was associated with percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, and total number of drugs used, and mediated the associations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use outcomes. Findings provide support for the underlying role of negative affect lability in the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students, suggesting that treatments targeting negative affect lability may potentially serve to reduce heavy drinking and drug use among trauma-exposed college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of labile Zn phytoextraction using enhanced tobacco and sunflower: results of five- and one-year field-scale experiments in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Rolf; Nehnevajova, Erika; Pfistner, Charlotte; Schwitzguebel, Jean-Paul; Ricci, Arturo; Keller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction with somaclonal variants of tobacco and sunflower mutant lines (non-GMs) with enhanced metal uptake and tolerance can be a sustainable alternative to conventional destructive decontamination methods, especially for stripping bioavailable zinc excess in topsoil. The overall results of a 5-year time series experiment at field scale in north-eastern Switzerland confirm that the labile Zn pool in soil can be lowered by 45-70%, whereas subplots without phytoextraction treatment maintained labile Zn concentrations. In 2011, the phytoextraction experiment site was enlarged by a factor of 3, and the labile 0.1 M NaNO3 extractable Zn concentration in the soil was reduced up to 58% one period after harvest. A Mass Balance Analysis confirmed soil Zn decontamination in line with plant Zn uptake. The plants partially take Zn from the non-labile pool of the totaL The sustainability of Zn phytoextraction in subplots that no longer exceed the Swiss trigger value is now assessed over time. In contrary to the phytoextraction of total soil Zn which needs a long cleaning up time, the bioavailable Zn stripping is feasible within a few years period.

  6. Changes in lead and zinc lability during weathering-induced acidification of desert mine tailings: Coupling chemical and micro-scale analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; White, Scott A.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Desert mine tailings may accumulate toxic metals in the near surface centimeters because of low water through-flux rates. Along with other constraints, metal toxicity precludes natural plant colonization even over decadal time scales. Since unconsolidated particles can be subjected to transport by wind and water erosion, potentially resulting in direct human and ecosystem exposure, there is a need to know how the lability and form of metals change in the tailings weathering environment. A combination of chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to study Pb and Zn contamination in surficial arid mine tailings from the Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Initial site characterization indicated a wide range in pH (2.5-8.0) in the surficial tailings pile. Ligand-promoted (DTPA) extractions, used to assess plant-available metal pools, showed decreasing available Zn and Mn with progressive tailings acidification. Aluminum shows the inverse trend, and Pb and Fe show more complex pH dependence. Since the tailings derive from a common source and parent mineralogy, it is presumed that variations in pH and 'bio-available' metal concentrations result from associated variation in particle-scale geochemistry. Four sub-samples, ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4, were subjected to further characterization to elucidate micro-scale controls on metal mobility. With acidification, total Pb (ranging from 5 to 13 g kg -1 ) was increasingly associated with Fe and S in plumbojarosite aggregates. For Zn, both total (0.4-6 g kg -1 ) and labile fractions decreased with decreasing pH. Zinc was found to be primarily associated with the secondary Mn phases manjiroite and chalcophanite. The results suggest that progressive tailings acidification diminishes the overall lability of the total Pb and Zn pools.

  7. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  8. Non-labile Soil Nitrogen Retention beneath Three Tree Species in a Tropical Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Kaye; Dan Binkley; Xiaoming Zou

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest sink for N additions to forests. Species composition may affect soilNretention by altering the amount or proportion of added N stored in non-labile organic pools. We measured 15N tracer retention in labile and non-labile pools of surface (0–20 cm) mineral soils, 7 yr after the tracer was applied to a 9 yr-old Puerto Rican tree...

  9. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  10. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

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    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  11. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  12. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-15

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L{sup −1} for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L{sup −1} for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1} and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1}, respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion

  14. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-01

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L −1 for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L −1 for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm −2 d −1 and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm −2 d −1 , respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion gel and a filter membrane (to

  15. Mixing and scale affect moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Andries; Blom, Ewout; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn

    2017-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are used increasingly in closed systems for farming of fish. Scaling, i.e. design of units of increasing size, is an important issue in general bio-reactor design since mixing behaviour will differ between small and large scale. Research is mostly performed on

  16. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  17. Biologically labile photoproducts from riverine non-labile dissolved organic carbon in the coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, V.; Aarnos, H.; Vähätalo, A.

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the production of biologically labile photoproducts (BLPs) from non-labile riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC), we collected water samples from ten major rivers, removed labile DOC and mixed the residual non-labile DOC with artificial seawater for microbial and photochemical experiments. Bacteria grew on non-labile DOC with a growth efficiency of 11.5% (mean; range from 3.6 to 15.3%). Simulated solar radiation transformed a part of non-labile DOC into BLPs, which stimulated bacterial respiration and production, but did not change bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) compared to the non-irradiated dark controls. In the irradiated water samples, the amount of BLPs stimulating bacterial production depended on the photochemical bleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The apparent quantum yields for BLPs supporting bacterial production ranged from 9.5 to 76 (mean 39) (μmol C mol photons-1) at 330 nm. The corresponding values for BLPs supporting bacterial respiration ranged from 57 to 1204 (mean 320) (μmol C mol photons-1). According to the calculations based on spectral apparent quantum yields and local solar radiation, the annual production of BLPs ranged from 21 (St. Lawrence) to 584 (Yangtze) mmol C m-2 yr-1 in the plumes of the examined rivers. Complete photobleaching of riverine CDOM in the coastal ocean was estimated to produce 10.7 Mt C BLPs yr-1 from the rivers examined in this study and globally 38 Mt yr-1 (15% of riverine DOC flux from all rivers), which support 4.1 Mt yr-1 of bacterial production and 33.9 Mt yr-1 bacterial respiration.

  18. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

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    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  19. How large-scale subsidence affects stratocumulus transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. van der Dussen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some climate modeling results suggest that the Hadley circulation might weaken in a future climate, causing a subsequent reduction in the large-scale subsidence velocity in the subtropics. In this study we analyze the cloud liquid water path (LWP budget from large-eddy simulation (LES results of three idealized stratocumulus transition cases, each with a different subsidence rate. As shown in previous studies a reduced subsidence is found to lead to a deeper stratocumulus-topped boundary layer, an enhanced cloud-top entrainment rate and a delay in the transition of stratocumulus clouds into shallow cumulus clouds during its equatorwards advection by the prevailing trade winds. The effect of a reduction of the subsidence rate can be summarized as follows. The initial deepening of the stratocumulus layer is partly counteracted by an enhanced absorption of solar radiation. After some hours the deepening of the boundary layer is accelerated by an enhancement of the entrainment rate. Because this is accompanied by a change in the cloud-base turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat, the net change in the LWP due to changes in the turbulent flux profiles is negligibly small.

  20. Environmental Affective Dispositions Scale (EADS): The Study of Validity and Reliability and Adaptation to Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar; Timur, Serkan; Timur, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a research under circumstances of Turkey about the validity and reliability of the Affective Tendencies towards Environmental Scale prepared by Yavetz, Goldman and Pe'er (2009). The translation of this scale to Turkish was done by the researchers and language specialists. And then, the scale was evaluated by the…

  1. Biotic and abiotic controls on diurnal fluctuations in labile soil phosphorus of a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, Karen L; Lawrence, Deborah; Wood, Tana; Oberbauer, Steven F; Das, Rishiraj; Tully, Katherine; Schwendenmann, Luitgard

    2009-09-01

    The productivity of many tropical wet forests is generally limited by bioavailable phosphorus (P). Microbial activity is a key regulator of P availability in that it determines both the supply of P through organic matter decomposition and the depletion of bioavailable P through microbial uptake. Both microbial uptake and mineralization occur rapidly, and their net effect on P availability varies with soil moisture, temperature, and soil organic matter quantity and quality. Exploring the mechanisms driving P availability at fine temporal scales can provide insight into the coupling of carbon, water, and nutrient cycles, and ultimately, the response of tropical forests to climate change. Despite the recognized importance of P cycling to the dynamics of wet tropical forests and their potential sensitivity to short-term fluctuations in bioavailable P, the diurnal pattern of P remains poorly understood. This study quantifies diurnal fluctuations in labile soil P and evaluates the importance of biotic and abiotic factors in driving these patterns. To this end, measurements of labile P were made every other hour in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest oxisol. Spatial and temporal variation in Bray-extractable P were investigated in relation to ecosystem carbon flux, soil CO2 efflux, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and sap-flow velocity. Spatially averaged bi-hourly (every two hours) labile P ranged from 0.88 to 2.48 microg/g across days. The amplitude in labile P throughout the day was 0.61-0.82 microg/g (41-54% of mean P concentrations) and was characterized by a bimodal pattern with a decrease at midday. Labile P increased with soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature and declined with increasing sap flow and solar radiation. Together, soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and sap flow explained 86% of variation in labile P.

  2. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Lores, Susana; Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Blasco, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labor market. We develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee´s affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Study 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB) scale was developed and tested for its factor s...

  3. Trans labilization of am(m)ine ligands from platinum(II) complexes by cancer cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasherman, Yonit; Sturup, Stefan; Gibson, Dan

    2009-03-01

    Cisplatin, cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl(2)], is an effective anticancer agent in wide clinical use whose efficacy is affected by cellular interactions with sulfur-containing nucleophiles. These interactions can potentially enhance the efficacy of the drug by mediating its delivery to nuclear DNA or inactivate the drug by binding to it irreversibly or by labilizing the NH(3) ligands. Despite the potential importance of trans-labilization reactions in the mechanism of action of the drug, few detailed studies on trans labilization of the ammines have been conducted. We used 2D NMR to show that some trans labilization occurs in proliferating cells and that aqueous extracts of cancer cells labilized 20% of the amine ligands of cis-[PtCl(2)((13)CH(3)NH(2))(2)] after a 12-h incubation. Both low molecular mass nucleophiles (less than 3 kDa) and high molecular mass nucleophiles (more than 3 kDa) labilize the amines with similar efficiency. Studies with model compounds show that thiols and thioethers bind to platinum(II) at similar rates, but thioethers are significantly more efficient at labilizing the am(m)ine at lower pH. N-Acetylcysteine is a more efficient trans-labilizer than glutathione, suggesting that the displacement of the amine proceeds through an associative mechanism. The lag time, the time that elapses from the formation of the Pt-S bond till the release of the amine trans to the sulfur, depends on the pH (for thiols), increasing at lower pH. Quantification of the platinum adducts obtained from incubation of cisplatin with cell extracts indicates that two thirds of the platinum is bound to cellular components with molecular mass greater than 3 kDa.

  4. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  5. Affective commitment to the employer brand: Development and validation of a scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernandez-Lores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years employer branding has become increasingly important as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Companies are trying to engender affective commitment in the best employees in a global labour market. In this study, we develop and validate a multidimensional scale to measure the strength of an employee's affective commitment to the employer brand in five separate studies. In Studies 1 and 2 the Affective Commitment to the Employer Brand (ACEB scale was developed and tested for its structure, reliability and convergent validity. Study 3 examines additional reliability and discriminant validity. Study 4 provides evidence of external validity. Study 5 examines the scale's nomological validity showing that a positive experience with the employer brand is important in making the employee develop affective commitment towards it. The limitations of the scale and the boundary conditions of its applicability are also discussed.

  6. Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110mAg radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrosco...

  7. Effects of wetland recovery on soil labile carbon and nitrogen in the Sanjiang Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Song, Changchun; Nkrumah, Philip Nti

    2013-07-01

    Soil management significantly affects the soil labile organic factors. Understanding carbon and nitrogen dynamics is extremely helpful in conducting research on active carbon and nitrogen components for different kinds of soil management. In this paper, we examined the changes in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to assess the effect and mechanisms of land types, organic input, soil respiration, microbial species, and vegetation recovery under Deyeuxia angustifolia freshwater marshes (DAMs) and recovered freshwater marsh (RFM) in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Identifying the relationship among the dynamics of labile carbon, nitrogen, and soil qualification mechanism using different land management practices is therefore important. Cultivation and land use affect intensely the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN in the soil. After DAM soil tillage, the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN at the surface of the agricultural soil layer declined significantly. In contrast, their recovery was significant in the RFM surface soil. A long time was needed for the concentration of cultivated soil total organic carbon and total nitrogen to be restored to the wetland level. The labile carbon and nitrogen fractions can reach a level similar to that of the wetland within a short time. Typical wetland ecosystem signs, such as vegetation, microbes, and animals, can be recovered by soil labile carbon and nitrogen fraction restoration. In this paper, the D. angustifolia biomass attained natural wetland level after 8 years, indicating that wetland soil labile fractions can support wetland eco-function in a short period of time (4 to 8 years) for reconstructed wetland under suitable environmental conditions.

  8. The Affect Reading Scale: A Method of Measuring Prerequisites for Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    A Swedish empathy test for professional helpers, the Affect Reading Scale, was developed and tested on several occasions with 1000 caregivers in different sectors. Results support the conceptual validity of the scale and demonstrate that it is responsive to educational experiences that influence empathy. (SLD)

  9. Black Carbon Absorption at the Global Scale Is Affected by Particle-Scale Diversity in Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (E(sub abs)) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find E(sub abs) = 1 - 1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  10. Labile and Non-labile Soil Carbon Fractions Equally Contributed to Carbon Changes under Long-term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F.; Li, J.; Xu, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storages are altered under long-term fertilization in croplands, it however remains unclear how fast- to slow-cycling SOC fractions each respond to fertilization practices. Based on five two-decade Chinese long-term fertilization experiments (GZL: Gongzhuling; ZZ: Zhengzhou; CQ: Chongqing; JX: Jinxian; QY: Qiyang) under three fertilization treatments (CK: cropping with no fertilizer input; NPK: chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers; and NPKM: NPK with manure input), we quantified very labile, labile, non-labile and total SOC stocks at 0-20cm soil depth. Results showed that SOC stocks varied among sites (GZL, JX, CQ > ZZ, QY) and generally increased with fertilizations (CK-1 at ZZ, GZL, QY, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 2.6, 2.0, 1.8, 0.8 and -0.5 Mg ha-1 at ZZ, QY, GZL, CQ and JX, respectively. Also, NPKM increased total SOC stock by 18.3, 16.2, 14.4, 10.5, and 6.5 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 8.6, 6.8, 6.6, 3.2 and -1.6 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. These results suggested that about half or more than half SOC stock accretions under fertilization were induced by increase in non-labile SOC fractions. It thus informs the importance of non-labile SOC fractions in contributing to soil C sequestration under long-term fertilizations in Chinese croplands. Future research should improve our mechanistic understanding of biogeochemical transformation of non-labile organic C in soils.

  11. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  12. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  13. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  14. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the

  15. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain...... equilibrium with the reduced concentration of the electroactive free M2+ in its diffusion layer. Since the metal ion binding sites are confined to the NP body, the conventional reaction layer in the form of a layer adjacent to the electrode surface is immaterial. Instead an intraparticulate reaction zone may...... of the electrochemical technique is crucial in the lability towards the electrode surface. In contrast, for nanoparticulate complexes it is the dynamics of the exchange of the electroactive metal ion with the surrounding medium that governs the effective lability towards the electrode surface....

  16. Freshwater processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter: What governs lability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrilli, J.; Smith, H. J.; Junker, J. R.; Scholl, E. A.; Foreman, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked through the transfer of energy and materials. Allochthonous organic matter (OM) is central to freshwater ecosystem function, influencing local food webs, trophic state, and nutrient availability. In order to understand the nature and fate of OM from inland headwaters to the open ocean, it is imperative to understand the links between OM lability and ecosystem function. Thus, biological, chemical, and physical factors need to be evaluated together to inform our understanding of environmental lability. We performed a laboratory processing experiment on naturally occurring OM leachates from riparian leaves, grasses, and pine needles. Measures of water chemistry, OM optical and molecular characterization, bacterial abundances, microbial assemblage composition, respiration, and C:N:P were integrated to discern the nature and fate of labile and recalcitrant OM in a freshwater stream. Peak processing of all OM sources in the stream water occurred after two days, with spikes in bacterial cell abundances, respiration rates, microbial assemblage shifts, and maximum C utilization. Respiration rates and microbial assemblages were dependent on the degree of lability of the OM molecular composition. Within the first few days, no differences in respiration rates were observed between leachate sources, however, beyond day five, the rates diverged with C processing efficiency correlated with OM lability. Originally comprised of amino acid-like, labile fluorescent species, the inoculated stream water OM became more recalcitrant after 16 days, indicating humification processing over time. Our study highlights the importance of interdisciplinary approaches for understanding the processing and fate of OM in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Formulation of enterosoluble microparticles for an acid labile protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Ahmed Kashif; Squillante, Emilio; Mehta, Ketan A

    2002-01-01

    A microencapsulation method that preserves the activity of an acid labile protein was developed. Solvent evaporation technique that employed ICH class 2 and 3 solvents methanol and acetone, respectively to dissolve pH-sensitive Eudragit polymers was investigated. Total protein released and lactase activities were measured using the USP method A for enteric cores and optimized with respect to process parameters. The percentage yields and entrapment efficiencies were directly proportional to solid content. The mean percentage yield and entrapment efficiency of selected sample was 84 +/- 0.9% and 88 +/- 0.7%, respectively. The residual specific activity of lactase in the selected sample was 89% +/- 0.8 with a net activity loss of 2 +/- 0.28% and 4 +/- 0.52% under ambient and stressed storage, respectively. Dibutyl sebacate levels, lower processing temperatures and lower processing speeds were influential in modulating enzyme activity. The most important formulation factor affecting lactase stability was Eudragit type, followed in decreasing order by processing temperature, processing speed, and solid percentage. Reliable control of lactase release was achieved by microencapsulating the enzyme with pH-sensitive Eudragit L and S enteric polymers using either acetone- or methanol-based solvent but lactase activity was preserved only in acetone-based formulations.

  18. Toward Making the Invisible Visible Using a Scale: Prospective Teachers' Thoughts and Affective Reactions to Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development and initial validation of a feedback scale which measures the thoughts and affective reactions of prospective teachers concerning feedback on their teaching experiences. To reach this goal, data from 512 prospective teachers were used to test the internal consistency, exploratory and confirmative factor…

  19. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  20. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  1. Well-being as a moving target: measurement equivalence of the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, S B; Dixon, R A; Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C

    2001-03-01

    Although the Bradburn Affect Balance scale (ABS) is a frequently used two-factor indicator of well-being in later life, its measurement and invariance properties are not well documented. We examined these issues using confirmatory factor analyses of cross-sectional (adults ages 54-87 years) and longitudinal data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Stability of the positive and negative affect factors was moderate across a 3-year period. Overall, factor loadings for positive affect items were invariant over time with the exception of the pleased item. Negative affect items were time invariant. However, age-group comparisons between young-old and old-old groups revealed age differences in loadings for the upset item at Time 1. Finally, gender groups differed in loadings for the top of the world and going your way items. Thus a pattern of partial measurement equivalence characterized item response to the ABS. Our results suggest that group comparisons and longitudinal change in ABS scale scores of positive and negative affect should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes strengthen declarative memory in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Forcato

    Full Text Available The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms associated with the labilization-reconsolidation process, but little is known about its functionality from a biological standpoint. Indeed, two functions have been proposed. One suggests that destabilization of the original memory after the reminder allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory (memory updating, and the other suggests that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory (memory strengthening. We have previously reported the reconsolidation of human declarative memories, demonstrating memory updating in the framework of reconsolidation. Here we deal with the strengthening function attributed to the reconsolidation process. We triggered labilization-reconsolidation processes successively by repeated presentations of the proper reminder. Participants learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. Twenty-four hours later, the paired-associate verbal memory was labilized by exposing the subjects to one, two or four reminders. The List-memory was evaluated on Day 3 showing that the memory was improved when at least a second reminder was presented in the time window of the first labilization-reconsolidation process prompted by the earlier reminder. However, the improvement effect was revealed on Day 3, only when at least two reminders were presented on Day 2 and not as a consequence of only retrieval. Therefore, we propose central concepts for the reconsolidation process, emphasizing its biological role and the

  3. Repeated Labilization-Reconsolidation Processes Strengthen Declarative Memory in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcato, Cecilia; Rodríguez, María L. C.; Pedreira, María E.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms associated with the labilization-reconsolidation process, but little is known about its functionality from a biological standpoint. Indeed, two functions have been proposed. One suggests that destabilization of the original memory after the reminder allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory (memory updating), and the other suggests that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory (memory strengthening). We have previously reported the reconsolidation of human declarative memories, demonstrating memory updating in the framework of reconsolidation. Here we deal with the strengthening function attributed to the reconsolidation process. We triggered labilization-reconsolidation processes successively by repeated presentations of the proper reminder. Participants learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. Twenty-four hours later, the paired-associate verbal memory was labilized by exposing the subjects to one, two or four reminders. The List-memory was evaluated on Day 3 showing that the memory was improved when at least a second reminder was presented in the time window of the first labilization-reconsolidation process prompted by the earlier reminder. However, the improvement effect was revealed on Day 3, only when at least two reminders were presented on Day2 and not as a consequence of only retrieval. Therefore, we propose central concepts for the reconsolidation process, emphasizing its biological role and the parametrical constrains

  4. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  5. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  6. Lability criteria for metal complexes in micro-electrode voltammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Pinheiro, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the voltammetric lability criteria of metal complexes in the micro-electrode regime. The treatment includes three limiting situations: (i) the macro-electrode limit, where both the diffusion layer and the dissociation reaction layer are linear; (ii) an

  7. HOW DIFFERENT N-POINT LIKERT SCALES AFFECT THE MEASUREMENT OF SATISFACTION IN ACADEMIC CONFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction in the segment of academic conferences has not been analysed as much as the hotels in the field of tourism. This paper presents a fuzzy logic approach that evaluates the satisfaction of conferences held at the Technical University of Loja in 2013. The satisfaction experienced by the delegates is measured through triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of the degree of optimality, via the closeness to ideal solutions. Using different fuzzy numbers representations, and different Likert scales, we test whether the obtained synthetic satisfaction indicators are affected. Results indicate that the indicators are highly robust to the use of different fuzzy numbers representations, clarification methods and Likert scales. Thus, it can be concluded that binary answer formats can be safely used to measure satisfaction in the context of academic conferences. This result is concordant with that obtained by Dolnicar and Grün (2007 in the analysis of brand image measurement.

  8. Circumstellar envelopes of Cepheids: a possible bias affecting the distance scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Pierre; Gallenne, Alexandre; Mérand, Antoine

    2013-02-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) have been detected around many Cepheids, first based on long-baseline interferometry, and now also using other observing techniques. These envelopes are particularly interesting for two reasons: their presence could impact the Cepheid distance scale, and they may be valuable tracers of stellar mass loss. Here we focus on their potential impact on the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale. We consider the photometric contribution of the envelopes in the visible, near-, and thermal-infrared domains. We conclude that the impact of CSEs on the apparent luminosities of Cepheids is negligible at visible wavelengths and generally weak (case. Overall, the contribution of CSEs to the usual period-luminosity relations (from the visible to the K band) is mostly negligible. They could affect calibrations at longer wavelengths, although the presence of envelopes may have been partially taken into account in the existing empirical calibrations.

  9. Shear Capacity of Large-Scale RC Beams Affected by ASR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......) and Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1). The analysis shows that three experiments were highly affected by the preparation of the experimental setup. Only one experiment contained useful information about the shear capacity. The analysis of this experiment shows that the shear capacity is not reduced as much...

  10. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  11. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  12. Individual differences in Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) primary emotional traits and depressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Panksepp, Jaak; Kiefer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated individual differences in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), representing measures of primary emotional systems, and depressive tendencies in two independent samples. In order to be able to find support for a continuum model with respect to the relation of strength in the cross-species "affective neuroscience" taxonomy of primary emotional systems, we investigated ANPS measured personality traits in a psychologically mostly healthy population (n=614 participants) as well as a sample of clinically depressed people (n=55 depressed patients). In both normal and depressed samples robust associations appeared between higher FEAR and SADNESS scores and depressive tendencies. A similar - albeit weaker - association was observed with lower SEEKING system scores and higher depressive tendencies, an effect again seen in both samples. The study is of cross-sectional nature and therefore only associations between primary emotional systems and depressive tendencies were evaluated. These results show that similar associations between ANPS monitored primary emotional systems and tendencies toward depression can be observed in both healthy and depressed participants. This lends support for a continuum of affective changes accompanying depression, potentially reflecting differences in specific brain emotional system activities in both affectively normal as well as clinically depressed individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Adolescent HIV Disclosure Cognition and Affect Scale: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed. Three factors were revealed: negative disclosure attitudes and feelings, self-efficacy, and positive disclosure attitudes and feelings. The full scale and its subscales were internally consistent. The total score showed statistically significant positive relationships with HIV disclosure in the past 6 months, HIV disclosure intention and self-perception. Preliminary evidence of the measure's good psychometric properties suggests it may be helpful in future clinical and research work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  15. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  16. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eyben

    Full Text Available Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  17. Factors affecting distribution patterns of organic carbon in sediments at regional and national scales in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yiran; Lal, Rattan; Wang, Renqing; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2017-07-14

    Wetlands are an important carbon reservoir pool in terrestrial ecosystems. Light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were fractionated in sediment samples from the four wetlands (ZR: Zhaoniu River; ZRCW: Zhaoniu River Constructed Wetland; XR: Xinxue River; XRCW: Xinxue River Constructed Wetland). Organic carbon (OC) from rivers and coasts of China were retrieved and statistically analyzed. At regional scale, HFOC stably dominates the deposition of OC (95.4%), whereas DOC and LFOC in ZR is significantly higher than in ZRCW. Concentration of DOC is significantly higher in XRCW (30.37 mg/l) than that in XR (13.59 mg/l). DOC and HFOC notably distinguish between two sampling campaigns, and the deposition of carbon fractions are limited by low nitrogen input. At the national scale, OC attains the maximum of 2.29% at precipitation of 800 mm. OC has no significant difference among the three climate zones but significantly higher in river sediments than in coasts. Coastal OC increases from Bohai Sea (0.52%) to South Sea (0.70%) with a decrease in latitude. This study summarizes the factors affecting organic carbon storage in regional and national scale, and have constructive implications for carbon assessment, modelling, and management.

  18. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg-1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike -Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L-1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not yet

  19. Non-labile tritium in Savannah River Plant pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Non-labile tritium bound in cellulose of pine trees was measured to learn about the effects and fate of tritium contributed to the environment by the Savannah River Plant (SRP). An estimation of the regional inventory and the distance tritium can be observed from SRP was desired because tritium is a major component of the radioactivity released by SRP, and as the oxide, it readily disperses in the environment

  20. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Buckley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in

  1. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hannah L; Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ridgway, Hayley J; Paterson, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence

  2. Watching More Closely: Shot Scale Affects Film Viewers’ Theory of Mind Tendency But Not Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Brendan; Bálint, Katalin E.

    2018-01-01

    Recent research debates the effects of exposure to narrative fiction on recognition of mental states in others and self, referred to as Theory of Mind. The current study explores the mechanisms by which such effects could occur in fictional film. Using manipulated film scenes, we conducted a between subject experiment (N = 136) exploring how film shot-scale affects viewers’ Theory of Mind. Specifically, in our methods we distinguish between the trait Theory of Mind abilities (ToM ability), and the state-like tendency to recognize mental states in others and self (ToM tendency). Results showed that close-up shots (compared to long shots) of a character was associated with higher levels of Theory of Mind tendency, when the facial expression was sad but not when it was neutral. And this effect did not transfer to other characters in the film. There was also no observable effect of character depiction on viewers’ general Theory of Mind ability. Together the findings suggest that formal and content features of shot scale can elicit Theory of Mind responses by directing attention toward character mental states rather than improving viewers’ general Theory of Mind ability. PMID:29387032

  3. Watching More Closely: Shot Scale Affects Film Viewers’ Theory of Mind Tendency But Not Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Rooney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research debates the effects of exposure to narrative fiction on recognition of mental states in others and self, referred to as Theory of Mind. The current study explores the mechanisms by which such effects could occur in fictional film. Using manipulated film scenes, we conducted a between subject experiment (N = 136 exploring how film shot-scale affects viewers’ Theory of Mind. Specifically, in our methods we distinguish between the trait Theory of Mind abilities (ToM ability, and the state-like tendency to recognize mental states in others and self (ToM tendency. Results showed that close-up shots (compared to long shots of a character was associated with higher levels of Theory of Mind tendency, when the facial expression was sad but not when it was neutral. And this effect did not transfer to other characters in the film. There was also no observable effect of character depiction on viewers’ general Theory of Mind ability. Together the findings suggest that formal and content features of shot scale can elicit Theory of Mind responses by directing attention toward character mental states rather than improving viewers’ general Theory of Mind ability.

  4. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  5. Affective (depressive) morbidity in puerperal Nigerian women: validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakwe, Richard; Okonkwo, John E N

    2003-04-01

    To determine the rate of depression in a group of postpartum Nigerian women and to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in this group. Between April and August 2000, all postpartum women who remained in the maternity ward for up to 7 days, and those who attended the postnatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Translated local language versions of the EPDS and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to screen the subjects. A structured interview schedule was adapted from the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and affective module of the ICD-10 Symptom Check List to assess screened subjects. The total rejection rate was 23%, with 225 women participating in the study. Twenty-four subjects (10.7%) had depression. At the optimal cut-off score of 9, the EPDS had a sensitivity of 0.75, and specificity of 0.97. The EPDS clearly distinguished between depressed and non-depressed postpartum mothers (t = 7.63, P < 0.001, df = 222). Because of its brevity and acceptability, it is recommended that the EPDS be used in routine postnatal screening.

  6. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  7. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  8. The Turkish Version of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin D. Catak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mindfulness approach to psychotherapy has become a topic of continuously growing scientific interest. In accordance with such interest, various self-report assessment tools have been developed to measure the mindfulness construct. The majority of the studies conducted to investigate the properties of these assessment instruments included Western populations. Thus, the measurement of mindfulness in non-Western cultures still requires further research. Based on this premise, the psychometric properties of the 10 item Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R were investigated in two different studies using two non-clinical Turkish samples. In Study 1, the psychometric properties of the 10 item CAMS-R were examined in an undergraduate student sample (N = 265. Study 2 extended the examination of the psychometric properties of the CAMS-R to an adult community sample consisting of white-collar public employees (N = 88. The results of both studies showed that the Turkish CAMS-R possessed acceptable levels of internal consistency and the scale displayed convergent as well as concurrent validity. Statistically meaningful relationships were found between mindfulness as measures by Turkish CAMS-R and depression, anxiety, well-being as well as perceived stress. The findings from both studies suggest CAMS-R retains its psychometric properties when utilized in a non-Western culture and the Turkish version of CAMS-R is a valid instrument which can be used to measure mindfulness in the Turkish population.

  9. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula

  10. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  11. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  12. Two clusters of GABAergic ellipsoid body neurons modulate olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2013-03-20

    In Drosophila, aversive olfactory memory is believed to be stored in a prominent brain structure, the mushroom body (MB), and two pairs of MB intrinsic neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) and the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, are found to regulate the consolidation of middle-term memory (MTM). Here we report that another prominent brain structure, the ellipsoid body (EB), is also involved in the modulation of olfactory MTM. Activating EB R2/R4m neurons does not affect the learning index, but specifically eliminates anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM), the labile component of olfactory MTM. We further demonstrate that approximately two-thirds of these EB neurons are GABAergic and are responsible for the suppression of ASM. Using GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners), we reveal potential synaptic connections between the EB and MB in regions covering both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of EB neurons, suggesting the presence of bidirectional connections between these two important brain structures. These findings suggest the existence of direct connections between the MB and EB, and provide new insights into the neural circuit basis for olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

  13. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by

  14. Persistent Associative Plasticity at an Identified Synapse Underlying Classical Conditioning Becomes Labile with Short-Term Homosynaptic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2015-12-09

    Synapses express different forms of plasticity that contribute to different forms of memory, and both memory and plasticity can become labile after reactivation. We previously reported that a persistent form of nonassociative long-term facilitation (PNA-LTF) of the sensorimotor synapses in Aplysia californica, a cellular analog of long-term sensitization, became labile with short-term heterosynaptic reactivation and reversed when the reactivation was followed by incubation with the protein synthesis inhibitor rapamycin. Here we examined the reciprocal impact of different forms of short-term plasticity (reactivations) on a persistent form of associative long-term facilitation (PA-LTF), a cellular analog of classical conditioning, which was expressed at Aplysia sensorimotor synapses when a tetanic stimulation of the sensory neurons was paired with a brief application of serotonin on 2 consecutive days. The expression of short-term homosynaptic plasticity [post-tetanic potentiation or homosynaptic depression (HSD)], or short-term heterosynaptic plasticity [serotonin-induced facilitation or neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFa)-induced depression], at synapses expressing PA-LTF did not affect the maintenance of PA-LTF. The kinetics of HSD was attenuated at synapses expressing PA-LTF, which required activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Both PA-LTF and the attenuated kinetics of HSD were reversed by either a transient blockade of PKC activity or a homosynaptic, but not heterosynaptic, reactivation when paired with rapamycin. These results indicate that two different forms of persistent synaptic plasticity, PA-LTF and PNA-LTF, expressed at the same synapse become labile when reactivated by different stimuli. Activity-dependent changes in neural circuits mediate long-term memories. Some forms of long-term memories become labile and can be reversed with specific types of reactivations, but the mechanism is complex. At the cellular level, reactivations that induce a

  15. The Facial Affective Scale as a Predictor for Pain Unpleasantness When Children Undergo Immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nilsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle fear is a common problem in children undergoing immunization. To ensure that the individual child’s needs are met during a painful procedure it would be beneficial to be able to predict whether there is a need for extra support. The self-reporting instrument facial affective scale (FAS could have potential for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the FAS can predict pain unpleasantness in girls undergoing immunization. Girls, aged 11-12 years, reported their expected pain unpleasantness on the FAS at least two weeks before and then experienced pain unpleasantness immediately before each vaccination. The experienced pain unpleasantness during the vaccination was also reported immediately after each immunization. The level of anxiety was similarly assessed during each vaccination and supplemented with stress measures in relation to the procedure in order to assess and evaluate concurrent validity. The results show that the FAS is valid to predict pain unpleasantness in 11-12-year-old girls who undergo immunizations and that it has the potential to be a feasible instrument to identify children who are in need of extra support to cope with immunization. In conclusion, the FAS measurement can facilitate caring interventions.

  16. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  17. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin: Beyond G M1 Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mudrak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One major virulence factor released by ETEC is the heat-labile enterotoxin LT, which is structurally and functionally similar to cholera toxin. LT consists of five B subunits carrying a single catalytically active A subunit. LTB binds the monosialoganglioside GM1, the toxin’s host receptor, but interactions with A-type blood sugars and E. coli lipopolysaccharide have also been identified within the past decade. Here, we review the regulation, assembly, and binding properties of the LT B-subunit pentamer and discuss the possible roles of its numerous molecular interactions.

  18. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed ‘priming’. We investig......Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed ‘priming’. We...

  19. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  20. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with…

  2. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Alison J.; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism.

  3. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechi, V.; Brussaard, L.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2015-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the

  4. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechi, V.; Brussaard, L.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2014-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the

  5. Sensitivities Affecting Heat and Urban Heat Island Effect on Local Scale Projected to Neighborhood Scale in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Scott, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban regions are often impacted more by heat than adjacent rural areas, which is a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban areas are also highly heterogeneous and notoriously difficult to monitor using standard meteorological protocols—the hottest microclimates within a city often occur in locations that lack open, representative installation sites that are an adequate distance from buildings and direct heat sources. To investigate the challenges of monitoring urban heat, this study examines the sensitivity of temperature and humidity sensors currently used in a Baltimore UHI monitoring network to differences in sun exposure, material on which the data collecting instrument is attached, and land cover class of the vicinity. Sensitivity to sun exposure and attachment site can be interpreted as sources of uncertainty for urban heat monitoring, while sensitivity to land cover may reflect a true source of local temperature and humidity variability. In this study, we present results from a test deployment designed to assess the sensitivity of heat measurements to each of these three factors. We then apply these results to interpret measurements taken across the entire Baltimore UHI monitoring network. These results can then be used to improve heat measurements and more accurately represent and quantify the UHI effect on a broader scale, such as in neighborhoods or urban centers.

  6. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  7. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  8. Can Biochar Protect Labile Organic Matter Against Mineralization in Soil?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanna B.MELAS; Oriol ORTIZ; Josep M.ALACA(N)IZ

    2017-01-01

    Biochar could help to stabilize soil organic (SOM) matter,thus sequestering carbon (C) into the soil.The aim of this work was to determine an easy method i) to estimate the effects of the addition of biochar and nutrients on the organic matter (SOM)mineralization in an artificial soil,proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),amended with glucose and ii) to measure the amount of labile organic matter (glucose) that can be sorbed and thus be partially protected in the same soil,amended or not amended with biochar.A factorial experiment was designed to check the effects of three single factors (biochar,nutrients,and glucose) and their interactions on whole SOM mineralization.Soil samples were inoculated with a microbial inoculum and preincubated to ensure that their biological activities were not limited by a small amount of microbial biomass,and then they were incubated in the dark at 21 ℃ for 619 d.Periodical measurements of C mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) were carried out throughout the 619-d incubation to allow the mineralization of both active and slow organic matter pools.The amount of sorbed glucose was calculated as the difference between the total and remaining amounts of glucose added in a soil extract.Two different models,the Freundlich and Langmuir models,were selected to assess the equilibrium isotherms of glucose sorption.The CO2-C release strongly depended on the presence of nutrients only when no biochar was added to the soil.The mineralization of organic matter in the soil amended with both biochar and glucose was equal to the sum of the mineralization of the two C sources separately.Furthermore,a significant amount of glucose can be sorbed on the biochar-amended soil,suggesting the involvement of physico-chemical mechanisms in labile organic matter protection.

  9. Knowledge Lability: Within-Person Changes in Parental Knowledge and Their Associations with Adolescent Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities have been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, and measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence.

  10. Estimating soil labile organic carbon and potential turnover rates using a sequential fumigation–incubation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.M. Zoua; H.H. Ruanc; Y. Fua; X.D. Yanga; L.Q. Sha

    2005-01-01

    Labile carbon is the fraction of soil organic carbon with most rapid turnover times and its oxidation drives the flux of CO2 between soils and atmosphere. Available chemical and physical fractionation methods for estimating soil labile organic carbon are indirect and lack a clear biological definition. We have modified the well-established Jenkinson and Powlson’s...

  11. MeCP2 Rett mutations affect large scale chromatin organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Noopur Agarwal; Becker, Annette; Jost, K Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological, X chromosomal-linked disorder associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. MeCP2 protein has been proposed to play a role in transcriptional regulation as well as in chromatin architecture. Since MeCP2 mutant cells exhibit surprisingly mild changes in gene...... expression, we have now explored the possibility that Rett mutations may affect the ability of MeCP2 to bind and organize chromatin. We found that all but one of the 21 missense MeCP2 mutants analyzed accumulated at heterochromatin and about half of them were significantly affected. Furthermore, two......-thirds of all mutants showed a significantly decreased ability to cluster heterochromatin. Three mutants containing different proline substitutions (P101H, P101R and P152R) were severely affected only in heterochromatin clustering and located far away from the DNA interface in the MeCP2 methyl-binding domain...

  12. Parameters affecting the resilience of scale-free networks to random failures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lane, Terran (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Saia, Jared (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly believed that scale-free networks are robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. For example, Cohen et al. in (1) study scale-free networks including some which approximate the measured degree distribution of the Internet. Their results suggest that if each node in this network failed independently with probability 0.99, most of the remaining nodes would still be connected in a giant component. In this paper, we show that a large and important subclass of scale-free networks are not robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. In particular, we study scale-free networks which have minimum node degree of 1 and a power-law degree distribution beginning with nodes of degree 1 (power-law networks). We show that, in a power-law network approximating the Internet's reported distribution, when the probability of deletion of each node is 0.5 only about 25% of the surviving nodes in the network remain connected in a giant component, and the giant component does not persist beyond a critical failure rate of 0.9. The new result is partially due to improved analytical accommodation of the large number of degree-0 nodes that result after node deletions. Our results apply to power-law networks with a wide range of power-law exponents, including Internet-like networks. We give both analytical and empirical evidence that such networks are not generally robust to massive random node deletions.

  13. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  14. Patterns of coexistence of two species of freshwater turtles are affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segurado, P.; Kunin, W.E.; Filipe, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring biotic interactions from the examination of patterns of species occurrences has been a central tenet in community ecology, and it has recently gained interest in the context of single-species distribution modelling. However, understanding of how spatial extent and grain size affect such...

  15. Development and Validation of the ADAS Scale and Prediction of Attitudes Toward Affective-Sexual Diversity Among Spanish Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Hernansaiz, Helena; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Castaño-Torrijos, Aida; Cuevas, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Violence against non-heterosexual adolescents in educational contexts remains a worrying reality, but no adequate attitudes toward affective-sexual diversity (AtASD) measure exists for Spanish adolescent students. We developed a 27-item scale including cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects, which was completed by 696 secondary school students from the Madrid area. Factor analyses suggested a unidimensional model, Cronbach's alpha indicated excellent scale scores reliability, and item calibration under the item response theory framework showed that the scale is especially informative for homophobic attitudes. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that variables traditionally related to AtASD (gender, age, religion, nationality, perceived parental/peer attitudes, direct contact with LGB people) also were so in our sample. Moreover, interest in sexuality topics and perceived center's efforts to provide AtASD education were related to better AtASD. Our scale was reliable and valid, and it may also prove useful in efforts to detect those students with homophobic attitudes and to guide interventions.

  16. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  17. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Biosphere Impact Studies, Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  18. Large-scale linkage analysis of 1302 affected relative pairs with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Segurado, Ricardo; Moskvina, Valentina; Nikolov, Ivan; Glaser, Beate; Holmans, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common systematic autoimmune disease and its etiology is believed to have both strong genetic and environmental components. We demonstrate the utility of including genetic and clinical phenotypes as covariates within a linkage analysis framework to search for rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci. The raw genotypes of 1302 affected relative pairs were combined from four large family-based samples (North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, United Kingdom, European Consortium on Rheumatoid Arthritis Families, and Canada). The familiality of the clinical phenotypes was assessed. The affected relative pairs were subjected to autosomal multipoint affected relative-pair linkage analysis. Covariates were included in the linkage analysis to take account of heterogeneity within the sample. Evidence of familiality was observed with age at onset (p << 0.001) and rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM (p << 0.001), but not definite erosions (p = 0.21). Genome-wide significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 6. Genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 13 and 20 when conditioning on age at onset, chromosome 15 conditional on gender, and chromosome 19 conditional on RF IgM after allowing for multiple testing of covariates. PMID:18466440

  19. How uncertainty in socio-economic variables affects large-scale transport model forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    A strategic task assigned to large-scale transport models is to forecast the demand for transport over long periods of time to assess transport projects. However, by modelling complex systems transport models have an inherent uncertainty which increases over time. As a consequence, the longer...... the period forecasted the less reliable is the forecasted model output. Describing uncertainty propagation patterns over time is therefore important in order to provide complete information to the decision makers. Among the existing literature only few studies analyze uncertainty propagation patterns over...

  20. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  1. Large-scale gas dynamical processes affecting the origin and evolution of gaseous galactic halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of galactic halo gas are consistent with an interpretation in terms of the galactic fountain model in which supernova heated gas in the galactic disk escapes into the halo, radiatively cools and forms clouds which fall back to the disk. The results of a new study of several large-scale gas dynamical effects which are expected to occur in such a model for the origin and evolution of galactic halo gas will be summarized, including the following: (1) nonequilibrium absorption line and emission spectrum diagnostics for radiatively cooling halo gas in our own galaxy, as well the implications of such absorption line diagnostics for the origin of quasar absorption lines in galactic halo clouds of high redshift galaxies; (2) numerical MHD simulations and analytical analysis of large-scale explosions ad superbubbles in the galactic disk and halo; (3) numerical MHD simulations of halo cloud formation by thermal instability, with and without magnetic field; and (4) the effect of the galactic fountain on the galactic dynamo.

  2. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  3. Nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal delivery of acid labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen Jen; Duh, Yi Shein

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for transdermal delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole (LPZ). The drug loading, particle size, zeta potential, thermal behavior and stability of NLCs were evaluated. The particle size of NLCs was in the range of 90-210nm and the zeta potential was -61.9 to +3.2mV dependent of the compositions. Stearylamine (SA) prevented lansoprazole degradation and maintained drug stable in NLCs. The anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) adsorbed on the lipid surface and formed complex with cationic SA to prevent NLCs aggregation. The effects of type (e.g., isopropyl myristate (IPM), menthol) and concentration (e.g., 1.25, 2.50, 3.75%w/w) of enhancers on penetration of lansoprazole NLC hydrogels were investigated in vitro using Wistar rat skin. The steady-state flux of lansoprazole NLC hydrogel containing 3.75% IPM was the highest which was enhanced by 2.7 folds as compared to enhancer-free NLC hydrogel. In vivo pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole following transdermal delivery of NLC hydrogel showed that the elimination of drug was significantly reduced and the mean residence time of drug was prominently prolonged as compared to intravenous drug solution (p<0.005). The accumulation of drug in the skin and continuous penetration of drug through the skin accounted for the maintenance of drug concentration for at least 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated

  5. DNA lability induced by nimustine and ramustine in rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineura, K; Fushimi, S; Itoh, Y; Kowada, M

    1988-01-01

    The DNA labile sites induced by two nitrosoureas, nimustine (ACNU) and ramustine (MCNU) synthesised in Japan, have been examined in highly reiterated DNA sequences of rat glioma cells. Reiterated fragments of 167 and 203 base pairs (bp), obtained after Hind III and Hae III restriction endonuclease digestion of rat glioma cells DNA, were used as target DNA sequences to determine the labile sites. In vitro reaction with ACNU and MCNU resulted in scission products corresponding to the locations of guanine. Subsequent piperidine hydrolysis produced more frequent breaks of the phosphodiester bonds at guanine positions, thus forming alkali-labile sites. Images PMID:3236017

  6. A novel nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind Sadashiv; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, an effort was made to develop the Eudragit RS100 based nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ). LPZ-loaded Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs) were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The effects of various formulation variables such as polymer concentration, drug amount and solvent composition on physicochemical performance of nanoparticles and in vitro drug release were investigated. All nanoparticles were spherical with particle size 198.9 ± 8.6-376.9 ± 5.6 nm and zeta potential +35.1 ± 1.7 to +40.2 ± 0.8 mV. The yield of nanoparticles was unaffected by change of these three variables. However, the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were affected by polymer concentration and drug amount. On the other hand, the particle size of nanoparticles was significantly affected by polymer concentration and internal phase composition due to influence of droplet size during emulsification process. All nanoparticles prolonged drug release for 24h which was dominated by a combination of drug diffusion and polymer chain relaxation. The fastest and the slowest release rates were observed in C2-1002-10/0 and C8-4001-10/0, respectively, based on the release rate constant (k). Thus, the developed nanoparticles possessed a potential as a nano-carrier to sustain drug delivery for treatment of acid related disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2018-01-01

    Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the

  8. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December 1999, and January 2007). The evolution of the eddy driven jet stream, Rossby wave-breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the large-scale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones are related to each other. Results suggest that optimal conditions for the occurrence of cyclone clusters are provided by a recurrent extension of an intensified eddy driven jet toward Western Europe lasting at least 1 week. Multiple Rossby wave-breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the development of these anomalous large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones developing on a single jet streak. The present analysis permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

  9. How Gamification Affects Physical Activity: Large-scale Analysis of Walking Challenges in a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ali; Althoff, Tim; Saberi, Amin; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-04-01

    Gamification represents an effective way to incentivize user behavior across a number of computing applications. However, despite the fact that physical activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about how gamification and in particular competitions shape human physical activity. Here we study how competitions affect physical activity. We focus on walking challenges in a mobile activity tracking application where multiple users compete over who takes the most steps over a predefined number of days. We synthesize our findings in a series of game and app design implications. In particular, we analyze nearly 2,500 physical activity competitions over a period of one year capturing more than 800,000 person days of activity tracking. We observe that during walking competitions, the average user increases physical activity by 23%. Furthermore, there are large increases in activity for both men and women across all ages, and weight status, and even for users that were previously fairly inactive. We also find that the composition of participants greatly affects the dynamics of the game. In particular, if highly unequal participants get matched to each other, then competition suffers and the overall effect on the physical activity drops significantly. Furthermore, competitions with an equal mix of both men and women are more effective in increasing the level of activities. We leverage these insights to develop a statistical model to predict whether or not a competition will be particularly engaging with significant accuracy. Our models can serve as a guideline to help design more engaging competitions that lead to most beneficial behavioral changes.

  10. Physical processes affecting turbidity in a tidal marsh across a range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Poindexter, C.

    2016-12-01

    The direction of net suspended sediment flux, whether into or out of a tidal marsh, can determine whether a marsh is aggrading or eroding. Measuring net suspended sediment fluxes or attributing trends in these fluxes to a particular physical processes is challenging because suspended sediment concentrations are highly variable in time. We used singular spectrum analysis for time series with missing data (SSAM) to observe the relative effects on turbidity of physical processes occurring on different time scales at the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. This Preserve covers the largest contiguous area of full-tidal marsh remaining within Suisun Bay, the eastern most subembayment of San Francisco Bay. A long-term monitoring station at First Mallard Slough within the Preserve measures turbidity. Our analysis of of this turbidity record isolated the contribution to total variance from different tides and from annual cycles of San Francisco Bay freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and wind-driven sediment resuspension. Surprisingly, the contribution from diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents (30%) was smaller than the contribution from annual cycles of freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and resuspension (38%). This result contrasts with the original implementation of SSAM to suspended sediment concentration, which was conducted in the central San Francisco Bay. This previous work indicated a significant yet smaller contribution (13%) to total suspended sediment concentration variance from annual cycles (Schoellhamer, D. H., 2002, Continental Shelf Research., 22, 1857-1866). The reason for the contrast relates in part to the location of the First Mallard Slough more than 10 km along the tidal channel network from Suisun Bay. At this location, the lowest frequency variation in suspended sediment is accentuated. Annual peaks in turbidity at First Mallard depend not only on spring and summer wind-driven resuspension of sediment in San Pablo Bay but also its co

  11. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  12. Reliability of the sliding scale for collecting affective responses to words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbault, C; Shore, D; Kuperman, V

    2018-01-25

    Warriner, Shore, Schmidt, Imbault, and Kuperman, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71; 71-88 (2017) have recently proposed a slider task in which participants move a manikin on a computer screen toward or further away from a word, and the distance (in pixels) is a measure of the word's valence. Warriner, Shore, Schmidt, Imbault, and Kuperman, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71; 71-88 (2017) showed this task to be more valid than the widely used rating task, but they did not examine the reliability of the new methodology. In this study we investigated multiple aspects of this task's reliability. In Experiment 1 (Exps. 1.1-1.6), we showed that the sliding scale has high split-half reliability (r = .868 to .931). In Experiment 2, we also showed that the slider task elicits consistent repeated responses both within a single session (Exp. 2: r = .804) and across two sessions separated by one week (Exp. 3: r = .754). Overall, the slider task, in addition to having high validity, is highly reliable.

  13. Fractal scaling of particle size distribution and relationships with topsoil properties affected by biological soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust, as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05; and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R(2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions.

  14. Examination of MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scales as Indicators of Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Joye C; Harrop, Tiffany M; Schneider, Matthew; Bender, Theodore W; Ringer, Fallon B; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    A new suicide-specific diagnostic entity, acute suicidal affective disturbance (ASAD), was recently proposed to fill a void in the nomenclature. Although several studies have examined the reliability, validity, and potential clinical utility of ASAD, no studies have examined personality indicators of ASAD. This study sought to examine the association between personality and psychopathology factors, as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Revised Form (MMPI-2-RF), and constructs that comprise ASAD in a sample of 554 psychiatric outpatients who completed all measures prior to their intake appointments. A smaller subset of patients (N = 58) also completed a measure designed to assess lifetime ASAD symptoms. Results indicated that ASAD symptoms were associated with traits characterized by emotional turmoil and atypical cognitive processes. Further, suicide-related criteria that comprise ASAD were related to low positive emotionality and hopelessness, whereas the overarousal criteria were associated with somatic symptoms and an inability to tolerate frustration and stress. These findings expand on previous research that examines the convergent and discriminant validity of ASAD and could inform clinical treatment by providing insight into personality traits that might be associated with acute suicide risk.

  15. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: Towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. PMID:23352202

  16. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-05-01

    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  17. Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  18. Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaba, Cristian R

    2009-01-01

    for tree shape convergence of large trees. There is no evidence for any universal scaling in the tree of life. Instead, there is a need for improved methods of tree analysis that can be used to discriminate the noise due to outgroups from the phylogenetic signal within the taxon of interest, and to evaluate realistic models of evolution, correcting the retrospective perspective and explicitly recognizing extinction as a driving force. Artifacts are pervasive, and can only be overcome through understanding the structure and biological meaning of phylogenetic trees. Catalan Abstract in Translation S1.

  19. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  20. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Scheckel, K.; Sekine, R.; Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Brunetti, G.; Naidu, R.; McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with 110m Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO 3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002–3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. - Highlights: • Biosolids silver (Ag) concentrations appear to have decreased in recent decades. • Ag 2 S dominates Ag speciation in freshly produced sludge. • Ag 2 S is also the dominant species in aged biosolids. • Upon land application biosolids will mainly contain Ag-sulfides and have low isotopic lability. - Analysis of historic and contemporary biosolids from three continents indicated decreasing wastewater silver releases, and non-labile, extremely stable silver speciation

  1. Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianyang; Price, Margaret P; Taugher, Rebecca J; Grigsby, Daniel; Ash, Jamison J; Stark, Austin C; Hossain Saad, Md Zubayer; Singh, Kritika; Mandal, Juthika; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22564.001 PMID:28650315

  2. Antiretroviral treatment and the health workforce in South Africa: how have ART workers been affected by scaling up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Patrick; George, Gavin; Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the effect of scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the working environment and motivation of health workers in South Africa; and to suggest strategies to minimize negative effects and maximise positive effects. Exploratory interviews with health managers and senior clinical staff were used to identify locally relevant work environment indicators. A self-reported Likert scale questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected cohort of 269 health professionals at health facilities in KwaZulu Natal and Western Cape provinces of South Africa that included ART delivery sites. The cohort was disaggregated into ART and non-ART groups and differences between the two compared with Fisher's exact test and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The ART sub-cohort reported: (i) a lighter workload (P = 0.013), (ii) higher level of staffing (P = 0.010), (iii) lower sickness absence (P = 0.032), (iv) higher overall job satisfaction (P = 0.010), (v) poorer physical state of their work premises (P = 0.003), and (vi) higher staff turnover (P = 0.036). Conclusion Scale-up affects the work environment in ways that influence workers' motivation both positively and negatively. A net negative balance is likely to drive staff out-migration, undermine the quality of care and compromise the capacity of the programme to achieve significant scale. As health workers are the most important element of the health system, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of scale-up impacts on their working conditions and motivation needs to be an integral part of any delivery strategy.

  3. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  4. Monitoring of labile copper and zinc in estuarine waters using cathodic stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, C.M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cathodic stripping chronopotentiometry (CSC) is readily suitable for automation, and sensitivity is often not affected by variations in major ion concentration (salinity) or by the dissolved concentration of oxygen. So this technique is very suitable for automated monitoring of certain trace elements in natural waters, including estuarine waters. The suitability of CSC for monitoring is demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of copper and zinc in the Tamar estuary in-line and automatically. The measuring rate was approximately 90h -1 . The concentrations of zinc and copper in the Tamar estuary were shown to behave in agreement with the findings of previous studies; the labile metal concentrations increased in the turbidity maximum and decreased immediately after it (at higher salinities) as a result of particle scavenging; gradual increase was apparent at intermediate salinities as result of pore-water injection, and the metal concentrations followed a dilution pattern with seawater at high salinities. In-line measurements provided a detailed picture of metal behaviour in this estuary and elucidated local inputs. The sensitivity (down to approximately 5 nM Cu and 6 nM Zn) allows monitoring of copper and zinc at levels common in estuarine and coastal waters, but is insufficient to monitor these metals in uncontaminated seawater. (author). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Normal growth spurt and final height despite low levels of all forms of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I in a patient with acid-labile subunit deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domené, Horacio M; Martínez, Alicia S; Frystyk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recently described patient with acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency, the inability to form ternary complexes resulted in a marked reduction in circulating total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, whereas skeletal growth was only marginally affected. To further study the role of...

  6. Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation

  7. Reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the lower extremity functional scale in individuals affected by stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijde, Joseph L; White, Fred; Tompkins, James; Dahl, Peder; Hentz, Joseph G; Lebec, Michael T; Cornwall, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To investigate reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals affected by stroke. The secondary objective was to test the validity and sensitivity of a single-item linear analog scale (LAS) of function. Prospective cohort reliability and validation study. A single rehabilitation department in an academic medical center. Forty-three individuals receiving neurorehabilitation for lower extremity dysfunction after stroke were studied. Their ages ranged from 32 to 95 years, with a mean of 70 years; 77% were men. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the classical intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the instruments. Sensitivity to change was assessed by comparing baseline scores with end of treatment scores. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 1-3 days, and at 4 and 8 weeks. The LEFS, Short-Form-36 Physical Function Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Six-Minute Walk Test, Five-Meter Walk Test, Timed Up-and-Go test, and the LAS of function were used. The test-retest reliability of the LEFS was found to be excellent (ICC = 0.96). Correlated with the 6 other measures of function studied, the validity of the LEFS was found to be moderate to high (r = 0.40-0.71). Regarding the sensitivity to change, the mean LEFS scores from baseline to study end increased 1.2 SD and for LAS 1.1 SD. LEFS exhibits good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change in patients with lower extremity impairments secondary to stroke. Therefore, the LEFS can be a clinically efficient outcome measure in the rehabilitation of patients with subacute stroke. The LAS is shown to be a time-saving and reasonable option to track changes in a patient's functional status. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Being affected by large-scale projects - considerations on the protection of rights in Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final part of an article published in Bay. (VBL 1982, 257). The author comes to the following conclusions: Proposals for reducing the protection of rights frames against a certain background of interests and partly taken over in practice by administrative courts meet with a variety of dogmatic and political considerations relating to these rights. This does not only hold for the attempt to restrict the rights of all those under public and substantive law who are affected by construction and operation, but also for making it harder for the complainants to pursue their rights, and especially for efforts intended to further limit the fact-finding of courts in case of large-scale projects. The judicature is called to review the individual licences issued for large-scale projects, especially because of the inherent symptomatic collisions of basic rights. The judge has a confidence-building advantage; i.e. his independence, which is gaining in importance in the struggle between hardened fronts and economic interests. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. A French Translation of the Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD Semantic Differential Scale for the Measure of Affect and Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Detandt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate studies have repeatedly confirmed that three basic dimensions of human emotional behavior, called 'pleasure' (P, 'arousal' (A and 'dominance '(D are persistent in organizing human judgments for a wide range of perceptual and symbolic stimuli. The Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD semantic differential scale is a well-established tool to measure these categories, but no standardized French translation is available for research. The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the PAD. For this purpose, (1 Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD was trans- lated through a process of translations and back-translations and (2 this French PAD was tested in a population of 111 French-speaking adults on 21 images of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor structure; the French PAD also distributed the images in the affective space according to the expected boomerang-shape. The present version of PAD is thus a valid French translation of Mehrabian and Russell’s original PAD.

  10. Assessing soil carbon lability by near infrared spectroscopy and NaOCL oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantifying labile organic matter (OM) in arable soils and for predicting soil refractory OM fractions was tested on 37 soils varying in texture and soil carbon (C) content. Three sets of arable soils (0-20 cm depth) were sampled from 1) long......-term field experiments with different OM inputs, 2) individual sites with inherent with-in field gradients in soil texture and/or C content, and 3) from a range of different sites covering variations in management and geological origin. The labile OM fraction was defined by the CO2 evolved from the soils...... incubated for 34 weeks while refractory OM was obtained by NaOCl oxidation. The labile fraction of the soil C accounted for 2-12% of the total soil C content. No systematic relationship between labile C content and total soil C or clay was found, but NIR spectra could be correlated well with the labile C...

  11. Observations of mesoscale and boundary-layer scale circulations affecting dust transport and uplift over the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Marsham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the Saharan boundary layer, made during the GERBILS field campaign, show that mesoscale land surface temperature variations (which were related to albedo variations induced mesoscale circulations. With weak winds along the aircraft track, land surface temperature anomalies with scales of greater than 10 km are shown to significantly affect boundary-layer temperatures and winds. Such anomalies are expected to affect the vertical mixing of the dusty and weakly stratified Saharan Residual Layer (SRL. Mesoscale variations in winds are also shown to affect dust loadings in the boundary layer.

    Using the aircraft observations and data from the COSMO model, a region of local dust uplift, with strong along-track winds, was identified in one low-level flight. Large eddy model (LEM simulations based on this location showed linearly organised boundary-layer convection. Calculating dust uplift rates from the LEM wind field showed that the boundary-layer convection increased uplift by approximately 30%, compared with the uplift rate calculated neglecting the convection. The modelled effects of boundary-layer convection on uplift are shown to be larger when the boundary-layer wind is decreased, and most significant when the mean wind is below the threshold for dust uplift and the boundary-layer convection leads to uplift which would not otherwise occur.

    Both the coupling of albedo features to the atmosphere on the mesoscale, and the enhancement of dust uplift by boundary-layer convection are unrepresented in many climate models, but may have significant impacts on the vertical transport and uplift of desert dust. Mesoscale effects in particular tend to be difficult to parametrise.

  12. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Klaus J. Puettmann; J. Renée Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Summary1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment to better understand options for managing forests under climate change. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (δ...

  13. Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiesha Ahmed, Zachary SimmonsDepartment of Neurology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA may occur in association with a variety of neurological diseases, and so may be encountered in the setting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. The psychological consequences and the impact on social interactions may be substantial. Although it is most commonly misidentified as a mood disorder, particularly depression or a bipolar disorder, there are characteristic features that can be recognized clinically or assessed by validated scales, resulting in accurate identification of PBA, and thus permitting proper management and treatment. Mechanistically, PBA is a disinhibition syndrome in which pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted. This knowledge has permitted effective treatment for many years with antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A recent therapeutic breakthrough occurred with the approval by the Food and Drug Administration of a dextromethorphan/quinidine combination as being safe and effective for treatment of PBA. Side effect profiles and contraindications differ for the various treatment options, and the clinician must be familiar with these when choosing the best therapy for an individual, particularly elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications.Keywords: pseudobulbar affect, emotional lability, depression, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis

  14. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Lability, and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults At-Risk for ADHD: Testing Moderation and Moderated Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Shorey, Ryan C

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women. Emotional lability moderated the association between emotional neglect and alcohol problems; maltreatment increased risk for alcohol problems for those scoring high tovery high on emotional lability, but not for those with very low-moderate levels. The association between emotional abuse and alcohol problems depended both on emotional lability and sex; emotional abuse decreased the risk for alcohol problems among men very low/low on emotional lability, but not for men who were moderate to very high on emotional lability, or for women. These findings have implications for the way in which targeting maltreatment and emotional lability may be incorporated into prevention and intervention programs to prevent alcohol problems among men and women at risk for ADHD.

  15. 'Inconstant males' and the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Bodil; Bataillon, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    . Depending on the genetics of sex determination, we found pure dioecy, stable subdioecy (trioecy), and situations where inconstant males coexisted with either pure females or pure males. Under selfing and pollen limitation, certain conditions selected for inconstant males which will drive populations......Here, we evaluate the role of pollen limitation and selfing in the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plant species. We used a literature survey to explore which factors correlated with a significant occurrence of hermaphrodites in dioecious species. We developed models to explore...... the selective maintenance of labile sex expression. The models had similar ecological assumptions but differed in the genetic basis of sex lability. We found that a significant frequency of hermaphrodites was associated with animal pollination, and that hermaphrodites were ‘inconstant' males with perfect...

  16. Lability of soil organic carbon in tropical soils with different clay minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Elberling, Bo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover is influenced by interactions between organic matter and the mineral soil fraction. However, the influence of clay content and type on SOC turnover rates remains unclear, particularly in tropical soils under natural vegetation. We examined the lability...... of SOC in tropical soils with contrasting clay mineralogy (kaolinite, smectite, allophane and Al-rich chlorite). Soil was sampled from A horizons at six sites in humid tropical areas of Ghana, Malaysian Borneo and the Solomon Islands and separated into fractions above and below 250 µm by wet sieving....... Basal soil respiration rates were determined from bulk soils and soil fractions. Substrate induced respiration rates were determined from soil fractions. SOC lability was significantly influenced by clay mineralogy, but not by clay content when compared across contrasting clay minerals. The lability...

  17. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  18. Detection of Catchment-Scale Gully-Affected Areas Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully-affected areas detection is the basic work in this region for gully erosion assessment and monitoring. For the first time, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was applied to extract gully features in this region. Two typical catchments in Changwu and Ansai were selected to represent loess tableland and loess hilly regions, respectively. A high-powered quadrocopter (md4-1000 equipped with a non-metric camera was used for image acquisition. InPho and MapMatrix were applied for semi-automatic workflow including aerial triangulation and model generation. Based on the stereo-imaging and the ground control points, the highly detailed digital elevation models (DEMs and ortho-mosaics were generated. Subsequently, an object-based approach combined with the random forest classifier was designed to detect gully-affected areas. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The overall extraction accuracy in Changwu and Ansai achieved was 84.62% and 86.46%, respectively, which indicated the potential of the proposed workflow for extracting gully features. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

  19. Is there an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors? Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Sun Yuanyuan; Cao Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com; Wang Kui; Yang Lin [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China); Zhang Yidong; Zheng Zhi [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China)

    2012-05-15

    Although nano-structured surfaces exhibit superior biological activities to the smooth or micro-structured surfaces, whether there is an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors is still controversial. In this study, porous aluminum oxide membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 25 to 120 nm were prepared by the anodic oxidation technique. The surface morphology, topography and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results indicated that the synergistic action of the nano-topography structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties resulted in a highest protein adsorption on the aluminum oxide membrane with 80 nm pore size. Additionally, the morphological, metabolic and cell counting methods showed that cells had different sensitivity to porous aluminum oxide membranes with different surface features. Furthermore, this sensitivity was cell type dependent. The optimal pore size of aluminum oxide membranes for cell growth was 80 nm for PC12 cells and 50 nm for NIH 3T3 cells.

  20. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Hope Among Children Affected by Armed Conflict: Cross-Cultural Construct Validity of the Children's Hope Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E; Jordans, Mark; de Jong, Joop; Gross, Alden; Bass, Judith; Tol, Wietse

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of hope, a factor associated with mental health protection and promotion, using the Children's Hope Scale (CHS). The sample ( n = 1,057; 48% girls) included baseline data from three cluster-randomized controlled trials with children affected by armed conflict ( n = 329 Burundi; n = 403 Indonesia; n = 325 Nepal). The confirmatory factor analysis in each country indicated good fit for the hypothesized two-factor model. Analysis by gender indicated that configural invariance was supported and that scalar invariance was demonstrated in Indonesia. However, metric and scalar invariance were not supported in Burundi and Nepal. In country comparisons, configural and metric invariance were met, but scalar invariance was not supported. Evidence from this study supports the use of the CHS within various sociocultural settings and across genders, but direct comparisons of CHS scores across groups should be done with caution. Rigorous evaluations of the measurement properties of mental health protective and promotive factors are necessary to inform both research and practice.

  2. Skills based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale-entrepreneurship: A case of communal cattle farmers in Vhembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs also formed part of data collection instruments. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low. Government sponsored extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training amongst the entrepreneur farmers. Since the study area is in the proximity of the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural Colleges, these institutions could be enlisted to provide skills training to the entrepreneur farmers.

  3. Persistent long-term facilitation at an identified synapse becomes labile with activation of short-term heterosynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2014-04-02

    Short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity are cellular correlates of learning and memory of different durations. Little is known, however, how these two forms of plasticity interact at the same synaptic connection. We examined the reciprocal impact of short-term heterosynaptic or homosynaptic plasticity at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia in cell culture when expressing persistent long-term facilitation (P-LTF) evoked by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Short-term heterosynaptic plasticity induced by 5-HT (facilitation) or the neuropeptide FMRFa (depression) and short-term homosynaptic plasticity induced by tetanus [post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)] or low-frequency stimulation [homosynaptic depression (HSD)] of the sensory neuron were expressed in both control synapses and synapses expressing P-LTF in the absence or presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. All forms of short-term plasticity failed to significantly affect ongoing P-LTF in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, P-LTF reversed to control levels when either 5-HT or FMRFa was applied in the presence of rapamycin. In contrast, P-LTF was unaffected when either PTP or HSD was evoked in the presence of either rapamycin or anisomycin. These results indicate that synapses expressing persistent plasticity acquire a "new" baseline and functionally express short-term changes as naive synapses, but the new baseline becomes labile following selective activations-heterosynaptic stimuli that evoke opposite forms of plasticity-such that when presented in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors produce a rapid reversal of the persistent plasticity. Activity-selective induction of a labile state at synapses expressing persistent plasticity may facilitate the development of therapies for reversing inappropriate memories.

  4. Rating of Everyday Arm-Use in the Community and Home (REACH scale for capturing affected arm-use after stroke: development, reliability, and validity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Simpson

    Full Text Available To develop a brief, valid and reliable tool [the Rating of Everyday Arm-use in the Community and Home (REACH scale] to classify affected upper limb use after stroke outside the clinical setting.Focus groups with clinicians, patients and caregivers (n = 33 and a literature review were employed to develop the REACH scale. A sample of community-dwelling individuals with stroke was used to assess the validity (n = 96 and inter-rater reliability (n = 73 of the new scale.The REACH consists of separate scales for dominant and non-dominant affected upper limbs, and takes five minutes to administer. Each scale consists of six categories that capture 'no use' to 'full use'. The intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted kappa for inter-rater reliability were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-0.98 and 0.91 (0.89-0.93 respectively. REACH scores correlated with external measures of upper extremity use, function and impairment (rho = 0.64-0.94.The REACH scale is a reliable, quick-to-administer tool that has strong relationships to other measures of upper limb use, function and impairment. By providing a rich description of how the affected upper limb is used outside of the clinical setting, the REACH scale fills an important gap among current measures of upper limb use and is useful for understanding the long term effects of stroke rehabilitation.

  5. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  6. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  7. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...

  8. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lability of Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes at a Macroscopic Metal Responsive (Bio)interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, Jérôme F.L.; Town, Raewyn M.; Leeuwen, Van Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    The lability of metal complexes expresses the extent of the dissociative contribution of the complex species to the flux of metal ions toward a macroscopic metal-responsive (bio)interface, for example, an electrodic sensor or an organism. While the case of molecular ligands is well-established, it

  10. Effect of exogenous phosphate on the lability and phytoavailability of arsenic in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjin; Zeng, Xibai; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yongtao; Zhao, Shizhen; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Tuo

    2018-04-01

    The effect of exogenous phosphate (P, 200 mg⋅kg -1 soil) on the lability and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) was studied using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Lettuce were grown on the As-amended soils following the stabilization of soil labile As after 90 days incubation. Phosphate (P) application generally facilitated plant growth except one grown on P-sufficient soil. Soil labile As concentration increased in all the soils after P application due to a competition effect. Plant As concentration increased in red soils collected from Hunan Province, while decreases were observed in the other soils. Even though, an overall trend of decrease was obtained in As phytoavailability along with the increase of DGT-measured soil labile P/As molar ratio. The functional equation between P/As and As phytoavailability provided a critical value of 1.7, which could be used as a guidance for rational P fertilization, thus avoiding overfertilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  12. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  13. Modelling the resilience of rail passenger transport networks affected by large-scale disruptive events : the case of HSR (high speed rail)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling the dynamic resilience of rail passenger transport networks affected by large-scale disruptive events whose impacts deteriorate the networks’ planned infrastructural, operational, economic, and social-economic performances represented by the selected indicators.

  14. Does the scale of our observational window affect our conclusions about correlations between endangered salmon populations and their habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake E. Feist; E. Ashley Steel; David W. Jensen; Damon N.D. Sather

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the strength of species-habitat relationships across scales provide insights into the mechanisms that drive these relationships and guidance for designing in situ monitoring programs, conservation efforts and mechanistic studies. The scale of our observation can also impact the strength of perceived relationships between animals and habitat conditions....

  15. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  16. High-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus and its relationship with iron redox state in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yulu; Liang, Tao; Tian, Shuhan

    2016-01-01

    a regional summer algal bloom. Two-dimensional distributions of labile P in sediments were imaged with the Zr-Oxide DGT without destruction of the original structure of the sediment layer at four sites of the lake. The concentration of DGT-labile P in the sediments, ranging from 0.007 to 0.206 mg L(-1......), was highly heterogeneous across the profiles. The values of apparent diffusion flux (Fd) and release flux (Fr) of P varied between -0.027-0.197 mg m(-2) d(-1) and 0.037-0.332 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Labile P showed a high and positive correlation (p

  17. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nima, Ali; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants' (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  18. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect.Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule.Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27.Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  19. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound Cd and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Chennuri, Kartheek; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2015-11-15

    A linkage between Cd speciation in sediments and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster (Crassostrea sp.) from a tropical estuarine system was established. Bioaccumulation of Cd in edible oyster increased with the increasing lability and dissociation rate constants of Cd-sediment complexes in the bottom sediments. Total Cd concentration in sediment was not a good indicator of Cd-bioavailability. Increasing trace metal competition in sediments increased lability and bioavailability of Cd in the tropical estuarine sediment. Low thermodynamic stability and high bioavailability of Cd in the estuarine sediment were responsible for high bioaccumulation of Cd in edible oysters (3.2-12.2mgkg(-1)) even though the total concentration of Cd in the bottom sediment was low (0.17-0.49mgkg(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing soil constituents and labile soil organic carbon by mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    ) degradability. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterisation of the labile fraction of SOC and more classical soil parameters, such as carbon and clay content, for a range of 36 soils collected from various field experiments in Denmark. Partial least squares (PLS...... signal. This also means that it should be advantageous for soil analysis because of its highly opaque nature. However, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS to soil characterization and investigation is still required into its potential to determine soil organic carbon (SOC......) regression was used to correlate the collected FTIR-PAS spectra with the proportion of soil organic carbon mineralised after 238 days of incubation at 15°C and pF 2 (C238d) taken as an indicator of the labile fraction of SOC. Results showed that it is possible to predict total organic carbon content, total...

  1. Labile/inert metal species in aquatic humic substances: an ion-exchange study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.

    1994-01-01

    An ion-exchange procedure has been developed for the analytical fractionation of metals (e.g. Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) forming labile/inert complexes with aquatic humic substances (HS) isolated (XAD 2, XAD 8, ultrafiltration) from bog, forest, ground and lake water. Using 1-(2-hydroxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol groups immobilized on cellulose (Cellulose HYPHAN TM ) as chelating collector (batch and column procedure, resp.) for reactive metal fractions in dissolved HS, the kinetics and the degree of separation (referred to the total metal content) serve for the operational characterization of the metal lability. According to the separation kinetics (96 h), mostly the reactivity order Mn > Zn > Co > Pb > Ni > Cu >> Al > Fe is observed for the above metals in HS, resulting in recoveries of > 98% for Mn and Zn, but strongly varying for the other metals (e.g., 44-95% Cu, 18-84% Fe). (orig.)

  2. Performance of lap splices in large-scale column specimens affected by ASR and/or DEF-extension phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A large experimental program, consisting of the design, construction, curing, exposure, and structural load : testing of 16 large-scale column specimens with a critical lap splice region that were influenced by varying : stages of alkali-silica react...

  3. GM1 erythroimmunoassay for detection and titration of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Germani, Y; Bégaud, E; Guesdon, J L; Moreau, J P

    1986-01-01

    A GM1 ganglioside erythroimmunoassay for the detection of heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT) was developed for use in poorly equipped laboratories in developing countries. This assay is based on the immunological similarity between Vibrio cholerae toxin and LT and uses cholera toxin antiserum and sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin covalently coupled to sheep erythrocytes as conjugate. This assay has the following advantages over other currently available techniques: the reagents it u...

  4. Human acid-labile subunit deficiency: clinical, endocrine and metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domené, Horacio M.; Hwa, Vivian; Argente, Jesús; Wit, Jan M.; Wit, Jaan M.; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia; Jasper, Héctor G.; Pozo, Jesús; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; Yakar, Shoshana; Fofanova-Gambetti, Olga V.; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Scaglia, Paula A.; Bengolea, Sonia V.; Lteif, Aida; Kirmani, Salman; Mahmud, Farid H.; Frystyk, Jan; Hermus, Ad; Twickler, T. B.; Kempers, Marlies J. E.; Barrios, Vicente; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel A.; David, Alessia; Rose, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The majority of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II circulate in the serum as a complex with the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 or IGFBP-5, and an acid-labile subunit (ALS). The function of ALS is to prolong the half-life of the IGF-I-IGFBP-3/IGFBP-5 binary complexes.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of oral multiparticulate formulations of acid-labile drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Säure-labile Medikamente werden leicht in saurem Medium abgebaut, welche hauptsächlich als enterisch beschichtete Dosierungsformen für die orale Verabreichung formuliert wurden. Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, orale multipartikuläre Formulierungen von säure-labilen Medikamenten, mit Ilaprazol, Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium als Modellarzneistoffe vorzubereiten. Der Einfluss der Wirkstofflöslichkeit von Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium und des Kerntyps, wurde auf das Übe...

  6. Labile synthetic cadmium complexes are not bioavailable to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in resin buffered solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheyen, L., E-mail: Liesbeth.Verheyen@ees.kuleuven.be [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Merckx, R. [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Smolders, E., E-mail: Erik.Smolders@ees.kuleuven.be [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-11-15

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that cadmium (Cd) uptake by organisms is identical for solutions with the same free Cd{sup 2+} concentration and inorganic composition. Clear exceptions to the FIAM have been shown for Cd uptake by plant roots, periphyton and human cells where labile Cd complexes increase bioavailability and which has been attributed to their role in enhancing Cd diffusion towards the uptake cells. Here, we assessed the role of labile Cd complexes on Cd uptake by algae, for which diffusion limitations should be less pronounced due to their smaller size. Long-term (3 days) Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was measured in resin buffered solutions with or without synthetic ligands and at three Cd{sup 2+} ion activities (pCd 8.2-5.7). The free Cd{sup 2+} activity was maintained during the test using a metal-selective resin located in the algal bottles. Total dissolved Cd increased up to 35-fold by adding the synthetic ligands at constant Cd{sup 2+} activity. In contrast, Cd uptake by algae increased maximally 2.8 fold with increasing concentration of the synthetic ligands and the availability of the complexes were maximally 5.2% relative to Cd{sup 2+} for NTA and CDTA complexes. It is concluded that labile Cd complexes do not greatly enhance Cd bioavailability to the unicellular algae and calculations suggest that Cd transport from solution to these small cells is not rate limiting.

  7. Labile synthetic cadmium complexes are not bioavailable to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in resin buffered solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheyen, L.; Merckx, R.; Smolders, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that cadmium (Cd) uptake by organisms is identical for solutions with the same free Cd 2+ concentration and inorganic composition. Clear exceptions to the FIAM have been shown for Cd uptake by plant roots, periphyton and human cells where labile Cd complexes increase bioavailability and which has been attributed to their role in enhancing Cd diffusion towards the uptake cells. Here, we assessed the role of labile Cd complexes on Cd uptake by algae, for which diffusion limitations should be less pronounced due to their smaller size. Long-term (3 days) Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was measured in resin buffered solutions with or without synthetic ligands and at three Cd 2+ ion activities (pCd 8.2–5.7). The free Cd 2+ activity was maintained during the test using a metal-selective resin located in the algal bottles. Total dissolved Cd increased up to 35-fold by adding the synthetic ligands at constant Cd 2+ activity. In contrast, Cd uptake by algae increased maximally 2.8 fold with increasing concentration of the synthetic ligands and the availability of the complexes were maximally 5.2% relative to Cd 2+ for NTA and CDTA complexes. It is concluded that labile Cd complexes do not greatly enhance Cd bioavailability to the unicellular algae and calculations suggest that Cd transport from solution to these small cells is not rate limiting.

  8. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakia D. Parrish; M. Katherine Banks; A. Paul Schwab [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Soil and Water

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  9. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Zakia D. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Banks, M. Katherine [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States)]. E-mail: kbanks@ecn.purdue.edu; Schwab, A. Paul [Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  10. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Zakia D.; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil

  11. Small-scale, joule-heated melting of Savannah River Plant waste glass. I. Factors affecting large-scale vitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Chismar, P.H.

    1979-10-01

    A promising method of immobilizing SRP radioactive waste solids is incorporation in borosilicate glass. In the reference vitrification process, called joule-heated melting, a mixture of glass frit and calcined waste is heated by passage of an electric current. Two problems observed in large-scale tests are foaming and formation of an insoluble slag. A small joule-heated melter was designed and built to study problems such as these. This report describes the melter, identifies factors involved in foaming and slag formation, and proposes ways to overcome these problems

  12. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Tye, A.M.; Chenery, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0–15 cm) and subsoil (35–50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type (‘BHT’) Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. -- Highlights: ► The labile

  13. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  14. Cu lability and bioavailability in an urban stream during baseflow versus stormflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, T.; Luan, H.

    2012-12-01

    Urban streams are dynamic systems with many anthropogenic inputs and stressors. Existing contaminant inputs are regulated through total maximum daily loads. Techniques for assessing that load are based on a combination of acute and chronic water quality criteria, biotic ligand models, and physical, chemical and biological assessments. In addition, the apportionment of reduction in load to different sources is based on total mass and not, for example, on bioavailable fraction. Our understanding of the impact of different metal inputs to stream impairment is limited. Free metal ions are understood to play a role in direct cellular uptake, but metal speciation (e.g. free metal, labile metals, or size fractionated) is relevant to more complex stream food webs. As part of an ongoing study, this work examines dissolved and particulate Cu concentrations in the Hockanum River, Vernon, CT situated in a developed watershed. Stream samples were taken during baseflow as well as stormflow upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plant and stormwater runoff inputs. In addition, diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) devices which measure labile metal concentrations and cultured periphyton were used to examine bioavailable fractions. Total and filtered Cu concentrations ranged from about 1.3 to 10.7 μg/L, and 0.9 to 5.1 μg/L, respectively. Cu concentrations always increased downstream of the wastewater treatment plant by about 1.1-2 times, and effluent accounted for about 30% of baseflow. Generally, small increases (sites downstream from the wastewater treatment plant downstream sampling point, suggesting contributions from sediment resuspension. DGT measured concentrations represented 30 to 70% of dissolved Cu concentrations, and that percentage increased in the days following a storm, suggesting more labile Cu compounds remained in the water column longer. Whereas solution metal concentrations in stormwater influenced reaches did not largely change upstream versus

  15. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenerl& #246; w, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  16. Performance of sulphate- and selenium-reducing biochemical reactors using different ratios of labile to recalcitrant organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Parissa; Baldwin, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Successful operation of sulphate-reducing bioreactors using complex organic materials depends on providing a balance between more easily degrading material that achieves reasonable kinetics and low hydraulic retention times, and more slowly decomposing material that sustains performance in the long term. In this study, two organic mixtures containing the same ingredients typical of bioreactors used at mine sites (woodchips, hay and cow manure) but with different ratios of wood (recalcitrant) to hay (labile) were tested in six continuous flow bioreactors treating synthetic mine-affected water containing 600 mg/L of sulphate and 15 μg/L of selenium. The reactors were operated for short (5-6 months) and long (435-450 days) periods of time at the same hydraulic retention time of 15 days. There were no differences in the performance of the bioreactors in terms of sulphate-reduction over the short term, but the wood-rich bioreactors experienced variable and sometimes unreliable sulphate-reduction over the long term. Presence of more hay in the organic mixture was able to better sustain reliable performance. Production of dissolved organic compounds due to biodegradation within the bioreactors was detected for the first 175-230 days, after which their depletion coincided with a crash phase observed in the wood-rich bioreactors only.

  17. Small-scale experimental contamination with diesel oil does not affect the recolonization of Sargassum (Fucales fronds by vagile macrofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Grande

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal regions are subject to various forms of environmental impacts, such as spills of crude oil and associated products, with a wide range of effects on benthic biodiversity. This study characterized the patterns of recolonization of the macrofauna associated with the brown alga Sargassum cymosum(C. Agardh, on fronds contaminated by diesel oil in a small-scale field experiment. We collected 40 fronds of S. cymosum from an algal bed in southeastern Brazil and defaunated each frond by immersion in fresh water. Half of the fronds were then immersed in seawater (control group and the other half in a mixture of 50% diesel oil and 50% seawater (impacted group. The test fronds were returned to the algal bed, and natural recolonization took place over a period of 12 days. Samples of the vagile macrofauna were taken randomly at three-day intervals over the course of the recolonization period. No significant differences in the densities of most taxa were found between the impact treatment (IG and control treatment (CG. At the end of the recolonization period (day 12, the faunal composition of the treated fronds was very similar to the natural conditions, indicating a high rate of community recovery and suggesting that benthic associations can be rather resilient to diesel-oil impacts on a small scale.

  18. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18-89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts ( t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions ( t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more 'distal' processes that manifest at 'slower' time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more 'proximal' processes that manifest at 'faster' time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes).

  19. Affect-based profiles of bulimia nervosa: The utility and validity of indicators assessed in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leraas, Bethany C; Smith, Kathryn E; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical conceptualizations of bulimia nervosa (BN) emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in the development and maintenance of symptoms, which has been supported by ecological momentary assessment studies. Given the importance of affective disturbances in BN, this study aimed to classify a sample of adult women with BN (N = 130) based on primarily momentary affective indicators, including negative and positive affect, negative and positive affective lability, and depression. Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Latent profile analysis revealed four groups: (1) a "stable normal" group characterized by low affective lability and intensity; (2) a "stable depressed" group characterized by low affective lability and higher affect intensity; (3) an "unstable normal" group characterized by higher affective lability but lower affect intensity; and (4) an "unstable depressed" group characterized by higher affective lability and intensity. The stable depressed group evidenced the highest levels of eating psychopathology, borderline personality traits, and childhood trauma history, while the stable normal group generally evidenced the lowest levels of psychopathology. The findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the topography of affect experienced by individuals with BN, and suggest that chronic, intense negative affect may be particularly important to address in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of temperature on the decomposition of labile and recalcitrant organic matter in Chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larioinova, Alla; Kvitkina, Anna; Bykhovets, Sergey; Stulin, Alexandr; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the recalcitrant pool of soil organic matter (SOM) is more temperature sensitive to decomposition than the labile one. The hypothesis was verified for Chernozem soil sampled from the control (unfertilized) and fertilized with NPK experimental plots of the 50 year field experiment with maize monoculture in Voronezh Region, Russia (51o41'N, 39o15'E). The labile and recalcitrant SOM pools at 2, 12, and 22°C in a long-term (430 d) incubation experiment were traced using the method of 13C natural abundance by C3-C4 transition. Based on decomposition rate constants, the SOM pools followed the order plant residues < new (C4) SOM < old (C3) SOM, with plant residues as the most labile C pool. The hypothesis was valid only for the temperature interval of 12-22°C, where Q10 values increased in the recalcitrance order from 1.2 (plant residues) to 4.3 (C3 SOM). At low temperatures (2-12°C), the values of Q10 varied in the narrow range of 2.2-2.8 irrespective of a SOM pool. In the soil under maize monoculture fertilized with NPK, the increased decomposition of C3 SOM was observed compared to the unfertilized control. The input of new C4 carbon decreased the rate of CO2 emission during the decomposition of the old C3 SOM, i.e. induced negative priming effect (PE). To the contrast, the fertilization increased the positive PE for the C3 SOM. Along with the SOM decomposition rate constants, the magnitude of PE was also temperature dependent. The maximal negative PE in control treatment was found at the lowest temperature of 2oC, while the highest positive PE in NPK fertilized soil was observed at the highest temperature of 22oC.

  1. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity and environmental tolerance of a labile quantitative character in a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative genetic models of evolution of phenotypic plasticity are used to derive environmental tolerance curves for a population in a changing environment, providing a theoretical foundation for integrating physiological and community ecology with evolutionary genetics of plasticity and norms of reaction. Plasticity is modelled for a labile quantitative character undergoing continuous reversible development and selection in a fluctuating environment. If there is no cost of plasticity, a labile character evolves expected plasticity equalling the slope of the optimal phenotype as a function of the environment. This contrasts with previous theory for plasticity influenced by the environment at a critical stage of early development determining a constant adult phenotype on which selection acts, for which the expected plasticity is reduced by the environmental predictability over the discrete time lag between development and selection. With a cost of plasticity in a labile character, the expected plasticity depends on the cost and on the environmental variance and predictability averaged over the continuous developmental time lag. Environmental tolerance curves derived from this model confirm traditional assumptions in physiological ecology and provide new insights. Tolerance curve width increases with larger environmental variance, but can only evolve within a limited range. The strength of the trade-off between tolerance curve height and width depends on the cost of plasticity. Asymmetric tolerance curves caused by male sterility at high temperature are illustrated. A simple condition is given for a large transient increase in plasticity and tolerance curve width following a sudden change in average environment. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  3. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound Cd and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Chennuri, K.; Bardhan, P.

    unaffected by changes in Eh of the medium (Zia-ur-Rehman et al., 2015; Pascaud et al., 2015). Complexations of Cd with carbonate restrict mobility of Cd in carbonate-rich sediment and soil (Wu et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015). Sekaly et al (1999) have... contribution number XXXX. References Almås, Å. R., McBride, M. B., & Singh, B. R. (2000). Solubility and lability of cadmium and zinc in two soils treated with organic matter. Soil Science, 165(3), 250-259. Broten, D. (1998). BC oysters face cadmium...

  4. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound Cd and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Chennuri, K.; Bardhan, P.

    unaffected by changes in Eh of the medium (Zia-ur-Rehman et al., 2015; Pascaud et al., 2015). Complexations of Cd with carbonate restrict mobility of Cd in carbonate-rich sediment and soil (Wu et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015). Sekaly et al (1999) have... contribution number XXXX. References Almås, Å. R., McBride, M. B., & Singh, B. R. (2000). Solubility and lability of cadmium and zinc in two soils treated with organic matter. Soil Science, 165(3), 250-259. Broten, D. (1998). BC oysters face cadmium...

  5. Perceived utility of emotion: the structure and construct validity of the Perceived Affect Utility Scale in a cross-ethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philip I; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new measure of the perceived utility of emotion, which is the degree to which emotions are perceived to be useful in achieving goals. In this study, we administered this new measure, the Perceived Affect Utility Scale (PAUSe), to a sample of 142 European American and 156 East Asian American college students. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a new, culturally informed parsing of emotion and for perceived utility of emotion to be distinguishable from ideal affect, a related but separate construct. Next, we explored the potential importance of perceived utility of emotion in cultural research. Through path analyses, we found that: (a) culturally relevant variables (e.g., independence) played a mediating role in the link between ethnic group and perceived utility of emotion; and (b) perceived utility of emotion played a mediating role in the link between culturally relevant variables and ideal affect. In particular, perceived utility of self-centered emotions (e.g., pride) was found to be associated with independence and ideal affect of those same emotions. In contrast, perceived utility of other-centered emotions (e.g., appreciation) was found to be associated with interdependence, dutifulness/self-discipline, and ideal affect of those same emotions. Implications for perceived utility of emotion in understanding cultural factors are discussed.

  6. Scale-dependent effects on wave propagation in magnetically affected single/double-layered compositionally graded nanosize beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with the wave propagation analysis of single/double layered functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanobeams in elastic medium and subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field employing nonlocal elasticity theory. Material properties of nanobeam change gradually according to the sigmoid function. Applying an analytical solution, the acoustical and optical dispersion relations are explored for various wave number, nonlocality parameter, material composition, elastic foundation constants, and magnetic field intensity. It is found that frequency and phase velocity of waves propagating in S-FGM nanobeam are significantly affected by these parameters. Also, presence of cut-off and escape frequencies in wave propagation analysis of embedded S-FGM nanobeams is investigated.

  7. Spatial scale and sampling resolution affect measures of gap disturbance in a lowland tropical forest: implications for understanding forest regeneration and carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Elena; Dalling, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Treefall gaps play an important role in tropical forest dynamics and in determining above-ground biomass (AGB). However, our understanding of gap disturbance regimes is largely based either on surveys of forest plots that are small relative to spatial variation in gap disturbance, or on satellite imagery, which cannot accurately detect small gaps. We used high-resolution light detection and ranging data from a 1500 ha forest in Panama to: (i) determine how gap disturbance parameters are influenced by study area size, and the criteria used to define gaps; and (ii) to evaluate how accurately previous ground-based canopy height sampling can determine the size and location of gaps. We found that plot-scale disturbance parameters frequently differed significantly from those measured at the landscape-level, and that canopy height thresholds used to define gaps strongly influenced the gap-size distribution, an important metric influencing AGB. Furthermore, simulated ground surveys of canopy height frequently misrepresented the true location of gaps, which may affect conclusions about how relatively small canopy gaps affect successional processes and contribute to the maintenance of diversity. Across site comparisons need to consider how gap definition, scale and spatial resolution affect characterizations of gap disturbance, and its inferred importance for carbon storage and community composition. PMID:24452032

  8. Do Political Attitudes Affect Consumer Choice? Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Study with Genetically Modified Bread in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Independent of the left-right model of ideological structure, genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and agriculture are resented across the political spectrum in Switzerland. In the absence of any real experience with genetically modified (GM food but faced with continuous exposure to warning messages in the media, conditioned feelings related to such a politically sensitive product may have a significant influence on revealed consumer choice. In our large-scale field study, we examined this assumption by selling three types of bread labeled as ‘made with organic corn’, ‘made with genetically modified corn’ and ‘made with conventional corn’ respectively in five locations across Switzerland using different price scenarios and selling groups. Customers who decided to buy bread also received an envelope containing a questionnaire about their prior political attitude expressed through their voting decision in a national referendum on a five-year ban on GMOs in 2005. The results demonstrate that consumer purchase decisions are determined by contextual factors not captured by general political attitudes. Surprisingly, the mere presence of GM food did have a positive impact on overall sales. The assumption that consumers would feel turned off by the mere presence of GM food for political reasons can therefore be safely discarded.

  9. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand." © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. β-Adrenergic signaling is required for the induction of a labile state during memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ick; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Jaehyun; Jang, Eun Hae; Oh, Jihae; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2018-04-20

    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory. Interestingly, this increase in membrane excitability diminished after treatment with propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), an NMDA receptor antagonist, and a PKA inhibitor. In addition, we found that administration of propranolol prior to, but not after, the retrieval of fear memory ameliorated the memory impairment caused by anisomycin, indicating that inhibition of β-adrenergic signaling blocks the destabilization of contextual fear memory. Taken together, these results indicate that β-adrenergic signaling via NMDA receptors and PKA signaling pathway induces a labile state of long-term memory through increased neuronal membrane excitability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Constraints on Transport and Emplacement Mechanisms of Labile Fractions in Lunar Cold Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D.; Gertsch, L.

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining the scientific exploration of the Solar System will require a significant proportion of the necessary fuels and propellants, as well as other bulk commodities, to be produced from local raw materials [1]. The viability of mineral production depends on the ability to locate and characterize mineable deposits of the necessary feedstocks. This requires, among other things, a workable understanding of the mechanisms by which such deposits form, which is the subject of Economic Geology. Multiple deposition scenarios are possible for labile materials on the Moon. This paper suggests labile fractions moved diffusely through space; deposits may grow richer with depth until low porosity rock; lateral transport is likely to have occurred with the regolith, at least for short distances; crystalline ice may not exist; the constituent phases could be extremely complex. At present we can constrain the sources only mildly; once on the Moon, the transport mechanisms inherently mix and therefore obscure the origins. However, the importance of expanding our understanding of ore-forming processes on the Moon behooves us to make the attempt. Thus begins a time of new inquiry for Economic Geology.

  12. Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault-Rompre, Jacynthe, E-mail: dessureaultromj@agr.gc.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Luster, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.luster@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou, E-mail: marie-louise.tercier@unige.c [CABE, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Sciences II, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.nowack@empa.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    By using a rhizobox micro-suction cup technique we studied in-situ mobilization and complexation of Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum and two different Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes, one of them hyperaccumulating Zn, the other Zn and Cd. The dynamic fraction (free metal ions and small labile complexes) of Zn and Cd decreased with time in the rhizosphere solution of the respective hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, and at the end of the experiment, it was significantly smaller than in the other treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere solutions of the T. caerulescens ecotypes exhibited a higher UV absorptivity than the solution of the T. perfoliatum rhizosphere and the plant-free soil. Based on our findings we suggest that mobile and labile metal-dissolved soil organic matter complexes play a key role in the rapid replenishment of available metal pools in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, postulated earlier. - A mechanism that explains the rapid replenishment of metal pools accessible by hyperaccumulator plants for phytoextraction is proposed.

  13. Rhizosphere Environment and Labile Phosphorus Release from Organic Waste-Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh H.

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and biofertilizers are primary sources of nutrients for organic crop production. However, soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched manure have elevated phosphorus (P) levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture. Surpluses occurred in these amended soils, resulting in large pools of exchangeable inorganic P (Pi) and enzyme-labile organic P (Po) that averaging 30.9 and 68.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Organic acids produced during crop residue decomposition can promote the complexation of counter-ions and decouple and release unbound Pi from metal and alkali metal phosphates. Animal manure and cover crop residues also contain large amounts of soluble organic matter, and likely generate similar ligands. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in P spatial distribution in such amended fields, arising from variances in substrate physical forms ranging from slurries to dried solids, composition, and diverse application methods and equipment. Distinct clusters of Pi and Po were observed, where accumulation of the latter forms was associated with high soil microbial biomass C and reduced phosphomonoesterases' activity. Accurate estimates of plant requirements and lability of soil P pools, and real-time plant and soil P sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in crop production systems. An in situ X-ray fluorescence-based approach to sensing canopy and soil XRFS-P was developed to improve the yield-soil P relationship for optimal nutrient recommendations in addition to allowing in-the-field verification of foliar P status.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun): A Method to Detect Workers Who Have Health Problems Affecting their Work and to Evaluate Fitness for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Saito, Kumi; Uehara, Masamichi; Oyama, Ichiro; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun), a questionnaire to detect workers with health problems which affect their work, using an assessment by an occupational health nurse as objective standard. The WFun was completed by 294 employees. The nurse interviewed to assess 1) health problems; 2) effects of health on their work; necessity for 3) treatment, 4) health care instruction, and 5) consideration of job accommodation. The odds ratio in the high work functioning impairment group compared with the low was highly statistically significant with 9.05, 10.26, 5.77, 9.37, and 14.70, respectively. The WFun demonstrated the high detectability with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.75, 0.81, 0.72, 0.79, and 0.83, respectively. This study suggests that the WFun is useful in detecting those who have health problems affecting their work.

  15. Full-scale experimental and numerical study about structural behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground settlements due to land subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ortiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence due to ground water withdrawal is a problem in many places around the world (Poland, 1984. This causes differential ground settlements that affect masonry structures, because these structural materials do not exhibit an adequate performance beyond a certain level of angular distortion. This work presents the experimental and numerical results about a study regarding the performance of a full-scale thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground differential settlements due to land subsidence. The experimental stage consisted in the construction of a test-building to be subjected to differential settlements in laboratory. The numerical stage consisted in performing a numerical non-linear static pull-down analysis simulating the differential ground settlements of the test-building. The results show that the structural performance of the tested building was very suitable in terms of ductility.

  16. A reinforcement sensitivity model of affective and behavioral dysregulation in marijuana use and associated problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Noah N; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP × SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control. Affect lability and poor control, in turn, mediated effects on the marijuana outcomes. Poor control predicted both increased marijuana use and, controlling for use level, greater intensity of problems. Affect lability predicted greater intensity of problems, but was not associated with use level. There were few prospective effects. SR consistently predicted greater marijuana use and problems. SP however, exhibited both risk and protective pathways. Results indicate that SP is associated with a decreased likelihood of marijuana use. However, once use is initiated SP is associated with increased risk of problems, in part, due to its effects on both affect and behavioral dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  18. Strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds induced by ultraviolet light in DNA with 5-bromouracil in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasin, F; Hutchinson, F

    1978-01-01

    Supercircular gamma phage DNA with 10 bromouracils/100 thymine bases, irradiated with 313 nm light in Tris buffer and sedimented on alkaline and neutral gradients, showed 4.6 alkali-labile bonds per true single-strand break, in agreement with Hewitt and Marburger (1975 Photochem. Photobiol. 21:413). The same DNA irradiated in Escherichia coli host cells showed about the same number of breaks in alkaline gradients for equal fluence, but only 0.5 alkali-labile bond per true break. Similarly, E. coli DNA with bromouracil irradiated in the cells showed only 10--20% more breaks when denatured with 0.1 M NaOH than under neutral conditions with 9 M sodium perchlorate at 50 degrees C. These results show that true single-strand breaks occur more frequently than alkali-labile bonds after ultraviolet irradiation of DNA containing bromouracil in cells. PMID:367462

  19. Partial coupling and differential regulation of biologically and photo-chemically labile dissolved organic carbon across boreal aquatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, J.-F.; del Giorgio, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing volume of research on the biological and photochemical degradation of DOC in aquatic environments, little is known on the large-scale patterns in biologically and photo-chemically degradable DOC (Bd-DOC and Pd-DOC, respectively) in continental watersheds, and on the links that exist between these two key properties that greatly influence the flow of carbon from continents to oceans. Here we explore the patterns of Bd- and Pd-DOC across hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands spanning a large range of system trophy and terrestrial influence, and compared the drivers of these two reactive pools of DOC at the landscape level. Using standardized incubations of natural waters, we found that the concentrations of Bd- and Pd-DOC co-varied across all systems studied but were nevertheless related to different pools of dissolved organic matter (DOM, identified by fluorescence analyses) in ambient waters. A combination of nutrients and protein-like DOM explained nearly half of the variation in Bd-DOC, whereas Pd-DOC was exclusively predicted by DOM optical properties, consistent with the photochemical degradability of specific fluorescent DOM (FDOM) pools that we experimentally determined. The concentrations of colored DOM (CDOM), a proxy of terrestrial influence, almost entirely accounted for the observed relationship between FDOM and the concentrations of both Bd- and Pd-DOC. The concentrations of CDOM and of the putative bio-labile fluorescence component shifted from complete decoupling in clear-water environments to strong coupling in browner streams and wetlands. This suggests a baseline autochthonous Bd-DOC pool fuelled by internal production that is gradually overwhelmed by land-derived Bd-DOC as terrestrial influence increases across landscape gradients. The importance of land as a major source of both biologically and photo-chemically degradable DOC for continental watersheds resulted in a partial coupling of those carbon pools in

  20. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; Tye, A M; Chenery, S R

    2012-09-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type ('BHT') Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. Copyright © 2012 Natural Environment

  1. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  2. The evolution of dioecy, heterodichogamy, and labile sex expression in Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S S; Beenken, L; Grimm, G W; Kocyan, A; Ricklefs, R E

    2007-11-01

    The northern hemisphere tree genus Acer comprises 124 species, most of them monoecious, but 13 dioecious. The monoecious species flower dichogamously, duodichogamously (male, female, male), or in some species heterodichogamously (two morphs that each produce male and female flowers but at reciprocal times). Dioecious species cannot engage in these temporal strategies. Using a phylogeny for 66 species and subspecies obtained from 6600 nucleotides of chloroplast introns, spacers, and a protein-coding gene, we address the hypothesis (Pannell and Verdú, Evolution 60: 660-673. 2006) that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy. This hypothesis was based on phylogenetic analyses (Gleiser and Verdú, New Phytol. 165: 633-640. 2005) that included 29-39 species of Acer coded for five sexual strategies (duodichogamous monoecy, heterodichogamous androdioecy, heterodichogamous trioecy, dichogamous subdioecy, and dioecy) treated as ordered states or as a single continuous variable. When reviewing the basis for these scorings, we found errors that together with the small taxon sample, cast doubt on the earlier inferences. Based on published studies, we coded 56 species of Acer for four sexual strategies, dioecy, monoecy with dichogamous or duodichogamous flowering, monoecy with heterodichogamous flowering, or labile sex expression, in which individuals reverse their sex allocation depending on environment-phenotype interactions. Using Bayesian character mapping, we infer an average of 15 transformations, a third of them involving changes from monoecy-cum-duodichogamy to dioecy; less frequent were changes from this strategy to heterodichogamy; dioecy rarely reverts to other sexual systems. Contra the earlier inferences, we found no switches between heterodichogamy and dioecy. Unexpectedly, most of the species with labile sex expression are grouped together, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity in Acer may be a heritable sexual strategy. Because of the complex flowering phenologies

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  4. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  5. Acid-Labile Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dake; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yamin; Zhou, Xianhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia; Ma, Da

    2017-10-02

    Stimuli-responsive molecular containers are of great importance for controlled drug delivery and other biomedical applications. A new type of acid labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular containers is presented that can degrade and release the encapsulated cargo at accelerated rates under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5). These containers retain the excellent recognition properties of CB[n]-type hosts. A cell culture study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of cargos could be fine-tuned by complexation with different containers. The release and cell uptake of cargo dye was promoted by acidic pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. PLANTATIONS IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferrere

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the West of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina with the objective of adjusting functions of biomass of individual trees, in their different compartments and in the understorey. Stands of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. were identified, with ages between 4 and 14 years-old. Twenty-one individuals were felled with diameters ranging from 9,2 to 32,5 cm. Simple and multiple regression models were developed and volume, branch leaf and stem biomass were estimated. The best volume equations were based on lineal models and the most adequate behavior was obtained with d2. To estimate leaf, branch and stem, ln-ln models have been suggested, with diameter and h or only diameter. The leaf biomass presented the weakest adjustment. The distribution of trees biomass agrees with the bibliography. The proportion of crown biomass decreases with age; on the other hand, the proportion of stem biomass increases with age.

  7. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  8. Temporal Changes in Photochemically Labile DOM and Implications for Carbon Budgets in Peatland Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic systems in peatland catchments are subject to high loading of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from surrounding terrestrial environments. However the significance of photochemical transformation of DOM in peatland carbon budgets remains poorly constrained. In this study UV irradiation experiments were conducted on water samples collected over one year from two contrasting systems in Scotland: a stream draining a peatland with high levels of DOM and a reservoir draining a peat catchment with low levels of DOM. Further samples were collected from the high DOM system during two storm events. After experimental exposure, optical and chemical analyses were employed to determine photochemical lability of the DOM pool. At both sites irradiation-induced decreases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a percentage of the total carbon pool were greatest in winter, suggesting that DOM was depleted in photo-reactive molecules in summer. Seasonal variability in DOC was high at the stream site and was positively correlated with CO₂ and CO photoproduction (r2 = 0.81 and 0.83, respectively; pLignin phenol analyses indicate considerable contribution of peat to the DOM pool at the stream site, particularly during summer. Whilst DOC concentrations did not vary greatly during storm events, UV-Vis absorbance indicators did, signifying changing DOM source material from activation of different hydrological pathways. The most photo-reactive DOM occurred 5-10 hours after peak discharge, suggesting that storms replenish photochemically labile DOM in headwater streams. Conservative estimates using data from this study suggest that up to 7% of the DOM pool of peatland streams can be lost (primarily as CO₂ and CO) upon exposure to 8 hours of environmentally representative UV irradiation. Further investigation in field campaigns under natural UV exposure are underway to assess the importance of photodegradation of DOM as a loss pathway of carbon based gases from aquatic systems.

  9. [Computer assisted prescription of labile blood products: What are we expecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G

    2016-11-01

    Computer assisted prescription of labile blood products is just at its beginning. Current programs already allow embedding automatically such data as patient's and prescribers' identification or ward details to produce readable prescriptions, also complying with part of Good Practice guidelines. Now prescriptions can also be sent electronically to the Etablissement Francais du Sang, the French blood products services. Usually they are computer programs specialised in transfusion and interfaced with the main patient's file software. Hardly ever the main software is able to manage transfusion itself. Next step would consist in performing checks, calculations or displaying warning or help messages based on academic or local medical recommendations or even tailored to pre-defined individual requirements. But these call for direct access to patient's data such as diagnosis or tests results, that must be accurately classified and coded before use. The main software could provide such functionalities: but actually that would be infrequent and difficult to transpose from one hospital to the other, regarding to the diversity of main software and their settings. Another solution would be to enhance the very few transfusion specialised programs in order to assist prescribers. Data could be prepared and sent by the main software according to a standardised format each time a prescription is to be entered. This standardised format should be independent from software in order to ensure interoperability, whatever the main and specialised programs. The content and format of this data exchange has to be defined, but this would allow hundreds of hospitals to provide a comprehensive tool for prescription of labile blood products, regardless of their main patient's file software. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Emotional Lability in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C; Sallee, Floyd R

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder defined by persistent inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms occur more frequently and are more severe in individuals with ADHD compared with those at a similar developmental level without ADHD, and can be conceptualized as deficits in executive functioning (EF). EF includes domains of metacognition and inhibition, which influence the ability to regulate responses elicited by emotional stimuli. EF deficits can lead to emotional lability (EL), which is characterized by sudden changes in emotion and behaviors of inappropriately high intensity that may include sudden bouts of anger, dysphoria, sadness, or euphoria. EL is common and estimated to occur in about 3.3-10% of the population. Recent estimates of EL prevalence in children and adolescents with ADHD range from 38 to 75%. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not include EL in diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but does include ADHD-associated features of low frustration tolerance, irritability, or mood lability. The neurobiological basis of EL is not well understood, but brain imaging studies support dividing EF into "cool" cognitive networks encompassing attention and planning activities, and "hot" motivational networks involved in temporal discounting, reward processing, and reward anticipation. Dysfunction in "hot" networks is thought to be related to EL. EL symptoms are associated with more severe ADHD and co-morbidities, have significant impact on functioning, and may respond to treatment with medications frequently used to treat ADHD. Treatment outcomes and areas for future research are discussed.

  11. On the lability and functional significance of the type 1 copper pool in ceruloplasmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, G; Fraterrigo, T Z; Calabrese, L; McMillin, D R

    1999-08-01

    The possibility that ceruloplasmin (CP) functions as a copper transferase has fueled a continuing interest in studies of the copper release process. The principal goal of the current investigation has been to identify the most labile copper centers in sheep protein. In fact, subjecting the enzyme to a slow flux of cyanide at pH 5.2 under nitrogen in the presence of ascorbate and a phenanthroline ligand produces partially demetalated forms of the protein. By standard chromatographic techniques it is possible to isolate protein with a Cu/CP ratio of approximately 4 or approximately 5 as opposed to the native protein which has Cu/CP = 5.8. In contrast to other blue oxidases, analysis suggests that CP preferentially loses its type 1 coppers under these conditions. Thus, the spectroscopic signals from the type 1 centers exhibit a loss of intensity while the EPR signal of the type 2 copper becomes stronger. Furthermore, the Cu/CP approximately 4 and Cu/ CP approximately 5 components retain about 50% of the activity of the native protein, consistent with an intact type 2/type 3 cluster. All three type 1 copper sites appear to suffer copper loss. Reconstitution with a copper(I) reagent restores the spectroscopic properties of the native protein and 90% of the original activity. The results suggest a possible functional significance for the presence of three type 1 coppers in CP. By employing a pool of redox-active but relatively labile type 1 copper centers, the enzyme can serve as a copper donor, if necessary, without completely sacrificing its oxidase activity.

  12. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C. M.; van der Vorm, Lisa N.; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Evans, Patricia J.; Hod, Eldad A.; Brittenham, Gary M.; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Porter, John B.; Mattijssen, Vera E. J. M.; Biemond, Bart J.; MacKenzie, Marius A.; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  13. Forms and lability of phosphorus in algae and aquatic macrophytes characterized by solution 31P NMR coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased information on forms and lability of phosphorus (P) in aquatic macrophytes and algae is crucial for better understanding of P biogeochemical cycling in eutrophic lakes. In this work, solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used ...

  14. Evidence for the involvement of a labile protein in stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis under conditions not inhibitory to protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, R.J.; Orme-Johnson, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that synthesis of a labile protein is required for stimulation of steroidogenesis in rat adrenocortical cells. Amino acids L-canavanine and L-S-aminoethylcysteine, at concentrations as high as 5 mM, each inhibited steroidogenesis to a much greater extent than they inhibited protein synthesis. S-Aminoethylcysteine caused a 50% decrease in the stimulated rate of corticosterone production under conditions where incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein was unchanged. Both amino acids block stimulation of steroid synthesis at a step subsequent to the formation of cAMP and before the synthesis of progesterone. The onset of this effect, after the addition of the amino acids, on corticosterone production is quite rapid. These results provide support, that is not dependent on inhibition of protein synthesis, for the hypothesis that a labile protein mediates stimulation of steroidogenesis. Reversal of canavanine and S-aminoethylcysteine inhibition of steroidogenesis by arginine and lysine, respectively, suggests that the inhibitors are functioning as amino acid analogs. S-Aminoethylcysteine inhibits the incorporation of [3H]lysine into protein as well as inhibits steroidogenesis; further, [3H]S-aminoethylcysteine is incorporated into protein that is nonstimulatory. These results suggest that lysine residues play an essential role in the function of the labile protein or that the labile protein contains a large number of lysine residues

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  16. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  17. On the Labile Memory Buffer in the Attentional Blink: Masking the T2 Representation by Onset Transients Mediates the AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Report of a second target (T2) is impaired when presented within 500 ms of the first (T1). This attentional blink (AB) is known to cause a delay in T2 processing during which T2 must be stored in a labile memory buffer. We explored the buffer's characteristics using different types of masks after T2. These characteristics were inferred by…

  18. An anaerobic incubation study of metal lability in drinking water treatment residue with implications for practical reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Yuan, Nannan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-15

    Drinking water treatment residue (WTR) is an inevitable by-product generated during the treatment of drinking water with coagulating agents. The beneficial reuse of WTR as an amendment for environmental remediation has attracted growing interest. In this work, we investigated the lability of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in Fe/Al hydroxide-comprised WTR based on a 180-day anaerobic incubation test using fractionation, in vitro digestion and a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The results indicated that most metals in the WTR were stable during anaerobic incubation and that the WTR before and after incubation could be considered non-hazardous in terms of leachable metal contents according to US EPA Method 1311. However, the lability of certain metals in the WTR after incubation increased substantially, especially Mn, which may be due to the reduction effect. Therefore, although there is no evidence presented to restrict the use of WTR in the field, the lability of metals (especially Mn) in WTR requires further assessment prior to field application. In addition, fractionation (e.g., BCR) is recommended for use to determine the potential lability of metals under various conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemorrhagic Shock and Surgical Stress Alter Distribution of Labile Zinc within High and Low Molecular Weight Plasma Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Edward; Mathew, Jeff; Kohler, Jonathan E.; Blass, Amy L.; Soybel, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc ions (Zn2+) are essential for tissue repair following injury or stress. We hypothesize that during such stresses Zn2+ is redistributed to labile pools in plasma components. Here we tested this hypothesis utilizing a novel assay to monitor labile Zn2+ in plasma in hemorrhagic shock. Adult rats in the Shock (S) group underwent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 1 hr, 4 hrs and 24 hrs. The Surgical Control (SC) group was anesthetized and instrumented, but not bled. Albumin, total Zn2+, and labile Zn2+ levels were assayed in plasma. Binding capacity for Zn2+ was assessed in high (HMW) and low (LMW) molecular weight pools. Significant decreases in total Zn2+ were observed by 24 hrs, in both S and SC groups. Albumin levels were significantly reduced in the S group at 1 hr and 4 hr but restored at 24 hrs; significant changes were not observed in other groups. In whole plasma, labile Zn2+ levels were stable initially in the S and SC groups, but declined at 24 hrs. In the HMW pool, marked and significant impairment of binding was noted throughout all time periods following the shock period in the S group. Such changes were observed in the SC group of less intensity and duration. These experiments suggest that Shock alters affinity of plasma proteins for Zn2+, promoting delivery to peripheral tissues during periods of increased Zn2+ utilization. PMID:22744307

  20. Hemorrhagic shock and surgical stress alter distribution of labile zinc within high- and low-molecular-weight plasma fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Edward; Mathew, Jeff; Kohler, Jonathan E; Blass, Amy L; Soybel, And David I

    2012-08-01

    Zinc ions (Zn) are essential for tissue repair following injury or stress. We hypothesize that during such stresses Zn is redistributed to labile pools in plasma components. Here we tested this hypothesis using a novel assay to monitor labile Zn in plasma in hemorrhagic shock. Adult rats in the shock group (S group) underwent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at 1, 4, and 24 h. The surgical control group (SC group) was anesthetized and instrumented, but not bled. Albumin, total Zn, and labile Zn levels were assayed in plasma. Binding capacity for Zn was assessed in high- and low-molecular-weight pools. Significant decreases in total Zn were observed by 24 h, in both S and SC groups. Albumin levels were significantly reduced in the S group at 1 and 4 h but restored at 24 h; significant changes were not observed in other groups. In whole plasma, labile Zn levels were stable initially in the S and SC groups, but declined at 24 h. In the high-molecular-weight pool, marked and significant impairment of binding was noted throughout all time periods following the shock period in the S group. Such changes were observed in the SC group of less intensity and duration. These experiments suggest that shock alters affinity of plasma proteins for Zn, promoting delivery to peripheral tissues during periods of increased Zn utilization.

  1. [Impact of Land Utilization Pattern on Distributing Characters of Labile Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju

    2015-09-01

    Four land utilization patterns were selected for this study in Jinyun mountain, including subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest), sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land. Soil samples were taken every 10 cm in the depth of 60 cm soil and proportions of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0. 25-2 mm), microaggregates (0. 053 - 0. 25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon and labile organic carbon in each aggregate fraction and analyze impacts of land uses on organic carbon and labile organic carbon of soil aggregates. LOC content of four soil aggregates were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth; in layers of 0-60 cm soil depth, our results showed that LOC contents of forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland. Reserves of labile organic carbon were estimated by the same soil quality, it revealed that forest (3. 68 Mg.hm-2) > abandoned land (1. 73 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (1. 43 Mg.hm-2) >sloping farmland (0.54 Mg.hm-2) in large macroaggregates, abandoned land (7.77, 5. 01 Mg.hm-2) > forest (4. 96, 2.71 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (3. 33, 21. 10 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (1. 68, 1. 35 Mg.hm-2) in small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and abandoned land(4. 32 Mg.hm-2) > orchard(4. 00 Mg.hm-2) > forest(3. 22 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (2.37 Mg.hm-2) in silt + clay, forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland in other three soil aggregates except silt + clay. It was observed that the level of organic carbon and labile organic carbon were decreased when bringing forest under cultivation to orchard or farmland, and augments on organic carbon and labile organic carbon were found after exchanging farmland to abandoned land. The most reverses of forest and abandoned land emerged in small macroaggregates, orchard and sloping farmland were in microaggregates. That was, during the transformations of land utilization pattern, soil aggregates with bigger size were

  2. "Developing culturally sensitive affect scales for global mental health research and practice: Emotional balance, not named syndromes, in Indian Adivasi subjective well-being".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Lacy, Michael G; Upadhyay, Chakrapani

    2017-08-01

    We present a perspective to analyze mental health without either a) imposing Western illness categories or b) adopting local or "native" categories of mental distress. Our approach takes as axiomatic only that locals within any culture share a cognitive and verbal lexicon of salient positive and negative emotional experiences, which an appropriate and repeatable set of ethnographic procedures can elicit. Our approach is provisionally agnostic with respect to either Western or native nosological categories, and instead focuses on persons' relative frequency of experiencing emotions. Putting this perspective into practice in India, our ethnographic fieldwork (2006-2014) and survey analysis (N = 219) resulted in a 40-item Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), which we used to assess the mental well-being of Indigenous persons (the tribal Sahariya) in the Indian states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Generated via standard cognitive anthropological procedures that can be replicated elsewhere, measures such as this possess features of psychiatric scales favored by leaders in global mental health initiatives. Though not capturing locally named distress syndromes, our scale is nonetheless sensitive to local emotional experiences, frames of meaning, and "idioms of distress." By sharing traits of both global and also locally-derived diagnoses, approaches like ours can help identify synergies between them. For example, employing data reduction techniques such as factor analysis-where diagnostic and screening categories emerge inductively ex post facto from emotional symptom clusters, rather than being deduced or assigned a priori by either global mental health experts or locals themselves-reveals hidden overlaps between local wellness idioms and global ones. Practically speaking, our perspective, which assesses both emotional frailty and also potential sources of emotional resilience and balance, while eschewing all named illness categories, can be deployed in

  3. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler memory scale – third edition (WMS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Nicole Lamb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  4. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Brett L.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of the Food for Benthos on the ANtarctic Continental-Shelf (FOODBANCS) Project. The 14C contents of the body tissues from a variety of deposit feeders (-126±13 per mil) were substantially enriched relative to the surface sediment (-234±13 per mil) and statistically similar to the organic matter collected in plankton tows (-135±10 per mil), indicating that recently produced marine plankton are the primary source of nutrition for these deposit feeders on the West Antarctic shelf. Selective ingestion was the primary feeding strategy used by echiuran worms and certain holothurians (i.e. Peniagone vignoni) for incorporating labile organic carbon into their tissues as demonstrated by the large differences (105±13 per mil) between surface sediment and gut content 14C activities. In contrast, digestive and/or assimilatory selection was the predominant strategy used by an irregular urchin ( Amphipneustes lorioli) and several other holothurians ( Protelpidia murrayi, Bathyplotes fuscivinculum and the head-down conveyor belt feeder, Molpadia musculus), as demonstrated by large differences (42±7 per mil) between the 14C activities of their foregut or whole-gut organic contents and their body tissues. Despite large fluctuations in carbon export from the euphotic zone, benthic feeding strategies remained essentially constant over the 15-month sampling period. No seasonal variation was evident in either the 14C abundance of the deposit-feeder body tissues, or in the 14C abundance of their gut contents. The mean 14C abundance in the body tissues of the two sub-surface deposit feeders ( A

  6. Interspecific variations in mangrove leaf litter decomposition are related to labile nitrogenous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Salewski, Tabea; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove leaves form a large pool of carbon, nitrogen and energy that is a major driver of element cycles and detrital food webs inside mangrove forests as well as in adjacent coastal waters. However, there are large gaps in knowledge on the transformation pathways and ultimate fate of leaf nitrogen. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the amount and composition of nitrogenous organic matter and possible species-specific differences during the decomposition of mangrove leaf litter. For that purpose a three month decomposition experiment with litterbags was conducted using leaves of Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and Sonneratia caseolaris in the mangrove forest of the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Detrital leaves were analyzed for bulk carbon and total nitrogen (N), stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (δ13C, δ15N), total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and total hydrolyzable hexosamines (THHA). Decomposition rates (k d-1) were highest and tM50 values (when 50% of the original mass had been degraded) lowest in S. caseolaris (k = 0.0382 d-1; tM50 = 18 days), followed by A. alba, C. decandra, A. corniculatum, and R. apiculata (k = 0.0098 d-1; tM50 = 71 days). The biochemical composition of detrital leaves differed significantly among species and over time. S. caseolaris and A. alba had higher concentrations of N, THAA and THHA and a lower C/N ratio than the other three species. For most of the species concentrations of N, THAA and THHA increased during decomposition. The hexosamine galactosamine, indicative of bacterial cell walls, was first found in leaves after 5-7 days of decomposition and increased afterwards. Our findings suggest an increasing, but species-specific varying, portion of labile nitrogenous OM and total N in decomposing leaves over time that is partly related to the activity of leaf-colonizing bacteria. Despite a higher relative nitrogen content in the

  7. Toward a definition of affective instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Suzane M; Zacchia, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience.

  8. Examining the relationship between personality and affect-related attributes and adolescents' intentions to try smoking using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memetovic, Jasmina; Ratner, Pamela A; Gotay, Carolyn; Richardson, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of adolescents' smoking intentions indicate that many are susceptible to smoking initiation because they do not have resolute intentions to abstain from trying smoking in the future. Although researchers have developed personality and affect-related risk factor profiles to understand risk for the initiation of substance use and abuse (e.g., alcohol), few have examined the extent to which these risk factors are related to the tobacco use intentions of adolescents who have yet to try tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between personality and affect-related risk factors measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and smoking intentions in a sample of adolescents who have not experimented with tobacco smoking. Data is based on responses from 1352 participants in the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (56% female, 76% in Grade 8) who had never tried smoking tobacco. Of these 1352 participants, 29% (n=338) were classified as not having resolute intentions to not try smoking. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between each SURPS dimension (Anxiety Sensitivity, Hopelessness, Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking) and the intention to try cigarettes in the future. Hopelessness (AOR 1.06, 95% CI [1.03, 1.10], p<.001), Impulsivity (AOR 1.07 [1.03, 1.11], p<.001) and Sensation Seeking (AOR 1.05 95% CI [1.02, 1.09], p<.01) had independent statistically significant associations with having an intention to try smoking. These findings may be used to inform a prevention-oriented framework to reduce susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Does the Social Functioning Scale reflect real-life social functioning? An experience sampling study in patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder and healthy control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2017-12-01

    The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.

  10. Informing the scale-up of Kenya’s nursing workforce: a mixed methods study of factors affecting pre-service training capacity and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the global nursing shortage and investments to scale-up the workforce, this study evaluated trends in annual student nurse enrolment, pre-service attrition between enrolment and registration, and factors that influence nurse production in Kenya. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach with data from the Regulatory Human Resources Information System (tracks initial student enrolment through registration) and the Kenya Health Workforce Information System (tracks deployment and demographic information on licensed nurses) for the quantitative analyses and qualitative data from key informant interviews with nurse training institution educators and/or administrators. Trends in annual student nurse enrolment from 1999 to 2010 were analyzed using regulatory and demographic data. To assess pre-service attrition between training enrolment and registration with the nursing council, data for a cohort that enrolled in training from 1999 to 2004 and completed training by 2010 was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test for factors that significantly affected attrition. To assess the capacity of nurse training institutions for scale-up, qualitative data was obtained through key informant interviews. Results From 1999 to 2010, 23,350 students enrolled in nurse training in Kenya. While annual new student enrolment doubled between 1999 (1,493) and 2010 (3,030), training institutions reported challenges in their capacity to accommodate the increased numbers. Key factors identified by the nursing faculty included congestion at clinical placement sites, limited clinical mentorship by qualified nurses, challenges with faculty recruitment and retention, and inadequate student housing, transportation and classroom space. Pre-service attrition among the cohort that enrolled between 1999 and 2004 and completed training by 2010 was found to be low (6%). Conclusion To scale-up the nursing workforce in Kenya, concurrent investments in expanding the

  11. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  12. Isolation and evolution of labile sulfur allotropes via kinetic encapsulation in interactive porous networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuba Kitagawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of small sulfur allotropes have long remained unachievable because of their extreme lability. This study reports the first direct observation of disulfur (S2 with X-ray crystallography. Sulfur gas was kinetically trapped and frozen into the pores of two Cu-based porous coordination networks containing interactive iodide sites. Stabilization of S2 was achieved either through physisorption or chemisorption on iodide anions. One of the networks displayed shape selectivity for linear molecules only, therefore S2 was trapped and remained stable within the material at room temperature and higher. In the second network, however, the S2 molecules reacted further to produce bent-S3 species as the temperature was increased. Following the thermal evolution of the S2 species in this network using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy unveiled the generation of a new reaction intermediate never observed before, the cyclo-trisulfur dication (cyclo-S32+. It is envisaged that kinetic guest trapping in interactive crystalline porous networks will be a promising method to investigate transient chemical species.

  13. Interactive priming of biochar and labile organic matter mineralization in a smectite-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Alexandra; Singh, Balwant; Singh, Bhupinder Pal

    2011-11-15

    Biochar is considered as an attractive tool for long-term carbon (C) storage in soil. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) on biochar-C mineralization in soil or the vice versa. An incubation experiment (20 °C) was conducted for 120 days to quantify the interactive priming effects of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization in a smectitic clayey soil. Sugar cane residue (source of LOM) at a rate of 0, 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) in combination with two wood biochars (450 and 550 °C) at a rate of 2% (w/w) were applied to the soil. The use of biochars (~ -36‰) and LOM (-12.7‰) or soil (-14.3‰) with isotopically distinct δ(13)C values allowed the quantification of C mineralized from biochar and LOM/soil. A small fraction (0.4-1.1%) of the applied biochar-C was mineralized, and the mineralization of biochar-C increased significantly with increasing application rates of LOM, especially during the early stages of incubation. Concurrently, biochar application reduced the mineralization of LOM-C, and the magnitude of this effect increased with increasing rate of LOM addition. Over time, the interactive priming of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization was stabilized. Biochar application possesses a considerable merit for long-term soil C-sequestration, and it has a stabilizing effect on LOM in soil.

  14. BIOMASA EN PLANTACIONES DE Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferrere

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina con el objetivo de ajustar funciones de biomasa de árboles individuales y determinar la biomasa en diferentes compartimientos de la planta y el sotobosque. Se identificaron rodales de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. cuyas edades oscilaron entre 4 y 14 años. Se apearon 21 árboles con diámetros entre 9,2 y 32,5 cm. Se desarrollaron regresiones simples y múltiples y se estimó el volumen, la biomasa en ramas, hojas y fuste. Las ecuaciones de volumen de mejor comportamiento son basadas en modelos lineales en su forma normal, y el modelo más adecuado fue el que incorporó al d2 (R2 = 0,92. Para la estimación de la biomasa en hojas, ramas, copa y fuste se recomienda los modelos ln-ln que consideran el d y h o solo el d. El componente de la biomasa en hojas presentó una estimación más débil. La distribución de la biomasa en los individuos sigue el patrón de desarrollo que se encuentra en la bibliografía. La proporción de la biomasa en la copa disminuye con la edad, contrariamente a lo sucedido con el fuste.

  15. Labile Zn ions on octacalcium phosphate-derived Zn-containing hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Anada, Takahisa; Morimoto, Shinji [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu, E-mail: suzuki-o@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We previously synthesized and characterized zinc-containing octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA). In the present report, we attempted to define the state of Zn in the OCP-derived Zn-calcium phosphates (CaPs) in relation to the presence of specific amino acids. Zn-containing OCPs were prepared in solutions that included Zn ions up to a concentration of 3.5 mM, and their hydrolyzates [hydrolyzed (hy)-Zn-CaP] were obtained in hot water. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The concentration of Ca and Zn ions at room temperature was determined by analyzing the supernatant after incubating the materials in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) and HEPES buffer including cysteine, histidine, lysine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Zn ions were more dissolved in α-MEM than HEPES buffer in the absence of amino acids. The inclusion of the amino acids enhanced Zn dissolution by several hundred fold, even in HEPES buffer. Among the amino acids, both cysteine and histidine enhanced the release of Zn. The effect was particularly remarkable with cysteine even in the presence of the other amino acids tested. These results indicate that Zn ions are present as a surface labile pool, which tends to be preferentially desorbed by cysteine, a ubiquitous molecule present in serum.

  16. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  17. Sequence specificity of alkali-labile DNA damage photosensitized by suprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, S M; Davies, R J

    2000-09-01

    On irradiation at UVB wavelengths, in aerated neutral aqueous solution, the anti-inflammatory drug suprofen (SP) photosensitizes the production of alkali-labile cleavage sites in DNA much more efficiently than direct strand breaks. It is active at submillimolar concentrations despite having no significant binding affinity for DNA. Gel sequencing studies utilizing 32P-end-labeled oligonucleotides have revealed that piperidine-sensitive lesions are formed predominantly at the positions of guanine (G) bases, with the extent of modification being UV dose- and SP concentration-dependent. Quite distinct patterns of G-specific damage are observed in single-stranded and duplex DNA molecules. The uniform attack at all G residues in single-stranded DNA, which is enhanced in D2O, is compatible with a Type-II mechanism. SP is a known generator of singlet oxygen whose participation in the reaction is supported by the effects of quenchers and scavengers. In duplex DNA, piperidine-induced cleavage occurs with high selectivity at the 5'-G of GG and (less prominently) GA doublets. This behavior is characteristic of a Type-I process involving electron transfer from DNA to photoexcited SP molecules. The ability of SP to sensitize the formation of Type-I and Type-II photo-oxidation products from 2'-deoxyguanosine attests to the feasibility of competing mechanisms in DNA.

  18. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  19. The preliminary attempts of in in vitro regeneration from petioles of recalcitrant species of Cephalotus follicularis Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuleja M.; Chmielowska A.; Płachno B.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalotus follicularis Labill. is representative of the extraordinary carnivorous group of plants. Carnivorous plants with pitcher traps grow in nutrient poor, sunny and wet habitats, they have adapted themselves to growth in bogs, sandy soils and obtain some nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphate) from insects and other arthropods or protozoa, even from small mammals occasionally (Król et al. 2012). C. follicularis belongs to the monotypic family Cephalotaceae, and it is the endemic plant o...

  20. Suppression of inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis using targeted lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hui-fang; Yan, Huimin; Senpan, Angana; Wickline, Samuel A.; Pan, Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Pham, Christine T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are emerging technologies that have the potential to greatly impact the treatment of many human diseases. However, drug instability and premature release from the nanoparticles during circulation currently preclude clinical translation. Herein, we use a lipase-labile (Sn 2) fumagillin prodrug platform coupled with a unique lipid surface-to-surface targeted delivery mechanism, termed contact-facilitated drug delivery, to counter the premature drug release and ov...

  1. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OXYGEN-LABILE, NAD-DEPENDENT ALCOHOL-DEHYDROGENASE FROM DESULFOVIBRIO-GIGAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENSGENS, CMH; VONCK, J; VANBEEUMEN, J; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ; HANSEN, TA

    A NAD-dependent, oxygen-labile alcohol dehydrogenase was purified from Desulfovibrio gigas. It was decameric, with subunits of M(r) 43,000. The best substrates were ethanol (K(m), 0.15 mM) and 1-propanol (K(m), 0.28 mM). N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the enzyme belongs to the

  2. Dual, differential isotope labeling shows the preferential movement of labile plant constituents into mineral-bonded soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddix, Michelle L; Paul, Eldor A; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-06-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) are major concerns in the context of global change for carbon sequestration and soil health. It is presently believed that lignin is not selectively preserved in soil and that chemically labile compounds bonding to minerals comprise a large fraction of the SOM. Labile plant inputs have been suggested to be the main precursor of the mineral-bonded SOM. Litter decomposition and SOM formation are expected to have temperature sensitivity varying with the lability of plant inputs. We tested this framework using dual (13) C and (15) N differentially labeled plant material to distinguish the metabolic and structural components within a single plant material. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) seedlings were grown in an enriched (13) C and (15) N environment and then prior to harvest, removed from the enriched environment and allowed to incorporate natural abundance (13) C-CO2 and (15) N fertilizer into the metabolic plant components. This enabled us to achieve a greater than one atom % difference in (13) C between the metabolic and structural components within the plant litter. This differentially labeled litter was incubated in soil at 15 and 35 °C, for 386 days with CO2 measured throughout the incubation. After 14, 28, 147, and 386 days of incubation, the soil was subsequently fractionated. There was no difference in temperature sensitivity of the metabolic and structural components with regard to how much was respired or in the amount of litter biomass stabilized. Only the metabolic litter component was found in the sand, silt, or clay fraction while the structural component was exclusively found in the light fraction. These results support the stabilization framework that labile plant components are the main precursor of mineral-associated organic matter. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Suppression of inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis using targeted lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Fang; Yan, Huimin; Senpan, Angana; Wickline, Samuel A; Pan, Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M; Pham, Christine T N

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are emerging technologies that have the potential to greatly impact the treatment of many human diseases. However, drug instability and premature release from the nanoparticles during circulation currently preclude clinical translation. Herein, we use a lipase-labile (Sn 2) fumagillin prodrug platform coupled with a unique lipid surface-to-surface targeted delivery mechanism, termed contact-facilitated drug delivery, to counter the premature drug release and overcome the inherent photo-instability of fumagillin, an established anti-angiogenic agent. We show that α(v)β(3)-integrin targeted fumagillin prodrug nanoparticles, administered at 0.3 mg of fumagillin prodrug/kg of body weight suppress the clinical disease indices of KRN serum-mediated arthritis in a dose-dependent manner when compared to treatment with the control nanoparticles with no drug. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of this lipase-labile prodrug nanocarrier in a relevant preclinical model that approximates human rheumatoid arthritis. The lipase-labile prodrug paradigm offers a translatable approach that is broadly applicable to many targeted nanosystems and increases the translational potential of this platform for many diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CD44 Binding to Hyaluronic Acid Is Redox Regulated by a Labile Disulfide Bond in the Hyaluronic Acid Binding Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kellett-Clarke

    Full Text Available CD44 is the primary leukocyte cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA, a component of the extracellular matrix. Enzymatic post translational cleavage of labile disulfide bonds is a mechanism by which proteins are structurally regulated by imparting an allosteric change and altering activity. We have identified one such disulfide bond in CD44 formed by Cys77 and Cys97 that stabilises the HA binding groove. This bond is labile on the surface of leukocytes treated with chemical and enzymatic reducing agents. Analysis of CD44 crystal structures reveal the disulfide bond to be solvent accessible and in the-LH hook configuration characteristic of labile disulfide bonds. Kinetic trapping and binding experiments on CD44-Fc chimeric proteins show the bond is preferentially reduced over the other disulfide bonds in CD44 and reduction inhibits the CD44-HA interaction. Furthermore cells transfected with CD44 no longer adhere to HA coated surfaces after pre-treatment with reducing agents. The implications of CD44 redox regulation are discussed in the context of immune function, disease and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Fraction of organic carbon predicts labile desorption rates of chlorinated organic pollutants in laboratory-spiked geosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsbach, Jake W; Killops, Kato L; Olsen, Robert M; Peterson, Brittney; Dunnivant, Frank M

    2010-05-01

    The resuspension of large volumes of sediments that are contaminated with chlorinated pollutants continues to threaten environmental quality and human health. Whereas kinetic models are more accurate for estimating the environmental impact of these events, their widespread use is substantially hampered by the need for costly, time-consuming, site-specific kinetics experiments. The present study investigated the development of a predictive model for desorption rates from easily measurable sorbent and pollutant properties by examining the relationship between the fraction of organic carbon (fOC) and labile release rates. Duplicate desorption measurements were performed on 46 unique combinations of pollutants and sorbents with fOC values ranging from 0.001 to 0.150. Labile desorption rate constants indicate that release rates predominantly depend upon the fOC in the geosorbent. Previous theoretical models, such as the macro-mesopore and organic matter (MOM) diffusion model, have predicted such a relationship but could not accurately predict the experimental rate constants collected in the present study. An empirical model was successfully developed to correlate the labile desorption rate constant (krap) to the fraction of organic material where log(krap)=0.291-0.785 . log(fOC). These results provide the first experimental evidence that kinetic pollution releases during resuspension events are governed by the fOC content in natural geosorbents. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  6. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  7. Improving release completeness from PLGA-based implants for the acid-labile model protein ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luisa; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of hot melt extrusion (HME) for the preparation of PLGA-based ovalbumin-loaded implants as well as to characterize and improve protein release from the implants. Ovalbumin (OVA) was stable during extrusion, which was attributed to a protective effect of the biodegradable matrix. OVA release was characterized by a low burst, a slow release up to day 21, which plateaued thereafter resulting in incomplete release for all evaluated protein loadings. Release incompleteness was accompanied by the formation of an insoluble residual mass. Further characterization of this mass indicated that it consisted of non-covalent protein aggregates and polymer, where ovalbumin was ionically bound as the pH inside the degrading matrix decreased below the pI of the protein. Although higher protein release was obtained with the inclusion of weak bases because of their neutralizing effect, OVA aggregation and release incompleteness were not fully avoided. With the use of shellac, a well-known enteric and biocompatible polymer, as protective excipient, a distinct late release phase occurred and release completeness was increased to more than 75% cumulative release. Shellac apparently protected the protein against the acidic microclimate due to its low solubility at low pH. Protected OVA was thus released once the pH increased due to a declining PLGA-oligomer formation. The result was a triphasic release profile consisting of an initial burst, a slow diffusion phase over about 7 weeks, and an erosion-controlled dissolution phase over the next 3 weeks. An acid-labile protein like OVA was thus feasibly protected from interactions with PLGA and its degradation products, resulting in a controlled delivery of more than 85% of the original payload. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carolina G; Reigosa, Manuel J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pedrol, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  9. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G Puig

    Full Text Available In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus

  10. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigosa, Manuel J.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  11. Cytosolic labile zinc: a marker for apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Park, Mi-Ha; Koh, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Cytosolic zinc accumulation was thought to occur specifically in neuronal death (necrosis) following acute injury. However, a recent study demonstrated that zinc accumulation also occurs in adult rat neurons undergoing apoptosis following target ablation, and in vitro experiments have shown that zinc accumulation may play a causal role in various forms of apoptosis. Here, we examined whether intraneuronal zinc accumulation occurs in central neurons undergoing apoptosis during development. Embryonic and newborn Sprague-Dawley rat brains were double-stained for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) detection of apoptosis and immunohistochemical detection of stage-specific neuronal markers, such as nestin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TuJ1 and neuronal nuclear specific protein (NeuN). The results revealed that apoptotic cell death occurred in neurons of diverse stages (neural stem cells, and dividing, young and adult neurons) throughout the brain during the embryonic and early postnatal periods. Further staining of brain sections with acid fuchsin or zinc-specific fluorescent dyes showed that all of the apoptotic neurons were acidophilic and contained labile zinc in their cell bodies. Cytosolic zinc accumulation was also observed in cultured cortical neurons undergoing staurosporine- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis. In contrast, zinc chelation with CaEDTA or N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced SNP-induced apoptosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis, indicating that cytosolic zinc accumulation does not play a causal role in all forms of apoptosis. Finally, the specific cytosolic zinc accumulation may have a practical application as a relatively simple marker for neurons undergoing developmental apoptosis.

  12. Understanding Natural Gas Methane Leakage from Buried Pipelines as Affected by Soil and Atmospheric Conditions - Field Scale Experimental and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K. M.; Mitton, M.; Moradi, A.; Chamindu, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing the amount of leaked natural gas (NG) from pipelines from production to use has become a high priority in efforts to cut anthropogenic emissions of methane. In addition to environmental impacts, NG leakage can cause significant economic losses and safety failures such as fires and explosions. However, tracking and evaluating NG pipeline leaks requires a better understanding of the leak from the source to the detector as well as more robust quantification methods. Although recent measurement-based approaches continue to make progress towards this end, efforts are hampered due to the complexity of leakage scenarios. Sub- surface transport of leaked NG from pipelines occurs through complex transport pathways due to soil heterogeneities and changes in soil moisture. Furthermore, it is affected by variable atmospheric conditions such as winds, frontal passages and rain. To better understand fugitive emissions from NG pipelines, we developed a field scale testbed that simulates low pressure gas leaks from pipe buried in soil. The system is equipped with subsurface and surface sensors to continuously monitor changes in soil and atmospheric conditions (e.g. moisture, pressure, temperature) and methane concentrations. Using this testbed, we are currently conducting a series of gas leakage experiments to study of the impact of subsurface (e.g. soil moisture, heterogeneity) and atmospheric conditions (near-surface wind and temperature) on the detected gas signals and establish the relative importance of the many pathways for methane migration between the source and the sensor location. Accompanying numerical modeling of the system using the multiphase transport simulator TOUGH2-EOS7CA demonstrates the influence of leak location and direction on gas migration. These findings will better inform leak detectors of the leak severity before excavation, aiding with safety precautions and work order categorization for improved efficiency.

  13. Assessing SOC labile fractions through respiration test, density-size fractionation and thermal analysis - A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the biggest terrestrial carbon reservoir, storing 3 to 4 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, despite its major importance for climate regulation SOM dynamics remains insufficiently understood. For instance, there is still no widely accepted method to assess SOM lability. Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes have been used for decades and are now considered as classical estimates of very labile and labile soil organic carbon (SOC), respectively. But the pertinence of these methods to characterize SOM turnover can be questioned. Moreover, they are very time-consuming and their reproducibility might be an issue. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM among which Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of SOM biogeochemical stability (Gregorich et al., 2015; Barré et al., 2016). Using a large set of samples of French forest soils representing contrasted pedoclimatic conditions, including deep samples (up to 1 m depth), we compared different techniques used for SOM lability assessment. We explored whether results from soil respiration test (10-week laboratory incubations), SOM size-density fractionation and RE6 thermal analysis were comparable and how they were correlated. A set of 222 (respiration test and RE6), 103 (SOM fractionation and RE6) and 93 (respiration test, SOM fractionation and RE6) forest soils samples were respectively analyzed and compared. The comparison of the three methods (n = 93) using a principal component analysis separated samples from the surface (0-10 cm) and deep (40-80 cm) layers, highlighting a clear effect of depth on the short-term persistence of SOC. A correlation analysis demonstrated that, for these samples, the two classical methods of labile SOC determination (respiration and SOM fractionation

  14. Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Comparisons among chemical equilibrium models and implications for biotic ligand models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Blank, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate thermodynamic speciation calculations inherent in biotic ligand models, the speciation of dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aquatic systems influenced by historical mining activities is examined using equilibrium computer models and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Several metal/organic-matter complexation models, including WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, and Stockholm Humic model (SHM), are used in combination with inorganic speciation models to calculate the thermodynamic speciation of dissolved metals and concentrations of metal associated with biotic ligands (e.g., fish gills). Maximum dynamic metal concentrations, determined from total dissolved metal concentrations and thermodynamic speciation calculations, are compared with labile metal concentrations measured by DGT to assess which metal/organic-matter complexation model best describes metal speciation and, thereby, biotic ligand speciation, in the studied systems. Results indicate that the choice of model that defines metal/organic-matter interactions does not affect calculated concentrations of Cd and Zn associated with biotic ligands for geochemical conditions in the study area, whereas concentrations of Cu and Pb associated with biotic ligands depend on whether the speciation calculations use WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, or SHM. Agreement between labile metal concentrations and dynamic metal concentrations occurs when WHAM VI is used to calculate Cu speciation and SHM is used to calculate Pb speciation. Additional work in systems that contain wide ranges in concentrations of multiple metals should incorporate analytical speciation methods, such as DGT, to constrain the speciation component of biotic ligand models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Bipolar Mass Spectrometry of Labile Coordination Complexes, Redox Active Inorganic Compounds, and Proteins Using a Glass Nebulizer for Sonic-Spray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakis, Manolis M.; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Kanaki, Katerina; Milios, Constantinos J.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a novel nebulizer configuration for sonic-spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS), more specifically for a version of SSI that is referred to as Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) MS. The developed nebulizer configuration is based on a commercially available pneumatic glass nebulizer that has been used extensively for aerosol formation in atomic spectrometry. In the present study, the nebulizer was modified in order to achieve efficient V-EASI-MS operation. Upon evaluating this system, it has been demonstrated that V-EASI-MS offers some distinct advantages for the analysis of coordination compounds and redox active inorganic compounds over the predominantly used electrospray ionization (ESI) technique. Such advantages, for this type of compounds, are demonstrated here for the first time. More specifically, a series of labile heptanuclear heterometallic [CuII 6LnIII] clusters held together with artificial amino acid ligands, in addition to easily oxidized inorganic oxyanions of selenium and arsenic, were analyzed. The observed advantages pertain to V-EASI appearing to be a "milder" ionization source than ESI, not requiring electrical potentials for gas phase ion formation, thus eliminating the possibility of unwanted redox transformations, allowing for the "simultaneous" detection of negative and positive ions (bipolar analysis) without the need to change source ionization conditions, and also not requiring the use of syringes and delivery pumps. Because of such features, especially because of the absence of ionization potentials, EASI can be operated with minimal requirements for source parameter optimization. We observed that source temperature and accelerating voltage do not seem to affect labile compounds to the extent they do in ESI-MS. In addition, bipolar analysis of proteins was demonstrated here by acquiring both positive and negative ion mass spectra from the same protein solutions

  16. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  17. "It's a complex mesh"- how large-scale health system reorganisation affected the delivery of the immunisation programme in England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Lwembe, Saumu; Saliba, Vanessa; Raj, Thara; Mays, Nicholas; Ramsay, Mary; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2016-09-15

    The English health system experienced a large-scale reorganisation in April 2013. A national tri-partite delivery framework involving the Department of Health, NHS England and Public Health England was agreed and a new local operational model applied. Evidence about how health system re-organisations affect constituent public health programmes is sparse and focused on low and middle income countries. We conducted an in-depth analysis of how the English immunisation programme adapted to the April 2013 health system reorganisation, and what facilitated or hindered the delivery of immunisation services in this context. A qualitative case study methodology involving interviews and observations at national and local level was applied. Three sites were selected to represent different localities, varying levels of immunisation coverage and a range of changes in governance. Study participants included 19 national decision-makers and 56 local implementers. Two rounds of interviews and observations (immunisation board/committee meetings) occurred between December 2014 and June 2015, and September and December 2015. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and written accounts of observed events compiled. Data was imported into NVIVO 10 and analysed thematically. The new immunisation programme in the new health system was described as fragmented, and significant effort was expended to regroup. National tripartite arrangements required joint working and accountability; a shift from the simpler hierarchical pre-reform structure, typical of many public health programmes. New local inter-organisational arrangements resulted in ambiguity about organisational responsibilities and hindered data-sharing. Whilst making immunisation managers responsible for larger areas supported equitable resource distribution and strengthened service commissioning, it also reduced their ability to apply clinical expertise, support and evaluate immunisation providers' performance

  18. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  19. Parenteral adjuvant potential of recombinant B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead. METHODS BALB/c mice were immunised intraperitoneally with either rLTBR1 or recombinant R1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. The levels of systemic anti-rR1 antibodies (total Ig, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The ratio of IgG1 and IgG2a was used to characterise a Th1, Th2, or mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. FINDINGS Western blot confirmed rR1, either alone or fused to LTB, remained antigenic; anti-cholera toxin ELISA confirmed that LTB retained its activity when expressed in a heterologous system. Mice immunised with the rLTBR1 fusion protein produced approximately twice as much anti-rR1 immunoglobulins as mice vaccinated with rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Animals vaccinated with either rLTBR1 or rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide presented a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. We speculate this might be a result of rR1 immune modulation rather than adjuvant modulation. Mice immunised with rLTBR1 produced approximately 1.5-fold more serum IgA than animals immunised with rR1 and aluminium hydroxide. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that rLTB is a more powerful parenteral adjuvant than aluminium hydroxide when administered intraperitoneally as it induced higher antibody titres. Therefore, we recommend that rLTB be considered an alternative adjuvant, even if different administration routes are employed.

  20. Induction of heat-labile sites in DNA of mammalian cells by the antitumor alkylating drug CC-1065

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsido, T.J.; Woynarowski, J.M.; Baker, R.M.; Gawron, L.S.; Beerman, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    CC-1065 is a very potent antitumor antibiotic capable of covalent and noncovalent binding to the minor groove of naked DNA. Upon thermal treatment, covalent adducts formed between CC-1065 and DNA generate strand break. The authors have shown that this molecular damage can be detected following CC-1065 treatment of mammalian whole cells. Using alkaline sucrose gradient analysis, They observe thermally induced breakage of [ 14 C]thymidine-prelabeled DNA from drug-treated African green monkey kidney BSC-1 cells. Very little damage to cellular DNA by CC-1065 can be detected without first heating the drug-treated samples. CC-1065 can also generate heat-labile sites within DNA during cell lysis and heating, subsequent to the exposure of cells to drug, suggesting that a pool of free and noncovalently bound drug is available for posttreatment adduct formation. This effect was controlled for by mixing [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled untreated cells with the [ 14 C]thymidine-labeled drug-treated samples. The lowest drug dose at which heat-labile sites were detected was 3 nM CC-1065 (3 single-stranded breaks/10 6 base pairs). This concentration reduced survival of BSC-1 cells to 0.1% in cytotoxicity assays. The generation of CC-1065-induced lesions in cellular DNA is time dependent (the frequency of lesions caused by a 60 nM treatment reaching a plateau at 2 h) and is not readily reversible. The results of this study demonstrate that CC-1065 does generate heat-labile sites with the cellular DNA of intact cells and suggest that a mechanism of cytotoxic action of CC-1065 involves formation of covalent adducts to DNA

  1. Effects of composition of labile organic matter on biogenic production of methane in the coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Kirchman, David L; Bharathi, P A Loka

    2011-11-01

    Coastal regions are potential zones for production of methane which could be governed by ecological/environmental differences or even sediment properties of a niche. In order to test the hypothesis that methanogenesis in most marine sediments could be driven more by proteins than by carbohydrates and lipid content of labile organic matter (LOM), incubation experiments were carried out with sediments from different environmental niches to measure methane production. The methane production rates were examined in relationship to the sediment biochemistry, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. The gas production measured by head space method ranged from 216 ng g( -1) day( -1) in the mangrove sediments to 3.1 μg g( -1) day( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea. LOM ranged from 1.56 to 2.85 mg g( -1) in the shallow Arabian Sea, from 3.35 to 5.43 mg g( -1) in the mangrove estuary, and from 0.66 to 0.70 mg g( -1) in the sandy sediments with proteins contributing maximum to the LOM pool. Proteins influenced methane production in the clayey sediments of shallow depths of the Arabian Sea (r = 0.933, p methane production. The gas production was more pronounced in shallow and surface sediments and it decreased with depth apparently governed by the decrease in lability index. Thus, the lability index and protein content are important factors that determine methane production rates in these coastal ecosystems.

  2. Characteristics of labile organic carbon fractions in reclaimed mine soils: Evidence from three reclaimed forests in the Pingshuo opencast coal mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Zhongqiu; Li, Xuezhen; Wang, Yangyang; Bai, Zhongke

    2018-02-01

    The reclamation of discarded spoils has the potential to stimulate carbon (C) sequestration in reclaimed mine soils (RMSs). Nevertheless, to date the temporal dynamics of labile organic C fractions have not been sufficiently elucidated in RMSs. In this study, soil organic carbon (SOC) and labile organic C fractions, including microbial biomass organic C (MBC), easily oxidizable organic C (EOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC), were determined in Robinia pseudoacacia monoculture forests (reclamation periods of 0, 8, 10, 13, 15, 18 and 30years), Pinus tabuliformis forests (reclamation periods of 0, 10, 19, 23 and 25years) and Ulmus pumila forests (reclamation periods of 0, 18, 20 and 22years) situated on RMSs in the Pingshuo opencast coal mine, China. Changes in labile organic C fractions within the soil profiles (0-100cm) were also identified at the 18- or 19-year plots under the three monoculture forests. Our results showed that, SOC and labile organic C fractions, together with soil microbial quotient (SMQ) and C management index (CMI), increased with time since reclamation, indicating that the quality of RMSs improved over time after initial reclamation under the three forest types. R. pseudoacacia significantly increased the accretion of SOC and EOC in the early stage of reclamation while P. tabuliformis accelerated the accumulation of the MBC fraction. Results for U. pumila indicated that this species had a better ability to store C in RMSs 10years or more after reclamation. SOC and labile organic C fractions both had S-shaped distributions within the soil profiles (0-100cm), with the 0-20cm layer recording the highest values (Pfractions were closely associated and correlated with soil physicochemical properties; our results also showed that nitrogen played an important role in the development of labile organic C fractions. Overall, reclamation accelerated the accretion of both SOC and labile organic C fractions, results of which varied among the reclaimed forests

  3. Argon direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry in conjunction with makeup solvents: a method for analysis of labile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-05

    Helium direct analysis in real time (He-DART) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of labile compounds usually tends to be challenging because of the occurrence of prominent fragmentation, which obscures the assigning of an ion to an independent species or merely a fragment in a mixture. In the present work, argon DART (Ar-DART) MS in conjunction with makeup solvents has been demonstrated to analyze a variety of labile compounds including nucleosides, alkaloids, glucose, and other small molecules. The results presented here confirm that Ar-DART can generate significantly less energetic ions than conventional He-DART and is able to produce the intact molecular ions with little or no fragmentation in both positive and negative ion modes. Adding a makeup solvent (absolute ethyl alcohol, methanol, fluorobenzene, or acetone) to the argon gas stream at the exit of the DART ion source can result in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in detection signals. The sensitivity attainable by Ar-DART was found to be comparable to that by He-DART. The investigation of influence of solvents improves our understanding of the fundamental desorption and ionization processes in DART. The practical application of this rapid and high throughput method is demonstrated by the successful analysis of a natural product (Crude Kusnezoff Monkshood) extract, demonstrating the great potential in mixture research.

  4. Evaluation of Soil Quality Using Labile Organic Carbon and Carbon Management Indices in Agricultural Lands of Neyriz, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Salmanpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil organic matter is considered as an indicator of soil quality, because of its role on the stability of soil structure, water holding capacity, microbial activity, storage and release of nutrients. Although changes and trends of organic matter are assessed on the basis of organic carbon, it responds slowly to changes of soil management. Therefore, identifying sensitive components of organic carbon such as carbon labile lead to better understanding of the effect of land use change and soil management on soil quality. The main components of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions are the amount of water; and soil and water salinity. Water deficit and irrigation with saline water are important limiting factors for cropping and result in adverse effects on soil properties and soil quality. Soil carbon changes is a function of addition of plant debris and removal of it from soil by its decomposition. If the amount of organic carbon significantly reduced due to the degradation of the soil physical and chemical properties and soil quality, agricultural production will face serious problems. To this end, this study was done to evaluate soil quality using soil labile carbon and soil carbon management indices in some agricultural lands of Neyriz area, Fars province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Five fields were selected in two regions, Dehfazel and Tal-e-mahtabi, consisted of irrigated wheat and barley with different amount of irrigation water and water salinity levels. Three farms were located in Dehfazel and two farms in Tal-e-Mahtabi region. In each farm, three points were randomly selected and soil samples were collected from 0-40 cm of the surface layer. Plant samples were taken from a 1x1 square meter and grain crop yield was calculated per hectare. Water samples were obtained in each region from the wells at the last irrigation. Physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and water samples were determined. Soil

  5. Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Algae and Aquatic Macrophytes Characterized by Solution 31P NMR Coupled with Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P.

    2016-11-01

    Solution Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) with commercially available phosphatases was used to characterize phosphorus (P) compounds in extracts of the dominant aquatic macrophytes and algae in a eutrophic lake. Total extractable organic P (Po) concentrations ranged from 504 to 1643 mg kg-1 and 2318 to 8395 mg kg-1 for aquatic macrophytes and algae, respectively. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy, 11 Po species were detected in the mono- and diester region. Additionally, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and phosphonates were also detected. Using EH, phytate-like P was identified as the prevalent class of enzyme-labile Po, followed by labile monoester- and diester-P. Comparison of the NMR and EH data indicated that the distribution pattern of major P forms in the samples determined by the two methods was similar (r = 0.712, p < 0.05). Additional 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of extracts following EH showed significant decreases in the monoester and pyrophosphate regions, with a corresponding increase in the orthophosphate signal, as compared to unhydrolyzed extracts. Based on these quantity and hydrolysis data, we proposed that recycling of Po in vegetative biomass residues is an important mechanism for long-term self-regulation of available P for algal blooming in eutrophic lakes.

  6. The acid-labile subunit of the ternary insulin-like growth factor complex in cirrhosis: relation to liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Juul, A; Becker, U

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the leve...... with significant relations to liver dysfunction and other components of the IGF complex. A small hepatic extraction was found in controls, which suggests extrahepatic production of ALS. Future studies should focus on organ-specific removal of ALS.......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the level...... of ALS has not been described in relation to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure circulating and hepatic venous concentrations of ALS in relation to hepatic function and the IGF axis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with cirrhosis (Child class A/B/C:5/10/10) and 30...

  7. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  8. Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, R.R.; Young, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil nitrogen and favor native species. We studied the interaction of labile carbon addition (sucrose), with soil invasion status and fertilizer addition on the growth of B. tectorum. Soils were non invaded (BNI) and B. tectorum invaded (BI). Treatments were control, sucrose, combined fertilizer, and sucrose + fertilizer. The greenhouse experiment continued for 3 growth-cycles. After the 1st growth-cycle, sucrose addition reduced B. tectorum aboveground mass almost 70 times for the BI soil but did not significantly reduce growth in the BNI soil. B. tectorum aboveground mass, after the 1st growth-cycle, was over 27 times greater for BI control soils than BNI control soils. Although sucrose addition reduced soil-solution NO 3 , tissue N was not significantly lowered, suggesting that reduction of soil available N may not be solely responsible for reduction in B. tectorum growth. Non invaded soil inhibits growth of B. tectorum. Understanding this mechanism may lead to viable control strategies.

  9. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  10. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  11. The evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale : Depressed and Positive Affect in cancer patients and healthy reference subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, MJ; Sanderman, R; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a two-factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted in a large group of cancer patients (n = 475) and a matched reference group (n = 255). Both groups filled in a questionnaire at two

  12. Ecosystem partitioning of 15N-glycine after long-term climate and nutrient manipulations, plant clipping and addition of labile carbon in a subarctic heath tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2008-01-01

    of nitrogen (N). Here, we studied 15N label incorporation into microbes, plants and soil N pools after both long-term (12 years) climate manipulation and nutrient addition, plant clipping and a pulse-addition of labile C to the soil, in order to gain information on interactions among soil N and C pools...... addition. However, plants exerted control on the soil inorganic N concentrations and recovery of total dissolved 15N (TD15N), and likewise the microbes reduced these soil pools, but only when fed with labile C. Soil microbes in clipped plots were primarily C limited, and the findings of reduced N...... availability, both in the presence of plants and with the combined treatment of plant clipping and addition of sugar, suggest that the plant control of soil N pools was not solely due to plant uptake of soil N, but also partially caused by plants feeding labile C to the soil microbes, which enhanced...

  13. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  14. How do large-scale agricultural investments affect land use and the environment on the western slopes of Mount Kenya? Empirical evidence based on small-scale farmers' perceptions and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, Julie G; Wambugu, Grace; Kiteme, Boniface; Eckert, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Africa has been heavily targeted by large-scale agricultural investments (LAIs) throughout the last decade, with scarcely known impacts on local social-ecological systems. In Kenya, a large number of LAIs were made in the region northwest of Mount Kenya. These large-scale farms produce vegetables and flowers mainly for European markets. However, land use in the region remains dominated by small-scale crop and livestock farms with less than 1 ha of land each, who produce both for their own subsistence and for the local markets. We interviewed 100 small-scale farmers living near five different LAIs to elicit their perceptions of the impacts that these LAIs have on their land use and the overall environment. Furthermore, we analyzed remotely sensed land cover and land use data to assess land use change in the vicinity of the five LAIs. While land use change did not follow a clear trend, a number of small-scale farmers did adapt their crop management to environmental changes such as a reduced river water flows and increased pests, which they attributed to the presence of LAIs. Despite the high number of open conflicts between small-scale land users and LAIs around the issue of river water abstraction, the main environmental impact, felt by almost half of the interviewed land users, was air pollution with agrochemicals sprayed on the LAIs' land. Even though only a low percentage of local land users and their household members were directly involved with LAIs, a large majority of respondents favored the presence of LAIs nearby, as they are believed to contribute to the region's overall economic development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Net Fluxes of CO2, but not N20 or CH4, are Affected Following Agronomic-Scale Additions of Urea to Prairie and Arable Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial production of carbon dioxide (CO2) increased with nitrogen (N) application rate for both arable and prairie soils incubated at 21 °C. Rate of N applied as urea (0, 11, 56, 112 kg N ha-1) did not affect soil methane consumption and nitrous oxide production for soil collected from either ec...

  16. Distribution of dissolved labile and particulate iron and copper in Terra Nova Bay polynya (Ross Sea, Antarctica) surface waters in relation to nutrients and phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Massolo, Serena; Abelmoschi, M. Luisa; De Vittor, Cinzia; Frache, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The distribution of the dissolved labile and of the particulate Fe and Cu together with dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll a and total particulate matter was investigated in the surface waters of Terra Nova Bay polynya in mid-January 2003. The measurements were conducted within the framework of the Italian Climatic Long-term Interactions of the Mass balance in Antarctica (CLIMA) Project activities. The labile dissolved fraction was operationally defined by employing the chelating resin Chelex-100, which retains free and loosely bound trace metal species. The dissolved labile Fe ranges from below the detection limit (0.15 nM) to 3.71 nM, while the dissolved labile Cu from below the detection limit (0.10 nM) to 0.90 nM. The lowest concentrations for both metals were observed at 20 m depth (the shallowest depth for which metals were measured). The concentration of the particulate Fe was about 5 times higher than the dissolved Fe concentration, ranging from 0.56 to 24.83 nM with an average of 6.45 nM. The concentration of the particulate Cu ranged from 0.01 to 0.71 nM with an average of 0.17 nM. The values are in agreement with the previous data collected in the same area. We evaluated the role of the Fe and Cu as biolimiting metals. The N:dissolved labile Fe ratios (18,900-130,666) would or would not allow a complete nitrate removal, on the basis of the N:Fe requirement ratios that we calculated considering the N:P and the C:P ratios estimated for diatoms. This finding partially agrees with the Si:N ratio that we found (2.29). Moreover we considered a possible influence of the dissolved labile Cu on the Fe uptake process.

  17. Quantum-chemical evaluation of the lability of π-electronic systems in N-benzoyl derivatives of phosphorus and sulfur imines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.P.; Pen'kovskii, V.V.; Boldeskul, I.E.

    1986-01-01

    The charges on atoms, the bond indices, their components, and the energies of the highest occupied π orbitals of four N-benzoyl derivatives of phosphorus and sulfur imines have been calculated by the CNDO/2 method in an spd basis. According to the results obtained, the π system of a bridging sulfur-nitrogen group is more labile than a phosphorus-nitrogen group, in agreement with the experimental evaluations of the transmission of the electronic effects of substituents in these systems. An interpretation of this lability has been given

  18. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, A.H.; Thomsen, J.F.; Sekimpi, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...... health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted....

  19. The mechanism of stereospecific C-H oxidation by Fe(Pytacn) complexes: bioinspired non-heme iron catalysts containing cis-labile exchangeable sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Irene; Company, Anna; Postils, Verònica; Ribas, Xavi; Que, Lawrence; Luis, Josep M; Costas, Miquel

    2013-05-17

    A detailed mechanistic study of the hydroxylation of alkane C-H bonds using H2O2 by a family of mononuclear non heme iron catalysts with the formula [Fe(II)(CF3SO3)2(L)] is described, in which L is a tetradentate ligand containing a triazacyclononane tripod and a pyridine ring bearing different substituents at the α and γ positions, which tune the electronic or steric properties of the corresponding iron complexes. Two inequivalent cis-labile exchangeable sites, occupied by triflate ions, complete the octahedral iron coordination sphere. The C-H hydroxylation mediated by this family of complexes takes place with retention of configuration. Oxygen atoms from water are incorporated into hydroxylated products and the extent of this incorporation depends in a systematic manner on the nature of the catalyst, and the substrate. Mechanistic probes and isotopic analyses, in combination with detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations, provide strong evidence that C-H hydroxylation is performed by highly electrophilic [Fe(V)(O)(OH)L] species through a concerted asynchronous mechanism, involving homolytic breakage of the C-H bond, followed by rebound of the hydroxyl ligand. The [Fe(V)(O)(OH)L] species can exist in two tautomeric forms, differing in the position of oxo and hydroxide ligands. Isotopic-labeling analysis shows that the relative reactivities of the two tautomeric forms are sensitively affected by the α substituent of the pyridine, and this reactivity behavior is rationalized by computational methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability / Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items. Participants' scores on these factors were not influenced by their gender or age. These findings are discussed based on literature that describes the psychometric parameters of the JAWS as well as the correlation of affects with demographic variables.

  1. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  2. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K; Maziina, James; Racheal, Apio; Jørs, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression analysis. The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). Unlike the practice in several other developing countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted.

  3. Spatial scale affects the relative role of stochasticity versus determinism in soil bacterial communities in wheat fields across the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Li, Yuntao; Xiang, Xingjia; Sun, Ruibo; Yang, Teng; He, Dan; Zhang, Kaoping; Ni, Yingying; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Adams, Jonathan M; Chu, Haiyan

    2018-02-05

    The relative importance of stochasticity versus determinism in soil bacterial communities is unclear, as are the possible influences that alter the balance between these. Here, we investigated the influence of spatial scale on the relative role of stochasticity and determinism in agricultural monocultures consisting only of wheat, thereby minimizing the influence of differences in plant species cover and in cultivation/disturbance regime, extending across a wide range of soils and climates of the North China Plain (NCP). We sampled 243 sites across 1092 km and sequenced the 16S rRNA bacterial gene using MiSeq. We hypothesized that determinism would play a relatively stronger role at the broadest scales, due to the strong influence of climate and soil differences in selecting many distinct OTUs of bacteria adapted to the different environments. In order to test the more general applicability of the hypothesis, we also compared with a natural ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results revealed that the relative importance of stochasticity vs. determinism did vary with spatial scale, in the direction predicted. On the North China Plain, stochasticity played a dominant role from 150 to 900 km (separation between pairs of sites) and determinism dominated at more than 900 km (broad scale). On the Tibetan Plateau, determinism played a dominant role from 130 to 1200 km and stochasticity dominated at less than 130 km. Among the identifiable deterministic factors, soil pH showed the strongest influence on soil bacterial community structure and diversity across the North China Plain. Together, 23.9% of variation in soil microbial community composition could be explained, with environmental factors accounting for 19.7% and spatial parameters 4.1%. Our findings revealed that (1) stochastic processes are relatively more important on the North China Plain, while deterministic processes are more important on the Tibetan Plateau; (2) soil pH was the major factor in shaping

  4. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment......, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast...

  5. Comparison of two experimental speciation methods with a theoretical approach to monitor free and labile Cd fractions in soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parat, C.; Cornu, J.-Y.; Schneider, A.; Authier, L.; Sapin-Didier, V.; Denaix, L.; Potin-Gautier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on the suitability of two techniques to monitor cadmium speciation in soil solutions collected during a 7-day incubation of a contaminated soil. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and ion exchange were performed on soil solutions collected daily and results were compared with calculations obtained with the speciation software Visual MINTEQ. The electrochemically labile Cd fraction was greater than the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction during the first 6 days, after which it decreased sharply during the last 2 days to reach values close to the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction. Further investigations showed that the increase in pH was mainly responsible for the reduction. However, calculations performed with Visual MINTEQ software clearly demonstrated that a change in the nature of organic matter and/or its complexing capacity also needed to be taken into consideration.

  6. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...... was increased (from 6 to 39% of organic content, depending upon sediment type). However, in some of the sediment types, a higher fraction of organic matter led to a decline in biomass. The biomass of L. uniflora was less responsive to organic content and was decreased significantly only when the least labile......P>1. Despite real improvement in the water quality of many previously eutrophic lakes, the recovery of submerged vegetation has been poor. This lack of recovery is possibly caused by the accumulation of organic matter on the top layer of the sediment, which is produced under eutrophic conditions...

  7. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO 2 . On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO 2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  8. Stress-induced resistance to the fear memory labilization/reconsolidation process. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Pablo Javier; Ortiz, Vanesa; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Victor Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated memories can enter into a labile state after reactivation followed by a restabilization process defined as reconsolidation. This process can be interfered with Midazolam (MDZ), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. The present study has evaluated the influence of prior stress on MDZ's interfering effect. We also assessed the influence of both systemic and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDA receptors, on the MDZ effect in previously stressed rats. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of stress on the expression of Zif-268 and the GluN2B sites, two molecular markers of the labilization/reconsolidation process, following reactivation. The results revealed that prior stress resulted into a memory trace that was insensitive to the MDZ impairing effect. Both systemic and intra-BLA DCS administration previous to reactivation restored MDZ's disruptive effect on memory reconsolidation in stressed animals. Further, reactivation enhanced Zif-268 expression in the BLA in control unstressed rats, whereas no elevation was observed in stressed animals. In agreement with the behavioral findings, DCS restored the increased level of Zif-268 expression in the BLA in stressed animals. Moreover, memory reactivation in unstressed animals elevated GluN2B expression in the BLA, thus suggesting that this effect is involved in memory destabilization, whereas stressed animals did not reveal any changes. These findings are consistent with resistance to the MDZ effect in these rats, indicating that stress exposure prevents the onset of destabilization following reactivation. In summary, prior stress limited both the occurrence of the reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GLP-1-RA Corrects Mitochondrial Labile Iron Accumulation and Improves β-Cell Function in Type 2 Wolfram Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielpur, Liron; Sohn, Yang-Sung; Karmi, Ola; Fogel, Chen; Zinger, Adar; Abu-Libdeh, Abdulsalam; Israeli, Tal; Riahi, Yael; Pappo, Orit; Birk, Ruth; Zangen, David H; Mittler, Ron; Cabantchik, Zvi-Ioav; Cerasi, Erol; Nechushtai, Rachel; Leibowitz, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 Wolfram syndrome (T2-WFS) is a neuronal and β-cell degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CISD2 gene. The mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS are not known, and treatments that effectively improve diabetes in this context are lacking. Unraveling the mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS and the effects of treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1-RA). A case report and in vitro mechanistic studies. We treated an insulin-dependent T2-WFS patient with the GLP-1-RA exenatide for 9 weeks. An iv glucose/glucagon/arginine stimulation test was performed off-drug before and after intervention. We generated a cellular model of T2-WFS by shRNA knockdown of CISD2 (nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 [NAF-1]) in rat insulinoma cells and studied the mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction and the effects of GLP-1-RA. Treatment with exenatide resulted in a 70% reduction in daily insulin dose with improved glycemic control, as well as an off-drug 7-fold increase in maximal insulin secretion. NAF-1 repression in INS-1 cells decreased insulin content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while maintaining the response to cAMP, and enhanced the accumulation of labile iron and reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Remarkably, treatment with GLP-1-RA and/or the iron chelator deferiprone reversed these defects. NAF-1 deficiency leads to mitochondrial labile iron accumulation and oxidative stress, which may contribute to β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS. Treatment with GLP-1-RA and/or iron chelation improves mitochondrial function and restores β-cell function. Treatment with GLP-1-RA, probably aided by iron chelation, should be considered in WFS and other forms of diabetes associated with iron dysregulation.

  10. Physiologic variability at the verge of systemic inflammation: multi-scale entropy of heart rate variability is affected by very low doses of endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Georg N.; Sanders, Renee L.; Cheung, Nora H.; Coyle, Susette M.; Griffel, Benjamin; Macor, Marie A.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Calvano, Steve E.; Gale, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuro-endocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, we investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and we investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV. Methods Healthy human volunteers (n=25) were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline) or endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS): 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ng/kg administered intravenously. Vital signs were recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours and then at 9, 12, and 24 hours after LPS. Blood samples were drawn at specific time points for cytokine measurements. HRV analysis was performed using EKG epochs of 5 minutes. MSE for HRV was calculated for all dose groups to scale factor 40. Results The lowest significant threshold dose was noted in core temperature at 0.25ng/kg. Endogenous TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly responsive at the next dosage level (0.5ng/kg) along with elevations in circulating leukocytes and heart rate. Responses were exaggerated at higher doses (1 and 2 ng/kg). Time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics similarly suggested a threshold dose, differing from placebo at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg, below which no clear pattern in response was evident. By applying repeated-measures ANOVA across scale factors, a significant decrease in MSE was seen at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg by 2 hours post exposure to LPS. While not statistically significant below 1.0 ng/kg, MSE unexpectedly decreased across all groups in an orderly dose-response pattern not seen in the other outcomes. Conclusions By usingrANOVA across scale factors, MSE can detect autonomic change

  11. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Peterman, Amy H; Heinemann, Allen W; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David

    2013-11-01

    To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool.

  12. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI--RF spillover effect-corrected omega plot for simultaneous determination of labile proton fraction ratio and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Dai, ZhuoZhi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to dilute proteins and peptides as well as microenvironmental properties. However, the complexity of the CEST MRI effect, which varies with the labile proton content, exchange rate and experimental conditions, underscores the need for developing quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis. Towards this goal, it has been shown that omega plot is capable of quantifying paramagnetic CEST MRI. However, the use of the omega plot is somewhat limited for diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) MRI because it is more susceptible to direct radio frequency (RF) saturation (spillover) owing to the relatively small chemical shift. Recently, it has been found that, for dilute DIACEST agents that undergo slow to intermediate chemical exchange, the spillover effect varies little with the labile proton ratio and exchange rate. Therefore, we postulated that the omega plot analysis can be improved if RF spillover effect could be estimated and taken into account. Specifically, simulation showed that both labile proton ratio and exchange rate derived using the spillover effect-corrected omega plot were in good agreement with simulated values. In addition, the modified omega plot was confirmed experimentally, and we showed that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (p plot for quantitative analysis of DIACEST MRI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Benefits of 2.94 μm infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for analysis of labile molecules by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budnik, Bogdan A.; Jensen, Kenneth Bendix; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser was used together with a commercial Fourier transform mass spectrometer to study labile biomolecules. The combination has shown superior performance over conventional 337 nm ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) Fourier transform mass...

  14. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  15. The Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS): Psychometric properties of the Spanish version in a community sample from Mexico City and comparison between remitted psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Nava, Francisco; Fresán-Orellana, Ana; Barragán, Virginia; Saracco-Álvarez, Ricardo; Becerra-Palars, Claudia; Osorio, Yanik; Pérez, Emrys; Heinze, Gerhard; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-02-01

    AFECTS is a novel psychometric instrument that provides an integrated framework based on affective temperamental traits and their trait dimensions. It has the potential to be used in clinical and research fields to study psychopathology and mental health. It is now necessary to field-test this instrument with diverse populations and psychopathological entities. The primary aim was to test the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Spanish Version of the AFECTS instrument on Mexican subjects. AFECTS characteristics were then compared between general population and stable psychiatric patients. A cross-sectional design involving 350 subjects from the general population in México City and 91 stable patients with a bipolar disorder (BPD, n=20), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=35), or with a schizophrenia (n=36) diagnosis. A six-factor structure in trait dimensions, explaining 61.4% of the variance, with a Cronbach׳s alpha of 0.93 was found. Euthymic (23%) and hyperthymic (12%) affective temperaments were the most frequent, while dysphoric (3%) and apathetic (3%) were the least. Trait dimension differences were found in Volition, Sensitivity, and the Instability Index between the groups, particularly those with a bipolar disorder. Use of a self report instrument, and a small sample not representative of the Mexican population or patients with psychiatric conditions. The Spanish Version of the AFECTS instrument has adequate psychometric properties. This version of AFECTS will allow the use of this instrument among Spanish speaking populations and contribute to the continued research efforts on integrative models such as AFECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p soil pH was found in the tested soil sample. The results indicate that the %E(24 h) value can more rapidly and easily predict the labile pools of Pb in soils compared with L values, but it might be readily overestimated because of the artificial soil acidity derived from the spiked isotopic tracer and the excess of spiked enriched isotopes. The results also suggest that the amounts of Pb extracted with EDTA and the Σ(BCR) values extracted with the modified BCR approach are helpful to detect the labile pools of Pb in soils. In addition, the negative correlation between soil pH and the labile pools of Pb in soils

  17. Affective instability as a clinical feature of avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Avigal; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2017-10-01

    The current study's main goal was to examine whether affective instability is elevated among individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder (APD) by comparing it to the affective instability found among individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well that found among healthy controls. Adults (N = 152, aged 18-65 years) with BPD, APD, or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined temporal instability in negative affect using experience-sampling methods. Both within and between days, individuals with APD showed greater affective instability compared to the healthy control individuals, although less affective instability compared to individuals with BPD. The findings are in line with affective instability (or emotional lability) as a key dimension relevant across personality disorders. Additionally, they emphasize the need for research and clinical attention to affective characteristics (alongside the more readily recognized interpersonal characteristics) of APD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Monitoring the progression of calcium and protein solubilisation as affected by calcium chelators during small-scale manufacture of casein-based food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Irene; O'Sullivan, Michael; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-12-15

    Calcium and protein solubilisation during small-scale manufacture of semi-solid casein-based food matrices was investigated and found to be very different in the presence or absence of calcium chelating salts. Calcium concentrations in the dispersed phase increased and calcium-ion activity (A Ca ++ ) decreased during manufacture of the matrices containing calcium chelating salts; with ∼23% of total calcium solubilised by the end of manufacture. In the absence of calcium chelating salts, these concentrations were significantly lower at equivalent processing times and remained unchanged as did A Ca ++ , throughout manufacture. The protein content of the dispersed phase was low (≤3% of total protein), but was significantly higher for matrices containing calcium chelating salts. This study elucidates the critical role of calcium chelating salts in modulating casein hydration and dispersion and gives an indication of the levels of soluble calcium and protein required to allow matrix formation during manufacture of casein-based food structures e.g. processed and analogue cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  20. Large scale wind energy conversion system (WECS) design and installation as affected by site wind energy characteristics, grouping arrangement, and social acceptance. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungstrom, O

    1977-01-01

    The Swedish wind energy prospecting program includes special features of determining site wind characteristics and design of WECS group stations, which are described briefly, such as applications of normalized WDP-Wind Duration Profiles, WHP-Wind Height Profiles and how these are affected by site location and terrain roughness. A set of WEC-Wind Energy Classes (1 to 4) is introduced as an aid in territorial wind energy surveys. A survey of Sweden's WEPA-Wind Energy Producing Areas--with associated distribution over WEC-2-4 is presented. In order to determine the corresponding wind energy production capacity, the problem of optimizing WECS group station design for cost effective energy production per land usage must be solved. Here, the effects of WECS unit size and spacing on specific annual energy production, TWh/km/sup 2/, yr, are analyzed with the use of specific group station models in the 40 to 100 MW capacity range, applying WECS unit sizes 50kW, 1 MW and 5 MW, studying the energy balance for typical group stations. By applying the specific productivity data for 1 to 5 MW systems, a survey of the WEPA-associated wind energy production capacity in Sweden is presented.

  1. Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Daniels, Elizabeth A; Bates, Morgan E; Tylka, Tracy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar uma medida de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho para o contexto brasileiro. Especificamente, pretendeu-se conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna da Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, avaliando se as pontuações nos seus fatores diferem em função do gênero e da idade dos participantes. Participaram 298 trabalhadores de centros comerciais de pequeno e médio porte da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. A maioria destes era do sexo feminino (76,8%, com idade média de 26 anos (DP = 6,87. Através de uma análise dos componentes principais (rotação promax foram identificados dois fatores que explicaram conjuntamente 48,1% da variância total: afetos positivos (α = 0,94; 14 itens e afetos negativos (α = 0,87; 13 itens; um fator geral de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho foi também computado (α = 0,95; 27 itens. As pontuações dos participantes nestes fatores não foram influenciadas pelas variáveis gênero e idade. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz do que tem sido escrito sobre os parâmetros desta escala e da relação dos afetos com estas variáveis demográficas.This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items

  3. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L; de Araujo, Artur T; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F; de Almeida, Márcia R; Matsuura, Hélio N; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus , the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1 , a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1 , suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression ( TPL , IAA12 ) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1 , showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process.

  4. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L.; de Araujo, Artur T.; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Matsuura, Hélio N.; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. PMID:29067033

  5. Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chung-Ying; Årestedt, Kristofer; Griffiths, Mark D.; Broström, Anders; Pakpour, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF). Results The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = −0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming. Conclusions Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming. PMID:28571474

  6. Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chung-Ying; Årestedt, Kristofer; Griffiths, Mark D; Broström, Anders; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF). Results The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = -0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming. Conclusions Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming.

  7. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T. K. J.; Surminski, S.

    2018-06-01

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting `acceptable risk levels' and identifying `adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  8. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (groundwater. The clustering of salivary As and Mn in principal component analysis further indicated influence of the common exposure source. Zinc and selenium comprised a separate component presumably reflecting the local deficiencies in intakes of these essential elements from drinking water and foodstuff. Thus the study reveals that the concentration of other metals beside As must be monitored in drinking water before implementation of any policies to provide safe water to the affected communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T K J; Surminski, S

    2018-06-13

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting 'acceptable risk levels' and identifying 'adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  10. Is litter decomposition 'primed' by primary producer-release of labile carbon in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    It is possible that recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) can be 'activated' by inputs of labile organic matter (LOM) through the priming effect (PE). Investigating the PE is of major importance to fully understand the microbial use of ROM and its role on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In aquatic ecosystems it is thought that the PE is triggered by periphytic algae release of LOM. Analogously, in terrestrial systems it is hypothesized that the LOM released in plant rhizospheres, or from the green crusts on the surface of agricultural soils, stimulate the activity and growth of ROM decomposers. Most previous studies on PE have utilised pulse additions of single substrates at high concentrations. However, to achieve an assessment of the true importance of the PE, it is important to simulate a realistic delivery of LOM. We investigated, in a series of 2-week laboratory experiments, how primary producer (PP)-release of LOM influence litter degradation in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems. We used soil (terrestrial) and pond water (aquatic) microbial communities to which litter was added under light and dark conditions. In addition, glucose was added at PP delivery rates in dark treatments to test if the putative PE in light systems could be reproduced. We observed an initial peak of bacterial growth rate followed by an overall decrease over time with no treatment differences. In light treatments, periphytic algae growth and increased fungal production was stimulated when bacterial growth declined. In contrast, both fungal growth and algal production were negligible in dark treatments. This reveals a direct positive influence of photosynthesis on fungal growth. To investigate if PP LOM supplements, and the associated fungal growth, translate into a modulated litter decomposition, we are using stable isotopes to track the use of litter and algal-derived carbon by determining the δ13C in produced CO2. Fungi and bacteria

  11. Mechanism of pyridine-ligand exchanges at the different labile sites of 3d heterometallic and mixed valence mu3-oxo trinuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitchi, Ghenadie; Riblet, Fabrice; Scopelliti, Rosario; Helm, Lothar; Gulea, Aurelian; Merbach, André E

    2008-11-17

    The syntheses and single crystal X-ray structural analysis of five novel hetero- and homometallic mu 3-oxo trinuclear cluster with the formula [Fe (III) 2M (II)(mu 3-O)(mu-O 2CCH 3) 6(4-Rpy) 3]. x(4-Rpy). y(CH 3CN) where R = Ph for 1(Fe 2Mn), 2(Fe 2Fe), 3(Fe 2Co), 4(Fe 2Ni) and R = CF 3 for 5(Fe 2Co), are reported. The persistence of the structure for compounds 2- 5 in dichloromethane solution in the temperature range 190-320 K is demonstrated by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy. Even at the lowest temperature, the electron exchange in the homometallic mixed-valence compound 2(Fe 2Fe) is in the fast regime at the NMR time scale. Variable temperature and pressure NMR line broadening allowed quantifying the fast coordinated/free 4-Rpy exchanges at the two labile metal centers in these clusters: 2: Fe (III)( k (298)/10 (3) s (-1) = 16.6; Delta H (++) = 60.32 kJ mol (-1); Delta S (++) = + 34.8 J K (-1) mol (-1); Delta V (++) = + 12.5 cm (3) mol (-1)); 3: Fe (11.9; 58.92; +30.7; +10.6) and Co (2.8; 68.24; +49.8; +13.9); 4: Fe(12.2; 67.91; +61.0; -) and Ni (0.37; 78.62; +67.8; +12.3); 5: Fe (46; 58.21; +39.3; +14.2) and Co (4.7; 55.37; +11.2; +10.9). A limiting D mechanism is assigned to these exchange reactions. This assignment is based on a first-order rate law, the detection of intermediates, the positive and large entropies and volumes of activation. The order of reactivity k (Co) > k (Ni) is expected for a D mechanism at these metal centers: their low exchange rates are due to their strong binding with the 4-Rpy donor. Surrounded by oxygen donors the d (5) iron(III) usually reacts associatively; however, here due to low affinity of this ion for nitrogen the mechanism is D and the rate of exchange is very fast, even faster than on the divalent ions. There is no significant effect of the divalent ion in cluster 2, 3, and 5 on the exchange rates of 4-Phpy at the iron center, which seems to indicate that the specific electronic interactions between the three ions making

  12. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Anny; Neave, Matthew J; Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Rädecker, Nils; Wild, Christian; Gärdes, Astrid; Voolstra, Christian R

    2018-01-01

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  13. Blood collection and the labile blood components: what should the regulators ask for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A; Adamides, E

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to promote the quality and safety of blood collection are underway in most European Union (EU) member states but the level of quality management continues to differ significantly not only between countries but also among Blood Collection Establishments (BCE's) within a country. The European Commission has asked for blood safety and self-sufficiency in the Community and has initiated action in this direction. What is sought is harmonization of practices in the transfusion chain but such cannot be accomplished solely through recommendations and directives given the sociocultural and economic differences among EU member states. Active support for the development of common standards and a common quality system as well as an inspection and accreditation system would certainly help. The goal of self-sufficiency should certainly be emphasized but may be difficult to achieve, given the unpredictability of factors that may affect demand and supply. Through bipartisan initiatives however, between the USA and EU, consensus regarding the issue of blood safety, could be reached.

  14. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Cardenas, Anny

    2017-09-12

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  15. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Cardenas, Anny; Neave, Matthew J.; Haroon, Mohamed; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Wild, Christian; Gä rdes, Astrid; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  16. The contribution of thermally labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation in cells grown in the presence of BrdU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanghua; Cheng, Yanlei; Iliakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Radiosensitization by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is commonly attributed to an increase in the yield of double-strand breaks (DSB) in the DNA and an associated decrease in the reparability of these lesions. Radiation chemistry provides a mechanism for the increased yield of DSB through the generation, after bromine loss, of a highly reactive uracilyl radical that attacks the sugar moiety of the nucleotide to produce a single-strand break (SSB). The effects underpinning DSB repair inhibition remain, in contrast, incompletely characterized. A possible source of reduced reparability is a change in the nature or complexity of the DSB in BrdU-substituted DNA. Recent studies show that DSB-complexity or DSB-nature may also be affected by the presence within the cluster of thermally labile sugar lesions (TLSL) that break the DNA backbone only if they chemically evolve to SSB, a process thought to occur within the first hour post-irradiation. Since BrdU radiosensitization might be associated with increased yields and reduced reparability of DSB, we investigated whether BrdU underpins these effects by shifting the balance in the generation of TLSL. We employed asymmetric-field-inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE), a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method to quantitate DSB in a battery of five cells lines grown in the presence of different concentrations of BrdU. We measured specifically the yields of promptly forming DSB (prDSB) using low temperature lysis protocols, and the yields of total DSB (tDSB = prDSB + tlDSB; tlDSB form after evolution to SSB of TLSL) using high temperature lysis protocols. We report that incorporation of BrdU generates similar increases in the formation of tlDSB and prDSB, but variations are noted among the different cell lines tested. The similar increase in the yields of tlDSB and prDSB in BrdU substituted DNA showed that shifts in the yields of these forms of lesions could not be invoked to explain BrdU radiosensitization.

  17. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine T N; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a 'magic bullet' to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a 'Grail Quest' by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made 'made the turn' toward meaningful translational success. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Toxicity profile of labile preservative bronopol in water: The role of more persistent and toxic transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Na; Zhang Xiaoxiang; Xie Qing; Wang Se; Chen Jingwen; Huang Liping; Qiao Xianliang; Li Xuehua; Cai Xiyun

    2011-01-01

    Transformation products usually differ in environmental behaviors and toxicological properties from the parent contaminants, and probably cause potential risks to the environment. Toxicity evolution of a labile preservative, bronopol, upon primary aquatic degradation processes was investigated. Bronopol rapidly hydrolyzed in natural waters, and primarily produced more stable 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol (BNE) and bromonitromethane (BNM). Light enhanced degradation of the targeted compounds with water site specific photoactivity. The bond order analysis theoretically revealed that the reversible retroaldol reactions were primary degradation routes for bronopol and BNE. Judging from toxicity assays and the relative pesticide toxicity index, these degradation products (i.e., BNE and BNM), more persistent and higher toxic than the parent, probably accumulated in natural waters and resulted in higher or prolonging adverse impacts. Therefore, these transformation products should be included into the assessment of ecological risks of non-persistent and low toxic chemicals such as the preservative bronopol. - The preservative bronopol is non-persistent and low toxic, but some transformation products can cause higher or prolonging adverse impacts.

  19. Toxicity profile of labile preservative bronopol in water: The role of more persistent and toxic transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Na; Zhang Xiaoxiang; Xie Qing; Wang Se; Chen Jingwen; Huang Liping; Qiao Xianliang; Li Xuehua [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cai Xiyun, E-mail: xiyuncai@dlut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Transformation products usually differ in environmental behaviors and toxicological properties from the parent contaminants, and probably cause potential risks to the environment. Toxicity evolution of a labile preservative, bronopol, upon primary aquatic degradation processes was investigated. Bronopol rapidly hydrolyzed in natural waters, and primarily produced more stable 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol (BNE) and bromonitromethane (BNM). Light enhanced degradation of the targeted compounds with water site specific photoactivity. The bond order analysis theoretically revealed that the reversible retroaldol reactions were primary degradation routes for bronopol and BNE. Judging from toxicity assays and the relative pesticide toxicity index, these degradation products (i.e., BNE and BNM), more persistent and higher toxic than the parent, probably accumulated in natural waters and resulted in higher or prolonging adverse impacts. Therefore, these transformation products should be included into the assessment of ecological risks of non-persistent and low toxic chemicals such as the preservative bronopol. - The preservative bronopol is non-persistent and low toxic, but some transformation products can cause higher or prolonging adverse impacts.

  20. Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Ana; Gonzalez, Demetrio; Alvarez, Jose M

    2013-05-22

    To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.

  1. The acid-labile subunit of human ternary insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Møller, S; Mosfeldt-Laursen, E

    1998-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is predominantly bound in the trimeric complex comprised of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS). Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and ALS are believed to reflect the GH secretory status, but the clinical use...... of ALS determination is not known. We therefore, determined the: 1) hepatosplanchnic release of ALS by liver vein catheterization (n=30); 2) 24-h diurnal variation of ALS (n=8); 3) normal age-related ranges of circulating ALS (n=1158); 4) diagnostic value of ALS in 108 patients with childhood-onset GH...... in adults; and 4) ALS levels were below -2 SD in 57 of 79 GHD patients (sensitivity 72%) and above 2 SD in 22 of 29 patients with normal GH response (specificity 76%), which was similar, compared with the diagnostic utility of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Finally, our findings indicate that hepatic ALS production...

  2. Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S J; Nelson, C E; Viviani, D A; Shulse, C N; Church, M J

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen frequently limits oceanic photosynthesis and the availability of inorganic nitrogen sources in the surface oceans is shifting with global change. We evaluated the potential for abrupt increases in inorganic N sources to induce cascading effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial communities in the surface ocean. We collected water from 5 m depth in the central North Pacific and amended duplicate 20 liter polycarbonate carboys with nitrate or ammonium, tracking planktonic carbon fixation, DOM production, DOM composition and microbial community structure responses over 1 week relative to controls. Both nitrogen sources stimulated bulk phytoplankton, bacterial and DOM production and enriched Synechococcus and Flavobacteriaceae; ammonium enriched for oligotrophic Actinobacteria OM1 and Gammaproteobacteria KI89A clades while nitrate enriched Gammaproteobacteria SAR86, SAR92 and OM60 clades. DOM resulting from both N enrichments was more labile and stimulated growth of copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae and Oceanospirillaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae and Hyphomonadaceae) in weeklong dark incubations relative to controls. Our study illustrates how nitrogen pulses may have direct and cascading effects on DOM composition and microbial community dynamics in the open ocean. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Anatomical Network Analysis Shows Decoupling of Modular Lability and Complexity in the Evolution of the Primate Skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C.; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon’s general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates. PMID:25992690

  4. Localisation and quantification of alkali-labile sites in human spermatozoa by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Cerda-Flores, R M; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Aragón Tovar, A R; Gosálvez, J

    2015-03-01

    The localisation and quantification of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALSs) were investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection plus fluorescence in situ hybridisation (DBD-FISH) and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay), in spermatozoa of infertile and fertile men. Semen samples from 10 normozoospermic patients undergoing infertility treatment and 10 fertile men were included in this study. ALSs were localised and quantified by DBD-FISH. The region most sensitive to alkali treatment in human spermatozoa was located in the basal region of the head. ALSs were more frequent in spermatozoa of infertile men than in those of fertile men. These results were confirmed by SCGE comet assays. In conclusion, the most intense localisation of hybridisation signals in human spermatozoa, representing the highest density of constitutive ALSs, was not randomly distributed and was predominantly located in the base of the head. Moreover, infertile men presented with an increase in ALS frequency. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between ALS, sperm chromatin organisation and infertility. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  6. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  7. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  8. Lysosomal pH-inducible supramolecular dissociation of polyrotaxanes possessing acid-labile N-triphenylmethyl end groups and their therapeutic potential for Niemann-Pick type C disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Nishida, Kei; Yui, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. We have previously reported that biocleavable polyrotaxanes (PRXs) composed of β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) threaded onto a linear polymer capped with bulky stopper molecules via intracellularly cleavable linkers show remarkable cholesterol reducing effects in NPC disease patient-derived fibroblasts owing to the stimuli-responsive intracellular dissociation of PRXs and subsequent β-CD release from the PRXs. Herein, we describe a series of novel acid-labile 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl group-modified PRXs (HEE-PRXs) bearing terminal N-triphenylmethyl (N-Trt) groups as a cleavable component for the treatment of NPC disease. The N-Trt end groups of the HEE-PRXs underwent acidic pH-induced cleavage and led to the dissociation of their supramolecular structure. A kinetic study revealed that the number of HEE groups on the PRX did not affect the cleavage kinetics of the N-Trt end groups of the HEE-PRXs. The effect of the number of HEE groups of the HEE-PRXs, which was modified to impart water solubility to the PRXs, on cellular internalization efficiency, lysosomal localization efficiency, and cholesterol reduction ability in NPC disease-derived fibroblasts (NPC1 fibroblasts) was also investigated. The cellular uptake and lysosomal localization efficiency were almost equivalent for HEE-PRXs with different numbers of HEE groups. However, the cholesterol reducing ability of the HEE-PRXs in NPC1 fibroblasts was affected by the number of HEE groups, and HEE-PRXs with a high number of HEE groups were unable to reduce lysosomal cholesterol accumulation. This deficiency is most likely due to the cholesterol-solubilizing ability of HEE-modified β-CDs released from the HEE-PRXs. We conclude that the N-Trt group acts as a cleavable component to induce the lysosomal dissociation of HEE-PRXs, and acid-labile HEE-PRXs with an optimal number of HEE groups (4.1 to 5.4 HEE groups per single

  9. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  10. Hemodynamic changes in systolic and diastolic function during isoproterenol challenge predicts symptomatic response to myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with labile obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Megha; Geske, Jeffrey B; Sorajja, Paul; Ommen, Steve R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Gersh, Bernard J; Nishimura, Rick A

    2016-11-15

    We aimed to assess the utility of changes in systolic and diastolic function by isoproterenol challenge in predicting symptom resolution post-myectomy in selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and labile obstruction. In a subset of symptomatic HCM patients without resting/provocable obstruction on noninvasive assessment, isoproterenol challenge during hemodynamic catheterization may elicit labile left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, and demonstrate the effect of obstruction on diastolic function. These changes may determine whether patients achieve complete symptom resolution post-myectomy. Between February 2003 and April 2009, 18 symptomatic HCM patients without LVOT obstruction on noninvasive testing underwent isoproterenol provocation and septal myectomy due to presence of provocable gradient and were followed for 4 (IQR 3-7) years. Thirteen (72.2%) had complete symptom resolution, while 5 (27.8%) had improved, but persistent symptoms. Those with provoked gradient >100 mm Hg or increase in left atrial pressure (LAP) with isoproterenol had symptom resolution. Symptomatic HCM patients without LVOT gradient on noninvasive testing may demonstrate labile obstruction with isoproterenol. With isoproterenol, patients with high LVOT gradient or increase in LAP concomitant with an increase in gradient achieved complete symptom resolution post-myectomy. Thus, improved diastolic filling as well as outflow gradient production in patients with HCM may predict symptom response to myectomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  12. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils-comparison of two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matus, Peter; Kubova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl

  13. Predicting the solubility and lability of Zn, Cd, and Pb in soils from a minespoil-contaminated catchment by stable isotopic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, E. R.; Chenery, S. R.; Young, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Rookhope catchment of Weardale, England, has a diverse legacy of contaminated soils due to extensive lead mining activity over four centuries. We measured the isotopically exchangeable content of Pb, Cd and Zn (E-values) in a large representative subset of the catchment soils (n = 246) using stable isotope dilution. All three metals displayed a wide range of %E-values (c. 1-100%) but relative lability followed the sequence Cd > Pb > Zn. A refinement of the stable isotope dilution approach also enabled detection of non-reactive metal contained within suspended sub-micron (dilution, in a diverse range of soil ecosystems within the catchment of an old Pb/Zn mining area. Assess the controlling influences of soil properties on metal lability and develop predictive algorithms for metal lability in the contaminated catchment based on simple soil properties (such as pH, organic matter (LOI), and total metal content). Examine the incidence of non-isotopically-exchangeable metal held within suspended colloidal particles (SCP-metal) in filtered soil solutions (<0.22 μm) by comparing E-values from isotopic abundance in solutions equilibrated with soil and in a resin phase equilibrated with the separated solution. Assess the ability of a geochemical speciation model, WHAM(VII), to predict metal solubility using isotopically exchangeable metal as an input variable.

  14. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  15. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré , Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjö ling, Å sa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  16. The Shame and Guilt Scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A): Factor Structure, Concurrent and Discriminant Validity, and Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Ratings of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shaun; Gomez, Rapson; Gullone, Eleonora

    2017-06-01

    This study examined various psychometric properties of the items comprising the shame and guilt scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent. A total of 563 adolescents (321 females and 242 males) completed these scales, and also measures of depression and empathy. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for an oblique two-factor model, with the originally proposed shame and guilt items comprising shame and guilt factors, respectively. Also, shame correlated with depression positively and had no relation with empathy. Guilt correlated with depression negatively and with empathy positively. Thus, there was support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the shame and guilt factors. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis comparing females and males, based on the chi-square difference test, supported full metric invariance, the intercept invariance of 26 of the 30 shame and guilt items, and higher latent mean scores among females for both shame and guilt. Comparisons based on the difference in root mean squared error of approximation values supported full measurement invariance and no gender difference for latent mean scores. The psychometric and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. The Shame and Guilt Scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A): Psychometric Properties for Responses from Children, and Measurement Invariance Across Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shaun D.; Gomez, Rapson; Gullone, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study examined various psychometric properties of the items comprising the shame and guilt scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A) in a group children between 8 and 11 years of age. A total of 699 children (367 females and 332 males) completed these scales, and also measures of depression and empathy. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for an oblique two-factor model, with the originally proposed shame and guilt items comprising shame and guilt factors, respectively. There was good internal consistency reliability for the shame and guilt scales, with omega coefficient values of 0.77 and 0.81 for shame and guilt, respectively. Also, shame correlated with depression symptoms positively (0.34, p Guilt correlated with depression symptoms negatively (-0.28, p guilt factors. Multiple-group CFA comparing this group of children with a separate group of adolescents (320 females and 242 males), based on the chi-square difference test, supported full metric invariance, the intercept invariance of 17 of the 30 shame and guilt items, and higher latent mean scores among children for both shame and guilt. The non-equivalency for intercepts and mean scores were of small effect sizes. Comparisons based on the difference in root mean squared error of approximation values supported full measurement invariance and no group difference for latent mean scores. The findings in the current study support the use of the TOSCA-A in children and the valid comparison of scores between children and adolescents, thereby opening up the possibility of evaluating change in the TOSCA-A shame and guilt factors over these developmental age groups. PMID:27242573

  18. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  19. Redox-active labile iron in fortified flours from the Brazilian market Ferro lábil redox-ativo em farinhas fortificadas do mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pannia Espósito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the fraction of redox-active labile iron in iron-fortified flours acquired on the Brazilian market. METHODS: Samples of wheat flour, maize flour and breadcrumbs were extracted with buffers that mimic gastric juice, saliva and intestinal juice. Redox-active labile iron levels were assessed through the reaction of autoxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed by iron in the presence of a fluorescence probe. RESULTS: Redox-active labile iron represents 1% to 9% of the total iron in the flour and breadcrumb samples, with the lowest values found under gastric juice conditions and the highest in the more alkaline media. Redox-active labile iron possibly arises from the decomposition of an iron-phytic acid complex. A positive correlation between redox-active labile iron and total iron was found in saline biomimetic fluids. CONCLUSION: Redox-active labile iron may be a risk factor for people with impaired antioxidant defenses, such as those who are atransferrinemic or iron overloaded (e.g. thalassemic. Total iron can be used to predict redox-active labile iron absorption at each stage of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of iron-fortified flours.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a porcentagem de ferro lábil redox ativo em farinhas fortificadas adquiridas no comércio popular. MÉTODOS: Amostras de farinha de trigo, fubá e rosca foram extraídas com tampões miméticos de suco gástrico, saliva e suco intestinal. Os níveis de ferro lábil redox ativo foram determinados por meio da reação de auto-oxidação do ácido ascórbico catalisada pelo ferro, em presença de uma sonda fluorimétrica. RESULTADOS: A fração de ferro lábil redox ativo representa entre 1% e 9% do ferro total nas farinhas estudadas, sendo os menores valores encontrados em condições miméticas do suco gástrico e os maiores nos meios mais alcalinos. Há indícios de que o ferro lábil redox ativo origina-se da decomposição de um complexo entre ferro e ácido f

  20. Implementation factors affecting the large-scale deployment of digital health and well-being technologies: A qualitative study of the initial phases of the 'Living-It-Up' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, Ruth; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Watson, Nicholas; Mair, Frances S

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the factors which facilitate or impede the large-scale deployment of health and well-being consumer technologies. The Living-It-Up project is a large-scale digital intervention led by NHS 24, aiming to transform health and well-being services delivery throughout Scotland. We conducted a qualitative study of the factors affecting the implementation and deployment of the Living-It-Up services. We collected a range of data during the initial phase of deployment, including semi-structured interviews (N = 6); participant observation sessions (N = 5) and meetings with key stakeholders (N = 3). We used the Normalisation Process Theory as an explanatory framework to interpret the social processes at play during the initial phases of deployment.Initial findings illustrate that it is clear - and perhaps not surprising - that the size and diversity of the Living-It-Up consortium made implementation processes more complex within a 'multi-stakeholder' environment. To overcome these barriers, there is a need to clearly define roles, tasks and responsibilities among the consortium partners. Furthermore, varying levels of expectations and requirements, as well as diverse cultures and ways of working, must be effectively managed. Factors which facilitated implementation included extensive stakeholder engagement, such as co-design activities, which can contribute to an increased 'buy-in' from users in the long term. An important lesson from the Living-It-Up initiative is that attempting to co-design innovative digital services, but at the same time, recruiting large numbers of users is likely to generate conflicting implementation priorities which hinder - or at least substantially slow down - the effective rollout of services at scale.The deployment of Living-It-Up services is ongoing, but our results to date suggest that - in order to be successful - the roll-out of digital health and well-being technologies at scale requires a delicate and pragmatic trade

  1. O comportamento de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sujeitos a diferentes níveis de azoto e potássio Influence of nitrogen and potassium on Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mother plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas de propagação vegetativa de plantas o estado nutricional dos pés-mãe é determinante para o sucesso do enraizamento das estacas que estes originam. Como tal, a recente implementação, em Portugal, da técnica de propagação vegetativa de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus por enraizamento de estacas caulinares, justifica plenamente o estudo da fertilização de pés-mãe desta espécie e o seu efeito no enraizamento das estacas. Assim, e com o objectivo de avaliar o efeito do azoto e do potássio no crescimento de pés-mãe de E. globulus e no enraizamento das estacas obtidas, foi instalado um ensaio de fertilização que decorreu durante um período de 2 anos. No ensaio utilizaram-se 2 clones desta espécie (HD161 e CN5 e testaram-se 6 modalidades de fertilização, correspondentes à combinação de 3 níveis de azoto (50, 100, 200 mg N L-1 e 2 de potássio (50 e 100 mg K L-1 na solução nutritiva utilizada. No primeiro ano de crescimento (1998 os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação, tendo-se avaliado a biomassa recolhida. No segundo ano (1999, para além da biomassa recolhida, determinou-se também o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe e a capacidade de enraizamento dessas estacas. Com o delineamento experimental utilizado não se observaram, em todos os parâmetros avaliados, diferenças significativas entre os dois níveis de potássio, nem interacções significativas entre o potássio e os restantes factores em estudo. Relativamente ao azoto, a análise dos dados obtidos permitiu concluir que o aumento da concentração de azoto na solução nutritiva, de 50 para 200 mg L-1, originou aumentos significativos da biomassa recolhida nas podas, da produção de estacas e da percentagem de enraizamento das estacas, contrariando a ideia que o aumento da disponibilidade de azoto pode conduzir uma redução do enraizamento. Os resultados permitem assim concluir que o azoto é determinante para o

  2. Effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on emotional lability in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtarian, T R; Cooper, R E; Vassos, E; Moran, P; Asherson, P

    2017-07-01

    Emotional lability (EL) is an associated feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, contributing to functional impairment. Yet the effect of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on EL symptoms is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on symptoms of EL and compare these with the effects on core ADHD symptoms. A systematic search was conducted on the databases Embase, PsychInfo, and Ovid Medline ® and the clinicaltrials.gov website. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of stimulants and atomoxetine in adults aged 18-60 years, with any mental health diagnosis characterised by emotional or mood instability, with at least one outcome measure of EL. All identified trials were on adults with ADHD. A random-effects meta-analysis with standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals was used to investigate the effect size on EL and compare this to the effect on core ADHD symptoms. Of the 3,864 publications identified, nine trials met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Stimulants and atomoxetine led to large mean weighted effect-sizes for on ADHD symptoms (n=9, SMD=-0.8, 95% CI:-1.07 to -0.53). EL outcomes showed more moderate but definite effects (n=9, SMD=-0.41, 95% CI:-0.57 to -0.25). In this meta-analysis, stimulants and atomoxetine were moderately effective for EL symptoms, while effect size on core ADHD symptoms was twice as large. Methodological issues may partially explain the difference in effect size. Reduced average effect size could also reflect heterogeneity of EL with ADHD pharmacotherapy responsive and non-responsive sub-types. Our findings indicate that EL may be less responsive than ADHD symptoms overall, perhaps indicating the need for adjunctive psychotherapy in some cases. To clarify these questions, our findings need replication in studies selecting subjects for high EL and targeting EL as the primary

  3. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  4. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of soil solution fraction, F(lrss). For the soil solutions extracted with a mixture of LMWOAs the concentrations of heavy metals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients obtained by LMWAOs were better than that obtained by the first step of BCR method. Therefore, LMWAOs and F(lrss) were strongly recommended to predict the bioavailability of metals in soil pools to plants.

  5. Multi-isotopic study (15N, 34S, 18O, 13C) to identify processes affecting nitrate and sulfate in response to local and regional groundwater mixing in a large-scale flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, R.; Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied a range-and-basin area where different scale flow systems converge. ► Pig manure and chemical fertilizers are the main nitrate and sulfate sources. ► Mixing between regional and local groundwater can favor denitrification processes. - Abstract: The integrated use of hydrogeologic and multi-isotopic approaches (δ 15 N, δ 18 O NO3 , δ 34 S, δ 18 O SO4 and δ 13 C HCO3 ) was applied in the Selva basin area (NE Spain) to characterize NO 3 - and SO 4 2- sources and to evaluate which geochemical processes affect NO 3 - in groundwater. The studied basin is within a basin-and-range physiographic province where natural hydrodynamics have been modified and different scale flow systems converge as a consequence of recent groundwater development and exploitation rates. As a result, groundwaters related to the local recharge flow system (affected by anthropogenic activities) and to the generally deeper regional flow system (recharged from the surrounding ranges) undergo mixing processes. The δ 15 N, δ 18 O NO3 and δ 34 S indicated that the predominant sources of contamination in the basin are pig manure and synthetic fertilizers. Hydrochemical data along with δ 15 N, δ 18 O NO3 , δ 34 S, δ 18 O SO4 and δ 13 C HCO3 of some wells confirmed mixing between regional and local flow systems. Apart from dilution processes that can contribute to the decrease of NO 3 - concentrations, the positive correlation between δ 15 N and δ 18 O NO3 agreed with the occurrence of denitrification processes. The δ 34 S and δ 18 O SO4 indicated that pyrite oxidation is not linked to denitrification, and δ 13 C HCO3 did not clearly point to a role of organic matter as an electron donor. Therefore, it is proposed that the mixing processes between deeper regional and local surface groundwater allow denitrification to occur due to the reducing conditions of the regional groundwater. Thus, isotopic data add useful complementary information to hydrochemical

  6. Marked lability in urinary cortisol levels in subgroups of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder during an intensive exposure treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John W; Wang, Sheila; Yehuda, Rachel; Lubin, Hadar; Johnson, David; Bremner, J Douglas; Charney, Dennis; Southwick, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain longitudinal data on lability of cortisol levels in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because previous studies have largely been based on sampling at a single time point and have yielded varying results. This study measured urinary cortisol levels at admission, midcourse, and discharge during a 90-day hospitalization period in male Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N = 51). Although there were no significant differences in the mean +/- SEM urinary cortisol levels between the admission (59.4 +/- 3.0 microg/d), midcourse (55.6 +/- 3.9 microg/d), and discharge (53.4 +/- 3.4 microg/d) values, marked lability of cortisol levels in individual patients was observed over time, with changes ranging from +93 to -58 microg/d from admission to midcourse. In addition, this hormonal lability defined discrete subgroups of patients on the basis of the longitudinal pattern of cortisol change during exposure treatment, and there were significant psychometric differences in the level of social functioning between these subgroups. The findings do not support the concept of either a static "hypocortisolism" or "hypercortisolism" in PTSD, but rather suggest a psychogenic basis for cortisol alterations in PTSD in relation to psychosocial stress and indicate a central regulatory dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis characterized by a dynamic tendency to overreact in both upward and downward directions. The longitudinal findings fit with recent observations that cortisol elevations occur when acutely superimposed stressful conditions emotionally engage patients and overwhelm the usually dominating disengaging coping mechanisms associated with suppression of cortisol levels in PTSD. The findings emphasize the importance of longitudinal data in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PTSD.

  7. The DIRT on Q10: In situ depletion of labile-inputs does not increase temperature sensitivity in a laboratory incubation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L. L.; Lajtha, K.; Bowden, R.; Johnson, B. R.; Bridgham, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The decomposition of soil organic matter is expected to increase with global warming and has been commonly described by kinetic models with at least two pools with differing turnover times. Pools characterized by rapid turnover are thought to consist of labile substrates. Meanwhile, slower turnover is attributed, in part, to greater chemical complexity and a necessarily higher activation energy which should in turn lead to a higher sensitivity (Q10) to temperature and a proportionally larger response to warming. Experimental tests of the relative Q10 of these pools have been inconclusive and contradictory in part due the fact that all pools are decomposing simultaneously and soils kept under differing conditions over long periods of time diverge in more than the Q10 response making them less comparable over time. We present here a test of the temperature response on soils from a 20 yr litter manipulation experiment incubated under an experimental regime that minimizes divergence among the soils. We hypothesize that 1) if exclusion of inputs has depleted labile substrates and 2) the remaining carbon is more chemically complex, then the input exclusion treatments should show a higher Q10 compared to the ambient or increased input treatments. The soils are taken from the Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) plots in the Bousson Forest, Pennsylvania, US. The DIRT treatments consist of litter and root exclusion (no inputs = NI), no roots (NR), no litter (NL), double litter (DL), and ambient conditions (C). Soils were incubated at 25oC for 525 days. Periodically, replicate sets were rotated into 15oC, 35oC or remained at 25oC for 24 hr. The headspace CO2 concentration was measured before and after the 24 hr temperature treatments, and then all replicate sets were returned to 25oC. Twenty years of input exclusion decreased respiration rate, with NI DIRT treatments, despite the clear differences in their carbon pools. Similar studies have examined the temperature

  8. Prolonged protection against Intranasal challenge with influenza virus following systemic immunization or combinations of mucosal and systemic immunizations with a heat-labile toxin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengmin; Goodsell, Amanda; Uematsu, Yasushi; Vajdy, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, and there is a serious threat of a pandemic influenza with the potential to cause millions of deaths. Therefore, practical influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies that can confer protection against intranasal infection with influenza viruses are needed. In this study, we demonstrate that using LTK63, a nontoxic mutant of the heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli, as an adjuvant for both mucosal and systemic immunizations, systemic (intramuscular) immunization or combinations of mucosal (intranasal) and intramuscular immunizations protected mice against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of live influenza virus at 3.5 months after the second immunization.

  9. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  10. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  11. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p 50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p production and accumulation of soil NO 3 - -N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater-treated soil could pose an ecological concern for soil fertility, biological health, and water quality. However, the EON could lead to mineral N pool but only if sufficient labile C source was present. The effects of wastewater irrigation on soil N cycling need to be assessed before it is recommended for crop production.

  12. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and nature of solid extraction sorbent on recoverable DOM composition: Implication into potential lability of different compound groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Jae-Eun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Noting the source-dependent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), this study explored the recoverable compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE) of two common sorbents (C18 and PPL) eluted with methanol solvent for contrasting DOM sources via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Fresh algae and leaf litter extracts DOM, one riverine DOM, and one upstream lacustrine DOM were selected for the comparison. C18 sorbent was generally found to extract more diverse molecular formula, relatively higher molecular weight, and more heteroatomic DOM compounds within the studied mass range than PPL sorbent except for the leaf litter extract. Even with the same sorbent, the main molecular features of the two end member DOM were distributed on different sides of the axes of a multivariate ordination, indicating the source-dependent characteristics of the recoverable compounds by the sorbents. In addition, further examination of the molecular formula uniquely present in the two end members and the upstream lake DOM suggested that proteinaceous, tannin-like, and heteroatomic DOM constituents might be potential compound groups which are labile and easily degraded during their mobilization into downstream watershed. This study provides new insights into the sorbent selectivity of DOM from diverse sources and potential lability of various compound groups.

  13. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. → Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. → Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. → The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 o C or 65 o C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  14. From sixty-two interviews on 'the worst and the best episode of your life'. Relationships between internal working models and a grammatical scale of subject-object affective connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, A; Carnevale, G; Mucelli, R; Solano, L; Target, M

    2000-06-01

    The authors address the issue of inferring unconscious internal working models of interaction through language. After reviewing Main's seminal work of linguistic assessment through the 'adult attachment interview', they stress the idea of adults' internal working models (IWMs) as information-processing devices, which give moment-to-moment sensory orientation in the face of any past or present, animate or inanimate object. They propose that a selective perception of the objects could match expected with actual influence of objects on the subject's self, through very simple 'parallel-processed' categories of internal objects. They further hypothesise that the isomorphism between internal working models of interaction and grammatical connections between subjects and objects within a clause could be a key to tracking positive and negative images of self and other during discourse. An experiment is reported applying the authors' 'scale of subject/object affective connection' to the narratives of sixty-two subjects asked to write about the 'worst' and 'best' episodes of their lives. Participants had previously been classified using Hazan & Shaver's self-reported 'attachment types' (avoidant, anxious and secure) categorising individuals' general expectations in relation to others. The findings were that the subject/object distribution of positive and negative experience, through verbs defined for this purpose as either performative or state verbs, did significantly differ between groups. In addition, different groups tended, during the best episodes, significantly to invert the trend of positive/negative subject/object distribution shown during the worst episode. Results are discussed in terms of a psychoanalytic theory of improvement through co-operative elaboration of negative relational issues.

  15. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  16. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  17. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  18. Contribution of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds to the loss of infectivity of γ-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA in E. coli cells mutant in various repair functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-one radiation sensitive mutants have been examined for their capacity to support gamma-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA. The survival of phiX174 RF-DNA was reduced in essentially all of the sensitive mutants. The irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA was then separated into populations containing either single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds to examine the capacity of the mutants to repair each of the classes of lesions. It was found that all E. coli strains are unable to repair 22 percent of the single-strand breaks and all sensitive mutants are unable to repair an additional 10 percent of the breaks. All the repair functions examined are involved in single-strand break repair and none are more or less necessary than any of the others. PhiX174 RF-DNA is also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds. In the normal strains the inactivation efficiency is 0.16 lethal events per lesion with a threshold dose of 15 to 20 krads. The mutants are divided into two classes by their sensitivity to alkali-labile bonds. Both classes of mutants are also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds with efficiencies of about 0.17 and 0.29 lethal events per lesion, respectively. It is proposed that the differences seen in survival curves of phiX174 measured in the sensitive mutants is due to this difference. Although in normal cells the efficiency of inactivation of phiX174 by single-strand breaks is 50 percent greater than by alkali-labile bonds, alkali-labile bonds are produced at approximately twice the rate of single-strand breaks so alkali-labile bonds account for about 61 percent of the overall inactivation. In the mutants of least sensitivity alkali-labile bonds account for about 54 percent of the inactivating events and in the most sensitive about 67 percent

  19. Proton magnetic resonance study of the influence of chemical modification, mutation, quaternary state, and ligation state on dynamic stability of the heme pocket in hemoglobin as reflected in the exchange of the proximal histidyl ring labile proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.H.; La Mar, G.N.; Nagai, K.

    1989-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the rates of exchange with deuterium of the proximal histidyl ring protons in a series of chemically modified and mutated forms of Hb A. Differences in rates of exchange are related to differences in the stability of the deformed or partially unfolded intermediates from which exchange with bulk solvent takes place. Each modified/mutated Hb exhibited kinetic subunit heterogeneity in the reduced ferrous state, with the alpha subunit exhibiting faster exchange than the beta subunit. Modification or mutation resulted in significant increases in the His F8 ring NH exchange rates primarily for the affected subunit and only if the modification/mutation occurs at the allosterically important alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface. Moreover, this enhancement in exchange rate is observed primarily in that quaternary state of the modified/mutated Hb in which the modified/substituted residue makes the intersubunit contact. This confirms the importance of allosteric constraints in determining the dynamic properties of the heme pocket. Using modified or mutated Hbs that can switch between the alternate quaternary states within a given ligation state or ligate within a given quaternary state, we show that the major portion of the enhanced exchange rate in R-state oxy Hb relative to T-state deoxy Hb originates from the quaternary switch rather than from ligation. However, solely ligation effects are not negligible. The exchange rates of the His F8 ring labile protons increase dramatically upon oxidizing the iron to the ferric state, and both the subunit kinetic heterogeneity and the allosteric sensitivity to the quaternary state are essentially abolished

  20. [Effects of Chinese prickly ash orchard on soil organic carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon in karst rocky desertification region of Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P < 0.05). With the increasing times of cultivation of Chinese prickly ash, the contents of readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.

  1. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  2. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  3. Higher temperature sensitivity for stable than for labile soil organic carbon - Evidence from incubations of long-term bare fallow soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Romain; Barré, Pierre; Moyano, Fernando E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC)remains a major source of uncertainty in predicting future changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. One unsettled issue is whether the mineralization response to temperature depends on SOC mineralization rate. Long-term (>25 years......) bare fallow experiments (LTBF) in which the soil is kept free of any vegetation and organic inputs, and their associated archives of soil samples represent a unique research platform to examine this issue as with increasing duration of fallow, the lability of remaining total SOC decreases. We retrieved...... soils from LTBF experiments situated at Askov (Denmark), Grignon (France), Ultuna (Sweden), and Versailles (France) and sampled at the start of the experiments and after 25, 50, 52, and 79 years of bare fallow, respectively. Soils were incubated at 4, 12, 20, and 35 °C and the evolved CO2 monitored...

  4. The unique fold and lability of the [2Fe-2S] clusters of NEET proteins mediate their key functions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmi, Ola; Marjault, Henri-Baptiste; Pesce, Luca; Carloni, Paolo; Onuchic, Jose' N; Jennings, Patricia A; Mittler, Ron; Nechushtai, Rachel

    2018-02-12

    NEET proteins comprise a new class of [2Fe-2S] cluster proteins. In human, three genes encode for NEET proteins: cisd1 encodes mitoNEET (mNT), cisd2 encodes the Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and cisd3 encodes MiNT (Miner2). These recently discovered proteins play key roles in many processes related to normal metabolism and disease. Indeed, NEET proteins are involved in iron, Fe-S, and reactive oxygen homeostasis in cells and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy. mNT and NAF-1 are homodimeric and reside on the outer mitochondrial membrane. NAF-1 also resides in the membranes of the ER associated mitochondrial membranes (MAM) and the ER. MiNT is a monomer with distinct asymmetry in the molecular surfaces surrounding the clusters. Unlike its paralogs mNT and NAF-1, it resides within the mitochondria. NAF-1 and mNT share similar backbone folds to the plant homodimeric NEET protein (At-NEET), while MiNT's backbone fold resembles a bacterial MiNT protein. Despite the variation of amino acid composition among these proteins, all NEET proteins retained their unique CDGSH domain harboring their unique 3Cys:1His [2Fe-2S] cluster coordination through evolution. The coordinating exposed His was shown to convey the lability to the NEET proteins' [2Fe-2S] clusters. In this minireview, we discuss the NEET fold and its structural elements. Special attention is given to the unique lability of the NEETs' [2Fe-2S] cluster and the implication of the latter to the NEET proteins' cellular and systemic function in health and disease.

  5. Detection of a variable intracellular acid-labile carbon pool in Thalassiosira weissflogii (Heterokontophyta) and Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) in response to changes in the seawater carbon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isensee, Kirsten; Erez, Jonathan; Stoll, Heather M

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of an intracellular pool of carbon (C(i) pool) is one strategy by which marine algae overcome the low abundance of dissolved CO2 (CO2 (aq) ) in modern seawater. To identify the environmental conditions under which algae accumulate an acid-labile C(i) pool, we applied a (14) C pulse-chase method, used originally in dinoflagellates, to two new classes of algae, coccolithophorids and diatoms. This method measures the carbon accumulation inside the cells without altering the medium carbon chemistry or culture cell density. We found that the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii [(Grunow) G. Fryxell & Hasle] and a calcifying strain of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi [(Lohmann) W. W. Hay & H. P. Mohler] develop significant acid-labile C(i) pools. C(i) pools are measureable in cells cultured in media with 2-30 µmol l(-1) CO2 (aq), corresponding to a medium pH of 8.6-7.9. The absolute C(i) pool was greater for the larger celled diatoms. For both algal classes, the C(i) pool became a negligible contributor to photosynthesis once CO2 (aq) exceeded 30 µmol l(-1) . Combining the (14) C pulse-chase method and (14) C disequilibrium method enabled us to assess whether E. huxleyi and T. weissflogii exhibited thresholds for foregoing accumulation of DIC or reduced the reliance on bicarbonate uptake with increasing CO2 (aq) . We showed that the C(i) pool decreases with higher CO2 :HCO3 (-) uptake rates. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  7. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI - omega plot analysis of RF-spillover-corrected inverse CEST ratio asymmetry for simultaneous determination of labile proton ratio and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renhua; Xiao, Gang; Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Ran, Chongzhao; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to labile proton concentration and exchange rate, thus allowing measurement of dilute CEST agent and microenvironmental properties. However, CEST measurement depends not only on the CEST agent properties but also on the experimental conditions. Quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis has been proposed to address the limitation of the commonly used simplistic CEST-weighted calculation. Recent research has shown that the concomitant direct RF saturation (spillover) effect can be corrected using an inverse CEST ratio calculation. We postulated that a simplified qCEST analysis is feasible with omega plot analysis of the inverse CEST asymmetry calculation. Specifically, simulations showed that the numerically derived labile proton ratio and exchange rate were in good agreement with input values. In addition, the qCEST analysis was confirmed experimentally in a phantom with concurrent variation in CEST agent concentration and pH. Also, we demonstrated that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (P analysis can simultaneously determine labile proton ratio and exchange rate in a relatively complex in vitro CEST system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  9. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  10. Analysis of pushing exercises: muscle activity and spine load while contrasting techniques on stable surfaces with a labile suspension strap training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-01-01

    Labile surfaces in the form of suspension straps are increasingly being used as a tool in resistance training programs. Pushing is a common functional activity of daily living and inherently part of a well-rounded training program. This study examined pushing exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps, specifically muscle activation levels and spine loads were quantified together with the influence of employing technique coaching. There were several main questions that this study sought to answer: Which exercises challenged particular muscles? What was the magnitude of the resulting spine load? How did stable and unstable surfaces differ? Did coaching influence the results? Fourteen men were recruited as part of a convenience sample (mean age, 21.1 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 74.6 ± 7.8 kg). Data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force-in this way, the model was sensitive to the individuals choice of motor control for each task; muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. Exercises were performed using stable surfaces for hand/feet contact and repeated where possible with labile suspension straps. Speed of movement was standardized across participants with the use of a metronome for each exercise. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. In general, the instability associated with the labile exercises required greater torso muscle activity than when performed on stable surfaces. Throughout the duration of an exercise, there was a range of compression; the TRX push-up ranged from 1,653 to 2,128.14 N, whereas the standard push-up had a range from 1,233.75 to 1,530.06 N. There was no significant effect of exercise on spine compression (F(4,60) = 0.86, p = 0.495). Interestingly, a standard push-up showed significantly

  11. ORGANIC MATTER LABILE FRACTIONS AND CARBON STOCKS IN A TYPIC QUARTZIPSAMMENT CULTIVATED WITH SUGARCANE HARVESTED WITHOUT BURNING

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    JOSÉ DE SOUZA OLIVEIRA FILHO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The permanence of sugarcane straw on the soil surface, in systems without the pre-harvest straw burning practice, directly affects the soil organic matter dynamics. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in total organic carbon (TOC, carbon in the light organic matter (CLOM and particulate organic carbon (POC, and their carbon stocks in a typic Quartzipsamment cultivated for nine years with sugarcane crops, which were conducted without the pre-harvest straw burning practice, in Paraipaba, State of Ceará, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths of 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m, in the sugarcane crop area and in an adjacent native forest area, in order to quantify the TOC, CLOM and POC, as well as the carbon stocks accumulated in the layer 0.0-0.30 m related to these fractions (TOCSt, CLOMSt and POCSt. TOC content changes after nine years of sugarcane crops, conducted without pre-harvest straw burning, were found only in the layers 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m. The CLOM varied only in the layer 0.025-0.05 m. The POC content changes were more noticeable than the changes in TOC and CMOL. The CLOM of the sugarcane crop area presented high similarity with TOC, which may affect their quantification in studies related to the soil organic matter dynamics. The sugarcane crop increased the TOCSt, POCSt and CLOMSt in the layer 0.0-0.30 m, compared with the adjacent native forest area.

  12. Type II heat-labile enterotoxins from 50 diverse Escherichia coli isolates belong almost exclusively to the LT-IIc family and may be prophage encoded.

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    Michael G Jobling

    Full Text Available Some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC produce a type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II that activates adenylate cyclase in susceptible cells but is not neutralized by antisera against cholera toxin or type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I. LT-I variants encoded by plasmids in ETEC from humans and pigs have amino acid sequences that are ≥ 95% identical. In contrast, LT-II toxins are chromosomally encoded and are much more diverse. Early studies characterized LT-IIa and LT-IIb variants, but a novel LT-IIc was reported recently. Here we characterized the LT-II encoding loci from 48 additional ETEC isolates. Two encoded LT-IIa, none encoded LT-IIb, and 46 encoded highly related variants of LT-IIc. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predicted LT-IIc toxins encoded by these loci could be assigned to 6 subgroups. The loci corresponding to individual toxins within each subgroup had DNA sequences that were more than 99% identical. The LT-IIc subgroups appear to have arisen by multiple recombinational events between progenitor loci encoding LT-IIc1- and LT-IIc3-like variants. All loci from representative isolates encoding the LT-IIa, LT-IIb, and each subgroup of LT-IIc enterotoxins are preceded by highly-related genes that are between 80 and 93% identical to predicted phage lysozyme genes. DNA sequences immediately following the B genes differ considerably between toxin subgroups, but all are most closely related to genomic sequences found in predicted prophages. Together these data suggest that the LT-II loci are inserted into lambdoid type prophages that may or may not be infectious. These findings raise the possibility that production of LT-II enterotoxins by ETEC may be determined by phage conversion and may be activated by induction of prophage, in a manner similar to control of production of Shiga-like toxins by converting phages in isolates of enterohemmorhagic E. coli.

  13. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  14. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  15. Spin-locking vs. chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of non-equivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolites with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: i) On-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar, and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer. iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate exchange regime, MTRasym becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. PMID:21500270

  16. Spin-locking versus chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of nonequivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolite phantoms with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: (i) on-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate-exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. (ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer (J Magn Reson 2002;154:157-160). (iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. (iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate-exchange regime, MTR(asym) becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Scale Pretesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  18. NoSQL database scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Žardin, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    NoSQL database scaling is a decision, where system resources or financial expenses are traded for database performance or other benefits. By scaling a database, database performance and resource usage might increase or decrease, such changes might have a negative impact on an application that uses the database. In this work it is analyzed how database scaling affect database resource usage and performance. As a results, calculations are acquired, using which database scaling types and differe...

  19. Partial coupling and differential regulation of biologically and photochemically labile dissolved organic carbon across boreal aquatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, J.-F.; del Giorgio, P. A.

    2014-10-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing volume of research on the biological and photochemical degradation of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) in aquatic environments, little is known of the large-scale patterns in biologically and photochemically degradable DOC (BDOC and PDOC, respectively) in continental watersheds, and on the links that exist between these two key properties that greatly influence the flow of carbon from continents to oceans. Here we explored the patterns in the concentrations and proportions of BDOC and PDOC across hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands spanning a large range of system trophic status and terrestrial influence, and compared the drivers of these two reactive pools of DOC at the landscape level. Using standardized incubations of natural waters, we found that the concentrations of BDOC and PDOC covaried across all systems studied but were nevertheless related to different pools of dissolved organic matter (DOM; identified by fluorescence analyses) in ambient waters. Concentrations of nutrients and protein-like fluorescent DOM (FDOM) explained nearly half of the variation in BDOC, whereas PDOC was exclusively predicted by DOM optical properties, consistent with the photochemical degradability of specific FDOM pools that we experimentally determined. The concentrations of colored DOM (CDOM), which we use here as a proxy of terrestrial influence, almost entirely accounted for the observed relationship between FDOM and the concentrations of both BDOC and PDOC. The concentrations of CDOM and of the putative biolabile fluorescence component shifted from complete decoupling in clear-water environments to strong coupling in darker streams and wetlands. This suggests a baseline autochthonous BDOC pool fueled by internal production that is gradually overwhelmed by land-derived BDOC as terrestrial influence increases across landscape gradients. The importance of land as a major source of both biologically and photochemically degradable DOC for

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of α-phenyl- and α-(dimethylphenylsilyl)alkylboronic esters by ligand mediated stereoinductive reagent-controlled homologation using configurationally labile carbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsamian, Adam L; Wu, Zhenhua; Blakemore, Paul R

    2015-03-28

    Chain extension of boronic esters by the action of configurationally labile racemic lithium carbenoids in the presence of scalemic bisoxazoline ligands was explored for the enantioselective synthesis of the two title product classes. Enantioenriched 2° carbinols generated by oxidative work-up (NaOOH) of initial α-phenylalkylboronate products were obtained in 35-83% yield and 70-96% ee by reaction of B-alkyl and B-aryl neopentyl glycol boronates with a combination of O-(α-lithiobenzyl)-N,N-diisopropylcarbamate and ligand 3,3-bis[(4S)-4,5-dihydro-4-isopropyloxazol-2-yl] pentane in toluene solvent (-78 °C to rt) with MgBr2·OEt2 additive. Enantioenriched α-(dimethylsilylphenylsilyl)alkylboronates were obtained in 35-69% yield and 9-57% ee by reaction of B-alkyl pinacol boronates with a combination of lithio(dimethylphenylsilyl)methyl 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoate and ligand 2,2-bis[(4S)-4,5-dihydro-4-isopropyloxazol-2-yl]propane in cumene solvent (-45 °C to -95 °C to rt). The stereochemical outcome of the second type of reaction depended on the temperature history of the organolithium·ligand complex indicating that the stereoinduction mechanism in this case involves some aspect of dynamic thermodynamic resolution.

  1. The Response of Heterotrophic Prokaryote and Viral Communities to Labile Organic Carbon Inputs Is Controlled by the Predator Food Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Pree, Bernadette; Larsen, Aud; Våge, Selina; Töpper, Birte; Töpper, Joachim P; Thyrhaug, Runar; Thingstad, Tron Frede

    2017-08-23

    Factors controlling the community composition of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes include organic-C, mineral nutrients, predation, and viral lysis. Two mesocosm experiments, performed at an Arctic location and bottom-up manipulated with organic-C, had very different results in community composition for both prokaryotes and viruses. Previously, we showed how a simple mathematical model could reproduce food web level dynamics observed in these mesocosms, demonstrating strong top-down control through the predator chain from copepods via ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Here, we use a steady-state analysis to connect ciliate biomass to bacterial carbon demand. This gives a coupling of top-down and bottom-up factors whereby low initial densities of ciliates are associated with mineral nutrient-limited heterotrophic prokaryotes that do not respond to external supply of labile organic-C. In contrast, high initial densities of ciliates give carbon-limited growth and high responsiveness to organic-C. The differences observed in ciliate abundance, and in prokaryote abundance and community composition in the two experiments were in accordance with these predictions. Responsiveness in the viral community followed a pattern similar to that of prokaryotes. Our study provides a unique link between the structure of the predator chain in the microbial food web and viral abundance and diversity.

  2. The effect of the labile organic fraction in food waste and the substrate/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion for a reliable methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuaki; Niwa, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2014-04-01

    Influence of the labile organic fraction (LOF) on anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in different S/I ratio of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0g-VSsubstrate/g-VSinoculum. Two types of substrate, standard food waste (Substrate 1) and standard food waste with the supernatant (containing LOF) removed (Substrate 2) were used. Highest methane yield of 435ml-CH4g-VS(-1) in Substrate 1 was observed in the lowest S/I ratio, while the methane yield of the other S/I ratios were 38-73% lower than the highest yield due to acidification. The methane yields in Substrate 2 were relatively stable in all S/I conditions, although the maximum methane yield was low compared with Substrate 1. These results showed that LOF in food waste causes acidification, but also contributes to high methane yields, suggesting that low S/I ratio (food waste compared to other organic substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The application of "double isolation" in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to remove labile isobaric impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P; Pinto, Emani; Colepicolo, Pio; Cardozo, Karina H M

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the application of "double isolation" in sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (SORI-CID-MS/MS) to remove radio- frequency (RF) fragment ions of very close mass isobaric ions (0.02 m/z apart). Analyses were performed with a fraction of a biological extract isolated from a macroalgae containing the mycosporine-like amino acid asterina-330. Direct isolation of the precursor ion by narrowing the isolation window proved ineffective as it impinged upon the required ion thus substantially reducing its intensity. By increasing the correlated sweep time, ejection efficiency of the isolation was improved, but caused the unwanted side-effect of RF fragmentation of labile ions. Finally, by skipping the ion activation step and performing a second isolation (in the MS(3) module) the RF fragments from the first isolation were removed leaving a very pure isolation of the required precursor ion and allowed a very clean CID fragmentation. We demonstrated that the m/z 272.1351 ion is derived from the loss of NH(3) from m/z 289.1620 isobaric impurity and is not related to asterina-330. This application represents a powerful tool to remove unwanted ions in the MS/MS spectrum that result from fragmentation of isobaric ions.

  4. Functionalities of chitosan conjugated with stearic acid and gallic acid and application of the modified chitosan in stabilizing labile aroma compounds in an oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Shi; Liu, Tai-Ti; Lin, I-Hwa

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this research were to conjugate chitosan (CT) with stearic acid (SA) and gallic acid (GA), and apply the modified chitosan to stabilize labile aroma compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and limonene in oil-in-water emulsions. Generally, the antioxidant activity of CT-SA-GA increased as the GA content in the conjugate increased. In most assays, GA had a lower IC 50 value than that of CT-SA-GA; however, CT-SA-GA exhibited better performance than GA in the Fe 2+ -chelating activity. In accelerated tests (heating or illumination) for evaluating the chemical stability of AITC and limonene during storage, CT-SA and CT-SA-GA were used to prepare AITC and limonene O/W emulsions, respectively. Tween 80 and Span 80 (T-S-80), an emulsifier mixture, were used as a control in both emulsions for comparison. The results show that CT-SA or CT-SA-GA could protect AITC or limonene from degradation or oxidation more effectively than T-S-80. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the activity of the Brazilian polyherbal formulation: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Radd in inflammatory models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina C.P. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The Brazilian polyherbal formulation (BPF is composed by dyes of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in alcohol at 13.3° GL. The formulation is popularly used in Paraíba state, Brazil since 1889 and it is used as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the polyherbal formulation. For this purpose it was used the12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced mouse ear edema and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The BPF at dose of 26 mL/Kg inhibited both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced ear edema by 49% (p < 0.05 and 24% (p < 0.01 respectively. Preliminary results on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema demonstrated that oral administration also inhibited the paw edema by approximately 29%. The results demonstrate that the Brazilian polyherbal formulation has anti-inflammatory activity and the better dose was the one used by the population.

  7. The yield of DNA double strand breaks determined after exclusion of those forming from heat-labile lesions predicts tumor cell radiosensitivity to killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanlei; Li, Fanghua; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2015-09-01

    The radiosensitivity to killing of tumor cells and in-field normal tissue are key determinants of radiotherapy response. In vitro radiosensitivity of tumor- and normal-tissue-derived cells often predicts radiation response, but high determination cost in time and resources compromise utility as routine response-predictor. Efforts to use induction or repair of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) as surrogate-predictors of cell radiosensitivity to killing have met with limited success. Here, we re-visit this issue encouraged by our recent observations that ionizing radiation (IR) induces not only promptly-forming DSBs (prDSBs), but also DSBs developing after irradiation from the conversion to breaks of thermally-labile sugar-lesions (tlDSBs). We employ pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis and flow-cytometry protocols to measure total DSBs (tDSB=prDSB+tlDSBs) and prDSBs, as well as γH2AX and parameters of chromatin structure. We report a fully unexpected and in many ways unprecedented correlation between yield of prDSBs and radiosensitivity to killing in a battery of ten tumor cell lines that is not matched by yields of tDSBs or γH2AX, and cannot be explained by simple parameters of chromatin structure. We propose the introduction of prDSBs-yield as a novel and powerful surrogate-predictor of cell radiosensitivity to killing with potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, de um fitoterápico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Trindade C. Paulo

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, do produto fitoterápico composto pelas plantas medicinais Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB e, para isto, foram selecionados 28 voluntários sadios, sendo 14 homens e 14 mulheres que ingeriram por via oral, ininterruptamente durante 8 semanas, 15 mL do produto, três vezes ao dia; e no 3º e 7º dia, 3ª e 6ª semanas e 24 h após a 8ª semana, foram feitas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais para análise da toxicidade aguda e crônica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pacientes não apresentaram alterações clínicas, laboratoriais e reações adversas significantes, apenas pequenas alterações foram detectadas no sangue através da aspartato transaminase (AST e fosfatase alcalina no grupo feminino para um p < 0,05; no entanto, estes valores determinados permaneceram dentro dos valores de normalidade para indivíduos adultos. Conclui-se que estes dados, em complementação àqueles obtidos com os estudos pré-clínicos, confirmam a baixa toxicidade do produto fitoterápico.

  9. Stress biomarkers and alkali-labile phosphate level in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the urban area of Venice (Venice Lagoon, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampanin, Daniela M.; Marangon, Ilenia; Volpato, Elisa; Campesan, Giancarlo; Nasci, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a spatial and temporal survey at three sites located in the 'canals' of the Venice historic centre (Italy) and at a reference site was undertaken to evaluate stress effects on mussels sampled in the Venice urban area, where raw sewage is discharged without treatment directly into the water. A battery of biomarkers (metallothionein, micronuclei, condition index and survival in air) was used to evaluate the stress condition of the animals. At the same time the alkali-labile phosphate assay (ALP) was performed in mussel' hemolymph with the aim to find an estrogenic effect biomarker in this mussel species. Biomarker results showed an impairment of the general health condition in the mussels coming from the urban area, in agreement with the chemical analysis. Significantly higher level of the ALP was found in male mussels sampled in April in the urban area, in comparison with the ones from the reference site (P0.001). Finally, the PCA proved an easy and useful tool to summarize the obtained results, also able to classify the data to indicate a pollution gradient in the Venice urban area. - The overall biological and chemical data show a higher stress condition in the mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the urban area of Venice

  10. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Y Ozaki

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains.Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin (ST, from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains.The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis.

  11. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  12. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Analytical methods for determination of free metal ion concentration, labile species fraction and metal complexation capacity of environmental waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Maria; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2009-01-12

    Different experimental approaches have been suggested in the last few decades to determine metal species in complex matrices of unknown composition as environmental waters. The methods are mainly focused on the determination of single species or groups of species. The more recent developments in trace elements speciation are reviewed focusing on methods for labile and free metal determination. Electrochemical procedures with low detection limit as anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the competing ligand exchange with adsorption cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV) have been widely employed in metal distribution studies in natural waters. Other electrochemical methods such as stripping chronopotentiometry and AGNES seem to be promising to evaluate the free metal concentration at the low levels of environmental samples. Separation techniques based on ion exchange (IE) and complexing resins (CR), and micro separation methods as the Donnan membrane technique (DMT), diffusive gradients in thin-film gels (DGT) and the permeation liquid membrane (PLM), are among the non-electrochemical methods largely used in this field and reviewed in the text. Under appropriate conditions such techniques make possible the evaluation of free metal ion concentration.

  14. The transfer and fate of Pb from sewage sludge amended soil in a multi-trophic food chain: a comparison with the labile elements Cd and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan

    2015-10-01

    The contamination of agroecosystems due to the presence of trace elements in commonly used agricultural materials is a serious issue. The most contaminated material is usually sewage sludge, and the sustainable use of this material within agriculture is a major concern. This study addresses a key issue in this respect, the fate of trace metals applied to soil in food chains. The work particularly addresses the transfer of Pb, which is an understudied element in this respect, and compares the transfer of Pb with two of the most labile metals, Cd and Zn. The transfer of these elements was determined from sludge-amended soils in a food chain consisting of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and a predatory beetle (Coccinella septempunctata). The soil was amended with sludge at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 % (w/w). Results showed that Cd was readily transferred through the food chain until the predator trophic level. Zn was the most readily transferred element in the lower trophic levels, but transfer to aphids was effectively restricted by the plant regulating shoot concentration. Pb had the lowest level of transfer from soil to shoot and exhibited particular retention in the roots. Nevertheless, Pb concentrations were significantly increased by sludge amendment in aphids, and Pb was increasingly transferred to ladybirds as levels increased. The potential for Pb to cause secondary toxicity to organisms in higher trophic levels may have therefore been underestimated.

  15. A Comparison of the Structural Factors of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale for Women and Men in a Domestic Violence Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Delirium in the intensive care setting and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): Drowsiness increases the risk and is subthreshold for delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Soenke; Nuñez, David Garcia; Meyer, Rafael; Richter, André; Fernandez, Susana Franco; Rudiger, Alain; Schubert, Maria; Jenewein, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7.88 pmemory representing the core domains of delirium, or the temporal onset were very sensitive towards delirium, however lacked specificity. Conversely, delusions, perceptual abnormalities and lability of affect representing the non-core domain were very specific for delirium in the drowsy, however, not very sensitive. In the absence of delirium, drowsiness caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities. Drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold and caused more severe delirium, which was characterized by sleep-wake cycle and language abnormalities. Further, drowsiness by itself caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities, thus, with its disturbance in consciousness was subthreshold for delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  18. Trends in the utilization of dental outpatient services affected by the expansion of health care benefits in South Korea to include scaling: a 6-year interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jun Hyup; Park, Sujin; Kim, Tae-Il

    2018-02-01

    This study utilized a strong quasi-experimental design to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a policy to expand dental care services resulted in an increase in the usage of dental outpatient services. A total of 45,650,000 subjects with diagnoses of gingivitis or advanced periodontitis who received dental scaling were selected and examined, utilizing National Health Insurance claims data from July 2010 through November 2015. We performed a segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time-series to analyze the time-series trend in dental costs before and after the policy implementation, and assessed immediate changes in dental costs. After the policy change was implemented, a statistically significant 18% increase occurred in the observed total dental cost per patient, after adjustment for age, sex, and residence area. In addition, the dental costs of outpatient gingivitis treatment increased immediately by almost 47%, compared with a 15% increase in treatment costs for advanced periodontitis outpatients. This policy effect appears to be sustainable. The introduction of the new policy positively impacted the immediate and long-term outpatient utilization of dental scaling treatment in South Korea. While the policy was intended to entice patients to prevent periodontal disease, thus benefiting the insurance system, our results showed that the policy also increased treatment accessibility for potential periodontal disease patients and may improve long-term periodontal health in the South Korean population.

  19. Trends in the utilization of dental outpatient services affected by the expansion of health care benefits in South Korea to include scaling: a 6-year interrupted time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study utilized a strong quasi-experimental design to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a policy to expand dental care services resulted in an increase in the usage of dental outpatient services. Methods A total of 45,650,000 subjects with diagnoses of gingivitis or advanced periodontitis who received dental scaling were selected and examined, utilizing National Health Insurance claims data from July 2010 through November 2015. We performed a segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time-series to analyze the time-series trend in dental costs before and after the policy implementation, and assessed immediate changes in dental costs. Results After the policy change was implemented, a statistically significant 18% increase occurred in the observed total dental cost per patient, after adjustment for age, sex, and residence area. In addition, the dental costs of outpatient gingivitis treatment increased immediately by almost 47%, compared with a 15% increase in treatment costs for advanced periodontitis outpatients. This policy effect appears to be sustainable. Conclusions The introduction of the new policy positively impacted the immediate and long-term outpatient utilization of dental scaling treatment in South Korea. While the policy was intended to entice patients to prevent periodontal disease, thus benefiting the insurance system, our results showed that the policy also increased treatment accessibility for potential periodontal disease patients and may improve long-term periodontal health in the South Korean population. PMID:29535886

  20. A universal fluorogenic switch for Fe(ii) ion based on N-oxide chemistry permits the visualization of intracellular redox equilibrium shift towards labile iron in hypoxic tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tasuku; Tsuboi, Hitomi; Niwa, Masato; Miki, Ayaji; Kadota, Satoki; Ikeshita, Yukie; Okuda, Kensuke; Nagasawa, Hideko

    2017-07-01

    Iron (Fe) species play a number of biologically and pathologically important roles. In particular, iron is a key element in oxygen sensing in living tissue where its metabolism is intimately linked with oxygen metabolism. Regulation of redox balance of labile iron species to prevent the generation of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical to survival. However, studies on the redox homeostasis of iron species are challenging because of a lack of a redox-state-specific detection method for iron, in particular, labile Fe 2+ . In this study, a universal fluorogenic switching system is established, which is responsive to Fe 2+ ion based on a unique N-oxide chemistry in which dialkylarylamine N-oxide is selectively deoxygenized by Fe 2+ to generate various fluorescent probes of Fe 2+ -CoNox-1 (blue), FluNox-1 (green), and SiRhoNox-1 (red). All the probes exhibited fluorescence enhancement against Fe 2+ with high selectivity both in cuvette and in living cells. Among the probes, SiRhoNox-1 showed an excellent fluorescence response with respect to both reaction rate and off/on signal contrast. Imaging studies were performed showing the intracellular redox equilibrium shift towards labile iron in response to reduced oxygen tension in living cells and 3D tumor spheroids using SiRhoNox-1, and it was found that the hypoxia induction of labile Fe 2+ is independent of iron uptake, hypoxia-induced signaling, and hypoxia-activated enzymes. The present studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for Fe 2+ with refined photophysical characteristics that enable their broad application in the study of iron in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  1. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  2. Key issues affecting quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in prostate cancer: an analysis conducted in 2128 patients with initial psychometric assessment of the prostate cancer symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Gralla, Richard J; Jones, Randy A; Hollen, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based quality of life (QL) questionnaires require the identification of issues of importance to patients. The primary aim of this study was to inform providers on patient-expressed issues while enhancing the content validity of instruments assessing QL and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in prostate cancer. The study provided additional psychometric properties for the new PRO and QL instrument, the Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS). An anonymous web-based survey of 2128 patients with prostate cancer was conducted with patients rating 18 QL items on a five-point scale. Most respondents (74%) were aged 55-74 years, had early stage disease at diagnosis (81%) and were diagnosed within 2 years of the survey (81%). The top five-rated issues were: overall QL, ability to perform normal activities, maintaining independence, ability to sleep and not being a burden. These items were ranked as either 'very important' or 'important' by at least 88% of patients. None of the most highly ranked issues were symptoms. Instead, the highest ranked items were global issues reflecting the impact of symptoms on patients. In addition to the enhanced content validity findings, good reliability results and initial support for construct validity are reported for the PCSS. This is the largest survey providing patient-expressed background for content validity for QL and PRO measures. The findings of this study should aid development of newer practical questionnaires, such as the PCSS, which can be adapted to electronic platforms enhancing rapid and accurate PRO and QL evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Alkaline pH Is a signal for optimal production and secretion of the heat labile toxin, LT in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gonzales

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863ΔCRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.

  4. Regional patterns of labile organic carbon flux in North American Arctic Margin (NAAM) as reflected by redox sensitive-elements distributions in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeil, C.; Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Goni, M. A.; Macdonald, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of elements (S, Mn, Mo, U, Cd, Re) providing insights on organic C metabolized through oxidative processes at the sea floor were measured in 27 sediment cores collected along a section extending from the North Bering Sea to Davis Strait via the Canadian Archipelago. Sedimentary distributions and accumulation rates of these elements were used to i) document the relative importance of aerobic versus anaerobic degradation of organic C in NAAM sediments, ii) infer variations in water column carbon flux and iii) estimate the importance of this margin as a sink for key elements in the Arctic and global ocean. Distributions of Mn, total S and reduced inorganic S demonstrated that most sediments along the NAAM had relatively thick (>1 cm) surface oxic layers, underlain by sediments with weakly reducing conditions and limited sulphate reduction. Strongly reducing conditions accompanied by substantial sedimentary pyrite burial occurred only in certain subregions, including the Bering-Chukchi Shelves, shallow portions of Barrow Canyon. Estimated accumulation rates of authigenic S, Mo, Cd and U, and total Re displayed marked spatial variability that was related to sedimentary redox conditions induced by the supply of labile C to the seabed, as shown by significant relationships between the accumulation rates and vertical C flux, estimated from regional primary production values and water depth at the coring sites. High primary production combined with shallow water columns drive elevated rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from the Bering-Chukchi Shelves whereas low production combined with moderately deep conditions drive low rates of accumulation in sediments in the Beaufort Shelf, Davis Strait and Canadian Archipelago. Using the average authigenic trace element accumulation rates in sediments from the various regions, we submit that the shelves along the NAAM margin are important sinks in global marine biogeochemical budgets.

  5. Application of nanoparticles for oral delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoparticles for oral delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ), for gastric ulcer therapy. LPZ-loaded positively charged Eudragit(®) RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs-LPZ) and negatively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGANPs-LPZ) were prepared. The effect of charge on nanoparticle deposition in ulcerated and non-ulcerated regions of the stomach was investigated. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles in the intestine was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model. The pharmacokinetic performance and ulcer healing response of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated in Wistar rats with induced ulcers. The prepared drug-loaded ERSNPs-LPZ and PLGANPs-LPZ possessed opposite surface charge (+38.5±0.3 mV versus -27.3±0.3 mV, respectively) and the particle size was around 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. The negatively charged PLGANPs adhered more readily to the ulcerated region (7.22%±1.21% per cm(2)), whereas the positively charged ERSNPs preferentially distributed in the non-ulcerated region (8.29%±0.35% per cm(2)). Both ERSNPs and PLGANPs were prominent uptake in Caco-2 cells, too. The nanoparticles sustained and prolonged LPZ concentrations up to 24 hours, and the half-life and mean residence time of LPZ were prolonged by 3.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, as compared with LPZ solution. Oral administration of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles healed 92.6%-95.7% of gastric ulcers in Wistar rats within 7 days.

  6. Application of nanoparticles for oral delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer: in vitro and in vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alai M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Milind Alai,1 Wen Jen Lin1,2 1Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 2Drug Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoparticles for oral delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ, for gastric ulcer therapy. LPZ-loaded positively charged Eudragit® RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs-LPZ and negatively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGANPs-LPZ were prepared. The effect of charge on nanoparticle deposition in ulcerated and non-ulcerated regions of the stomach was investigated. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles in the intestine was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model. The pharmacokinetic performance and ulcer healing response of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated in Wistar rats with induced ulcers. The prepared drug-loaded ERSNPs-LPZ and PLGANPs-LPZ possessed opposite surface charge (+38.5±0.3 mV versus -27.3±0.3 mV, respectively and the particle size was around 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. The negatively charged PLGANPs adhered more readily to the ulcerated region (7.22%±1.21% per cm2, whereas the positively charged ERSNPs preferentially distributed in the non-ulcerated region (8.29%±0.35% per cm2. Both ERSNPs and PLGANPs were prominent uptake in Caco-2 cells, too. The nanoparticles sustained and prolonged LPZ concentrations up to 24 hours, and the half-life and mean residence time of LPZ were prolonged by 3.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, as compared with LPZ solution. Oral administration of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles healed 92.6%–95.7% of gastric ulcers in Wistar rats within 7 days. Keywords: nanoparticles, lansoprazole, Eudragit® RS100, PLGA

  7. [Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immune response against canine parvovirus VP2 in mice immunized by VP2 DNA vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingxing; Pan, Sumin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) gene on canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene vaccine. The LTB gene was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of E. coli 44815 strain. The VP2-70 fragment (210 bp) encoding major epitope of VP2 (70 amino acids) was amplified by PCR from a plasmid encoding VP2 gene. VP2-70 and LTB genes were inserted into the eukaryotic vector to construct VP2-70 gene,LTB gene and VP2-70-LTB fused gene vectors. The mice were immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB fused vector, or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector, respectively. The antibody titers at the different time were measured by using ELISA method. The spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The sequence of VP2-70 and LTB genes was identified. The recombinant VP2-70 and LTB proteins could be expressed in HEK293T cells in a secretory manner. The mice immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB vector or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector could generate the specific antibody against VP2 protein. The antibody titer immunized with VP2-70-LTB vector reached 1:5120 at 35 d post immunization, significantly higher than that of other two groups (P vaccine in mice.

  8. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  9. The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Rita

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.

  10. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  11. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  12. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  13. Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus casei-expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG in conjunction with a heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTAK63) and heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as an oral adjuvant in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M; Qi, R; Chen, C; Yin, J; Ma, S; Shi, W; Wu, Y; Ge, J; Jiang, Y; Tang, L; Xu, Y; Li, Y

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop an effective oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection and to design new and more versatile mucosal adjuvants. Genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG (rLpPG-2-FaeG) and either co-expressing heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTA) subunit with an amino acid mutation associated with reduced virulence (LTAK63) and a heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) subunit of E. coli (rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB) or fused-expressing LTAK63 and LTB (rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB) were constructed. The immunogenicity of rLpPG-2-FaeG in conjunction with rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB or rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB as an orally administered mucosal adjuvant in mice was evaluated. Results showed that the levels of FaeG-specific serum IgG and mucosal sIgA, as well as the proliferation of lymphocytes, were significantly higher in mice orally co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB compared with those administered rLpPG-2-FaeG alone, and were lower than those co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB. Moreover, effective protection was observed after challenge with F4+ ETEC strain CVCC 230 in mice co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB or rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB group compared with those that received rLpPG-2-FaeG alone. rLpPG-2-FaeG showed greater immunogenicity in combination with LTAK63 and LTB as molecular adjuvants. Recombinant Lactobacillus provides a promising platform for the development of vaccines against F4+ ETEC infection. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  15. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  16. Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglin eQi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs containing rabies virus (RABV glycoprotein (G, matrix (M protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin and LTB possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine candidate for animals.

  17. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  18. Affective psychotherapy in post-traumatic reactions guided by affective neuroscience: memory reconsolidation and play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göran Högberg1,2, Davide Nardo3, Tore Hällström4,5, Marco Pagani6,71Department of Women's and Children's Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2BUP Huddinge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Psychiatry/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Unit for Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This paper reviews the affective neuroscience dealing with the effects of traumatic events. We give an overview of the normal fear reactions, the pathological fear reaction, and the character of emotional episodic memories. We find that both emotions and emotional memories are a tripartite unit of sensory information, autonomic reaction, and motor impulse (the PRM complex. We propose that emotions and movements are part and parcel of the same complex. This is our main finding from the review of affective neuroscience, and from here we focus on psychotherapy with post-trauma reactions. The finding of the process of memory reconsolidation opens up a new treatment approach: affective psychotherapy focused on reconsolidation. The meaning of reconsolidation is that an emotional memory, when retrieved and being active, will rest in a labile form, amenable to change, for a brief period of time, until it reconsolidates in the memory. This leads us to the conclusion that emotions, affects, must be evoked during the treatment session and that positive emotion must come first, because safety must be part of the new memories. In the proposed protocol of affective

  19. Analysis of affective disorders in patients with vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zakharchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The outpatient records of 147 patients followed up for diagnosed vascular dementia were analyzed to assess the relationship between affective disorders and severe cognitive impairments. It was found that 7% of the examinees had a history of depressive states. Estimating the development time for vascular dementia could divide the patients into 2 groups: 1 60% of the patients in whom cognitive impairments began to determine its clinical picture just within the first 2 years after identification of affective disorders and 2 40%, in whom cognitive impairments occurred 10—20 years later. In both groups, mental disorders occurred at an equal age in the presence of depressive disorders; in Group 1, vascular dementia developed nearly twice as often as that in Group 2. At the same time, the occurrence of cognitive impairments in Group 1 patients just in the early disease stages is indicative of the organic genesis of affective disorders, as confirmed by the moderately rapid progression of psychopathological symptoms, such as sharpening of personality traits, increased rigidity of psychic processes, emotional lability, variations in affective symptomatology, inadequate remissions, and the presence of neurological symptoms. Another type of a ratio of depressive to severe cognitive disorders was found in the elderly persons in Group 2. The long existence of affective disorders without signs of cognitive diminution leads one to say that they have recurrent depressive disorder with further addition of a comorbid vascular process. These patients showed a fairly high severity of affective pathology that was responsible for more frequent admissions, as well as a phase course with relatively pure remissions without any clear intellectual-mnestic reduction and a predominance of hysterical character traits.

  20. Does the increased air humidity affect soil respiration and carbon stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukumägi, Mai; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Kupper, Priit; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista; Kutti, Sander; Ostonen, Ivika

    2013-04-01

    Climate manipulation experiments at ecosystem-scale enable us to simulate, investigate and predict changes in carbon balance of forest ecosystems. Considering the predicted increase in air humidity and precipitation for northern latitudes, this work aimed at investigating the effect of increased air humidity on soil respiration, distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) among pools having different turnover times, and microbial, fine root and rhizome biomass. The study was carried out in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) stands in a Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) experimental facility containing three humidified (H; on average 7% above current ambient levels since 2008) and three control (C) plots. Soil respiration rates were measured monthly during the growing season using a closed dynamic chamber method. Density fractionation was adopted to separate SOM into two light fractions (free and aggregate-occluded particulate organic matter, fPOM and oPOM respectively), and one heavy fraction (mineral-associated organic matter, MOM). The fine root and rhizome biomass and microbial data are presented for silver birch stands only. In 2011, after 4 growing seasons of humidity manipulation soil organic carbon contents were significantly higher in C plots than H plot (13.5 and 12.5 g C kg-1, respectively), while soil respiration tended to be higher in the latter. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were 13 and 14% higher in H plots than in the C plots, respectively. Twice more fine roots of trees were estimated in H plots, while the total fine root and rhizome biomass (tree + understory) was similar in C and H plots. Fine root turnover was higher for both silver birch and understory roots in H plots. Labile SOM light fractions (fPOM and oPOM) were significantly smaller in H plots with respect to C plots (silver birch and hybrid aspen stands together), whereas no differences were observed in the

  1. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoedel KA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerri A Schoedel,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Edward M Sellers3,4 1Altreos Research Partners, Inc., Toronto, 2Western University, London, 3DL Global Partners, Inc., Toronto, 4University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a

  2. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )

    2001-01-01

    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  3. Rotavirus 2/6 Viruslike Particles Administered Intranasally with Cholera Toxin, Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT), and LT-R192G Induce Protection from Rotavirus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neal, Christine M.; Clements, John D.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) and LT-R192G. Mice were inoculated intranasally with 10 μg of 2/6-VLPs combined with CT, LT, or LT-R192G. All three adjuvants induced ...

  4. Scaling satan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  5. Dextromethorphan/quinidine for the treatment of pseudobulbar affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patatanian, Edna; Casselman, Jessica

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q; Nuedexta™) in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect (PBA). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 1966-June 2013) was conducted using search terms pseudobulbar affect, pathological laughing and/or crying, emotional lability, dextromethorphan, and quinidine. English language clinical trials and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of DM/Q in PBA were included for review. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. PBA, a poorly understood disorder, is characterized by involuntary crying and/or laughing. In the past, antidepressants and antiepileptics have been used off-label with mixed results. Four clinical trials have evaluated the use of DM/Q for the treatment of PBA. Although the therapeutic outcomes with DM/Q have been positive, interpretation of the published evidence is limited by small sample size and short treatment duration. Based on the data available, DM/Q may be a viable, short-term treatment alternative for PBA. Long-term safety and efficacy data are lacking.

  6. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  7. Micro-oscillations in positive and negative affect during competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), Worcester affect scale ... Successful trials were characterised by higher PA (p=0.000) and lower NA ... Further clarification of the catalyst to the performance demise requires a ...

  8. Affect Intensity: An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, David J; Harris, William D; Chen, Hong C

    1995-01-01

    The Affect Intensity Measurement (AIM) scale assesses the strength of the emotions with which individuals respond to an affect-laden stimulus. This study investigated the extent to which individual differences in affect intensity influence the message recipient's responses to emotional advertising appeals. In two experiments high affect intensity individuals, compared with those who scored low on the AIM scale, (1) manifested significantly stronger emotional responses to the emotional adverti...

  9. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  10. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  11. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  12. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-07-30

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C

    2015-10-01

    to the covalent grafting immobilization methods. However no differences in exposure of the cell binding domains were observed (ELISA results) before SDS rinsing, suggesting that pFN protein grafting to the surface is initially kinetically driven be a stochastic random adsorption phenomenon. Covalent grafting acts in the final stage as a process that simply tethers and stabilizes (or freezes) the initial conformation/orientation of the adsorbed protein on the surface. In addition covalent linkage via the SSMPB approach is likely favored by surface-induce exposure of one of the normally hidden free thiol group pair, thus optimizing covalent linkage to the surface. However after SDS rinsing, this "tethering"/"freezing" effect was significantly more prominent for the GA grafting approach (due to greater number of potential covalent links between the protein and the surface) compared to that for the SSMPB approach. This hypothesis was buttressed by the improved resistance to denaturation (smaller conformational lability) for the GA compared to the SMPB approach and improved exposure of the cell binding domain for the former (>50%) even after SDS rinsing. These results are promising in that they suggest covalent tethering of fibronectin to PS substrate in a monolayer range, with significantly improved irreversible protein surface bonding via both approaches (compared to that for mere adsorption). The latter are likely applicable to a wide range of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estudo da labilidade de Cu(II, Cd(II, Mn(II e Ni(II em substâncias húmicas aquáticas utilizando-se membranas celulósicas organomodificadas Lability study of Cu(II, Cd(II, Mn(II and Ni(II complexed by aquatic humic substances using organomodified cellulose membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Henrique Rosa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work commercial filters papers were organomodified with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTS, aiming at the development of a new analytical procedure for in-situ speciation of labile and inert metal species in aquatic systems. Parameters that exert influence on the metal lability such as pH, chelating time, concentration and characteristics of the organic matter were studied in the laboratory using tests for metal recuperation. The results showed slower kinetics for Cu ion than for Ni, Mn and Cd in the absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS. The relative lability observed for complexed metals in aquatic humic substances using organomodified filter papers was Cu>>Cd>Ni>Mn. The pH values, structural characteristics and concentration of AHS exert strong influence on the lability of the metals. The results obtained showed that the utilization of organomodified filter papers can be an interesting and promising alternative for in situ characterization of metal lability in aquatic systems.

  15. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  16. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Ecological relationships between patterns and processes are highly scale dependent. This paper reports the first formal exploration of how changing scale of research away from the scale of the processes governing gene flow affects the results of landscape genetic analysis. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to generate patterns of genetic...

  17. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and general procrastination. In Study 1, a community sample of 139 participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of several items pertaining to unintentional procrastination that had been derived from theory, previous research, and clinical experience. Responses were subjected to a principle components analysis and assessment of internal consistency. In Study 2, a community sample of 155 participants completed the newly developed scale, along with measures of general and intentional procrastination, metacognitions about procrastination, and negative affect. Data from the UPS were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and revised accordingly. The UPS was then validated using correlation and regression analyses. The six-item UPS possesses construct and divergent validity and good internal consistency. The UPS appears to be a stronger marker of psychopathology than the pre-existing measures of procrastination used in this study. Results from the regression models suggest that both negative affect and metacognitions about procrastination differentiate between general, intentional, and unintentional procrastination. The UPS is brief, has good psychometric properties, and has strong associations with negative affect, suggesting it has value as a research and clinical tool.

  18. Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal among Referred and Nonreferred Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2011-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…

  19. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  20. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  1. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  2. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  3. Civic Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Doolittle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  4. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  5. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  6. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  7. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  8. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    , no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after......Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  9. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However......, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  10. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  11. Using solvent-free sample preparation to promote protonation of poly(ethylene oxide)s with labile end-groups in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarin, Michael; Phan, Trang N T; Charles, Laurence

    2008-12-01

    Protonation is usually required to observe intact ions during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) of polymers containing fragile end-groups while cation adduction induces chain-end degradation. These polymers, generally obtained via living free radical polymerization techniques, are terminated with a functionality in which a bond is prone to homolytic cleavage, as required by the polymerization process. A solvent-free sample preparation method was used here to avoid salt contaminant from the solvent traditionally used in the dried-droplet MALDI procedure. Solvent-based and solvent-free sample preparations were compared for a series of three poly(ethylene oxide) polymers functionalized with a labile end-group in a nitroxide-mediated polymerization reaction, using 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) as the matrix without any added salt. Intact oligomer ions could only be produced as protonated molecules in solvent-free MALDI while sodium adducts of degraded polymers were formed from the dried-droplet samples. Although MALDI analysis was performed at the laser threshold, fragmentation of protonated macromolecules was still observed to occur. However, in contrast to sodiated molecules, dissociation of protonated oligomers does not involve the labile C--ON bond of the end-group. As the macromolecule size increased, protonation appeared to be less efficient and sodium adduction became the dominant ionization process, although no sodium salt was added in the preparation. Formation of sodiated degraded macromolecules would be dictated by increasing cation affinity as the size of the oligomers increases and would reveal the presence of salts at trace levels in the MALDI samples.

  12. Trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard

    2016-01-01

    received the same manual-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as well as social counselling. The mean length of the treatment course was 6.3 months. The primary outcome measure was self-reported PTSD symptoms assessed on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures were self......-reported depression and anxiety symptoms measured on Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-reported social functioning measured on the Social Adjustment Scale Self Report, short version (SAS-SR), and observer-rated depression and anxiety symptoms assessed on the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Ratings Scales...... (HAM D+A ). Social support was assessed on the Crisis Support Scale (CSS), level of functioning assessed on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), quality of life was assessed on the WHO-5, the somatisation items of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), pain in four different body areas measured on Visual...

  13. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  14. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  15. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  16. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  17. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  18. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  19. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...... approach holds potential to address important aspects of the design of such blended digital spaces, extending beyond traditional interaction design. And finally we argue for the importance of construction, i.e. actual interventions of consider-able scale....

  20. Perception of scale in forest management planning: Challenges and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swee May Tang; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    Forest management practices imposed at one spatial scale may affect the patterns and processes of ecosystems at other scales. These impacts and feedbacks on the functioning of ecosystems across spatial scales are not well understood. We examined the effects of silvicultural manipulations simulated at two spatial scales of management planning on landscape pattern and...

  1. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, William R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  2. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  3. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  4. Field-scale model for the natural attenuation of uranium at the Hanford 300 area using high performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hammond, Glenn E [PNNL

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reactive flow and transport simulations are carried out to better understand the persistence of uranium [U(VI)] at the Hanford 300 Area bordering the Columbia River. The massively parallel code PFLOTRAN developed under a DOE SciDAC-2 project is employed in the simulations. The calculations were carried out on 4096 processor cores on ORNL's Jaguar XT4 & 5 Cray supercomputers with run times on the order of 6 hours, equivalent to several years if performed on a single processor with sufficient memory. A new conceptual model is presented for understanding present-day and future attenuation rates of U(VI) at the 300 Area site. Unique to the conceptual model is the recognition of three distinct phases in the evolution of the site corresponding to: (I) initial emplacement of waste; (II) present-day conditions of slow leaching of U(VI) from the Hanford sediments; and (III) the complete removal of non-labile U(VI) from the source region. This work focuses on Phase II. Both labile and non-labile forms of U(VI) are included in the model as sorbed and mineralized forms of U(VI), respectively. The non-labile form plays an important role in providing a long-term source of U(VI) as it slowly leaches out of the Hanford sediment. Rapid fluctuations in the Columbia River stage on hourly, weekly and seasonal time scales are found to' playa major role in determining the migration behavior of U(VI). The calculations demonstrate that U(VI) is released into the Columbia River at a highly fluctuating rate in a ratchet-like behavior with nonzero U(VI) flux occurring only during flow from contaminated sediment into the river. The cumulative flux, however, is found to increase approximately linearly with time. The flow rate and U(VI) flux into the Columbia River predicted by the model is highly sensitive to the value used in the conductance boundary condition at the river-sediment interface. By fitting the conductance to the measured piezometric head at well 399

  5. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  6. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. When can preheating affect the CMB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.

  8. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  9. Oral contraceptives positively affect mood in healthy PMS-free women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; de Rover, Mischa; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design. A homogenous sample of healthy, PMS-free, pre-menopausal MR-genotyped women (n=92) completed online questionnaires eight times during two consecutive cycles. The masking of the research question was successful. OC-users did not differ significantly from NC women in positive and negative affect at the time of assessment, personality characteristics (e.g. neuroticism) or mental and physical health. Both groups reported more shifts in anger in the first cycle week (pemotional blunting effect, which is in line with previous reports on affect-stabilizing effects of OC. Limitations were loss of cases due to irregularities in the menstrual cycle length and possible confounding by the 'survivor effect', since almost all OC-users took OC for more than a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  11. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  12. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  13. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  14. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  15. The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, E; Emmons, R A; Larsen, R J; Griffin, S

    1985-02-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

  16. Armazenamento de carbono em frações lábeis da matéria orgânica de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto Carbon storage in labile fractions of soil organic matter in a tropical no-tillage Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimélio Bayer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A reserva de carbono na matéria orgânica (MO do solo é uma importante estratégia para atenuar a concentração de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do plantio direto (PD, durante seis anos, sob quatro sistemas de cultura de outono na sucessão comercial soja-milho (guandu- anão-milheto, crotalária-sorgo, girassol-aveia-preta e nabo forrageiro-milho, no armazenamento de carbono nas frações particulada (>53 µm e associada aos minerais (Carbon storage in the soil organic matter (SOM is an important strategy to mitigate carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the no-tillage (NT use for six years, under four autumn (dry-season cover crops based maize and soybean crop rotations (pigeon pea-pearl millet, bengan hemp-sorghum, sunflower-black oat, and wild radish-maize, on C storage in the particulate (>53 µm and mineral-associated (<53 µm SOM fractions of a clayey Oxisol from Brazilian Cerrado region. In comparison to conventional tillage (CT under summer cash-crops, NT increased the total organic carbon (TOC stocks in the surface soil layer (0-5 cm. In the top 20 cm layer, NT soil under wild radish-maize had 9% (4.66 Mg ha-1 more TOC than the conventionally tilled soil. On the other hand, C storage in NT soil under other cropping systems was statiscally similar to the CT soil. The C stocks in the particulate SOM fraction increased by 37 to 52% in NT soil (0-20 cm in comparison to CT. The higher sensitivity to soil management changes made the particulate organic matter a more adequate soil quality index compared to the TOC stocks. The C stock in the mineral-associated SOM fraction was not affected by soil management systems, which can be related to the short-term under NT and or to the highly stable soil microaggregates in this clayey Oxisol. The preferential C storage in the labile SOM fraction is an environmental benefit, which

  17. Rotavirus 2/6 Viruslike Particles Administered Intranasally with Cholera Toxin, Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT), and LT-R192G Induce Protection from Rotavirus Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Christine M.; Clements, John D.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) and LT-R192G. Mice were inoculated intranasally with 10 μg of 2/6-VLPs combined with CT, LT, or LT-R192G. All three adjuvants induced equivalent geometric mean titers of rotavirus-specific serum antibody and intestinal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs with LT produced significantly higher titers of intestinal IgA than mice given CT as the adjuvant. All mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with LT and LT-R192G were totally protected (100%) from rotavirus challenge, while mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with CT showed a mean 91% protection from challenge. The availability of a safe, effective mucosal adjuvant such as LT-R192G will increase the practicality of administering recombinant vaccines mucosally. PMID:9525668

  18. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  19. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  20. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)