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Sample records for affective disorder sad

  1. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in f...

  2. Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E

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    Polanczyk Guilherme V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the interrater agreement for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiological version for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E. METHODS: Four interviewers being trained with the K-SADS-E scored independently 29 videotaped interviews performed with psychiatric outpatients in the ADHD Outpatient Clinic at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Interrater agreement analysis was performed using the kappa coefficient (k. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients were .93 (p<.001 for affective disorders, .9 (p<.001 for anxiety disorders, .94 (p<.001 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an excellent interrater agreement for the diagnosis of several mental disorders in childhood and adolescence by the Brazilian Portuguese version of the K-SADS-E.

  3. Prophylactic treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) by using light visors : Bright white or infrared light?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Y; Beersma, DGM; Bouhuys, AL; van den Hoofdakker, RH

    1999-01-01

    Background: Thirty-eight patients with SAD participated in a light visor study addressing two questions. 1. Can the development of a depressive episode be prevent ed by daily exposure to bright light started before symptom onset in early fall and continued throughout the winter? 2. Does the light ha

  4. Improvement in Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Health-Related Quality of Life with Bright Light Treatment in Persons with Seasonal Affective Disorder and Subsyndromal SAD

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    Cecilia Rastad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of bright light treatment for secondary outcome measures and to explore and validate empirically derived subgroups and treatment effects in subgroups. Methods. A descriptive design. A sample of forty-nine persons (mean age of 45.8 with clinically assessed seasonal affective disorder (SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD participated in a two-group clinical trial evaluating the effects of treatment with bright light therapy. A person-oriented cluster analysis was applied to study treatment effects in subgroups. Results. For the merged group, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (fatigue questionnaire, and health-related quality of life (SF-36 were improved at posttreatment, and results were maintained at the one-month followup. Three distinct subgroups had a high level of fatigue in common, while the level of excessive daytime sleepiness and depressed mood differed between the subgroups. Over time, all subgroups improved following ten days treatment in a light room. Conclusion. Fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and health-related quality of life improve in a similar way as depressed mood following treatment with bright light. The treatment was effective irrespective of the severity of the disorder, that is, for persons with SAD and subsyndromal SAD.

  5. A controlled trial of the Litebook light-emitting diode (LED light therapy device for treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD

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    Telner John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has emphasized that the human circadian rhythm system is differentially sensitive to short wavelength light. Light treatment devices using efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs whose output is relatively concentrated in short wavelengths may enable a more convenient effective therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. Methods The efficacy of a LED light therapy device in the treatment of SAD was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial. Participants aged 18 to 65 with SAD (DSM-IV major depression with seasonal pattern were seen at Baseline and Randomization visits separated by 1 week, and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (SIGH-SAD were obtained at each visit. Participants with SIGH-SAD of 20 or greater at Baseline and Randomization visits were randomized to active or control treatment: exposure to the Litebook LED treatment device (The Litebook Company Ltd., Alberta, Canada which delivers 1,350 lux white light (with spectral emission peaks at 464 nm and 564 nm at a distance of 20 inches or to an inactivated negative ion generator at a distance of 20 inches, for 30 minutes a day upon awakening and prior to 8 A.M. Results Of the 26 participants randomized, 23 completed the trial. Mean group SIGH-SAD scores did not differ significantly at randomization. At trial end, the proportions of participants in remission (SIGH-SAD less than 9 were significantly greater (Fisher's exact test, and SIGH-SAD scores, as percent individual score at randomization, were significantly lower (t-test, with active treatment than with control, both in an intent-to-treat analysis and an observed cases analysis. A longitudinal repeated measures ANOVA analysis of SIGH-SAD scores also indicated a significant interaction of time and treatment, showing superiority of the Litebook over the placebo condition. Conclusion The results of this pilot study support

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of fearful and sad distraction on target processing in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity symptoms and affective disorders.

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    Anthony eSinghal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used event-related brain potentials (ERP as neural markers of cognitive operations to examine emotion and attentional processing in a population of high-risk adolescents with mental health problems that included ADHD, anxiety, and depression. We included a healthy control group for comparison purposes, and employed a modified version of the emotional oddball paradigm, consisting of frequent distracters (scrambled pictures, infrequent distracters (sad, fearful, and neutral pictures and infrequent targets (circles. Participants were instructed to make a right hand button press to targets and a left hand button press to all other stimuli. EEG/ERP recordings were taken using a high-density 256-channel recording system. Behavioral data showed that for both clinical and non-clinical adolescents, reaction time was slowest in response to the fearful images. Electrophysiological data differentiated emotion and target processing between clinical and non-clinical adolescents. In the clinical group we observed a larger P100 and Late Positive Potential (LPP in response to fearful compared to sad or neutral pictures. There were no differences in these ERPs in the healthy sample. Emotional modulation of target processing was also identified in the clinical sample, where we observed an increase in P300 amplitude, and a larger sustained LPP in response to targets that followed emotional pictures (fear & sad compared to targets that followed neutral pictures or other targets. There were no differences in these target ERPs for the healthy participants. Taken together, we suggest that these data provide important and novel evidence of affective and attention dysfunction in this clinical population of adolescents, and offer an example of the disruptive effects of emotional reactivity on basic cognition.

  7. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  8. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. These two chemicals help regulate a person's sleep-wake cycles, energy, and mood. Shorter days and longer ... doctor. People who have another type of depressive disorder, skin that's sensitive to light, or medical conditions ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Kelly J. Rohan; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  10. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

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    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  11. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

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    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  12. SAD in the Anthropocene: Brenda Hillman’s Ecopoetics of Affect

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    Laurel Peacock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on three collections of poetry by California poet Brenda Hillman, Cascadia, Practical Water, and Pieces of Air in the Epic, reading for the ways in which the poems model an affective interrelation between human and environment. These three works each focus on a traditional element (earth, water, air in order to explore its co-constitution with the human, treating the element as active, or, in Jane Bennett’s term, “vibrant matter.” In the Anthropocene, it is no longer an “intentional fallacy” to attribute human emotions to the environment or its elements. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD is used throughout the article as a way to conceptualise this interrelation of human with environment; SAD suggests that in this era human and environment alike are disordered. I argue that, rather than staging a lyric subject regarding a landscape, Hillman’s poems create a confusion of subject/object and foreground/background relations in which the origins of affects are impossible to determine and harms circulate. Affect is vital in understanding human motivations in relation to climate change, and Hillman’s ecopoetic practice is an example of how we can shift our understanding of our affective relationship to the environment. Linguistic experimentation can shift awareness toward an understanding of the link between “what it felt like to have been a subject” and “what it felt like to have been earth” as well as what it feels like now to be indeterminately both, intertwined and in crisis.

  13. Convergent and divergent validity of K-SADS-PL anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses in a clinical sample of school-aged children.

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    Villabø, Marianne A; Oerbeck, Beate; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-07-01

    Background The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) is a commonly used diagnostic interview both in research and clinical settings, yet published data on the psychometric properties of the interview generated diagnoses are scarce. Aims To examine the convergent and divergent validity of the Norwegian version of the K-SADS-PL current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method Participants were 105 children aged 7-13 years referred for treatment at child mental health clinics and 36 controls. Diagnostic status was determined based on K-SADS-PL interviews with the mothers. Child and mother reported child symptoms of anxiety on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and teachers reported anxiety symptoms on the Teacher Report Form. Mother and teacher reported on symptoms of ADHD on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Results Rating scale data from multiple informants in a clinical sample and healthy controls supported the convergent and divergent validity of K-SADS-PL anxiety diagnoses combined, and, specifically, the diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia. Support was also observed for convergent and divergent validity of ADHD diagnoses, including the predominately inattentive subtype. Conclusion The K-SADS-PL generates valid diagnoses of anxiety disorders and ADHD. PMID:26836986

  14. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

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    Xiaomei Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs. METHOD: This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. RESULTS: The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  15. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundLight severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).AimsTo compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception.MethodThis cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).ResultsRespondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence of SAD...... compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters, supporting...

  16. Facial and affective reactions to tastes and their modulation by sadness and joy.

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    Greimel, Ellen; Macht, Michael; Krumhuber, Eva; Ellgring, Heiner

    2006-09-30

    This study examined adults' affective and facial reactions to tastes which differ in quality and valence, and the impact of sadness and joy on these reactions. Thirty-six male and female subjects participated voluntarily. Subjects each tasted 6 ml of a sweet chocolate drink, a bitter quinine solution (0.0015 M) and a bitter-sweet soft drink. Following a baseline period, either joy or sadness was induced using film clips before the same taste stimuli were presented for a second time. Subjects rated the drinks' pleasantness and intensity of taste immediately after each stimulus presentation. Facial reactions were videotaped and analysed using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [P. Ekman, W.V. Friesen, Facial Action Coding System: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1978., P. Ekman, W. Friesen, J. Hager, Facial Action Coding System. Salt Lake City, Utah: Research Nexus; 2002.]). The results strongly indicated that the tastes produced specific facial reactions that bear strong similarities to the facial reactivity patterns found in human newborns. The data also suggest that some adults' facial reactions serve additional communicative functions. Emotions modulated taste ratings, but not facial reactions to tastes. In particular, ratings of the sweet stimulus were modulated in congruence with emotion quality, such that joy increased and sadness decreased the pleasantness and sweetness of the sweet stimulus. No emotion-congruent modulation was found for the pleasantness and intensity ratings of the bitter or the bitter-sweet stimulus. This 'robustness' of bitter taste ratings may reflect a biologically meaningful mechanism. PMID:16857218

  17. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transporter protein leaves less serotonin available at the synapse because the function of the transporter is to recycle neurotransmitter back into the pre-synaptic neuron. People with SAD may overproduce the hormone melatonin. ...

  18. Affective and Self-Esteem Instability in the Daily Lives of People with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Antonina S.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2014-01-01

    Research on affect and self-esteem in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has focused on trait or average levels, but we know little about the dynamic patterns of these experiences in the daily lives of people with SAD. We asked 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls to provide end-of-day reports on their affect and self-esteem over two weeks. Compared to healthy adults, participants with SAD exhibited greater instability of negative affect and self-esteem, though the self-esteem effect...

  19. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

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    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  20. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

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    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482

  1. SAD effects on grantmanship

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    Lozano, George A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

  2. Effect of affect on social cost bias in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitran, S.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive model of social anxiety disorder (SAD) assumes that cognitive biases are important maintaining factors of the disorder. Research and theory have highlighted the impact of cognitive self-regulatory processes on affect, but have not sufficiently focused on the influence of affect on self

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and Their Combination for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Tierney Lindsey, Kathryn; Johnson, Leigh G.; Lippy, Robert D.; Lacy, Timothy J.; Barton, Franca B.

    2007-01-01

    This first controlled psychotherapy trial for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) compared SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), light therapy (LT), and their combination to a concurrent wait-list control. Adults (N = 61) with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, were randomized to one of four 6-week conditions: CBT (1.5-hr…

  4. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewed January 2013 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe ... winter blues” and a more severe type of depression called seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, for more ...

  5. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  6. Mood and affect disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians.

  7. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

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    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  8. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

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    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  9. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

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    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  10. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

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    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  11. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

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    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  12. Rearing the Sad or Mad: Differentiating the Family Environments of Depressed versus Conduct Disordered Youth

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    Jewell, Jeremy D.; Beyers, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The following review examines the current literature on parental depression and its characteristic family environment and parenting styles that may be related to the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) or depression in children. A description of the depressed parent and the general effects of depression on parenting and discipline practices are…

  13. Life history interviews with 11 boys diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who had sexually offended: a sad storyline.

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    Tidefors, Inga; Strand, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the possible relationship between a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sexually offensive behavior in adolescents. Our aim was to understand how adolescents with ADHD who had sexually offended described their childhood experiences and spoke about their diagnostic symptoms. The boys' early lives and relations were unpredictable, and emotional, physical, and sexual limits had been crossed. However, many boys saw themselves or their diagnosis, rather than their parents, school, or "society," as the underlying cause of their behavior. They used different strategies, for example repressing memories or regarding traumatic experiences as normal, to manage their lives. Most boys had difficulty with emotions and expressed sadness or frustration through anger. They spoke of being inattentive and restless in school and impulsive before and during their sexual offenses. The psychiatric assessment was described as a "messy" experience that strengthened their belief that something was wrong with them. Some had incorporated neuropsychiatric language into otherwise limited vocabularies and tended to use their diagnostic symptoms to excuse their offenses. The focus in the assessment on the boys themselves and their behaviors may darken their understandings of themselves, their experiences of abuse, and the offenses they have committed. Further research is needed into the possible consequences of a diagnosis of ADHD on adolescents' self-image and sense of self-control.

  14. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies.Methods:...

  15. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given....... These findings support the downward extension of cognitive vulnerability constructs to normal emotion and suggest that the constructs have differential effects on the regulation of negative emotion.  ...

  16. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew E; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated. PMID:26257625

  17. The Pleasures of Sad Music: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eSachs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable (1 when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2 when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3 when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  18. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew E.; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated. PMID:26257625

  19. Kiddie-SADS Reveals High Rates of DSM-IV Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjevik, Elen; Eldevik, Sigmund; Fjaeran-Granum, Torill; Sponheim, Eili

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of current comorbid DSM-IV disorders was assessed in a special school population of children and adolescents with ASD (N = 71, age 6.0-17.9 years), representing all cognitive levels and main ASD subgroups. Symptoms were assessed through parent interview and association to child characteristics was explored. Seventy-two percent was…

  20. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  1. Transcranial bright light treatment via the ear canals in seasonal affective disorder: a randomized, double-blind dose-response study

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvelin, Heidi; Takala, Timo; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Rüger, Melanie; Jokelainen, Jari; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    Background Bright light treatment is effective for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), although the mechanisms of action are still unknown. We investigated whether transcranial bright light via the ear canals has an antidepressant effect in the treatment of SAD. Methods During the four-week study period, 89 patients (67 females; 22 males, aged 22-65, mean ± SD age: 43.2 ± 10.9 years) suffering from SAD were randomized to receive a 12-min daily dose of photic energy of one of three intensities ...

  2. Affective Disorders (Depression and Mania) in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, Stanley P.

    1986-01-01

    Affective disorders in adolescents are common and can be clearly differentiated from the “growing up process”. Basic questions about etiology, pathophysiology, psychobiology and treatment of these disorders remain to be answered. Current knowledge suggests that close co-operation between primary care physicians and psychiatrists with specialized training in adolescent psychiatry is necessary for optimum identification and management of these disorders.

  3. Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...

  4. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  5. Emotional reactions to standardized stimuli in women with borderline personality disorder: stronger negative affect, but no differences in reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta A; Hellstern, Kathrin; Ower, Nicole; Pillmann, Mona; Scheel, Corinna N; Rüsch, Nicolas; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-11-01

    Emotional dysregulation is hypothesized to be a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, we investigated the course of emotions in response to standardized emotion inductions in BPD. A total of 26 female BPD patients, 28 matched healthy control subjects, and 15 female patients with major depressive disorder listened to short stories inducing an angry, joyful, or neutral mood. Before and immediately after each story as well as 3 and 6 minutes later, participants rated their current anger, joy, anxiety, shame, and sadness. All 3 groups showed the same increase and decrease of emotions. However, strong group differences in the general level of all negative emotions occurred. While sadness was stronger both in BPD and major depressive disorder as compared with healthy controls, all other negative emotions were significantly increased in BPD only independent of comorbid depression. Extreme negative affectivity may be a more appropriate description of BPD-related emotional problems than emotional hyperreactivity. PMID:19996718

  6. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances. PMID:25550238

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, M; Levine, S M; Terman, J S; Doherty, S

    1998-09-28

    This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS. Instruments included the Personal Inventory for Depression and SAD (PIDS) and the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Effects (SAFTEE), which catalogs the current severity of a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and affective symptoms. Data sets from 110 CFS patients matched across seasons were entered into the analysis. Symptoms that conform with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of CFS were rated as moderate to very severe during the winter months by varying proportions of patients (from 43% for lymph node pain or enlargement, to 79% for muscle, joint, or bone pain). Fatigue was reported by 92%. Prominent affective symptoms included irritability (55%), depressed mood (52%), and anxiety (51%). Retrospective monthly ratings of mood, social activity, energy, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed a coherent pattern of winter worsening. Of patients with consistent summer and winter ratings (n = 73), 37% showed high global seasonality scores (GSS) > or = 10. About half this group reported symptoms indicative of major depressive disorder, which was strongly associated with high seasonality. Hierarchical cluster analysis of wintertime symptoms revealed 2 distinct clinical profiles among CFS patients: (a) those with high seasonality, for whom depressed mood clustered with atypical neurovegetative symptoms of hypersomnia and hyperphagia, as is seen in SAD; and (b) those with low seasonality, who showed a primary clustering of classic CFS symptoms (fatigue, aches, cognitive disturbance

  8. On the chronobiology of seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne Mara

    2002-01-01

    Chronobiological hypotheses about the pathogenesis of affective disorders have a long history. According to the modern variants, abnormalities of either a sleep-wake cycle dependent process S, or a circadian pacemaker related process C, or an abnor-mal interaction between these two processes underli

  9. Diminished Sensitivity to Sad Facial Expressions in High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with Symptomatology and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Case, Laura K.; Harms, Madeline B.; Silvers, Jennifer A.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies implicate facial emotion recognition (FER) difficulties among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, many investigations focus on FER accuracy alone and few examine ecological validity through links with everyday functioning. We compared FER accuracy and perceptual sensitivity (from neutral to full expression)…

  10. Main: SAD201 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAD201 SAD2 Diversification of protein structural analysis technologies by the SAIL... method Diversification of protein structural analysis technologies by the SAIL method Masatsune Kainosho Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University SAD201.csml ...

  11. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line eGebauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing of music, is less clear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural correlates of emotion recognition in music in high-functioning adults with ASD and neurotypical adults. Both groups engaged similar neural networks during processing of emotional music, and individuals with ASD rated emotional music comparable to the group of neurotypical individuals. However, in the ASD group, increased activity in response to happy compared to sad music was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal regions and in the rolandic operculum/insula, and we propose that this reflects increased cognitive processing in response to emotional musical stimuli in this group.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Farsi translation of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-structural clinical interviews are very important in the area of mental health research and services. There were no studies of the reliability and validity of the Farsi (Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL in Iran. This study compares the results of face-to-face, semi-structural interview and clinical interview by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Method Subjects were 109 children and adolescents recruited to the child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic of Hafez Hospital. Order of interview (in-psychiatrist or the semi-structural interview was determined using random assignment within a counterbalanced framework. After, translation and back translation of K-SADS-PL, the Farsi version of K-SADS-PL was provided and used in the study. The interviewer was unaware of the child and adolescent psychiatrist diagnosis at the time of making the interview. Consensual validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, sensitivity, specifity, positive and negative predictive validity for the disorders were studied. Results Consensual validity of all of the psychiatric disorders was good to excellent. It was highest for panic disorder, conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Consensual validity of anorexia nervosa was 0.49. There was sufficient validity and test-retest and inter-rater reliability and good to excellent sensitivity and specifity and positive and negative predictive validity for nearly all of the disorders. Test-retest reliabilities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and tic disorder were 0.81, 0.67, and 0.56; respectively. Inter-rater reliabilities of ADHD, and ODD were 0.69 and 0.69. Tic disorder, post traumatic disorder, panic disorder, and ADHD had the highest positive predictive validities. Conclusion The Farsi version of K-SADS-PL is a valid and reliable interview instrument

  13. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  14. Season of birth in siblings of patients with seasonal affective disorder. A test of the parental conception habits hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjrek, Edda; Winkler, Dietmar; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Willeit, Matthäus; Stastny, Jürgen; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Kasper, Siegfried

    2007-10-01

    Recently we have published a report on seasonally varying birth rates in 553 patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The present study is aimed to test the hypothesis of an idiosyncratic seasonal conception pattern of the parents of these patients to explain this phenomenon. We conducted a telephone interview with the patients to obtain information on the birth data of their siblings. Using the method of chart review to acquire information on the family history of our patients, we excluded those siblings with psychiatric disorders. We first compared the birth months and the quarters of birth of 435 healthy siblings with the general population. Secondly, we compared the birth distribution of the index SAD patients with that of their siblings. There was a significant deviation between the birth distribution of the siblings and the general population calculated on a monthly basis (p = 0.044). When comparing quarters we found less births than expected in the first (-14.1%) and fourth quarter of the year (-15.1%) and an excess of births in the second (+7.7%) and third quarter (+21.1%; p = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the group of SAD patients and their siblings regarding their birth patterns as calculated by months (p = 0.848) or quarters (p = 0.320). Our study provides support for the hypothesis of specific parental conception habits underlying the birth seasonality in SAD. Further research could be conducted in non-seasonal depression as there is still a lack of studies on seasonality of birth in affective disorders.

  15. Depression and the medicalization of sadness: Conceptualization and recommended help-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Durà-Vilà, G.; Littlewood, R.; Leavey, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals expe...

  16. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

  17. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  18. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS...... significant correlation between mean HAM-D(17) scores and change in mean and maximum temperature, and non-statistical significant correlations between mean MAS scores and rainfall plus atmospheric pressure, and non-statistical significant correlations between mean HAM-D(17) scores and hours of sunshine...

  19. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  20. Comorbid Bipolar Affective Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Childhood: A Case Study and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Amlan K.; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, w...

  1. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    OpenAIRE

    AI eKAWAKAMI; Kiyoshi eFurukawa; Kentaro eKatahira; Kazuo eOkanoya

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional ...

  2. Is it jolly SAD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Eleanor

    2003-11-01

    Examples of phasing macromolecular crystal structures based on single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) have demonstrated that this approach may have general applications in structural biology. With better data-collection facilities and cryogenic techniques, combined with powerful data-processing, phasing and density-modification programs, the SAD approach may prove simpler than phasing from multi-wavelength (MAD) measurements. It can be performed at any wavelength where anomalous scattering can be observed, in many cases using laboratory X-ray sources. However, there is still a need for accurate data, successful phase improvement and a certain amount of luck. This paper extends the discussion of Jolly SAD in Dauter et al. [Dauter, Z., Dauter, M. & Dodson, E. (2002), Acta Cryst. D58, 494-506]. PMID:14573950

  3. Undifferentiated negative affect and impulsivity in borderline personality and depressive disorders: A momentary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Lane, Sean P; Pronove, Lisa M; Treloar, Hayley R; Brown, Whitney C; Solhan, Marika B; Wood, Phillip K; Trull, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report experiencing several negative emotions simultaneously, an indicator of "undifferentiated" negative affect. The current study examined the relationship between undifferentiated negative affect and impulsivity. Participants with a current BPD (n = 67) or depressive disorder (DD; n = 38) diagnosis carried an electronic diary for 28 days, reporting on emotions and impulsivity when randomly prompted (up to 6 times per day). Undifferentiated negative affect was quantified using momentary intraclass correlation coefficients, which indicated how consistently negative emotion items were rated across fear, hostility, and sadness subscales. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion-level, day-level, and across 28 days was used to predict occasion-level impulsivity. Multilevel modeling was used to test the hypothesis that undifferentiated negative emotion would be a significant predictor of momentary impulsivity above and beyond levels of overall negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion and day levels were significant predictors of occasion-level impulsivity, but undifferentiated negative affect across the 28-day study period was only marginally significant. Results did not differ depending on BPD or DD status, though individuals with BPD did report significantly greater momentary impulsivity and undifferentiated negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect may increase risk for impulsivity among individuals with BPD and depressive disorders, and the current data suggest that this process can be relatively immediate as well as cumulative over the course of a day. This research supports the consideration of undifferentiated negative affect as a transdiagnostic construct, but one that may be particularly relevant for those with BPD. PMID:26147324

  4. Childhood depression and conduct disorder: I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Dadds, M R; Johnston, B M; Cash, R

    1992-08-01

    We assessed the family interactions of depressed, conduct-disordered, mixed depressed-conduct-disordered, and nonclinic children, ages 7-14 years, during a standardized family problem-solving discussion in the clinic. The child's and the mother's problem-solving proficiency, aversive behavior, and associated affective behavior (depressed and angry-hostile) were observed. The child and mother also rated each other's affect during the interaction for the dimensions sad, angry, critical, and happy on Likert-type scales. The child's and mother's cognitive constructions about the interaction were assessed using video-mediated recall. Although all clinic groups had lower levels of effective problem solving than did nonclinic children, their deficiencies were somewhat different. Mixed and depressed children displayed high levels of depressed affect and low levels of angry affect, whereas conduct-disordered children displayed both angry and depressed affect. In addition, conduct-disordered children had lower levels of positive problem solving and higher levels of aversive content than did non-conduct-disordered children. Depressed and conduct-disordered children had higher levels of self-referent negative cognitions than did mixed and comparison children, and depressed children also had higher other-referent negative cognitions than did all other groups. The study provides support for theories and treatment that stress the importance of family problem-solving and conflict resolution skills in child psychopathology.

  5. Main: SAD101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAD101 SAD1 Structural Analysis of Membrane Protein Complexes by Solid-State NMR St...ructural Analysis of Membrane Protein Complexes by Solid-State NMR Toshimichi Fujiwara Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University SAD101.csml ...

  6. An insight into light as a chronobiological therapy in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline M Walsh, Lynsey A Atkinson, Sarah A Corlett, Gurprit S Lall Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK Abstract: The field of chronobiology has vastly expanded over the past few decades, bringing together research from the fields of circadian rhythms and sleep. The importance of the environmental day–night cycle on our health is becoming increasingly evident as we evolve into a 24-hour society. Reducing or changing sleep times against our natural instincts to rest at night has a detrimental impact on our well-being. The mammalian circadian clock, termed "the suprachiasmatic nucleus", is responsible for synchronizing our behavioral and physiological outputs to the environment. It utilizes light transcoded by specialized retinal photoreceptors as its cue to set internal rhythms to be in phase with the light–dark cycle. Misalignment of these outputs results in symptoms such as altered/disturbed sleep patterns, changes in mood, and physical and mental exhaustion – symptoms shared by many affective clinical disorders. Key links to circadian abnormalities have been found in a number of disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder, nonseasonal depression, and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, therapies developed through chronobiological research have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of these conditions. In this article, we discuss the impact of circadian research on the management of affective disorders, giving evidence of how a misaligned circadian system may be a contributor to the symptoms of depression and how moderating circadian rhythms with light therapy benefits patients. Keywords: circadian, depression, SAD, nonseasonal, bipolar

  7. The SAD story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAD was installed as planned in the EHS area. It did in fact perform better than was expected when the project started. SAD has been used in several experiments, and during this time no hardware failures have occurred. Even though SAD is not a particularly complex detector, it still took rather long from the first idea until the detector was fully implemented. As usual the first stage was dominated by optimism. The limitations did not seem important and we wanted to go for a complete and rather complex detector system. When we realized the complications we concentrated on a feasible but still interesting project. The move towards a realistic project fortunately started early and was very fast. It was very soon clear that there were numerous additional investigations that had to be done in order to produce an optimized detector. The most important of these were: - understanding the optical properties of aerogel - understanding the effect of different reflecting materials - optimization of the photomultiplier voltage - shielding of the photomultipliers In 1976 the idea to construct an aerogel detector was first presented at an EHS workshop. In 1981 the detector was installed and ready to take data. During these five years the physics interest had changed. The study of charm particles had the highest priority and EHS was modified in order to optimize it for the new situation. It took an additional three years before physics results appeared - thus a total of eight years from detector idea to physics publications. Now the SAD people do it with charm. (Author)

  8. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L;

    2007-01-01

    .03). In multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a high genetic liability to develop affective disorder is associated with specific personality traits. METHOD: A cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study. Through nation-wide registers, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (high-risk twins...... interacts with other predictors of affective disorder such as female gender, minor psychopathology and recent adversity...

  9. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  10. Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, S.; M. Moretti; Haley, G.; Marriage, K.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings...

  11. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether...

  12. Therapy for depression in bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for depression in relation to the clinical type of bipolar affective disorders (BAD and to choose optimal treatment regimens for depression in BAD type I (BADI and BAD type II (BADII.Patients and methods. A total of 65 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI and 37 with BADII, were examined. 212 depressive episodes were analyzed in BAD patients, of them there were 74 with BADI and 138 with BADII. The patients with BADI took a combination of an antidepressant (AD and a normothymic (NT, NT and a neuroleptic (NL, AD, NT and NL. Those with BADII received monotherapy with AD or NL, a combination of AD + NT, AD + NL. The patients' status was clinically evaluated using a specially designed questionnaire and the MADRS and CGI psychometric scales at baseline and then at the end of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy.Results. The AD-containing regimens used to treat patients with BADI proved to be more effective; this therapy led to a more marked reduction in depressive symptoms (55.73% in the AD + NT-treated patients; 54.07% in the AD + NT + NL group versus 33.64% in the NT + NL-treated patients, a higher response to therapy, and a larger number of remissions by the end of the investigation (80.0, 72.7, and 33.3%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of transient hypomanic symptoms did not significantly differ in these groups (20.0, 27.3, and 8.3%, respectively. The depressive patients with BADII generally responded better to different therapy regimens (the reduction in depressive symptoms was 52.08, 58.82, 58.40, and 53.98% in the AD, NL, AD + NT, and AD + NL groups; the remission index by the end of the investigation was 60.6, 92.9, 77.8, and 69.2%, respectively; these patients were seen to have less frequently symptoms of an antipole during their treatment (18.2, 7.1, 0.0, and 15.4%, respectively.Conclusion. The incorporation of AD into a therapy regimen in BAD patients

  13. Copy number variations in affective disorders and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Djurovic, Srdjan;

    2011-01-01

    In two recent studies 10 copy number variants (CNV) were found to be overrepresented either among patients suffering from affective disorders in an Amish family or in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium study. Here, we investigate if these variants are associated with affective disorders...

  14. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  15. Sad Music Induces Pleasant Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI eKAWAKAMI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all to 4 (very much. The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  16. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  17. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  18. Seasonal affective disorder and latitude : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of SAD and latitude. Methods: An overview of the epidemiological literature on the prevalence of SAD is given and studies relevant for the latitudinal dependency of prevalence will be analyzed and discussed. R

  19. Schizoaffective disorder-- the reliability of its clinical diagnostic use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer-Larsen, Anne; Jacobsen, TB; Hemmingsen, R;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with psychoses often suffer from affective symptoms. The originally broad concept of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) has been significantly narrowed, transformed into a convoluted set of criteria both in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV. We examined the reliability of the clinical use....... Diagnoses were allocated by OPCRIT algorithm and by consensus of two psychiatrists. RESULTS: No patients fulfilled the SAD lifetime diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria and the raters diagnosed only six patients as possible ICD-10 SAD. CONCLUSION: A moratorium on the clinical use of the SAD diagnosis...

  20. Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective disorders in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    disorder. Conclusions: We found no evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity at birth (and during upbringing) and the risk of bipolar affective disorders in Denmark, but found some evidence that the diagnostic practices used in Aarhus differed from the rest of Denmark...

  1. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  2. Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of borderline patients (and axis II comparis...

  3. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  4. 从“肝应春”理论探讨季节性情感障碍的发病机制%Pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder based on theory of liver corresponding to spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃骊兰; 马淑然; 王庆国; 赵燕; 杨阳; 陈玉萍; 蒲晓田; 肖遥

    2013-01-01

    The connotation of the theory of liver corresponding to spring was studied, and the necessity and feasibility of discussing the pathogenosis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) based on the theory were analyzed. The current poor understanding to SAD both in Chinese medicine and Western medicine was pointed out, and a close correlation in the neuroendocrine mechanism of liver-central monoamine neurotransmitter-melatonin-SAD was stated. In addiction, correct understanding to the connotation of liver corresponding to spring is greatly significant to recognizing pathogenesis of SAD seasonal attacks and remission, and its treatment and prevention.%分析了“肝应春”理论的内涵,及从“肝应春”理论探讨季节性情感障碍(SAD)发病机制的必要性和可行性.指出目前中西医对SAD认识的现状与不足及“肝-中枢单胺类神经递质-褪黑素-SAD”神经内分泌机制的密切相关性,最后提出正确理解“肝应春”的本质内涵对认识SAD发作、缓解的病理机制及开展有效的治疗与预防,都具有重要指导意义.

  5. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...... maladaptive coping styles may be a target for selective prevention focusing on subgroups at high risk of developing an affective disorder....

  6. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: Olfactory perception and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchablitzky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD occurs with a high prevalence among the mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification and discrimination, and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity. In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with a reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they cannot be observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD.

  7. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross-sectional h......Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low......-Risk twins. The 109 High-Risk twins had significantly higher evening cortisol levels than the 81 Low-Risk MZ twins, also after adjustment for age, sex, and the level of subclinical depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in awakening cortisol levels between High-Risk and Low-Risk twins...

  8. [Affective disorders in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhin, A E; Onegina, E Iu

    2011-01-01

    Authors studied 109 patients with eating disorders, including 49 with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 60 with bulimia nervosa (BN), using psychopathological and experimental/psychological methods, psychometric scales and follow-up. Four variants (2 AN and 2 BN) of clinical presentations and dynamics of affective disorders were singled out. It has been shown that many features of their symptoms and responses of patients to the complex therapy (diet-, psycho- and pharmacotherapy) depend on the belonging of AN or BN to a group of borderline mental disorders or to endogenous diseases. Taking into account the revealed features of affective disorders, the authors have formulated recommendations for treatment tactics and prevention measures for these groups of patients.

  9. Predictors of recurrence in affective disorder - analyses accounting for individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2000-01-01

    affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity......affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity...

  10. The Pleasant Emotion of Sad Music

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to mu-sical excerpts and provided data on perceived and fe...

  11. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte Gülche;

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated...

  12. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  13. Effect of regulating anger and sadness on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul Lucian; Hofmann, Stefan G; Heilman, Renata M; Curtiss, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and rumination for regulating anger and sadness on decision-making. Participants (N = 165) were asked to recall two autobiographical events in which they felt intense anger and sadness, respectively. Participants were then instructed to reappraise, accept, ruminate, or not use any strategies to regulate their feelings of anger and sadness. Following this manipulation, risk aversion, and decision-making strategies were measured using a computer-based measure of risk-taking and a simulated real-life decision-making task. Participants who were instructed to reappraise their emotions showed the least anger and sadness, the most adaptive decision-making strategies, but the least risk aversion as compared to the participants in the other conditions. These findings suggest that emotion regulation strategies of negative affective states have an immediate effect on decision-making and risk-taking behaviors.

  14. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy versus sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Line eGebauer; Joshua eSkewes; Gitte eWestphael; Pamela eHeaton; Peter eVuust

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  15. Intact brain processing of musical emotions in autism spectrum disorder, but more cognitive load and arousal in happy vs. sad music

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Westphael, Gitte; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Music is a potent source for eliciting emotions, but not everybody experience emotions in the same way. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties with social and emotional cognition. Impairments in emotion recognition are widely studied in ASD, and have been associated with atypical brain activation in response to emotional expressions in faces and speech. Whether these impairments and atypical brain responses generalize to other domains, such as emotional processing o...

  16. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients may present with cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder, but it is unclear whether the impairment is prevalent before onset of the illness. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that genetic liability to affective disorder......, and also after adjustment for demographic variables, subclinical symptoms and minor psychopathology. Healthy twins discordant for bipolar disorder showed lower performance on tests measuring episodic and working memory, also after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariables. The discrete cognitive...... impairment found seemed to be related to genetic liability, as the MZ High-Risk twins showed significant impairment on selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory, whereas the DZ High-Risk twins presented with significantly lower scores only...

  17. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  18. Symptom dimensions of affective disorders in migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M. A.; Pijpers, J. A.; Wardenaar, K. J.; van Zwet, E. W.; van Hemert, A. M.; Zitman, F. G.; Ferrari, M. D.; Penninx, B. W.; Tervvindt, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A strong association has been established between migraine and depression. However, this is the first study to differentiate in a large sample of migraine patients for symptom dimensions of the affective disorder spectrum. Methods: Migraine patients (n = 3174) from the LUMINA (Leiden Univ

  19. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  20. Biased recognition of facial affect in patients with major depressive disorder reflects clinical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkler, Paula; Rothkirch, Marcus; Dalati, Yasmin; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait. PMID:26039710

  1. Biased recognition of facial affect in patients with major depressive disorder reflects clinical state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Münkler

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait.

  2. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  3. Why Am I So Sad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or becoming too strong. Here are some positive ways to deal with sad feelings: Notice how you feel and ... ll feel better. Bounce back from disappointments or failures. When things don't go your way, don't give up! Stay in the game. ...

  4. Pain, Sadness, Aggression and Joy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    Based on film examples and evolutionary psychology, the article discusses why viewers are fascinated not only with funny and pleasure-evoking films, but also with sad and disgust-evoking ones. The article argues that a series of adaptations modify simple pleasure-unpleasure-mechanisms. Besides di...

  5. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...... monitoring is a feasible, valid and acceptable method. Hence it is recommended, that controlled trials on the effect of electronic monitoring on patients' course of illness, level of function and quality of life are conducted.......Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...

  6. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  7. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Emma S J Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like b...

  8. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Hørlyck, Lone; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT) adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments. PMID:25379450

  9. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gebauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments.

  10. Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160987.html Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic They become engrossed ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many people find sad music relaxing but to those who are very empathetic, ...

  11. Chronobiology and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2003-01-01

    The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorde...

  12. Cognitive impairment in patients with a schizoaffective disorder: a comparison with bipolar patients in euthymia

    OpenAIRE

    Studentkowski G; Scheele D; Calabrese P; Balkau F; Höffler J; Aubel T; Edel M-A; Juckel G; Assion H-J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Several studies have shown persistent neurocognitive impairment in patients with a bipolar affective disorder (BD) even in euthymia as well as in patients with a schizoaffective disorder (SAD). The aim of our study was to compare the neuropsychological performance between these two groups. Confounding variables were controlled to enhance our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in both BD and SAD. Methods Several domains of neurocognitive function, executive function, me...

  13. The role of beliefs and attitudes about sleep in seasonal and nonseasonal mood disorder, and nondepressed controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Carney, Colleen E.; Wong, Patricia M.; Steiner, Jessica L.; Hasler, Brant P.; Franzen, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unhelpful sleep-related cognitions play an important role in insomnia and major depressive disorder, but their role in seasonal affective disorder has not yet been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have sleep-related cognitions similar to those with primary insomnia, and those with insomnia related to comorbid nonseasonal depression. Methods Participants (n=147) completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep 16-item scale (DBAS-16) and the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), which assesses self reported sleep problems including early, middle, or late insomnia, and hypersomnia in the previous week. All participants were assessed in winter, and during an episode for those with a depressive disorder. Results Individuals with SAD were more likely to report hypersomnia on the SIGH-SAD, as well as a combined presentation of hypersomnia and insomnia on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The SAD group reported DBAS-16 scores in the range associated with clinical sleep disturbance, and DBAS-16 scores were most strongly associated with reports of early insomnia, suggesting circadian misalignment. Limitations Limitations include the self-report nature of the SIGH-SAD instrument on which insomnia and hypersomnia reports were based. Conclusions Future work could employ sleep- or chronobiological-focused interventions to improve clinical response in SAD. PMID:23706838

  14. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High...... of life. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed that quality of life in all domains was impaired for the 121 High-Risk twins compared to the 84 Low-Risk twins. In multiple regression analyses, the differences remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, marital status and years of education. Adjusted...... for the effect of subclinical anxiety and depressive symptoms, the differences were significant on the domain environment and total WHOQoL-BREF and marginally significant on the domain physical health and overall quality of life. LIMITATIONS: It is not possible from the cross-sectional analyses to distinguish...

  15. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Persons suffering from severe mental disorder have an excess mortality compared to persons with no mental disorder. However, the magnitude of the excess mortality differs from one mental disorder to another, and the impact on mortality if a first-degree family member suffers from a mental......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...... of psychiatric admission was associated with excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients suffering from the 4 disorders all had an excess mortality, but the pattern of excess mortality was not the same. There was an excess mortality associated with mental disorder in a first-degree family member, but this only...

  16. Endocrinological disorders affecting neurosurgical patients: An intensivists perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of critically ill neurosurgical patients is often complicated by the presence or development of endocrinological ailments which complicate the clinical scenario and adversely affect the prognosis of these patients. The anatomical proximity to the vital centers regulating the endocrinological physiology and alteration in the neurotransmitter release causes disturbances in the hormonal homeostasis. This paves the way for development of diverse disorders where single or multiple hormones may be involved which can have deleterious effect on the different organ system. Understanding and awareness of these disorders is important for the treating intensivist to recognize these changes early in their course, so that appropriate and timely therapeutic measures can be initiated along with the treatment of the primary malady.

  17. Attention deficit and hyperactivity in social anxiety disorder: relationship with trauma history and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Çelebi, Fahri; Ertekin, Erhan; Kök, Burcu Ece; Tükel, Raşit

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the rate of childhood traumatic experiences and assess the relationship between childhood trauma and impulsivity in the presence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 123 patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were enrolled. All patients were assessed by using the clinical version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/CV) and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module. A clinical and sociodemographic data form and rating scales were filled out. We found higher rates of emotional traumatic experiences and impulsivity along with more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and social anxiety in the group of SAD patients with childhood ADHD than in SAD patients without ADHD in childhood. The presence of ADHD is associated with higher severity in several domains in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD should be assessed carefully whether they have ADHD, especially when their SAD symptoms are severe, when they have a history of traumatic experiences or problems with impulse control. PMID:26797941

  18. Difficulty leading interpersonal coordination: Towards an embodied signature of social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eVarlet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defined by a persistent fear of embarrassment or negative evaluation while engaged in social interaction or public performance, social anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most common psychiatric syndromes. Previous research has made a considerable effort to better understand and assess this mental disorder. However, little attention has been paid to social motor behavior of patients with SAD despite its crucial importance in daily social interactions. Previous research has shown that the coordination of arm, head or postural movements of interacting people can reflect their mental states or feelings such as social connectedness and social motives, suggesting that interpersonal movement coordination may be impaired in patients suffering from SAD. The current study was specifically aimed at determining whether SAD affects the dynamics of social motor coordination. We compared the unintentional and intentional rhythmic coordination of a SAD group (19 patients paired with control participants with the rhythmic coordination of a control group (19 control pairs in an interpersonal pendulum coordination task. The results demonstrated that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved with SAD while intentional coordination was impaired. More specifically, intentional coordination became impaired when patients with SAD had to lead the coordination as indicated by poorer (i.e., more variable coordination. These differences between intentional and unintentional coordination as well as between follower and leader roles reveal an impaired coordination dynamics that is specific to SAD, and thus, opens promising research directions to better understand, assess and treat this mental disorder.

  19. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD and somatoform disorders (SoD, remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method: BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC, PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results: No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation most commonly found in BPD, and

  20. Evidence for Distinguishable Treatment Costs among Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder.

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    Dusan Hirjak

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia spectrum disorders result in enormous individual suffering and financial burden on patients and on society. In Germany, there are about 1,000,000 individuals suffering from schizophrenia (SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SAD, a combination of psychotic and affective symptoms. Given the heterogeneous nature of these syndromes, one may assume that there is a difference in treatment costs among patients with paranoid SZ and SAD. However, the current the national system of cost accounting in psychiatry and psychosomatics in Germany assesses all schizophrenia spectrum disorders within one category.The study comprised a retrospective audit of data from 118 patients diagnosed with paranoid SZ (F20.0 and 71 patients with SAD (F25. We used the mean total costs as well as partial cost, i.e., mean costs for medication products, mean personal costs and mean infrastructure costs from each patient for the statistical analysis. We tested for differences in the four variables between SZ and SAD patients using ANCOVA and confirmed the results with bootstrapping.SAD patients had a longer duration of stay than patients with SZ (p = .02. Mean total costs were significantly higher for SAD patients (p = .023. Further, we found a significant difference in mean personnel costs (p = .02 between patients with SZ and SAD. However, we found no significant differences in mean pharmaceutical costs (p = .12 but a marginal difference of mean infrastructure costs (p = .05 between SZ and SAD. We found neither a common decrease of costs over time nor a differential decrease in SZ and SAD.We found evidence for a difference of case related costs of inpatient treatments for paranoid SZ and SAD. The differences in mean total costs seem to be primarily related to the mean personnel costs in patients with paranoid SZ and SAD rather than mean pharmaceutical costs, possibly due to higher personnel effort and infrastructure.

  1. METABOLIC SYNDROME - THE CONSEQUENCE OF LIFELONG TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duška; Graovac, Mirjana; Žarković Palijan, Tija

    2010-01-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing ...

  2. Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Welch, Stacy S; Grossman, Paul; Reisch, Thomas; Linehan, Marsha M; Bohus, Martin

    2007-04-15

    Many experts now believe that pervasive problems in affect regulation constitute the central area of dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, data is sparse and inconclusive. We hypothesized that patients with BPD, in contrast to healthy gender and nationality-matched controls, show a higher frequency and intensity of self-reported emotions, altered physiological indices of emotions, more complex emotions and greater problems in identifying specific emotions. We took a 24-hour psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring approach to investigate affect regulation during everyday life in 50 patients with BPD and in 50 healthy controls. To provide a typical and unmanipulated sample, we included only patients who were currently in treatment and did not alter their medication schedule. BPD patients reported more negative emotions, fewer positive emotions, and a greater intensity of negative emotions. A subgroup of non-medicated BPD patients manifested higher values of additional heart rate. Additional heart rate is that part of a heart rate increase that does not directly result from metabolic activity, and is used as an indicator of emotional reactivity. Borderline participants were more likely to report the concurrent presence of more than one emotion, and those patients who just started treatment in particular had greater problems in identifying specific emotions. Our findings during naturalistic ambulatory assessment support emotional dysregulation in BPD as defined by the biosocial theory of [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome. PMID:17321599

  3. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. PMID:24467454

  4. Vitamin D supplementation for treatment of seasonal affective symptoms in healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter;

    2014-01-01

    for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD). The secondary outcome was World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) of the healthcare professionals during the winter period and the exploratory outcome measures were weight, waist circumference, blood pressure......BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been associated with a higher likelihood of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and poor mental well-being, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with SAD. METHODS...... inclusion criterion was 8 points or more on question no. 2 of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ-SAD). During a 3-month period, the participants received a daily dose of 70 μg vitamin D or placebo. The primary outcome was the sum of the self-reported questionnaire Structured Interview Guide...

  5. Sadness as an integral part of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mouchet-Mages, Sabine; Baylé, Franck J.

    2008-01-01

    Sadness is considered by numerous authors to be a core symptom of depression. Currently, many arguments exist for its particular importance in depressed patients. Sadness makes up part of the various definitions of the depressive syndrome, even if its presence is not required for diagnosis. Furthermore, it is closely linked to the other depressive symptoms, and has prognostic value, in particular for remission. The recognition and measurement of sadness seem important for therapeutic evaluati...

  6. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioural repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioural adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o and its modulation of m1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signalling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial. recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behaviour and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone.

  7. Insights from ERPs into Emotional Disorders: An affective neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Campanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective neuroscience disposes of complementary imaging tools, some identifying which neural regions are involved in a specific cognitive function, others defining the temporal sequences of these activations with an optimal temporal resolution. The aim of the present manuscript is to show how event-related potentials (ERPs may help us to enhance our understanding of psychopathological conditions. To do so, three experiments from our laboratory will be presented. An emotional oddball design was used, in which participants are confronted with frequent stimuli (neutral faces and deviant stimuli (emotional faces which they have to detect as quickly as possible. These studies address anxiety, the long-term consequences of ecstasy consumption and schizophrenia. Our main purpose is to show that, if previous studies have shown for generalised anxiety disorder, as well as for drug abuse or schizophrenia, P300 alterations, the impaired processes leading to such an identical disturbance are different from one population to the other.

  8. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziwota Ewelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD. Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

  9. The relationship of affective state to dietary preference: winter depression and light therapy as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, K; Wirz-Justice, A; Graw, P

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients often crave carbohydrates when depressed during the winter. We measured dietary intake using a daily Food/Drink Frequency Questionnaire in 36 SAD patients over four conditions: when depressed in winter, during light therapy (1 h 2500 lux, morning or evening), during withdrawal, and when euthymic in summer. Carbohydrate intake (both sweet and starch) in the second half of the day was elevated during winter depression and was as low after light therapy as in summer. The medial hypothalamus is hypothesised to play a key role in coupling 'mood and food' in SAD. PMID:2147189

  10. Antipsychotic Management of Schizoaffective Disorder: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Kaur, Amandeep

    2016-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) is an incapacitating illness that presents clinicians with challenges in terms of both its diagnosis and its psychopharmacological management. Most studies conducted on the psychopharmacological treatment of SAD also include patients with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses, thereby providing an unspecific view to the clinician as to the best way of treating patients with SAD. The objective of this article is to review studies on evidence-based treatment of patients with SAD. We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed for full-text studies in the English language using the terms 'Schizoaffective and treatment' or 'antipsychotic schizoaffective'. Our review found relatively few studies with either an active comparator or placebo that examined the efficacy of antipsychotics for patients with SAD without an admixture of patients with schizophrenia. Only oral paliperidone extended release (ER), paliperidone long-acting injection (LAI), and risperidone have been shown to be effective and safe in reducing psychotic as well as affective components in acutely ill SAD patients in controlled studies. Paliperidone ER and LAI have also been shown to be efficacious in the maintenance treatment phase of SAD patients. While no supportive data exist, it is possible that other atypical antipsychotics may have similar efficacy to the two mentioned above. We conclude with a number of research recommendations for the study of treatment options for patients with SAD. First, there is a need for studies with patients specifically diagnosed with SAD for both the acute and the maintenance phase. The sample size needs to be adequate to allow a primary analysis of efficacy and to allow for analysis of the SAD subtypes: depressed and bipolar. Another recommendation is the need for studies of patients with SAD stratified into patients with and without mood stabilizers or antidepressants to allow the examination of the adjunctive role of

  11. Neuronal Development: SAD Kinases Make Happy Axons

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lei; Newbern, Jason M.; Snider, William D

    2013-01-01

    The polarity proteins LKB1 and SAD-A/B are key regulators of axon specification in the developing cerebral cortex. Recent studies now show that this mechanism cannot be generalized to other classes of neurons: instead, SAD-A/B functions downstream of neurotrophin signaling in sensory neurons to mediate a later stage of axon development — arborization in the target field.

  12. Friendship and the Socialization of Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Sharp, Katianne M. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to manage the expression of sadness is critical to their development and adjustment. Although parents have been the primary focus of research examining sadness socialization, many acknowledge the influence of other agents such as children's peers. The present research evaluated one type of emotion socialization--reactions to…

  13. Behaviorial inhibition and history of childhood anxiety disorders in Brazilian adult patients with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder Comportamento inibido e história de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes brasileiros adultos com transtorno do pânico e transtorno de ansiedade social

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Rassier Isolan; Cristian Patrick Zeni; Kelin Mezzomo; Carolina Blaya; Leticia Kipper; Elizeth Heldt; Gisele Gus Manfro

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence of behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders during childhood in Brazilian adult patients with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder compared to a control group. METHODS: Fifty patients with panic disorder, 50 patients with social anxiety disorder, and 50 control subjects were included in the study. To assess the history of childhood anxiety, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E...

  14. A New Approach of Personality and Psychiatric Disorders: A Short Version of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Bruno Falissard; Sylvana Côté; Sylvie Berthoz

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) is an instrument designed to assess endophenotypes related to activity in the core emotional systems that have emerged from affective neuroscience research. It operationalizes six emotional endophenotypes with empirical evidence derived from ethology, neural analyses and pharmacology: PLAYFULNESS/joy, SEEKING/interest, CARING/nurturance, ANGER/rage, FEAR/anxiety, and SADNESS/separation distress. We aimed to provide a short versi...

  15. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  16. A controlled trial of the Litebook light-emitting diode (LED) light therapy device for treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desan, Paul H.; Weinstein, Andrea J.; Michalak, Erin E.; Tam, Edwin M.; Meesters, Ybe; Ruiter, Martine J.; Horn, Edward; Telner, John; Iskandar, Hani; Boivin, Diane B.; Lam, Raymond W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recent research has emphasized that the human circadian rhythm system is differentially sensitive to short wavelength light. Light treatment devices using efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) whose output is relatively concentrated in short wavelengths may enable a more convenient effe

  17. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Rébecca Robillard; Rico S C Lee; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Django White; Bradley Whitwell; Scott, Elizabeth M; Ian B Hickie

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disord...

  18. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  19. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  20. Cyclothymia reloaded: A reappraisal of the most misconceived affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Hantouche, Elie; Vannucchi, Giulia; Pinto, Olavo

    2015-09-01

    Data emerging from both academic centers and from public and private outpatient facilities indicate that from 20% to 50% of all subjects that seek help for mood, anxiety, impulsive and addictive disorders turn out, after careful screening, to be affected by cyclothymia. The proportion of patients who can be classified as cyclothymic rises significantly if the diagnostic rules proposed by the DSM-5 are reconsidered and a broader approach is adopted. Unlike the DSM-5 definition based on the recurrence of low-grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is best identified as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament (basic mood and emotional instability) with early onset and extreme mood reactivity linked with interpersonal and separation sensitivity, frequent mixed features during depressive states, the dark side of hypomanic symptoms, multiple comorbidities, and a high risk of impulsive and suicidal behavior. Epidemiological and clinical research have shown the high prevalence of cyclothymia and the validity of the concept that it should be seen as a distinct form of bipolarity, not simply as a softer form. Misdiagnosis and consequent mistreatment are associated with a high risk of transforming cyclothymia into severe complex borderline-like bipolarity, especially with chronic and repetitive exposure to antidepressants and sedatives. The early detection and treatment of cyclothymia can guarantee a significant change in the long-term prognosis, when appropriate mood-stabilizing pharmacotherapy and specific psychological approaches and psychoeducation are adopted. The authors present and discuss clinical research in the field and their own expertise in the understanding and medical management of cyclothymia and its complex comorbidities. PMID:26005206

  1. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER:CO-MORBIDITY IN MANIC PHASE OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Harish; Tandon, Rajul; Saluja, Bharat; Mohan, Indra

    2002-01-01

    Comorbidity is known to occur among various psychiatric disorders. About the third of the patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder but coexistence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with mania is rare to see. Here we report a case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder where manic phase was accompanied by obsessions of contamination and pathological doubts along with cleaning rituals and spitting rituals.

  2. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  3. Identification and management of prodromal symptoms in bipolar affective disorder: the role of individual, disorder, and treatment-related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadon, Lisa Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traditional psychosocial treatments have been adapted for use with individuals with bipolar affective disorders due to the limited prophylactic nature of pharmacotherapy and the recognition of the role of psychosocial factors in the course of this disorder. Psychosocial interventions that include a prodromal monitoring and management component have been empirically shown to be an effective adjunct to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aims: There i...

  4. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  5. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  6. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  7. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  8. Hypothyroidism and bipolar affective disorder: Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder has received less attention as compared with that in depressive disorder. Aims: To study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and compare it with a population norm. Settings and Design: The setting was the psychiatry inpatient unit of a tertiary care hospital. The design was retrospective and observational. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed, referring to the case records of 84 cases of bipolar disorder admitted to the Department of Psychiatry in a Tertiary Referral Center during the year 2010-2012. The prevalence of hypothyroidism both subclinical as demonstrated by elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels (cut-off value 4.2 μU/ml and overt hypothyroidism (fasting T4 4.2 μU/ml was calculated. This was compared with the population prevalence of hypothyroidism as determined by an epidemiological study carried out in the year 2009, in the same region. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed. Statistical Analysis: Percentage prevalence of hypothyroidism in the sample was calculated and compared to a population norm. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed using the odds ratio (OR. Results: The total prevalence of hypothyroidism in both males and females in the bipolar group was comparable with that in the general population. There is a significant association between family history of mood disorder in first degree relatives and patients having hypothyroidism (OR 5.504 and P = 0.012. There were no statistically significant associations between thyroid abnormalities and age, duration of illness and lithium prophylaxis. Conclusions: There is no significant association between hypothyroidism and bipolar disorder

  9. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  10. Sadness Metaphorical Cognition in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧懿; 张楠

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive function of metaphor enables people to conceptualize human experience.And emotion is one of the most central and pervasive aspects of human experience.This paper mainly analyzes sadness metaphorical cognition in English and Chinese.

  11. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s (TPC and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, somatoform disorder (SoD, both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD + SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0–6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  12. Using novel imaging approaches in affective disorders : beyond current models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Justine Nienke

    2015-01-01

    Depressie en angststoornissen, zoals major depressive disorder, paniekstoornis, sociale angststoornis en gegeneraliseerde angststoornis, vallen onder de meest voorkomende psychiatrische ziektebeelden. Door middel van neuroimaging onderzoek zoals structurele en functionele MRI (fMRI) is het mogelijk

  13. Epistatic Interactions between CREB and CREM Variants in Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, Alberto; Marsano, Agnese; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Pae, Chi-Un; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the existence of epistatic interactions possibly influencing psychotropic agents' response between rs6740584 within Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding (CREB) and rs12775799 within cAMP response element-modulator (CREM) variants in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). All BD and MDD patients were administered with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline a...

  14. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As ...

  15. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in schizophrenia and affective disorders and the correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the seropositivity rates of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and animal contact history between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods Six hundred cases with schizophrenia and 600 with affective disorders were recruited. The serum IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) .And the patients’

  16. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: th...... treatment developed to date target end-state disorders, the identification of high-risk individuals and mapping of individual risk profiles should be a priority in order to facilitate early treatment and prevention....

  17. Negative Affective Experiences in Relation to Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at ...

  18. Cognitive impairment in patients with a schizoaffective disorder: a comparison with bipolar patients in euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studentkowski G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Several studies have shown persistent neurocognitive impairment in patients with a bipolar affective disorder (BD even in euthymia as well as in patients with a schizoaffective disorder (SAD. The aim of our study was to compare the neuropsychological performance between these two groups. Confounding variables were controlled to enhance our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in both BD and SAD. Methods Several domains of neurocognitive function, executive function, memory, attention, concentration and perceptuomotor function were examined in 28 euthymic SAD patients and 32 BD patients by using a neuropsychological test battery. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS were used to evaluate the patients' clinical status. Data analysis was performed by using a multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA/MANCOVA. Results Euthymic SAD patients showed greater cognitive impairment than euthymic BD patients in the tested domains including declarative memory and attention. Putative significant group differences concerning cognitive flexibility vanished when controlled for demographic and clinical variables. Age and medication were robust predictors to cognitive performance of both SAD and BD patients. Conclusions Our results point out the worse cognitive outcome of SAD compared to BD patients in remission. Remarkably, the variance is higher for some of the test results between the groups than within each group, this being discussed in light of the contradictive concept of SAD.

  19. Perinatal sadness among Shuar women: support for an evolutionary theory of psychic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-03-01

    Psychiatry faces an internal contradiction in that it regards mild sadness and low mood as normal emotions, yet when these emotions are directed toward a new infant, it regards them as abnormal. We apply parental investment theory, a widely used framework from evolutionary biology, to maternal perinatal emotions, arguing that negative emotions directed toward a new infant could serve an important evolved function. If so, then under some definitions of psychiatric disorder, these emotions are not disorders. We investigate the applicability of parental investment theory to maternal postpartum emotions among Shuar mothers. Shuar mothers' conceptions of perinatal sadness closely match predictions of parental investment theory. PMID:17405696

  20. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad; Hamid Reza Naghavi; Hossein Malekafzali; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Harutiun Davidian1; Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi; S. Abbas Bagheri Yazdi; Mehdi Rahgozar

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18) in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS). They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressiv...

  1. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBelvindrah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lows). These aren't the normal periods of happiness and sadness that everyone experiences from time to ... with long-lasting medical conditions (such as asthma , diabetes , or epilepsy ), teens with bipolar disorder need to ...

  3. Diabulimia: how eating disorders can affect adolescents with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer

    2014-09-16

    Adherence to self-management and medication regimens is required to achieve optimal blood glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Non-adherence places adolescents at serious risk of short and long-term health complications. Adherence difficulties may be exacerbated by concurrent eating disorders. Diabulimia is a term used to describe the deliberate administration of insufficient insulin to maintain glycaemic control for the purpose of causing weight loss. This article explores the concept of diabulimia and the compounding complications of an eating disorder on maintaining self-management regimens in adolescents with diabetes. PMID:25204951

  4. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  5. Differences and similarities in postural alterations caused by sadness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Jose Luis; Bezerra Diógenes, Maria Suely; Mattei, Rita; Leite, José Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the existence of a relationship between depression and body posture in 40 women, aged between 20 and 30 years, who had normal body mass indices (or were underweight) and absence of neurological, psychiatric, or musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a relationship between sadness, depression and the posture represented by the angle of Tales, head inclination, shoulder inclination, and forward head and shoulder protrusion. The degree of depression was rated on analogue scales representing current and usual depression and current and usual sadness and by the Beck Depression Inventory. The results indicated that a relationship exists between: Beck depression and the angle of Tales (p = 0.01), current depression and inclination of the head (p = 0.05) and inclination of the shoulders (p = 0.006), and usual depression and protrusion of the shoulder (p = 0.02). Inclination of the shoulders is associated with current sadness (p = 0.03; r = 0.443) and usual sadness (p = 0.04; r = 0.401). Usual sadness is also associated with protrusion of the shoulder (p = 0.05; r = 0.492). No associations were found with protrusion of the head and the emotional variables assessed. The conclusion was that depression and sadness might possibly change posture. Consequently, postural assessment and treatment may assist in diagnosing and treating depression. PMID:25440204

  6. Implementing the semi-structured interview Kiddie-SADS-PL into an in-patient adolescent clinical setting: impact on frequency of diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Pierre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is needed to establish the utility of diagnostic interviews in clinical settings. Studies comparing clinical diagnoses with diagnoses generated with structured instruments show generally low or moderate agreement and clinical diagnostic assignment (e.g. admission or chart diagnoses are often considered to underdiagnose disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL into an in-patient adolescent clinical setting. Methods Participants were all adolescents admitted through the years 2001–2004 (N = 333 admissions, age 12–17 years. The authors reviewed the charts of the previous three years of consecutive admissions, patients being evaluated using routine psychiatric evaluation, before the Kiddie-SADS-PL was introduced. They then reviewed the charts of all consecutive admissions during the next twelve months, patients being evaluated by adding the instrument to routine practice. Results The rates of several main diagnostic categories (depressive, anxiety, bipolar and disruptive disorders increased considerably, suggesting that those disorders were likely underreported when using non-structured routine assessment procedures. The rate of co-morbidity increased markedly as the number of diagnoses assigned to each patient increased. Conclusion The major differences in diagnostic assignment rates provide arguments for the utility of diagnostic interviews in inpatient clinical settings but need further research, especially on factors that affect clinical diagnostic assignment in "real world" settings.

  7. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

  8. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  9. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments in both the amplitude and phase of the transcriptional oscillators in the SCN as a result of melatonin treatments may be sufficient to associate with the effects seen in the brain serotonergic system and with the improvement in depression-like behavior. Our study confirmed a predictive validity of C57BL/6J mice as a useful model for the molecular analysis of links between the clock and brain serotonergic system, which could greatly accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of SAD, as well as the search for new treatments. PMID:25515595

  10. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Fiori; Luigi Maria Giannetti

    2009-01-01

    Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular...

  11. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Epa, Roksana; Czyżowska, Natalia; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MAD...

  12. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epa, Roksana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and Young Rating Scale for Mania (YMRS. Profile of moral reasoning was defined on the basis of the results obtained in the Defining Issue Test (DIT by James Rest. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (and its phases and the profile of moral reasoning: bipolar patients significantly less often than healthy individuals chose answers indicating the postconventional thinking (p=0,000 – and more often – answers indicating stage 3 and those belonging to the anti-institutional thinking index (p=0,000. There was also a relationship shown between the development of moral reasoning and the phase of bipolar disorder: patients in mania less often than per- sons in euthymia chose answers indicating the final stage of moral thinking (p=0,050. There were no significant differences between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in mania and between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in euthymia. Conclusions: The results suggest that the psychological state of the individual may have an impact on the process of moral reasoning – bipolar disorder may to some extent influence the way of thinking about moral dilemmas. The collected data also seem to emphasize the specificity of the manic phase which is especially worth exploration when conducting further studies.

  13. [Interpersonal violence in the context of affective and psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Hauth, I; Berger, M; Saß, H

    2016-01-01

    Some mental and neurobiological disorders are associated with an increased risk for violence against others. The stigmatization of people with mental illnesses essentially emerges from a distorted perception of this condition. This review article summarizes the available literature on the determinants, prevention, therapy and tools for prediction of serious interpersonal aggression in the context of people with mental disorders. The risks for violence against other people show substantial variation between the various diagnoses. Schizophrenia and mania carry a clearly increased risk particularly at the onset of the disorder but disease-specific pharmacological therapy can reduce these risks. The highest risk factors are in particular previous violence, misuse of alcohol and drugs, male gender and young age. Probabilistic predictions of subsequent aggression against others on an individual-specific basis are only feasible in enriched populations (especially persons with mental illnesses and a previous history of assaults). Valid individual-specific predictions of future violence in the general population or on the basis of diagnoses of mental illness are, however, currently not feasible with sufficient accuracy.

  14. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P < 0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  15. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P <0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD, locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8 against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan Fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato. PMID:25825911

  18. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...

  19. Major affective disorder in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. A descriptive diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessle, R G; Kittl, S; Fichter, M M; Wittchen, H U; Pirke, K M

    1987-12-01

    DSM-III lifetime diagnoses were assessed in 52 patients with a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa or bulimia by means of a standardised diagnostic interview. It was found that 44.2% had a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-III major affective disorder, with abstaining anorectics having a lower rate of depression than those with bulimic symptoms. In the great majority of cases, the onset of affective disorder post-dated the onset of the eating disorder by at least one year. In patients whose eating disorder was in remission, the rate of depressive symptoms was lower than in those in the acute stage of their illness. These findings, combined with recent studies on biological changes in eating disorders, and psychological theories of depression, suggest that in most cases in which the two conditions are associated, the depression is secondary to the eating disorder. PMID:3502805

  20. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    .001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0...

  1. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  2. Homocysteine levels in schizophrenia and affective disorders – focus on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Doaa H Hewedi; Eissa, Abeer M.; Dorota eFrydecka; Błażej eMisiak

    2014-01-01

    Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dys...

  3. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder. PMID:26646576

  4. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  5. Was the "nervous illness" of Schreber a case of affective disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, A A

    1984-10-01

    The available historical information concerning Freud's subject Daniel Paul Schreber's life, family, and the phenomenology of his illness is reviewed. The author challenges the traditional diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia in favor of a diagnosis of affective disorder.

  6. Impairment of executive function and attention predicts onset of affective disorder in healthy high-risk twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk.......To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk....

  7. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  8. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. PMID:26873452

  9. Early parental death and risk of hospitalization for affective disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Charlotte Weiling; Johansen, Christoffer; Deltour, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood.......Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood....

  10. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K.;

    2016-01-01

    between summer and winter (P sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom...... to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract....

  11. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bernegger; Klemens Kienesberger; Laura Carlberg; Patrick Swoboda; Birgit Ludwig; Romina Koller; Nestor D Kapusta; Martin Aigner; Helmuth Haslacher; Michaela Schmöger; Siegfried Kasper; Alexandra Schosser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted...

  12. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y.; Abushalbaq, Oday M.; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T.; Imam, Aya F.; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  13. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits. PMID:27445719

  14. The moderating role of personal relevance on differential priming of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2009-04-01

    Raghunathan and Pham conducted a pioneer study in 1999 on the motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making and indicated that anxiety would motivate individuals to be risk averse, whereas sadness would motivate individuals to be risk taking. A replication study was employed in the domain of perceived travel risk. Compared to participants in a neutral mood, anxious participants showed higher perceived travel risk than sad participants. Moreover, the differential effect of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk was only pronounced under the high personal relevance condition, in which participants made personal decisions and expected that they would be affected by the outcomes. In general, the results extend the notion proposed by Raghunathan and Pham suggesting that travelers' implicit goals primed by anxiety or sadness used for mood-repair purposes appear to be moderated by personal relevance. PMID:19610480

  15. Dandy-Walker variant associated with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lingeswaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dandy-Walker malformation is a congenital brain malformation, typically involving the fourth ventricle and the cerebellum. To date, the Dandy-Walker syndrome has not been described in association with bipolar disorder type I mania, and therefore we briefly report the case of a Dandy-Walker variant associated with acute mania. A 10-year-old boy was brought by his mother to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital, with symptoms of mania. The MRI brain of the patient showed a posterior fossa cystic lesion, a giant cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and mild hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, with the rest of the structures being normal and no signs of hydrocephalus. These findings showed that the patient had a Dandy-Walker variant. He responded partially to valproate and olanzepine, which controlled the acute manic symptoms in the ward.

  16. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  17. Amoris Laetitia: Joy, Sadness and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Seifert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay begins, in its first section, with a mention of the wealth of beautiful thoughts that Amoris Laetitia (AL enriches us with, and of the wonderful core of the message of AL, the merciful love of God for every human being expressed in the words of Christ cited above. It then concentrates on a small portion of the assertions of AL, but which are likely to have the strongest effect and give cause for concern and sadness.The second part concerns the question who the couples in “irregular situations” are, to whom AL wants to grant access to the sacraments, and whether admitting them (without repentance and will to change their life to sacramental absolution of sins and Eucharist is compatible with the Gospel, Church doctrine and human reason. Four fundamentally different answers that dominate the current discussion as to who these couples admitted to the sacraments are according to AL are discussed critically, to show that a clear statement about which of them is true and which are blatantly false, desperately is needed to avert chaos: No “irregular couples” at all? All “irregular couples”? Some, carefully examined, couples in irregular situations?“Irregular couples” who have not celebrated marriage in the Church but only entered a “marriage of conscience,” which AL for the first time in the history of the Church permits and recognizes?Since the second reply authorizes any sacrilege and transforms the holy Temple of God into a temple of Satan, this reply cannot be the one the Pope intends to give. But as it is nonetheless proposed by high dignitaries in the Church and the Pope has remained silent about it, it seems necessary to break this silence and to reject this second blasphemous response in the sharpest possible terms.The third answer is most likely the one meant by Francis. It asserts that the couples admitted to the sacraments must be subjected to a thorough discernment in order to see whether they are so

  18. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  19. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals' trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  20. Influence of Trait Empathy on the Emotion Evoked by Sad Music and on the Preference for it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai eKawakami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking towards them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the IRI scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy. We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that fantasy, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music.

  1. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  2. Recall of expressed affect during naturalistically observed interpersonal events in those with borderline personality disorder or depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Whitney C; Tragesser, Sarah L; Tomko, Rachel L; Mehl, Matthias R; Trull, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    We used the Electronically Activated Recorder to observe 31 individuals with either borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 20) or a history of a depressive disorder (n = 11). The Electronically Activated Recorder yielded approximately forty-seven 50-second sound clips per day for 3 consecutive days. Recordings were coded for expressed positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), and coder ratings were compared to participants' reports about their PA and NA during interpersonal events. BPD participants did not differ from participants with depressive disorder in terms of their recalled levels of NA or PA across different types of interpersonal events. However, significant discrepancies between recalled and observed levels of NA and PA were found for BPD participants for all types of interpersonal events. These findings may reflect limitations in the ability of those with BPD to recall their emotional intensity during interpersonal events and may also provide some evidence for emotional invalidation experienced by those with BPD.

  3. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability...... the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation....... to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine...

  4. The efficacy of imagery rescripting compared to cognitive restructuring for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Alice R; Abbott, Maree J

    2016-05-01

    Imagery rescripting (IR) aims to alter negative meanings associated with distressing autobiographical memories. The current study aimed to extend demonstrated benefits of IR for social anxiety disorder (SAD), including direct comparison of IR with cognitive restructuring (CR) to assess the relative impact of these interventions on symptoms and processes. SAD individuals (N=60) were randomly allocated to IR, CR or Control conditions, and completed two speech tasks (before and after) their assigned intervention. Participants completed measures of symptomatology and state affective/cognitive variables in relation to the intervention and speech tasks. Results support the benefits of IR for SAD, with both IR and CR yielding large and equivalent reductions in trait social anxiety. However, IR and CR may function via differing pathways. Outcomes suggest that IR may be most effective in the treatment of SAD when delivered across multiple sessions or preceded by CR to target verbal and imaginal self-representations. PMID:27070386

  5. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  6. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  7. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  8. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments.Methods and results: We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments.Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models.Keywords: diagnostic criteria, body image, cognition, aesthetical treatments

  9. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:26917961

  10. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  11. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed.

  12. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  13. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements examples from research in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Danilo Arnone,1 Lindsey Marwood,1 Roland Zahn,1–3 Karen E Lythe,2,3 Allan H Young1 1Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, 2Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, 3Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. Keywords: recruitment, affective disorders, advertising, depression, anxiety, bipolar

  14. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  15. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362623

  16. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  17. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  18. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhof, Rosalie; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Mast, Roos C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. Methods: W

  19. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnoses among electroconvulsive therapy patients with chronic affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Dam, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    investigated. A standardized schema for basic anamnesis and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic and Affective Illness (OPCRIT) were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical affective disorder ICD-10 diagnoses and the formal agreement between clinical...

  20. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract. PMID:26994750

  1. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  2. Who enjoys listening to sad music and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Vuoskoski, Jonna; Thompson, William F.; McIlwain, Doris; Eerola, Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    although people generally avoid negative emotional experiences in general, they often enjoy sadness portrayed in music and other arts. The present study investigated what kinds of subjective emotional experiences are induced in listeners by sad music, and whether the tendency to enjoy sad music is associated with particular personality traits. One hundred forty-eight participants listened to 16 music excerpts and rated their emotional responses. As expected, sadness...

  3. Escitalopram tolerability as mono- versus augmentative therapy in patients with affective disorders: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso, Chiara Arici, Cristina Dobrea, Giulia Camuri, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo AltamuraUniversity of Milan, Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyBackground: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, widely used in the treatment of affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine its safety and tolerability, as mono- versus augmentative therapy, in a group of patients with affective disorders.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 131 patients suffering from different affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, who received escitalopram for at least 4 weeks. Data were analyzed on the basis of mono- versus augmentative therapy, as well as age, gender, mean daily dosage, and patterns of combination therapy.Results: Sixty-seven (51.1% patients were treated with monotherapy (mean dose of 11.76 mg/day and 64 (48.9% with augmentative escitalopram (mean dose of 12.81 mg/day. The mean duration of escitalopram treatment was 14 months. The most frequently combined compounds were: other antidepressants (36.5%, mood stabilizers (33.4%, and atypical antipsychotics (30.1%. Side effects were reported in 5.3% of the total sample and the most common were insomnia (2.3%, nausea (2.3%, and dizziness (0.8%. No significant difference, in terms of tolerability, in mono- versus augmentative therapy groups was found. In addition, neither age nor gender was significantly correlated with a greater presence of side effects. Finally, no significant correlation between dosage and side effects was observed.Conclusion: Over a 14-month observation period, escitalopram, either as monotherapy or an augmentative treatment, was found to be well tolerated in a large sample of patients with affective disorders, with an overall low rate of side effects.Keywords: affective disorders, escitalopram

  4. Impression formation and revision in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Ayala; Aderka, Idan M; Marom, Sofi; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal relations are markedly impaired in social anxiety. Yet, little is known about the ways social anxiety affects social cognition. We examined impression formation and impression revision among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 26) and non-anxious individuals (n = 29). Participants read initial descriptions of protagonists depicted as dominant, neutral or submissive and rated them on social rank and affiliation dimensions. Next, participants were presented with behavioral acts that were either congruent, incongruent or irrelevant to the initial descriptions, and re-rated the protagonists. Individuals with SAD (a) rated others as more extreme on social rank dimension, (b) rated others as lower on the affiliation dimension, and (c) revised their impressions of others to a greater extent than did the non-anxious individuals. Understanding the ways social anxiety affects the formation and revision of perceptions of others can improve our understanding of maintaining processes in SAD. PMID:23774009

  5. The role of affective instability and UPPS impulsivity in borderline personality disorder features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragesser, Sarah L; Robinson, R Joe

    2009-08-01

    Current theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest that extreme levels of affective instability/emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, or a combination of these traits account for the symptoms of BPD. The present study tested the extent to which personality measures of affective instability and impulsivity could account for BPD features in a nonclinical sample. One hundred forty-one undergraduates completed the Affective Lability Scale, the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines. Both affective instability and impulsivity were uniquely associated with BPD features. Shifts between euthymia and anger, and between anxiety and depression, were associated with BPD features, as were the urgency and (lack of) premeditation scales. Results indicated that specific BPD features may be differentially accounted for by affective instability vs. impulsivity, consistent with perspectives on BPD emphasizing combinations of affective instability and impulsivity as underlying dimensions of the disorder. PMID:19663657

  6. Improving Affect Regulation in Eating Disorders: The Case for Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Rogowski, Augustina

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple studies suggests that regulation of emotions and intensity of affect may be relevant to understanding disordered eating. Emotion regulation concerns the ways in which emotions are managed in daily life, whereas Affect Intensity (Larsen et al., 1986) refers to individuals‟ typical emotional reactivity. The thesis examines emotion regulation and affect in females with eating pathology (subclinical as well as clinical), and looks at ways dysfunctional regulatory strategies...

  7. Relationship between Social Anxiety Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are two separate, but conceptually overlapping nosological entities. In this review, we examine similarities between SAD and BDD in comorbidity, phenomenology, cognitive biases, treatment outcome, and cross-cultural aspects. Our review suggests that SAD and BDD are highly comorbid, show a similar age of onset, share a chronic trajectory, and show similar cognitive biases for interpreting ambiguous social information in a negativ...

  8. Subliminal cues bias perception of facial affect in patients with social phobia: evidence for enhanced unconscious threat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signaling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment task, 23 SAD and 23 matched control participants were asked to rate the affective valence of parametrically manipulated affective expressions ranging from neutral to angry. Each trial was preceded by subliminal presentation of an angry/neutral cue. The SAD group tended to rate target faces as "angry" when the preceding subliminal stimulus was angry vs. neutral, while healthy participants were not biased by the subliminal stimulus presentation. The perceptual bias in SAD was also associated with higher reaction time latencies in the subliminal angry cue condition. The results provide further support for enhanced unconscious threat processing in SAD individuals. The implications for etiology, maintenance, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:25136307

  9. Subliminal Cues Bias Perception of Facial Affect in Patients with Generalized Social Phobia: Evidence for Enhanced Unconscious Threat Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiste eJusyte

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSocially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signalling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment task, 23 SAD and 23 matched control participants were asked to rate the affective valence of parametrically manipulated affective expressions ranging from neutral to angry. Each trial was preceded by subliminal presentation of an angry/ neutral cue. The SAD group tended to rate target faces as angry when the preceding subliminal stimulus was angry vs. neutral, while healthy participants were not biased by the subliminal stimulus presentation. The perceptual bias in SAD was also associated with higher reaction time latencies in the subliminal angry cue condition. The results provide further support for enhanced unconscious threat processing in SAD individuals. The implications for etiology, maintenance and treatment of SAD are discussed.

  10. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population. PMID:27656936

  11. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  12. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  13. Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music....... Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition...... to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded...

  14. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION, DISSOCIATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS IN REMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Kamaradova, Dana; Velartova, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits, which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. Subjects and methods: To ascertain cognitive function, level of dissociation and quality of life and their interrelations in patients with bipolar affective disorder in remission. Data from D2 Attention Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Trial Making Test, Di...

  15. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    cardiovascular, digestive, neoplastic and respiratory diseases. Suicide was the major cause of premature death in patients with ATPDs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ATPDs are associated with an increased mortality from both natural causes and suicide.......Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time.......1%) with schizophrenia had died over a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes, natural causes and unnatural causes was significantly high for the three conditions. Mortality of ATPDs was greater in men, with about two-thirds of all deaths resulting from natural causes mainly...

  16. Gait unsteadiness and fall risk in two affective disorders: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chung-Kang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In older adults, depression has been associated with increased fall risk, but the reasons for this link are not fully clear. Given parallels between major depression and Parkinson's disease, we hypothesized that major depression and related affective disorders would be associated with impairment in the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait cycle timing. Methods We measured stride-to-stride fluctuations of patients with two forms of mood disorders, unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder, and compared their gait to that of a healthy control group. The primary outcomes were two measures of gait unsteadiness that have been associated with fall risk: stride time variability and swing time variability. Results Compared to the control group, the two patient groups tended to walk more slowly and with decreased swing time and increased stride time. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. Compared to the control group, swing time variability was significantly larger in the subjects with bipolar disorder (p Conclusions Patients with MDD and patients with bipolar disorder display gait unsteadiness. This perturbation in gait may provide a mechanistic link connecting depression and falls. The present findings also suggest the possibility that measurement of variability of gait may provide a readily quantifiable objective approach to monitoring depression and related affective disorders.

  17. The joint structure of major depression, anxiety disorders, and trait negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson W. de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimensional models of psychopathology demonstrate that two correlated factors of fear and distress account for the covariation among depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, these models tend to exclude variables relevant to psychopathology, such as temperament traits. This study examined the joint structure of DSM-IV-based major depression and anxiety disorders along with trait negative affect in a representative sample of adult individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 3,728 individuals who were administered sections D (phobic, anxiety and panic disorders and E (depressive disorders of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and a validated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Data were analyzed using correlational and structural equation modeling. Results: Lifetime prevalence ranged from 2.4% for panic disorder to 23.2% for major depression. Most target variables were moderately correlated. A two-factor model specifying correlated fear and distress factors was retained and confirmed for models including only diagnostic variables and diagnostic variables along with trait negative affect. Conclusions: This study provides support for characterization of internalizing psychopathology and trait negative affect in terms of correlated dimensions of distress and fear. These results have potential implications for psychiatric taxonomy and for understanding the relationship between temperament and psychopathology.

  18. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  19. Affective disorders in patients with HIV infection: impact of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, affective disorders (such as depressed mood) were seen in a considerable number of HIV-1-infected individuals. These disorders were a result of the poor physical condition of the patients, brain involvement by the virus (e.g. encephalopathy) or a reaction to disadvantageous living conditions (losing friends, jobs, etc.). In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), mental illness related to physical weakness is declining, as is the incidence of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. However, depressed mood and fatigue caused by efavirenz (a standard component of HAART) is becoming increasingly important, particularly in individuals who are infected long-term with HIV-1. Whatever the cause of affective disorders, their presence has been shown to negatively influence adherence to HAART and HIV-1 disease progression. Specialist knowledge of HIV-1 infection, and HAART and its psychiatric complications (particularly in subgroups of patients such as drug abusers and older people), is needed to care adequately for patients. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to more fully differentiate between the various aetiologies of affective disorders seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to determine their incidence and prevalence. Such information is important to ensure that affective disorders are recognised and adequately treated, which will in turn improve the efficacy of HAART. PMID:16734500

  20. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  1. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  2. Risk markers for affective disorder, a seven-years follow up study of a twin cohort at low and high risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether: familial history of affective disorder, subclinical depressive symptoms and life events (LEs) are predictive of a later development of mood disorder (onset). In a high-risk study, 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin history...... baseline Hamilton 17 score (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.48), Becks Depression Inventory 21 (HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.05-1.24) and neuroticism (HR = 1.08, 95% 1.02-1.12). Finally, the experience of LEs lifetime before baseline predicted onset (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and the experience of LEs during follow......-up also predicted onset (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11). These findings suggest that young individuals at familial risk of affective disorders are at enhanced risk of onset and at further risk when having female sex and more subclinical depressive symptoms at baseline. Further, they seem to experience more...

  3. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Médhi Gilson; Gaétane Deliens; Rachel Leproult; Alice Bodart; Antoine Nonclercq; Rudy Ercek; Philippe Peigneux

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long...

  4. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnoses among electroconvulsive therapy patients with chronic affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diagnostic reliability is of major concern both to clinicians and researchers. The aim has been to investigate the trustworthiness of clinical ICD-10 affective disorder diagnoses for research purpose. Methods: 150 ECT patients with chronic affective disorders were investigated. A standardized schema for basic anamnesis and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic and Affective Illness (OPCRIT were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical affective disorder ICD-10 diagnoses and the formal agreement between clinical ICD-10, OPCRIT ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using unweighted κ-statistics. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical bipolar diagnoses was 0.55, 0.75, 0.42 and 0.84, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical unipolar diagnoses was 0.79, 0.55, 0.77 and 0.58, respectively. The agreement between clinical ICD-10 and OPCRIT ICD-10 bipolar vs. non-bipolar diagnoses was low, κ = 0.28. The agreement between clinical ICD-10 and OPCRIT ICD-10 unipolar vs. non-unipolar diagnoses was low, κ = 0.35. The agreement between OPCRIT ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses on bipolar vs. non-bipolar disorders was high, κ = 0.91, and the agreement on unipolar vs. non-unipolar disorders was fairly high, κ = 0.78. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnoses of affective disorders from chronic subjects with a history of ECT is problematic despite sample homogeneity on basic clinical, demographic and epidemiological parameters.

  5. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bögels; S. Knappe; L.A. Clark

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  8. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  9. Identification of rare high-risk copy number variants affecting the dopamine transporter gene in mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K; Duong, Linh T T; Ingason, Andrés;

    2015-01-01

    and affective disorders. Recently, copy number variants (CNVs) in SLC6A3 have been identified in healthy subjects but so far, the implication of CNVs affecting this gene in psychiatric diseases has not been addressed. AIMS: In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CNVs affecting SLC6A3 represent...... rare high-risk variants of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic screening for CNVs affecting SLC6A3 in 761 healthy controls, 672 schizophrenia patients, and 194 patients with bipolar disorder in addition to 253 family members from six large pedigrees affected by mental disorders...... sizes and two affected several genes in addition to SLC6A3. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that rare high-risk CNVs affecting the gene encoding the dopamine transporter contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and affective disorders....

  10. Affective Spectrum Disorders in an Urban Swedish Adult Psychiatric Unit: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scharin, M.; Archer, T.; Hellström, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several studies have found that patients with affective-/anxiety-/stress-related syndromes present overlapping features such as cooccurrence within families and individuals and response to the same type of pharmacological treatment, suggesting that these syndromes share pathogenetic mechanisms. The term affective spectrum disorder (AfSD) has been suggested, emphasizing these commonalities. The expectancy rate, sociodemographic characteristics, and global level of functioning in Af...

  11. Intrinsic Affective Network Is Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    New-Fei Ho; Joanna S X Chong; Hui Li Koh; Eleni Koukouna; Tih-Shih Lee; Daniel Fung; Choon Guan Lim; Juan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in impulsivity and affect dysregulation are key features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) besides impairing levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. However, the neural substrates underlying these traits are relatively under-investigated. In this study, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis of diminished functional integration within the affective/limbic network (which includes the amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual cingu...

  12. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan G. Hofmann; Nicola Petrocchi; James Steinberg; Muyu Lin; Kohki Arimitsu; Shelley Kind; Adriana Mendes; Ulrich Stangier

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potent...

  13. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  14. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  15. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP). PMID:12548347

  16. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J.; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J.; Cannon, Dara M.; Murray, Robin M.; McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its

  17. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF HOSPITAL AND DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE OF AFFECTIVE AND SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    1995-01-01

    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a p

  18. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; den Boer, Johan; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    2003-01-01

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the cir

  19. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  20. LIGHT THERAPY FOR SEASONAL AFFECTIVE-DISORDER - THE EFFECTS OF TIMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; JANSEN, JHC; BEERSMA, DGM; BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1995-01-01

    Background. Sixty-eight patients with seasonal affective disorder participated in a 10 000-lux light treatment study in which two questions were addressed: do response rates differ when the light is applied at different times of the day and does short-term rank ordering of morning and evening light

  1. Affective Modulation of the Startle Response among Children at High and Low Risk for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397

  2. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

  3. Evidence implicating BRD1 with brain development and susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Bjarkam, Carsten; Kiær-Larsen, Stine;

    Introduction: Linkage studies suggest that chromosome 22q12-13 may contain one or more shared susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPD). In a Faeroese sample we previously reported association between microsatellite markers located at 22q13.31-qtel and both ...

  4. Atypical Sensory Processing in Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Non-Affected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Atypical sensory processing is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specific profiles have been proposed in different age groups, but no study has focused specifically on adolescents. Identifying traits of ASD that are shared by individuals with ASD and their non-affected family members can shed light on the genetic underpinnings of ASD.…

  5. Resilience to affective disorders: A comparative validation of two resilience scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Beek, W.O. de; Lataster, J.; Jacobs, N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resilience to affective disorders in rehabilitating patients or in individuals with a severe disability is of special research interest. However, there is no gold standard for measuring resilience. We aimed to test the accuracy of the Dutch translation of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRSn

  6. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hippocampal formation in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.W. Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal output is increased in affective disorders and is mediated by increased glutamatergic input via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and moderated by antidepressant treatment. Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate evokes the release of nitric oxide (NO by the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. The human hippocampus contains a high density of NMDA receptors and nNOS-expressing neurons suggesting the existence of an NMDA-NO transduction pathway which can be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. We tested the hypothesis that nNOS expression is increased in the human hippocampus from affectively ill patients. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate nNOS-expressing neurons in sections obtained from the Stanley Consortium postmortem brain collection from patients with major depression (MD, N = 15, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 15, and schizophrenia (N = 15 and from controls (N = 15. nNOS-immunoreactive (nNOS-IR and Nissl-stained neurons were counted in entorhinal cortex, hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 subfields, and subiculum. The numbers of Nissl-stained neurons were very similar in different diagnostic groups and correlated significantly with the number of nNOS-IR neurons. Both the MD and the BD groups had greater number of nNOS-IR neurons/400 µm² in CA1 (mean ± SEM: MD = 9.2 ± 0.6 and BD = 8.4 ± 0.6 and subiculum (BD = 6.7 ± 0.4 when compared to control group (6.6 ± 0.5 and this was significantly more marked in samples from the right hemisphere. These changes were specific to affective disorders since no changes were seen in the schizophrenic group (6.7 ± 0.8. The results support the current view of the NMDA-NO pathway as a target for the pathophysiology of affective disorders and antidepressant drug development.

  7. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  8. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Guusje; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Abramovic, Lucija; Vreeker, Annabel; de Reus, Marcel A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that healthy brain function emerges from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain's network of anatomical connections--i.e., the connectome--suggests that alterations in the connectome's wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs, and affected "rich club" organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, interhemispheric connections) of the brain's network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (-4.4%, P =0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, P brain hub connections in general, or of connections spanning brain hubs (i.e., "rich club" connections) in particular (all P > 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency in association with disruptions in interhemispheric connectivity, while the central "rich club" system appears not to be particularly affected.

  9. Alpha oscillations and their impairment in affective and post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders. PMID:27435239

  10. Internet treatment for social anxiety disorder in Romania: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tulbure Bogdan Tudor; Månsson Kristoffer NT; Andersson Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and is associated with marked impairments. However, a small proportion of individuals with SAD seek and receive treatment. Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective treatment for SAD. This trial will be the first Internet-delivered guided self-help intervention for SAD in Romania. Methods Participants with social anxiety disorder (N = 96) will be recru...

  11. Nonlinkage of D6S260, a putative schizophrenia locus, to bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.J.; Mitchell, P.B. [Univ. of South Wales (Australia); Salmon, J. [Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    To examine whether genes that predispose to schizophrenia also confer a predisposition to other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar affective disorder (BAD), we tested for linkage between the recently identified schizophrenia susceptibility locus D6S260 and the inheritance of BAD in 12 large Australian pedigrees. We found no evidence for linkage over a region of 12-27 cM from the D6S260 locus, depending on the model used. Our results therefore do not provide support for the continuum theory of psychosis. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    up against other models than the traditional Kraepelinian dichotomization of the disorders. In conclusion, the results suggest that schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder patients have a genetic vulnerability or predisposition towards the disorders (possibly at least overlapping......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the results from 3 cohort studies describing risk factors for and mortality of major psychiatric disorders with focus on comparison between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, the results are evaluated in the context of the dichotomization...... of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The studies were based on four Danish registers: the Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Cause of Death Register, and the Danish Medical Birth Register. From the registers, large population based cohorts were identified...

  13. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S;

    2015-01-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non......-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable...... and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls...

  14. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  15. How effective are cognitive behavior therapies for major depression and anxiety disorders? A meta‐analytic update of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Cristea, Ioana A.; Karyotaki, Eirini; Reijnders, Mirjam; Huibers, Marcus J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the current best estimate of the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of major depression (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD), taking into account publication bias, the quality of trials, and the influence of waiting list control groups on the outcomes. In our meta‐analyses, we included randomized trials comparing CBT with a control condition (waiting list, care‐as‐usual or pill placebo) in the acute treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD or SAD, diagnosed on the basis of a structured interview. We found that the overall effects in the 144 included trials (184 comparisons) for all four disorders were large, ranging from g=0.75 for MDD to g=0.80 for GAD, g=0.81 for PAD, and g=0.88 for SAD. Publication bias mostly affected the outcomes of CBT in GAD (adjusted g=0.59) and MDD (adjusted g=0.65), but not those in PAD and SAD. Only 17.4% of the included trials were considered to be high‐quality, and this mostly affected the outcomes for PAD (g=0.61) and SAD (g=0.76). More than 80% of trials in anxiety disorders used waiting list control groups, and the few studies using other control groups pointed at much smaller effect sizes for CBT. We conclude that CBT is probably effective in the treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD and SAD; that the effects are large when the control condition is waiting list, but small to moderate when it is care‐as‐usual or pill placebo; and that, because of the small number of high‐quality trials, these effects are still uncertain and should be considered with caution. PMID:27717254

  16. Reciprocal effects of stable and temporary components of neuroticism and affective disorders : Results of a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Penelo, E.; de Rooij, M.; Penninx, B. W.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies show that neuroticism is strongly associated with affective disorders. We investigated whether neuroticism and affective disorders mutually reinforce each other over time, setting off a potential downward spiral. Method A total of 2981 adults aged 18-65 years, cons

  17. STUDY ON EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN EUTHYMIC PHASE OF PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijin Ammanamveetil Ummar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although classically conceptualised as a disorder of mood, a consensus is emerging that patients with bipolar disorder show cognitive deficits both during the acute phase of illness and during remission (Savitz et al., 2005. The cognitive dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder may also be a key to longterm disability, which in turn is likely to adversely affect psychosocial functioning, insight and treatment adherence. AIM To assess the executive functions in euthymic phase of bipolar affective disorder subjects and study the relationship between cognitive functions and illness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 BPAD patients were assessed in the euthymic phase for executive dysfunction on four tests- verbal fluency, Trail making tests, Stroop colour word tests and Wisconsin card sorting tests and compared with controls. An intragroup analysis was then done to determine the effect of illness variables. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the bipolar group when compared to normal controls. On analysing the relation of executive dysfunction with illness variables, only number of episodes had a significant effect, that too on a subtest of Stroop. CONCLUSION The presence of executive dysfunction may be a trait marker of bipolar illness and its relation with progression of illness need to be assessed.

  18. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  19. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  20. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers; Jill eHolley; Mary eDahlgren; Atilla eGonenc; Deborah eYurgelun-Todd; Staci eGruber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  1. High Prevalence of Affective Disorders among Adolescents Living in Rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Langhaug, Lisa F.; Pascoe, Sophie J.; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Frances M Cowan

    2010-01-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15–23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affectiv...

  2. Thought suppression mediates the relationship between negative affect and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lejuez, Carl W; Lynch, Thomas R

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among negative affect, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), thought suppression, and diagnostic symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a community sample (n=127). Findings suggest that the temperamental variable negative affect intensity/reactivity was a stronger predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA. In addition, results indicated that higher thought suppression mediated the relationship between negative affective intensity/reactivity and BPD symptoms, after controlling for a history of CSA. Overall, findings suggest that (a) negative affectivity may be a better predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA, and (b) chronic efforts to suppress unpleasant thoughts may be a regulation strategy underlying the relationship between intense negative emotions and BPD symptoms. PMID:16005704

  3. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  4. The reliability of self-assessment of affective state in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2014-05-01

    Some studies have indicated that the capacity of self-assessment of affective state is more compromised during mania than during depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the reliability of self-assessment in bipolar disorder varies as a function of actual affective state (i.e., euthymia, mania, or depression). Sixty-five patients with a diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar disorder were evaluated with regard to the occurrence of an affective syndrome using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. In parallel, we applied the Analog Visual Mood Scale, a self-assessment tool to evaluate mood changes. The same individual prospectively completed the self-assessment scale in different affective states. During depression, the patients' evaluation was significantly different from when they were in manic or euthymic mood states. However, when in mania, the patients evaluated their mood state similarly to when they were euthymic. The bipolar patients in mania but not in depression did not reliably evaluate themselves with regard to their affective state. PMID:24727726

  5. Current management of bipolar affective disorder: is it reflective of the BAP guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, N; Dibben, C; Hunt, N

    2006-01-01

    In October 2003 the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP) published evidence-based guidelines on the management of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess whether the guidelines could provide the basis for examining clinical decisions and the extent to which practice accords with these guidelines. Case notes of out patients with bipolar disorder were reviewed. Demographic details, and treatment recommendations were determined. The management of affective episodes was evaluated and compared with BAP guidelines. In 84 subjects, 224 affective episodes were identified. Treatment was consistent with BAP guidelines in 72% of episodes. Mania was more likely to be managed in accordance with guidelines than depression or mixed episodes. The use of antidepressant medication was the most likely intervention to deviate from recommendations. Reasons for treatments at odds with the guidelines were identified. Our study demonstrates that clinical practice among a range of psychiatrists broadly reflects the guidelines that have been issued by the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP). The BAP guidelines offer a practical and auditable basis for the short- and long-term treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

  6. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Environments for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…

  7. Intrinsic Affective Network Is Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, New-Fei; Chong, Joanna S X; Koh, Hui Li; Koukouna, Eleni; Lee, Tih-Shih; Fung, Daniel; Lim, Choon Guan; Zhou, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in impulsivity and affect dysregulation are key features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) besides impairing levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. However, the neural substrates underlying these traits are relatively under-investigated. In this study, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis of diminished functional integration within the affective/limbic network (which includes the amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens) of children with ADHD, which is associated with their behavioral measures of emotional control deficits. Resting state-fMRI data were obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 15 children with ADHD, all who had a minimum one-month washout period for medications and supplements. Children with ADHD demonstrated less integrated affective network, evidenced by increased bilateral amygdalar and decreased left orbitofrontal connectivity within the affective network compared to healthy controls. The hyper-connectivity at the left amygdalar within the affective network was associated with increased aggressiveness and conduct problems, as well as decline in functioning in children with ADHD. Similar findings in affective network dysconnectivity were replicated in a subset of children with ADHD three months later. Our findings of divergent changes in amygdala and orbitofrontal intrinsic connectivity support the hypothesis of an impaired functional integration within the affective network in childhood ADHD. Larger prospective studies of the intrinsic affective network in ADHD are required, which may provide further insight on the biological mechanisms of emotional control deficits observed in ADHD. PMID:26406311

  8. Intrinsic Affective Network Is Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New-Fei Ho

    Full Text Available Deficits in impulsivity and affect dysregulation are key features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD besides impairing levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. However, the neural substrates underlying these traits are relatively under-investigated. In this study, we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis of diminished functional integration within the affective/limbic network (which includes the amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of children with ADHD, which is associated with their behavioral measures of emotional control deficits. Resting state-fMRI data were obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 15 children with ADHD, all who had a minimum one-month washout period for medications and supplements. Children with ADHD demonstrated less integrated affective network, evidenced by increased bilateral amygdalar and decreased left orbitofrontal connectivity within the affective network compared to healthy controls. The hyper-connectivity at the left amygdalar within the affective network was associated with increased aggressiveness and conduct problems, as well as decline in functioning in children with ADHD. Similar findings in affective network dysconnectivity were replicated in a subset of children with ADHD three months later. Our findings of divergent changes in amygdala and orbitofrontal intrinsic connectivity support the hypothesis of an impaired functional integration within the affective network in childhood ADHD. Larger prospective studies of the intrinsic affective network in ADHD are required, which may provide further insight on the biological mechanisms of emotional control deficits observed in ADHD.

  9. Stress Sensitivity and Stress Generation in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Temporal Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Antonina S.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2015-01-01

    Dominant theoretical models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that people who suffer from function-impairing social fears are likely to react more strongly to social stressors. Researchers have examined the reactivity of people with SAD to stressful laboratory tasks, but there is little knowledge about how stress affects their daily lives. We asked 79 adults from the community, 40 diagnosed with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls, to self-monitor their social interactions, social events, and emotional experiences over two weeks using electronic diaries. These data allowed us to examine associations of social events and emotional well-being both within-day and from one day to the next. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found all participants to report increases in negative affect and decreases in positive affect and self-esteem on days when they experienced more stressful social events. However, people with SAD displayed greater stress sensitivity, particularly in negative emotion reactions to stressful social events, compared to healthy controls. Groups also differed in how previous days’ events influenced sensitivity to current days’ events. Moreover, we found evidence of stress generation in that the SAD group reported more frequent interpersonal stress, though temporal analyses did not suggest greater likelihood of social stress on days following intense negative emotions. Our findings support the role of heightened social stress sensitivity in SAD, highlighting rigidity in reactions and occurrence of stressful experiences from one day to the next. These findings also shed light on theoretical models of emotions and self-esteem in SAD and present important clinical implications. PMID:25688437

  10. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  11. Sadness, Suicidality and Grades. NBER Working Paper No. 16239

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the past year relationship between GPA and experiencing a combination of two primary depression symptoms, feeling sad and losing interest in usual activities for at least two consecutive weeks, among high school students during 2001-2009. The GPA loss associated with sadness, as defined above, falls from slightly less than a…

  12. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions. PMID

  13. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics

  14. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  15. SAD phasing: History, current impact and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2016-07-15

    Single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) can trace its beginnings to the early 1950s. Researchers at the time recognized that SAD offers some unique features that might be advantageous for crystallographic phasing, despite the fact that at that time recording accurate SAD data was problematic. In this review we will follow the trail from those early days, highlighting key advances in the field and interpreting them in terms on how they stimulated continued phasing development that produced the theoretical foundation for the routine macromolecular structure determination by SAD today. The technological advances over the past three decades in both hardware and software, which played a significant role in making SAD phasing a 'first choice method', will also be described. PMID:27036852

  16. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early foetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons’ expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or ‘expressive art’ therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion.

  17. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or "expressive art" therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  18. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  19. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  20. Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Howson, Christopher P; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W; Blencowe, Hannah K; Christianson, Arnold L; Kent, Alastair; Malherbe, Helen; Murray, Jeffrey C; Padilla, Carmencita D; Walani, Salimah R

    2016-08-01

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are adopted by United Nations member states, children with congenital disorders remain left behind in policies, programs, research, and funding. Although this finding was recognized by the creation and endorsement of the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution in 2010 calling on United Nations member states to strengthen prevention of congenital disorders and the improvement of care of those affected, there has been little to no action since then. The Sustainable Development Goals call for the global health and development community to focus first and foremost on the most vulnerable and those left behind in the Millennium Development Goal era. To maximize the opportunity for every woman and couple to have a healthy child and to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected, their families and communities, and national health care systems, we propose priority measures that should be taken urgently to address this issue. PMID:27366873

  1. Childhood Trauma and Current Psychological Functioning in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Janice R.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. P...

  2. Factors affecting the musculoskeletal disorders of workers in the frozen food manufacturing factories in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Meepradit, Parvena; Jaidee, Wanlop

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders. The sample population of the study was 528 factory workers from the frozen food industry, as well as a controlled group of 255 office workers. The samples were collected during interviews using the Nordic questionnaire to assess musculoskeletal disorders, and to assess the risk by the rapid upper limb assessment and rapid entire body assessment techniques. The findings of the study were that most symptoms were found in the dissecting department, higher than in the controlled group. The details of the symptoms were, accordingly: elbow pain (adjusted odds ratio, 35.1; 95% CI [17.4, 70.9]). Regarding the risk of alcohol drinking, workers were exposed to more risks when alcohol was consumed. It is suggested that workers' health should be monitored regularly. People who work in a cold environment should be encouraged to wear body protection and to avoid drinking.

  3. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for two weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus non-purge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on non-purge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared to a matched time-point on non-purge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. PMID:25688426

  4. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, of

  5. A self-regulatory perspective on people's decision to engage in listening to self-selected sad music when feeling sad

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Tol, Annemieke Johanna Maria

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This thesis documents the results of a PhD research project which focuses on investigating the underlying psychological processes that can explain adults??? motivations for listening to self-identified sad music when feeling sad. Even though people do often listen to sad music when feelings sad, surprisingly little research has been conducted to investigate the psychological processes that can explain this behaviour or the effects of deciding to listen to sad music when feeli...

  6. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  7. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    = 70.393; P > 0.001 and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002.Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.Keywords: children, functional articulation disorders, sensory integration dysfunction, speech therapy, efficacy

  8. The FNS-based analyzing the EEG to diagnose the bipolar affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panischev, Yu; Panischeva, S. N.; Demin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Here we demonstrate a capability of method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) in analyzing the manifestation bipolar affective disorder (BAD) in EEG. Generally EEG from BAD patient does not show the visual differences from healthy EEG. Analyzing the behavior of FNS-parameters and the structure of 3D-cross correlators allows to discover the differential characteristics of BAD. The cerebral cortex electric activity of BAD patients have a specific collective dynamics and configuration of the FNS-characteristics in comparison with healthy subjects.

  9. [Affective disorders and their treatment during pregnancy and after birth -- a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félegyházy, Zsolt; Adler, Mats

    2013-03-01

    Treatment and management of affective disorders associated with pregnancy is still an underemphasized field receiving little attention, furthermore, it is burdened with misinformation as well as incomplete or missing knowledge. Professionals of related fields (psychiatrists, obstetrician-gynecologists) often provide patients with contradicting information or, due to their lack of sufficient knowledge, keep referring the patient for information between different services. However, there is an increasing amount of data and information available, suitable for drawing conclusions and making it possible to provide adequate and credible counselling and information for pregnant women or family planning couples. In the present paper we aim to facilitate this process by reviewing the currently available information.

  10. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    these variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through...... and the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  11. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Tor D Wager; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinic...

  12. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracte...

  13. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira eBrattico; Vinoo eAlluri; Brigitte eBogert; Thomas eJacobsen; Nuutti eVartiainen; Sirke Katriina Nieminen; Mari eTervaniemi

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracte...

  14. Lost or fond? Effects of nostalgia on sad mood recovery vary by attachment insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Sarah R.; Glode, Ryan J.; Opitz, Philipp C.

    2015-01-01

    Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia's effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality...

  15. Prediction of Happy-Sad Mood from Daily Behaviors and Previous Sleep History

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Akane; Yu, Amy; McHill, Andrew W.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2015-01-01

    We collected and analyzed subjective and objective data using surveys and wearable sensors worn day and night from 68 participants, for 30 days each, to address questions related to the relationships among sleep duration, sleep irregularity, self-reported Happy-Sad mood and other factors in college students. We analyzed daily and monthly behavior and physiology and identified factors that affect mood, including how accurately sleep duration and sleep regularity for the past 1-5 days classifie...

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT of anxiety disorders before and after treatment with citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seedat Soraya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have now examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment on brain function in a variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia (SAD. Regional changes in cerebral perfusion following SSRI treatment have been shown for all three disorders. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC (OCD, caudate (OCD, medial pre-frontal/cingulate (OCD, SAD, PTSD, temporal (OCD, SAD, PTSD and, thalamic regions (OCD, SAD are some of those implicated. Some data also suggests that higher perfusion pre-treatment in the anterior cingulate (PTSD, OFC, caudate (OCD and antero-lateral temporal region (SAD predicts subsequent treatment response. This paper further examines the notion of overlap in the neurocircuitry of treatment and indeed treatment response across anxiety disorders with SSRI treatment. Methods Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using Tc-99 m HMPAO to assess brain perfusion was performed on subjects with OCD, PTSD, and SAD before and after 8 weeks (SAD and 12 weeks (OCD and PTSD treatment with the SSRI citalopram. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare scans (pre- vs post-medication, and responders vs non-responders in the combined group of subjects. Results Citalopram treatment resulted in significant deactivation (p = 0.001 for the entire group in the superior (t = 4.78 and anterior (t = 4.04 cingulate, right thalamus (t = 4.66 and left hippocampus (t = 3.96. Deactivation (p = 0.001 within the left precentral (t = 4.26, right mid-frontal (t = 4.03, right inferior frontal (t = 3.99, left prefrontal (3.81 and right precuneus (t= 3.85 was more marked in treatment responders. No pattern of baseline activation distinguished responders from non-responders to subsequent pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Although each of the anxiety disorders may be mediated by different

  17. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  18. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takanori [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Mamoru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Inoue, Shigeyuki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizohata, Eiichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsu, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shimamura, Tatsuro [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwata, So [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugahara, Michihiro, E-mail: msuga@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  19. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  20. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated...... with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... through nationwide registers. RESULTS: Familiar predisposition to unipolar and bipolar disorder was not associated with any specific genotype pattern of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, not in this sample of 124 val/val, 58 val/met and 8 met/met individuals. However, the combination of having a high...

  1. Mutations in NRXN1 in a family multiply affected with brain disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, Linh; Klitten, Laura L; Møller, Rikke S;

    2012-01-01

    Mutation of the neurexin1-gene, NRXN1, interrupting the expression of neurexin1 has been associated with schizophrenia, autism, and intellectual disability. We have identified a family multiply affected with psychiatric, neurological, and somatic disorders along with an intricate co...... that the point mutation was inherited from the deceased father, who was diagnosed with schizophrenia. The observations suggest a possible gene-dose effect of NRXN1 mutations on type and severity of mental illness and support the notion that the penetrance and pleiotropy of pathogenic CNVs in general......-segregation of NRXN1 mutations. The proband suffered from autism, mental retardation, and epilepsy and on genotyping it was revealed that he carried a compound heterozygous mutation in the NRXN1 consisting of a 451¿kb deletion, affecting the promoter and first introns in addition to a point mutation, predicted...

  2. DNA methylation and affective disorder%DNA甲基化与情感障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪雨; 王振华; 王承敏; 施梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent years,epigenetics research mainly focused on DNA methylation.A growing body of research indicated that DNA methylation may play vital role in etiology of affective disorder.With brief introduction of DNA methylation molecular mechanisms and relevance of DNA methylation to affective disorder,this review focuses on some supporting evidence which are recently emerged in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation.Methods We retrievaled related articles from databases,such as PUBMED,Foreign medical information resources retrieval platform,CNKI,Wanfang database,ect,from 2013-06 to 2015-01.Index strategy TI:[depression OR bipolar disorder OR affective disorder] AND All field:DNA methylation.Reading and narrowing the scope of the articles,the experimental design was understanded,such as DNA from either blood cell or brain parenchyma of sample,methods of methylation detection,gene detected and methylation position,etc.The articles included 168 in English and 32 in Chinese.The whole and retained the articles were red about MDD and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation in recent five years.Results Eventually,the article includes 29 articles and two of in Chinese.Most of them are receptor gene epigenetics research associated with disease.Conclusion MDD and bipolar disorder are associated with the higher of DNA methylation levels in multiple gene promoter region,such as GR,BDNF,5-HTR,SLC6A4 and the lower of COMT.This article only from the perspective of affective disorder reviewed the relationship between DNA methylation and diseases.None of other diseases epigenetics research,there is to be perfected in future.%目的 DNA甲基化成为近年来表观遗传学的研究热点.越来越多的研究表明DNA甲基化在情感障碍的发病中也扮演着重要角色.本文综述了DNA甲基化的分子机制,介绍了DNA甲基化与情感障碍的关系,并在此基础上对重性抑郁症与双相情感障碍相

  3. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  4. HLA antigen and affective disorders: a report and critical assessment of histocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, H; Dupont, B; Shopsin, B

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of 50 HLA antigens, of the A, B and C loci, was investigated in 38 affectively ill Caucasian patients of Eastern European Jewish ancestry. The frequencies found were compared to those of a control population matched for race as well as geographic and ethnic-religious origins. Results indicate that a negative association exists between affective disorders and Cw3 and also suggests a similar negative association between such disorders and A9. A positive association with Bw16, Bw22 and Cw1 is also indicated; Bw16 was increased in those patients with no family history of psychological illness. A review of the available literature in this area shows a glaring lack of agreement among the studies. Methodological problems exist which are likely to contribute to the variable and conflicting results and might make comparison of data irrelevant. The lack of agreement of data among the studies may also indicate that no HLA disease association exists but rather reflect the existence of a defective gene in the HLA complex but not a part of the HLA system. Additional population and family studies are required before any definitive statements can be made.

  5. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bernegger

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury. The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC, Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R, and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS questionnaires.In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001, and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001 than the control group.These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma.

  6. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (phistory of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  7. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. PMID:27173657

  8. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G. Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10, and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8, to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90, negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92, and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94. Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  9. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interest (ROIs. Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusions: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness.

  10. Frequency of Psychological Disorders amongst Children in Urban Areas of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of different psychiatric disorders among 7 to 12 years old children in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: A sample of 799 children (6 to 11 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method from 250 clusters from the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran. . After responding to a Persian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ parent-report form, the Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL was administered to 241 children and their families. The frequency of child psychological disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "n Results:The overall frequency of any psychological disorders in the sample of children was 17.9 percent. Among the interviewed children childrenwho were interviewed, the most prevalent diagnoses were Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD (8.6 percent8.6%, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD (7.3 percent7.3%, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD (5.9 percent5.9%. There were not any statistically significant differences between sexes in the frequency of psychological disorders except enuresis that was more frequent in the boys and anorexia nervosa that was observed more frequently in the girls . "nConclusion:Higher frequency of ADHD and ODD and SAD among the studied children warrantswarrants more specific evaluation of frequency and possible causes of these high frequency rates. The frequency of psychological disorders in the studied children was comparable to the that of other studies.

  11. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; McCaul, Kieran; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia and affective and psychotic symptoms are commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, but information about their prevalence and incidence in community representative samples remains sparse. Methods We recruited a community-representative sample 38173 older men aged 65–85 years in 1996 and used data linkage to ascertain the presence of PD, affective disorders, psychotic disorders and dementia. Diagnoses followed the International Classification of Disease coding system. Age was recorded in years. Follow up data were available until December 2011. Results The mean age of participants was 72.5 years and 333 men (0.9%) had PD at study entry. Affective and psychotic disorders and dementia were more frequent in men with than without PD (respective odds ratios: 6.3 [95%CI = 4.7, 8.4]; 14.2 [95%CI = 8.4, 24.0] and 18.2 [95%CI = 13.4, 24.6]). Incidence rate ratios of affective and psychotic disorders were higher among men with than without PD, although ratios decreased with increasing age. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of an affective episode associated with PD was 5.0 (95%CI = 4.2, 5.9). PD was associated with an age-adjusted HR of 8.6 (95%CI = 6.1, 12.0) for psychotic disorders and 6.1 (95%CI = 5.5, 6.8) for dementia. PD and dementia increased the HR of depressive and psychotic disorders. Conclusions PD increases the risk of affective and psychotic disorders, as well as dementia, among community dwelling older men. The risk of a recorded diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders decreases with increasing age. PMID:27689715

  12. Development of a SAD script interpreter with Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAD script is a language for commissioning, operation and simulation of an accelerator, which has been developed and used in KEK. We plan to use it in J-PARC. For maintenance, management and extension, we are reconstructing the interpreter of the SAD script with Java. We implement main engines to parse and evaluate the script, fundamental commands, handling of DB, and methods to call the orbit calculation code, etc. We report the progress. (author)

  13. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy

    OpenAIRE

    Strien, T. van; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer García, Marta; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions?. We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a between subject design we experimentally tested the difference in food intake following a mood induction designed to induce joy or sadness (the joy vs. sad mood condition). The hi...

  14. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  15. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  16. It’s sad but I like it: The neural dissociation between musical emotions and liking in experts and laypersons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala and striatum are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18-sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians.

  17. Sociopolitical events and technical innovations may affect the content of delusions and the course of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, L

    2000-12-01

    The influence of culture on patients with psychiatric disorders has been well documented in the psychiatric literature. The unique emphasis of this paper is the influence of current social and political events on psychotic patients. Current events can be classified into two groups: (1) Communal stressful events that affect everyone (shared stressors), such as earthquakes, wars, etc.; and (2) Public events, highly reported by mass media, but not personally stressful, e.g., elections. This article is devoted to the discussion about the effect of sociopolitical non-traumatic events on persons with psychotic disorders. The author reviewed evidence that sociopolitical events and technical innovations affect patients with psychotic disorders. The author suggests that social events and scientific innovations may change the content of delusions and affect the course of psychotic disorders. The author also suggests that physicians should be sensitive to the clinical impact of sociopolitical events. PMID:11090299

  18. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Wilhelm, Frank H; Roth, Walton T; Gross, James J

    2007-09-01

    Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection time, Heather index, blood pressure, pulse amplitude and transit time, and finger temperature), electrodermal (level, response rate, and response amplitude), and respiratory (rate, tidal volume and its variability, inspiratory flow rate, duty cycle, and end-tidal pCO(2)) measures. Subjective emotional experience and facial behavior (Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major EMG) served as control measures. Results indicated robust differential physiological response patterns for fear, sadness, and neutral (mean classification accuracy 85%). Findings are discussed in terms of the fight-flight and conservation-withdrawal responses and possible limitations of a valence-arousal categorization of emotion in affective space.

  19. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder. Other types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , social phobia , and post-traumatic stress disorders . Panic disorder affects women twice as often ...

  20. How leader displays of happiness and sadness influence follower performance : Emotional contagion and creative versus analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Victoria A.; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Kleef, Gerben A.; Wisse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the influence of positive and negative leader affect on follower performance. We propose that both leader happiness and leader sadness can be beneficial for follower performance contingent on whether the task concerns creative or analytical perform

  1. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  2. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Raison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behaviour, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that 1 thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, 2 these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and 3 activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  3. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  4. [Affective disorders and dementia of the frontal lobe type. Hypothesis of a pathogenic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, J P; Favel, P; Rémy, C; Sanabria, E; Bidault, E

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of some dysthymic states towards dementia is now rarely considered whereas it was well known at the beginning of the century. In French the final stage of this evolution was known as "démence vésanique". In recent years it has been noted that a proportion of patients with presenile dementia do not have Alzheimer's disease (AD) but a particular type of cognitive impairment., called dementia of the frontal lobe type (DFT), characterised by clinical and neuropsychological signs of frontal lobe disorder as well as an anterior defect of cerebral perfusion or metabolism. The onset of DFT is insiduous and marked by personality changes and inappropriate affect. It has not yet been reported as starting with true dysthymic disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Ten right handed patients (F/M = 9/1) became dysthymic in their fifties (m = 49.8 + 7.6 yr). All initially met the DSM III-R criteria for mood disorders. They were all treated with the standard drugs or ECT. Although initially responsive all the patients relapsed and their dysthymic disorders became less typical in presentation. At a mean age of 63.6 +/- 2.9 yrs a particular type of dementia became evident. None of the patients had a previous history of mood disorder or a family history of dementia. The demented patients received thorough clinical examinations and 8/10 were tested with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). All had XCT and HMPAO-SPECT scans using a rotating gamma camera. Three patients had a MRI Scan. RESULTS. The main symptoms were apathy and a lack of spontaneity as a result of which the patients were no longer able to live alone. HMPAO-SPECT: All the patients had clear hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes with seven showing a left predominance. XCT: A moderate degree of cortical atrophy, more pronounced in the frontal lobes, was observed in 6 patients. In 3 of them a previous XCT scan had been normal. MRI: Subcortical white matter hyperintensities were seen in the 3

  5. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  6. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions.

  7. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  8. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with decreased blood BDNF concentrations; but it is unclear if low blood BDNF levels are a state or a trait marker of depression. METHODS: We investigated blood BDNF concentrations in a twin population including both subjects highly predisposed...... and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... experienced three or more recent stressful events (n=26) had decreased whole blood BDNF levels compared to high-risk women with two or less recent stressful events (n=35), 21.6+/-7.0 vs. 18.5+/-4.1 ng/ml, respectively, (p

  9. Add-on topiramate reduces weight in overweight patients with affective disorders: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredget John

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-gain caused by many psychotropic drugs is a major cause for poor compliance with such medications and could also increase cardio-vascular morbidity among psychiatric patients. Recent reports have shown that the anticonvulsant topiramate causes weight loss in various patient groups. The drug has also shown effectiveness in open trials as a mood stabilizer in patients with affective disorders, but not in controlled trials in the acute treatment of mania. We used topiramate to treat 12 patients with affective disorders who had a body-mass index >30 kg/m2. Methods Topiramate was prescribed as part of our routine clinical practice, as an add-on medication, or as a replacement of a mood stabilizer. Patients' weight was recorded in 1 to 2 monthly intervals. Patients were followed up for between 6 and 12 months. The final dose of topiramate varied from 200 to 600 mg/day. Results Topiramate was effective in reducing the weight in 10 out of the 12 patients. At six months the 12 patients had lost a mean of 7.75 kg (SD = 6.9 kg, p Conclusion The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

  10. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  11. Stress-related serotonergic systems: implications for symptomatology of anxiety and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. PMID:22484834

  12. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Lin, Julia Y; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    We examine differential validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups.

  13. No effect of ambient odor on the affective appraisal of a desktop virtual environment with signs of disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Desktop virtual environments (VEs are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and interventions on human behavior and safety related concerns in built environments. For these applications it is essential that users appraise the affective qualities of the VE similar to those of its real world counterpart. Previous studies have shown that factors like simulated lighting, sound and dynamic elements all contribute to the affective appraisal of a desktop VE. Since ambient odor is known to affect the affective appraisal of real environments, and has been shown to increase the sense of presence in immersive VEs, it may also be an effective tool to tune the affective appraisal of desktop VEs. This study investigated if exposure to ambient odor can modulate the affective appraisal of a desktop VE with signs of public disorder. METHOD: Participants explored a desktop VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime, while being exposed to either room air or subliminal levels of unpleasant (tar or pleasant (cut grass ambient odor. Whenever they encountered signs of disorder they reported their safety related concerns and associated affective feelings. RESULTS: Signs of crime in the desktop VE were associated with negative affective feelings and concerns for personal safety and personal property. However, there was no significant difference between reported safety related concerns and affective connotations in the control (no-odor and in each of the two ambient odor conditions. CONCLUSION: Ambient odor did not affect safety related concerns and affective connotations associated with signs of disorder in the desktop VE. Thus, semantic congruency between ambient odor and a desktop VE may not be sufficient to influence its affective appraisal, and a more realistic simulation in which simulated objects appear to emit scents may be required to achieve this goal.

  14. INFLUENCE OF NEUROTIC AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS ON FORMATION OF PREDICTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Garganeyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors which influence the development and prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in 132 patients with neurotic and affective disorders are presented. The significance of predictors of IHD formation was evaluated with method of logistic regression. According to results of stepwise procedure the total score of prediction of IHD in male group was 93.7%. The influence of mental factors on disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which lead to persistent rise of level of blood glucose, lipid spectrum indices imbalance, promoting the progression of cardiovascular risk in IHD patients with anxiety, depressive, asthenic and other non-psychotic mental disorders, was ascertained.

  15. Lost or Fond? Effects of Nostalgia on Sad Mood Recovery Vary By Attachment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rose Cavanagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia’s effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia’s benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one’s social relationships.

  16. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bertels

    Full Text Available It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  17. Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

  18. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    OpenAIRE

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; Den Boer, J A; Minderaa, R. B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depressio...

  19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth: Are They Distinguishable?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowart, Maria Jane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is defined by persistent, irrational anxiety in social situations while generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry unrelated to any specific situation. These two disorders share some features and are frequently comorbid in children and adults. The current study sought to examine this comorbidity and compare the disorders on a number of dimensions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. It was hypothesized that SAD would be...

  20. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  1. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  4. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  5. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive–affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients ...

  6. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  7. Affect regulation training (ART) for alcohol use disorders: development of a novel intervention for negative affect drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R; Bradizza, Clara M; Schlauch, Robert C; Coffey, Scott F; Gulliver, Suzy B; Gudleski, Gregory D; Bole, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called affect regulation training (ART), which could be added to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N=77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT+ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT+HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT+ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT+ART when compared to CBT+HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers.

  8. Combined Antirelapse Therapy in Patients with Schizoaffective Disorder: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna R. Gardanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most studies, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD are often combined into one group along with schizophrenia patients or less commonly with those suffering from affective disorders, which makes it difficult to obtain data about the peculiarities of SAD treatment. Articles dedicated to SAD treatment in the interictal period are rare. Methods and Results: The prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2015. The study involved 86 patients diagnosed with SAD according to ICD-10. Patients received neuroleptics (NLs as antirelapse therapy for 2 years (NL therapy; then mood stabilizers (MSs were added to the antirelapse treatment (NL+MS therapy. The results of this combined therapy with MSs were evaluated after 2 years of treatment. Our results suggest that the use of combination therapy that includes antipsychotics and MSs leads to maintenance of a higher quality remission. Remission becomes more prolonged and affective swings less pronounced, resulting in improved quality of life in SAD patients. Improving the quality of remission can be attributed to the following characteristics of the combined therapy: a the use of lower doses of neuroleptics; b a reduction in the frequency and severity of mood swings; and c an increase in patient compliance. Conclusion: The use of combined pharmacotherapy including antipsychotics and MSs produces a longer, high-quality remission. The inclusion of MSs in the scheme of treatment increases the patient adherence to a medication regimen. The use of MSs in combination therapy reduces affective fluctuations, thereby increasing the probability of maintaining remission with complete symptom relief.

  9. Altered effective connectivity network of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC. Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Decreased influence from inferior temporal gyrus (ITG to amygdala was found in SAD, while bidirectional influences between amygdala and visual cortices were increased compared to HCs. Clinical relevance of decreased effective connectivity from ITG to amygdala was suggested by a negative correlation of LSAS avoidance scores and the value of Granger causality. Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. This is in support of a disregulation in predescribed modules involved in affect control. The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. The model which is proposed based on our results lends neurobiological support towards cognitive models considering disinhibition and an attentional bias towards negative stimuli as a core feature of the disorder.

  10. Subliminal cues bias perception of facial affect in patients with social phobia: evidence for enhanced unconscious threat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aiste eJusyte; Michael eSchoenenberg

    2014-01-01

    AbstractSocially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signalling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment tas...

  11. Borderline personality disorder and self-conscious affect: Too much shame but not enough guilt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Geiger, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839). Increased shame and decreased guilt independently accounted for significant variance in the association between BPD features and anger, hostility, and externalization of blame. Only increased shame significantly mediated the association between BPD features and anger rumination, and only decreased guilt significantly mediated the relationship between BPD features and aggression. These findings suggest BPD and its associated problems with anger and externalizing may be characterized not only by high levels of shame, but also by lower levels of guilt. Clinical implications include the need to differentiate between self-conscious emotions and teach adaptive responses to warranted guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866901

  12. White matter development in adolescence: the influence of puberty and implications for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence.We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly,information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents.

  13. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-03-01

    We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women. PMID:15780693

  14. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in different affective temperament profiles in bipolar-I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursat Altinbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperament originates in the brain structure, and individual differences are attributable to neural and physiological function differences. It has been suggested that temperament is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS markers, which may be partly mediated by lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we aim to compare MetS prevalence between different affective temperamental profiles for each season in bipolar patients. Methods: Twenty-six bipolar type-I patients of a specialized outpatient mood disorder unit were evaluated for MetS according to new definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation in the four seasons of a year. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A. Results: The proportions of MetS were 19.2, 23.1, 34.6, and 38.5% in the summer, fall, spring, and winter, respectively. Only depressive temperament scores were higher (p = 0.002 during the winter in patients with MetS. Conclusion: These data suggest that depressive temperament profiles may predispose an individual to the development of MetS in the winter.

  15. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy eAir; Michael James Weightman; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition ...

  16. Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvers, JA; Hubbard, AD; Biggs, E; Shu, J.; Fertuck, E; Chaudhury, S.; Grunebaum, MF; Weber, J.; Kober, H; Chesin, M; Brodsky, BS; Koenigsberg, H; Ochsner, KN; Stanley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with...

  17. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the state of…

  18. [The Influence of Puberty on Neural Systems Subserving Emotion Regulation: Implications for Understanding Risk for Affective Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence, with the onset of puberty, represents a developmental period that, in the context of adverse events, renders youth vulnerable to the onset of psychopathology such as affective disorders. It is also a time when fronto-striatal-limbic systems supporting the processing and regulation of emotion and reward undergo important neuromaturational changes. Despite evidence from epidemiological research suggesting that, particularly in girls, the increase in the rate of depression is more strongly associated with pubertal development than maturational age, researchers are just beginning to scratch the surface regarding the specific influence of puberty on the development of fronto-striatal-limbic systems implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The goal of this review is to a) summarize findings from human neuroimaging studies focusing on the specific influence of puberty or sex hormones on the neurodevelopment of emotional processes, b) highlight the need for a better understanding of neurodevelopmental changes during puberty and how such changes could contribute to developmental trajectories toward the onset of an affective disorder and, c) discuss the potential value of investigating how these changes may contribute to unique opportunities for developing intervention strategies for affective disorders in adolescence. PMID:27570951

  19. Evidence that the urban environment specifically impacts on the psychotic but not the affective dimension of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymaz, Nil; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Graaf, Ron; Nolen, Willem; ten Have, Margreet; van Os, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: High rates of psychotic disorders and psychotic symptoms have been found in urban environments but reports for bipolar affective illness have been inconsistent, possibly due to failure to stratify for comorbid psychotic symptoms. It was hypothesised, therefore, that any effect of urbanic

  20. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  1. Quiet Times: The Place for Sadness in Growing Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Val J.

    1999-01-01

    Compares clinical depression with reactive depression, a normal part of childhood development. Looks at quiet times children may experience, and provides examples of how normal childhood sadness can turn into depression. Suggests coping mechanisms and support structures that can prevent this cycle from occurring. (Author/JDM)

  2. From Unresolved Anger to Sadness: Identifying Physiological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel; Diamond, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to identify physiological correlates of unresolved anger and sadness, and the shift between these emotions, in a context similar to that of emotion-focused, experiential psychotherapy. Twenty-seven university students reporting unresolved anger toward an attachment figure were induced to experience and express unresolved…

  3. Glad to be sad, and other examples of benign masochism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide systematic evidence for the range and importance of hedonic reversals as a major source of pleasure, and incorporate these findings into the theory of benign masochism. Twenty-nine different initially aversive activities are shown to produce pleasure (hedonic reversals in substantial numbers of individuals from both college student and Mechanical Turk samples. Hedonic reversals group, by factor analysis, into sadness, oral irritation, fear, physical activity/exhaustion, pain, strong alcohol-related tastes, bitter tastes, and disgust. Liking for sad experiences (music, novels, movies, paintings forms a coherent entity, and is related to enjoyment of crying in response to sad movies. For fear and oral irritation, individuals also enjoy the body's defensive reactions. Enjoyment of sadness is higher in females across domains. We explain these findings in terms of benign masochism, enjoyment of negative bodily reactions and feelings in the context of feeling safe, or pleasure at ``mind over body''. In accordance with benign masochism, for many people, the favored level of initially negative experiences is just below the level that cannot be tolerated.

  4. The ADH gene cluster SNP rs1789891 and temperamental dimensions in patients with alcohol dependence and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2015-08-01

    This study had three objectives: (1) to assess the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891 in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and alcohol dependence and affective disorders; (2) to assess the differences in the Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT) traits between an alcohol dependent group, an affective disorders group, and a healthy group; and (3) to assess the relationship between rs1789891 and temperament traits in a healthy group, taking into account the interaction of genotype and sex. The SNP rs1789891 was genotyped in a group of 194 alcohol dependent men, aged 21 to 71 years; 137 patients with affective disorders, including 51 males and 86 females, aged 19 to 85 years; and a group of 207 healthy individuals, including 89 males and 118 females, aged 18 to 71 years. Temperament traits (briskness, perseveration, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance, and activity) were assessed in all groups using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. The comparative analysis of genotypic frequencies showed no significant differences between patients with alcoholism or affective disorders and those in the control group. Alcohol dependent men and the affective disorder group were characterised by higher levels of emotional reactivity (p-value 1.4e-5 and 9.84e-7, respectively) and lower levels of briskness, sensory sensitivity, endurance, and activity (p-value from 3.76e-8 to 0.012) when compared to the healthy group. The rs1789891 polymorphism was associated with briskness (p = 0.02), sensory sensitivity (p = 0.036), and activity (p = 0.049). None of the results were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

  5. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music Is Associated with High Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions. PMID:27695424

  6. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music Is Associated with High Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.

  7. Transmission of NOTCH4 and GRIK2 in a population of Han Chinese with schizophrenia and affective disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuowei Wang; Yiru Fang; Shaoping Zhang; Shunying Yu; Sanduo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests overlapped genetic susceptibility across traditional classification systems that divided psychotic disorders into schizophrenia or affective disorder.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether schizophrenia and affective disorder share genetic susceptibility in NOTCH4 and GRIK2 loci in a population of Han Chinese. DESIGN: Repetitive measurements.SETTING: The experiment was carried out at Shanghai Mental Health Center and Hongkou Mental Health Center of Shanghai between January 2001 and June 2004.PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five mixed pedigrees (suffering from various diseases, in combination with schizophrenia and affective disorder), composed of 45 completed trios and 20 single-parent families, were selected from Shanghai Mental Health Center and Hongkou Mental Health Center of Shanghai between January 2001 and June 2004. Probands received clinical diagnosis according to ICD-10; an independent clinician used identical criteria to review all diagnoses. All subjects were Han Chinese in origin and provided informed consent. There were 65 probands and 110 parents among the subjects. The probands comprised 30 males and 35 females: 33 with schizophrenia, 32 with affective disorder, mean age of (30.9 ± 9.8) years, mean age of onset (24.3 ± 8.8) years, mean duration (6.6 ± 7.0) years, and mean age of parents (58.8 ± 10.9) years.METHODS: DNA samples from probands and their biological parents were extracted from peripheral blood according to standard methods. Four polymorphisms, -1725T/G and -25T/C in NOTCH4, rs6922753T/C and rs2227283G/A in GRIK2, were amplified and genotyped with PCR-RFLP techniques. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association between NOTCH4, GRIK2 polymorphism, and schizophrenia was analyzed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT).RESULTS: Sixty-five probands and 110 parents were included in the result analysis, with no dropouts. The results showed that the -25T/C polymorphism of NOTCH4 associated significantly with

  8. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    .01) but there were no differences between patient groups (P > 0.1). We found no correlation between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive dysfunction in BD (P = 0.7), and a non-significant trend towards a correlation in UD (P = 0.06), which disappeared when controlling for gender (P = 0......Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...

  9. Could autonomous motivation hold the key to successfully implementing lifestyle changes in affective disorders? A multicentre cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Madou, Tomas; Moens, Herman; De Backer, Tanja; Vanhalst, Patrick; Helon, Chris; Naert, Pieter; Rosenbaum, Simon; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2015-07-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle in people with affective disorders. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in people with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scores. A total of 165 patients (105 ♀) (45.6 ± 14.2 years) agreed to participate. An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, and external and introjected regulation. The items of identified and intrinsic regulation loaded on the same factor, which was labelled autonomous regulation. Significant correlations were found between the total IPAQ score and the subscales amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation and autonomous regulation. The relative autonomy index (RAI) was associated with the PANAS scores. Differences in RAI were found between physically inactive and active participants. Our results suggest that in people with affective disorders the level of autonomous motivation may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviours.

  10. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN WOMEN AFFECTED BY POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eScaruffi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(pathological personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 yrs were evaluated by antropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner's Comprehensive System (CS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to C.S. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders (4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive-aggressive and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive-compulsive and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0%, somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress.Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

  11. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; Hale III, William W.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents? perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents? self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed ...

  12. Emotional processing of infants displays in eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cardi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs. BACKGROUND: Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. METHOD: A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN, 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN, and 73 were healthy controls (HCs. Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. RESULTS: No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. CONCLUSION: People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new

  13. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions. PMID:25422967

  14. The paradox of music-evoked sadness:an online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liila Taruffi; Stefan Koelsch

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factor...

  15. Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, Lutz; Schares, Susann; Schnick, Christina; Kliemt, Jeannette; Beckert, Aline; Freuling, Conrad; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Zanoni, Reto; Marston, Denise; McElhinney, Lorraine; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Tordo, Noel; Müller, Thomas

    2008-06-19

    The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) field strain. However, after more than 30 years of ORV it is still not possible to distinguish these vaccine strains and there is little information on the genetic basis for their attenuation. We therefore sequenced and compared the full-length genome of five commercially available SAD vaccine viruses (SAD B19, SAD P5/88, SAG2, SAD VA1 and SAD Bern) and four other SAD strains (the original SAD Bern, SAD VA1, ERA and SAD 1-3670 Wistar). Nucleotide sequencing allowed identifying each vaccine strain unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the currently used commercial attenuated rabies virus vaccines appear to be derived from SAD B19 rather than from SAD Bern. One commercially available vaccine virus did not contain the SAD strain mentioned in the product information of the producer. Two SAD vaccine strains appeared to consist of mixed genomic sequences. Furthermore, in-del events targeting A-rich sequences (in positive strand) within the 3' non-coding regions of M and G genes were observed in SAD-derivates developed in Europe. Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains. PMID:18485548

  16. Psychotic experiences co-occur with sleep problems, negative affect and mental disorders in preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    or definitely present. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was used independently to diagnose DSM-IV-mental disorders. Puberty development and sleep disturbance were self-reported. The associations between PE (any lifetime hallucination and/or delusion) and various mental problems and disorders...... were examined by multivariable binomial regression analyses, adjusting for gender and onset of puberty. RESULTS: The weighted life time prevalence of PE at age 11-12 years was 10.9% (CI 9.1-12.7). The majority of children with PE (n = 172) either had a diagnosable DSM-IV-mental disorder (31.4%) or self...

  17. Rumination on Anger and Sadness in Adolescence: Fueling of Fury and Deepening of Despair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Maya; Moretti, Marlene M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined anger rumination and sadness rumination in clinic-referred adolescents (N = 121). Factor analysis indicated that items from analogous anger and sadness rumination measures loaded onto 2 factors tapping anger rumination and sadness rumination, respectively. Structural equation modeling confirmed unique relations between each form of…

  18. Re-exploring the influence of sad mood on music preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Friedman; E. Gordis; J. Förster

    2012-01-01

    We conducted three experiments to rectify methodological limitations of prior studies on selective exposure to music and, thereby, clarify the nature of the impact of sad mood on music preference. In all studies, we experimentally manipulated mood (sad vs. neutral in Experiments 1 and 2; sad vs. neu

  19. Social anxiety disorder and the psychobiology of self-consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by fear or anxiety about social situations, but also by important alterations in self-referential processing. Given advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of SAD, the question arises of the relationship between this research and an emergent literature on the psychobiology of self and self-consciousness. A number of investigations of SAD have highlighted altered activity in the medial prefrontal co...

  20. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that ...

  1. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Whalley, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  2. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task amon...

  3. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anth...

  4. Biased Recognition of Facial Affect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Reflects Clinical State

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Münkler; Marcus Rothkirch; Yasmin Dalati; Katharina Schmack; Philipp Sterzer

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control participants in two experiment...

  5. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Nielsen, Finn Årup;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain...... regions of relevance for affective disorders. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [F-18]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding...... analysis of the contributions from the six constituent traits of neuroticism showed that the correlation was primarily driven by two of them: vulnerability and anxiety. Indeed, vulnerability, defined as a person's difficulties in coping with stress, displayed the strongest positive correlation, which...

  7. Factors affecting patients’ self-management in chronic venous disorders: a single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barański K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kamil Barański,1,2 Jerzy Chudek2,3 1Department of Epidemiology, Medical School in Katowice, 2Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, 3Angiology Outpatient Clinic “Combi-Med,” Częstochowa, Poland Background: The conservative treatment of chronic venous disorders (CVDs includes pharmacotherapy, compression therapy, physiotherapy, and changes in lifestyle. These methods are available without prescription and not reimbursed by Polish National Health Service. Adherence to therapy is affected by poorly characterized patient-related factors. Objective: The aim of the study was to perform an assessment of factors that affect the usage and resignation from conservative methods in CVD self-management. Methods: A structured interview concerning self-management was carried out with 407 consecutive CVD patients of mean age 64.4 years (range: 23–87 years. All the patients had recently undergone Doppler examination and were classified in accordance with Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP classification. Results: Pharmacotherapy was the most frequently (85.0% of respondents used method in CVD self-management. Obese (odds ratio [OR] =1.75 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.99–3.05] and subjects with longer duration of the disease (OR =1.74 [95% CI 1.16–2.62] were more likely to use venoactive drugs, while females used ointments commonly containing heparin (OR =1.82 [95% CI 1.08–3.03]. Compression therapy was perceived by respondents as the most difficult method in self-management (OR =2.50 [95% CI 1.61–3.88] and was also recognized as the most effective method of treatment (OR =13.9 [95% CI 7.35–26.4]. Longer duration of CVD (≥15 years increased (OR =1.78 [95% CI 1.16–2.71] while obesity decreased (OR =0.38 [95% CI 0.20–0.72] the utilization of compression therapy. Females were more likely to adhere to lifestyle changes than males (OR =1.68 [95% CI 0.97–2.90]. Physiotherapy was rarely

  8. Duelo, tristeza y rechazo del inconsciente // Mourning, sadness and rejection of the subconscious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vargas Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se articulan desarrollos realizados por Freud y Lacan a propósito del duelo con el fin de responder a la relación entre éste y lo que Lacan propone en Televisión sobre la tristeza y el rechazo del inconsciente. Para tales fines, se parte de las preguntas e intentos de respuestas dadas por Freud en el plano de la economía libidinal a propósito del duelo, para pasar a los desarrollos de orden ético y moral que Lacan plantea a propósito de la tristeza. De esta forma, el rechazo del inconsciente presente en las psicosis se distingue del que tiene lugar en el duelo, al considerar la tristeza un afecto que dará cuenta del rechazo del deseo del Otro. // This text articulates developments made by Freud and Lacan about mourning to attempt a response on how this relates to Lacan‟s proposal in Television about sadness and rejection of the unconscious. To do this, the text departs from the questions and answers given by Freud in the field of the economy of the libido referring to mourning and then moves on to the ethical and moral aspects that Lacan refers about sadness. Consequently, from this perspective the rejection of the unconscious in the psychosis is different from the one that takes place in mourning, considering sadness as an affection that will evidence the rejection of the desire of the Other.

  9. Burden of lysosomal storage disorders in India: experience of 387 affected children from a single diagnostic facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Jayesh; Mistri, Mehul; Sheth, Frenny; Shah, Raju; Bavdekar, Ashish; Godbole, Koumudi; Nanavaty, Nidhish; Datar, Chaitanya; Kamate, Mahesh; Oza, Nrupesh; Ankleshwaria, Chitra; Mehta, Sanjeev; Jackson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered to be a rare metabolic disease for the national health forum, clinicians, and scientists. This study aimed to know the prevalence of different LSDs, their geographical variation, and burden on the society. It included 1,110 children from January 2002 to December 2012, having coarse facial features, hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal dysplasia, neuroregression, leukodystrophy, developmental delay, cerebral-cerebellar atrophy, and abnormal ophthalmic findings. All subjects were screened for I-cell disease, glycolipid storage disorders (Niemann-Pick disease A/B, Gaucher), and mucopolysaccharide disorders followed by confirmatory lysosomal enzymes study from leucocytes and/or fibroblasts. Niemann-Pick disease-C (NPC) was confirmed by fibroblasts study using filipin stain. Various storage disorders were detected in 387 children (34.8 %) with highest prevalence of glycolipid storage disorders in 48 %, followed by mucopolysaccharide disorders in 22 % and defective sulfatide degradation in 14 % of the children. Less common defects were glycogen degradation defect and protein degradation defect in 5 % each, lysosomal trafficking protein defect in 4 %, and transport defect in 3 % of the patients. This study demonstrates higher incidence of Gaucher disease (16 %) followed by GM2 gangliosidosis that includes Tay-Sachs disease (10 %) and Sandhoff disease (7.8 %) and mucopolysaccharide disorders among all LSDs. Nearly 30 % of the affected children were born to consanguineous parents and this was higher (72 %) in children with Batten disease. Our study also demonstrates two common mutations c.1277_1278insTATC in 14.28 % (4/28) and c.964G>T (p.D322Y) in 10.7 % (3/28) for Tay-Sachs disease in addition to the earlier reported c.1385A>T (p.E462V) mutation in 21.42 % (6/28). PMID:23852624

  10. Happy alone? Sad young men in East Asian gay cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C

    2000-01-01

    This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.

  11. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong—to the extent that the rewarding and puni...

  12. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet; Zarić Dragana; Nićiforović-Šurković Olja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross...

  13. Resistant social anxiety disorder response to Escitalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Pallanti Stefano; Quercioli Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common disorder and its high prevalence and lifelong chronicity are such that it represents a substantial public health problem. The observation that serotonergic agents appear to be effective for its treatment suggests that patients may have abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission within the central nervous system. We investigated the efficacy of Escitalopram in treatment resistant patients with SAD. Method Twenty-nine adult outpatients ...

  14. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  15. Language cannot be reduced to biology: Perspectives from neuro-developmental disorders affecting language learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Vasanta

    2005-02-01

    The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion – the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion

  16. Examining the dynamic relationships between exposure tasks and cognitive restructuring in CBT for SAD: Outcomes and moderating influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L; Rector, Neil A; Laposa, Judith M

    2016-04-01

    Meta-analyses indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) leads to substantial symptom alleviation. Although there is an emphasis on engaging in exposure and cognitive restructuring during treatment, the longitudinal relationship between skill use and symptom alleviation is not well understood. Furthermore, treatment response may be attenuated by pre-existing patient vulnerabilities. This study examined the longitudinal association of skill use (i.e. exposure (EX), thought record use (TR)), symptom reduction and the potential moderating influence of perfectionism during a 12-session, manual-based CBT for SAD intervention for 100 patients (51% female) meeting DSM-IV criteria for SAD. Results obtained from Latent Difference Score (LDS) models indicated that the frequency of both EX and TR skill use led to subsequent symptom alleviation; however, this varied based on the type of skill used. Further, although both EX and TR interventions were associated with subsequent symptom reduction, the association of EX and subsequent symptom alleviation was greater than the association of TR and subsequent symptom alleviation. Finally, higher pre-treatment perfectionism was associated with greater initial skill use, followed by significantly reduced skill use in later sessions. These preliminary results suggest that perfectionistic individuals demonstrate differential engagement in EX and TR interventions during treatment. PMID:26905316

  17. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia.In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height" between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88% we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1 and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1 remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001 and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001.Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  18. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders - Associations with baseline deficits and change in subjective cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-08-01

    This is a secondary data analysis from our erythropoietin (EPO) trials. We examine (I) whether EPO improves speed of complex cognitive processing across bipolar and unipolar disorder, (II) if objective and subjective baseline cognitive impairment increases patients׳ chances of treatment-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity were assessed at baseline (week 1), after treatment completion (week 9) and at follow-up (week 14). We used repeated measures analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of EPO on speed of complex cognitive processing. With logistic regression, we examined whether baseline cognitive impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO-treated patients, baseline cognitive impairment increased the odds of treatment-efficacy on cognition at weeks 9 and 14 by a factor 9.7 (95% CI:1.2-81.1) and 9.9 (95% CI:1.1-88.4), respectively (p≤0.04). Subjective cognitive complaints did not affect chances of treatment-efficacy (p≥0.45). EPO-associated cognitive improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening for cognitive dysfunction may be warranted in future cognition trials. PMID:27349944

  19. Basic Abnormalities in Visual Processing Affect Face Processing at an Early Age in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Background: A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD an

  20. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  1. Attentional and Affective Processing of Sexual Stimuli in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M. van; Leeuwen, M.L. van; Janssen, E.; Newhouse, S.K.; Heiman, J.R.; Laan, E.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive

  2. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H; Purcell, Amanda L; Earls, Holly A; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  3. Rebound of affective symptoms following acute cessation of deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Pieter; Blankers, Matthijs; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is regarded as an effective way to treat refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the effects of DBS cessation following a longer period of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relapse and rebound effects of psychiatric sympto

  4. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.

  5. Understanding the role of P2X7 in affective disorders – are glial cells the major players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eStokes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders has been linked to biomarkers of inflammation generating a theory of major depressive disorder as an inflammatory disease and infection and autoimmunity as major risk factors for schizophrenia. The idea of pro-inflammatory cytokines altering behavior is now well accepted however many questions remain. Microglia can produce a plethora of inflammatory cytokines and these cells appear to be critical in the link between inflammatory changes and depressive disorders. Microglia play a known role in sickness behavior which has many components of depressive-like behavior such as social withdrawal, sleep alterations, and anorexia. Numerous candidate genes have been identified for psychiatric disorders in the last decade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human P2X7 gene have been linked to bipolar disorder, depression, and to the severity of depressive symptoms. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel expressed on microglia with lower levels found on astrocytes and on some neuronal populations. In microglia P2X7 is a major regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin-1 family. Genetic deletion of P2X7 in mice is protective for depressive behavior in addition to inflammatory responses. P2X7-/- mice have been shown to demonstrate anti-depressive-like behavior in forced swim and tail suspension behavioral tests and stressor-induced behavioral responses were blunted. Both neurochemical (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and inflammatory changes have been observed in the brains of P2X7-/- mice. This review will discuss the recent evidence for involvement of P2X7 in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and propose mechanisms by which altered signaling through this ion channel may affect the inflammatory state of the brain.

  6. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  7. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...... with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did...

  8. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  9. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  10. Affect regulation, mental health disorders, and maladaptive brain responses in music listening : a correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Affect regulation may be defined as a process by which an individual maintains or modifies his or her mood or emotional state, by conscious or automatic processes. Adequate affect regulation may play an important role in mitigating or preventing mental illness, which is a widespread, inadequately treated and inadequately understood phenomenon. Music, which is known to express and induce emotions, may be used for affect regulation in a variety of ways, both self-directed and in therapeutic con...

  11. Sadness shifts to anxiety over time and distance from the national tragedy in Newtown, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Bruce; Ort, Leonard; Braverman, Ofir; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-04-01

    How do increasing temporal and spatial distance affect the emotions people feel and express in response to tragic events? Standard views suggest that emotional intensity should decrease but are silent on changes in emotional quality. Using a large Twitter data set, we identified temporal and spatial patterns in use of emotional and cognitive words in tweets about the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Although use of sadness words decreased with time and spatial distance, use of anxiety words showed the opposite pattern and was associated with concurrent increases in language reflecting causal thinking. In a follow-up experiment, we found that thinking about abstract causes (as opposed to concrete details) of this event similarly evoked decreased sadness but increased anxiety, which was associated with perceptions that a similar event might occur in the future. These data challenge current theories of emotional reactivity and identify time, space, and abstract causal thinking as factors that elicit categorical shifts in emotional responses to tragedy. PMID:25767209

  12. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  13. Disruption of sonic hedgehog signaling in Ellis-van Creveld dwarfism confers protection against bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginns, E I; Galdzicka, M; Elston, R C; Song, Y E; Paul, S M; Egeland, J A

    2015-10-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, an autosomal recessively inherited chondrodysplastic dwarfism, is frequent among Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania. Decades of longitudinal research on bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) revealed cosegregation of high numbers of EvC and Bipolar I (BPI) cases in several large Amish families descending from the same pioneer. Despite the high prevalence of both disorders in these families, no EvC individual has ever been reported with BPI. The proximity of the EVC gene to our previously reported chromosome 4p16 BPAD locus with protective alleles, coupled with detailed clinical observations that EvC and BPI do not occur in the same individuals, led us to hypothesize that the genetic defect causing EvC in the Amish confers protection from BPI. This hypothesis is supported by a significant negative association of these two disorders when contrasted with absence of disease (P=0.029, Fisher's exact test, two-sided, verified by permutation to estimate the null distribution of the test statistic). As homozygous Amish EVC mutations causing EvC dwarfism do so by disrupting sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, our data implicate Shh signaling in the underlying pathophysiology of BPAD. Understanding how disrupted Shh signaling protects against BPI could uncover variants in the Shh pathway that cause or increase risk for this and related mood disorders.

  14. The early Kraepelin´s dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorder - Evidence of separate diseases?ª

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Häfner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Testing Kraepelin´s dichotomy model, we studied the separability of schizophrenia and affective disorders by their symptoms and course. Methods: To this end symptoms and illness course were assessed retrospectively in individually matched untreated probands with schizophrenia and depression (n=130 each from first admission back to illness onset in comparison with 130 "healthy" controls. In a second study these same variables were studied prospectively in 107 patients with schizophrenia over a homogenised follow-up of 134 months (11.2 years. The actual mean length of the follow-up period was 12.3 years. Results: The symptom most frequently marking the onset of both schizophrenia and depression was depressive mood. Both disorders exhibited the same prodromal core syndrome. It was not until the emergence of positive symptoms that the disorders became separable by the international classification systems. Depression remained the most frequent syndrome over the course of schizophrenia. Conclusions: Obviously, depression does not represent comorbidity, but an integral part of psychosis. A dimensional disease model based on (successively emerging hierarchical symptom patterns of the human brain with increasing brain dysfunction in the course of schizophrenia and several neuro-degenerative disorders, not unknown to the later Kraepelin, is offered as an explanation.

  15. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, L.; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    to the application of different assay formats, study results indicate a potentially altered amyloid-beta metabolism in affective disorder. Limitations: Since most studies used a cross-sectional design, causality is difficult to establish. Moreover, methodological rigor of included studies varied and several studies......-beta concentrations change over time and are associated with cognition as well as affective symptomatology, future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies, implemented in large study populations, where peripheral and central amyloid-p ratios are quantified concomitantly and continuously across...... various affective phases. Also, to enable inter survey comparisons, the use of standardized pre-analytical/analytical procedures is crucial. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. The effects of anger and sadness on clinical pain reports and experimentally-induced pain thresholds in women with and without fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Negative emotions are commonly experienced in fibromyalgia and may affect pain. This study examined the effects of anger and sadness on clinical pain reports and on pain threshold and tolerance in response to electrical stimulation in women with and without fibromyalgia. METHODS: In an ex

  17. Social anxiety disorder: questions and answers for the DSM-V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; M. Stein; L. Alden; D.C. Beidel; L.A. Clark; D.S. Pine; M.B. Stein; M. Voncken

    2010-01-01

    Background: This review evaluates the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder (SAD), with a focus on the generalized specifier and alternative specifiers, the considerable overlap between the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for SAD and avoidant personality disorder, and developmental issues. Method: A

  18. A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

  19. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  20. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  1. Topiramate-induced periodic limb movement disorder in a patient affected by focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romigi, Andrea; Vitrani, Giuseppe; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is characterized by pathological periodic limb movements during sleep, insomnia and/or diurnal sleepiness, and the absence of another primary sleep disorder. We report a patient with complex partial seizures who developed PLMD while taking topiramate (TPM). He had no evidence of metabolic and/or other conditions inducing PLMD. He also had fragmented sleep and disruptive PLMS on polysomnography, and PLMS subsided with change of antiepileptic drug. Topiramate may modulate the dopaminergic pathway by inhibition of glutamate release, thereby inducing PLMD as observed in our patient. Although a single case does not allow any generalization, PLMD should be considered in patients complaining of insomnia and treated with TPM. PMID:25667887

  2. Topiramate-induced periodic limb movement disorder in a patient affected by focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Romigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD is characterized by pathological periodic limb movements during sleep, insomnia and/or diurnal sleepiness, and the absence of another primary sleep disorder. We report a patient with complex partial seizures who developed PLMD while taking topiramate (TPM. He had no evidence of metabolic and/or other conditions inducing PLMD. He also had fragmented sleep and disruptive PLMS on polysomnography, and PLMS subsided with change of antiepileptic drug. Topiramate may modulate the dopaminergic pathway by inhibition of glutamate release, thereby inducing PLMD as observed in our patient. Although a single case does not allow any generalization, PLMD should be considered in patients complaining of insomnia and treated with TPM.

  3. Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER IN YOUTH: PHENOMENOLOGY, ASSESSMENT, AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Santucci, Lauren C.; Weiner, Courtney L.

    2008-01-01

    Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most commonly diagnosed and impairing childhood anxiety disorder, accounting for approximately 50% of the referrals for mental health treatment of anxiety disorders. While considered a normative phenomenon in early childhood, SAD has the potential to negatively impact a child’s social and emotional functioning when it leads to avoidance of certain places, activities and experiences that are necessary for healthy development. Amongst those with severe s...

  5. The role of impulsivity, affect, and expectations in alcohol use and disordered eating

    OpenAIRE

    Monreal, Teresa Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use and eating disorders are a major public health concern for women in late adolescence and early adulthood. Emotion based impulsivity represents one process by which the experience of strong emotions may generally predispose some individuals to engage in rash behavior, including dysfunctional eating and drinking. In two sessions, the present study examined positive and negative urgency in relationship to dysfunctional eating and drinking, cognitive expectations about food and alcoho...

  6. [Metabolic Syndrome and Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Review of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos López; Mejía, Adelaida Castaño; Velásquez, Alicia Henao; Restrepo Palacio, Tomás Felipe; Zuluaga, Julieta Osorio

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is found within the first ten causes of disability and premature mortality. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of risk factors (RF) that predispose to cardiovascular disease (CV), diabetes and early mortality. Both diseases generate high costs to the health system. Major studies have shown that MS has a higher prevalence in patients with mental disorders compared to the general population. The incidence of MS in BD is multifactorial, and due to iatrogenic, genetic, economic, psychological, and behavioral causes related to the health system. The most common RF found is these patients was an increased abdominal circumference, and it was found that the risk of suffering this disease was greater in women and Hispanic patients. As regards the increase in RF to develop a CV in patients with BD, there have been several explanations based on the risky behavior of patients with mental illness, included tobacco abuse, physical inactivity and high calorie diets. An additional explanation described in literature is the view of BD as a multisystemic inflammatory illness, supported by the explanation that inflammation is a crucial element in atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, platelet rupture, and thrombosis. The pathophysiology of MS and BD include factors such as adrenal, thyroid and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, as well as poor lifestyle and medication common in these patients. This article attempts to give the reader an overall view of the information published in literature to date, as regards the association between BD and MS. PMID:26572949

  7. Understanding heterogeneity in borderline personality disorder: differences in affective reactivity explained by the traits of dependency and self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Russell, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, D S; Paris, Joel

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism and dependency respectively moderated the effects of perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity on negative affect during interpersonal interactions in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of 38 patients with BPD and matched community comparison participants completed event-contingent record forms after each significant interaction for a 20-day period. Multilevel models showed that, controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and neuroticism, as well as lagged negative affect, event-level elevations in perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity were related to more negative affect in both groups. Event-level perceived inferiority was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of self-criticism, while event-level perceived emotional insecurity was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of dependency. No significant interactions emerged for the comparison group. These findings further our understanding of differences among patients with BPD and support the application of personality-vulnerability or diathesis-stress models in predicting negative affect in BPD. Results have implications for the design of therapies for patients with BPD. PMID:22686873

  8. The Impact of Social Trauma among Outpatients with Social Anxiety Disorder Compared to Individuals with No Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Guðmundsdóttir 1977

    2016-01-01

    Trauma have mostly been researched in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we explored whether there may exist at least two types of trauma; imminent threat to life and social trauma (humiliation, rejection or ridicule), and whether there were differences in the type and severity of social trauma endured by outpatients with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) compared to individuals with no mental disorders (the comparison group). The SAD group...

  9. Cue-Elicited Affect and Craving: Advancement of the Conceptualization of Craving in Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I.; Berenz, Erin C.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults…

  10. 76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Affect Multiple Body Systems AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer Building, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore..., Social Security Administration, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21235-6401, (410)...

  11. Reduction in delta activity predicted improved negative affect in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Goldschmied, Jennifer; Casement, Melynda; Kim, Hyang Sook; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia

    2015-08-30

    While prior research has demonstrated a paradoxical antidepressant effect of slow-wave disruption (SWD), the specific dimensions of depression affected is still unclear. The current study aimed to extend this research by utilizing a dimensional approach in examining the antidepressant effects of SWD. Of particular interest is the affective dimension, as negative affect in depression is arguably the most salient characteristic of depression. This sample included 16 individuals with depression (10 female) recruited from the community. Participants slept in the lab for three nights (adaptation, baseline night, and SWD) with polysomnography, and completed measures of negative affect and depression severity the following morning. Results show that reduction in delta power was linearly associated with improved negative affect. Comparison of individual change scores revealed that half of the individuals showed improved negative affect, which is comparable to the reported 40-60% antidepressant response rate to sleep deprivation. Results suggest that vulnerability in the sleep homeostatic system may be a contributing individual differences factor in response to slow-wave disruption in depression. PMID:26123231

  12. Fluvoxamine in the treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Irons, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Fluvoxamine is a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has proved effective in large double-blind, randomized, controlled trials involving patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder. Improvements have also been demonstrated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as those with a range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and bod...

  13. Angry-happy interpretations of ambiguous faces in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Keren; Eldar, Sharon; Stoddard, Joel; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-07-30

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by a tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as negative. Here we tested whether interpretation of ambiguous faces differs between participants with SAD and non-anxious controls. Twenty-seven individuals with SAD and 21 non-anxious control participants completed an emotion recognition task in which they judged ambiguous morphed faces as happy or angry. Participants with SAD judged a higher proportion of the faces as angry compared to non-anxious participants, and were slower to judge faces as angry compared to happy, while no such reaction time bias manifested in the control group. Finally, happy judgments were slower in the SAD group compared to the control group, while angry judgments were faster in the SAD group compared to the control group. These findings provide evidence for a negative bias in resolving emotional ambiguity in facial expressions among individuals with SAD. PMID:27173656

  14. Common and distinct neural features of social and non-social reward processing in autism and social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Richey, John A.; Rittenberg, Alison; Hughes, Lauren; Damiano, Cara R.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are both characterized by social dysfunction, but no study to date has compared neural responses to social rewards in ASDs and SAD. Neural responses during social and non-social reward anticipation and outcomes were examined in individuals with ASD (n = 16), SAD (n = 15) and a control group (n = 19) via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses modeling all three groups revealed increased nucleus accumbens (NAc) activati...

  15. Disability and quality of life of subjects with bipolar affective disorder in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya P Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL. This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study. They were assessed using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Research-10, Hamilton Scale for Depression, Young's Mania Rating Scale, World Health Organization-QOL (WHO QOL-BREF, WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS, and Kuppuswamy's scale for socioeconomic status assessment. Results: Eighty-four patients were evaluated. The mean total WHO-DAS score was 19.2 ± 2.09, the maximum disability in domain 4 (getting along followed by domain 2 (mobility. The mean total WHO-QOL BREF score was 54.26 ± 2.85, the lowest subscore in domain 3 (social interactions. Disability scores were significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, not being an earning member of the family, and lower QOL scores. Poorer QOL scores were significantly associated with increasing age and higher disability score. Conclusions: Many bipolar patients in remission have significant disability and poorer QOL. There is a need for longitudinal studies to explore such associations and develop interventions to reduce the disability thereby enhancing the QOL.

  16. "We Are Not Sad at All": Adolescents Talk about Their "City of Sadness" through Photovoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Chung; Rochelle, Tina Louisa; Yuen, Wing-Kan

    2011-01-01

    In neighborhood-effects research, the voices of young residents are seldom heard. The present study examines how an adolescent sample living in a high-poverty area of Hong Kong is affected by its neighborhood and wider community contexts. Using the method of photovoice, the adolescents expressed their perceptions of the salient characteristics of…

  17. Effect of recombinant erythropoietin on inflammatory markers in patients with affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Weikop, Pia; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2016-01-01

    were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17) score >17) (sub-study 1) and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)⩽14) (sub-study 2). In both...... in verbal memory. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated EPO infusions had no effect on IL-6 and IL-18 levels but produced a modest increase in hsCRP levels in patients with TRD. Changes over time in inflammatory markers were not correlated with changes in cognition suggesting that modulation of the inflammatory pathway...

  18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to understand enamel affected by metabolic disorder mucopolysaccharidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Malik Arshman; Addison, Owen; James, Alison; Hendriksz, Christian J; Al-Jawad, Maisoon

    2016-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder that can affect the tooth structure leading to defects. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction being a state of the art technique has been used to determine the enamel crystallite orientation in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA and comparing these with that of healthy deciduous enamel. Using this technique it was observed that there is a loss of texture in deciduous enamel affected by Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA when compared to the healthy deciduous enamel. Generally it was observed that the incisal surface of the deciduous teeth possessed a higher texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites and on progression towards the cervical region there was a decrease in the texture or preferred orientation of enamel crystallites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of a poorly calcified layer between the enamel and dentine at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) in MPS affected samples was likely to be responsible for rendering the tooth structure weak and prone to fracture as is often the case in MPS affected deciduous enamel. PMID:26896739

  19. White matter structure in the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for socio-affective deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Dougherty, Robert F; Lee, Ihno A; Phillips, Jennifer M; Gross, James J; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2016-09-30

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have social and communication deficits and difficulties regulating emotions. The brain bases of these socio-affective deficits are not yet clear, but one candidate is structural connectivity in the left uncinate fasciculus, which connects limbic temporal and frontal areas thought to be involved in socio-affective processing. In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging. To test specificity of the associations, we also examined the association between both uncinate fasciculi and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Compared to TD individuals, individuals with ASD had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left and right uncinate. Group status significantly moderated the association between left uncinate and socio-affective deficits, indicating that within the ASD group, FA was associated with socio-affective deficits: Individuals with ASD with lower FA in the left uncinate had significantly more social and emotion regulation deficits. There was no association with restricted and repetitive behaviors. This study provides evidence that the left uncinate may play a critical role in socio-affective skills in individuals with ASD. PMID:27552717

  20. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  1. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Investigation on the neurobiological correlates of social anxiety disorder using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional MRI is based on the very intuitive principle that neuronal activity leads to locally increased energy demand, which can be measured due to the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Interdisciplinary research and development in MR physics, engineering, bioinformatics and neuroscience have made fMRI an indispensible research tool for all domains of cognitive science. Besides basic research, fMRI has become a gold standard diagnostic method for clinical applications, as well. The main goal of the present doctoral thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. SAD is a disabling psychiatric conditions that impairs social interactions and acts as a major risk factor for depression and addiction. To this end, an fMRI study has been conducted on a population of SAD patients and healthy controls to highlight functional aberrations within the emotion regulation network. Failed adaptation towards social stressors, such as emotional faces, is a characterizing symptom of SAD. And indeed, in this study, which involved an emotion discrimination task, group differences in neural habituation of SAD patients were found in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two central nodes of the emotion regulation network. To highlight the causal neurobiological mechanisms, the same data were analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). In this study, a difference in effective connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala was found. In healthy subjects, the OFC showed to down-regulate amygdalar activation, which corresponds to the conception of cognitive top-down control over affective influences. In SAD patients, however, a positive effective connectivity from OFC to amygdala was found, indicating a positive feedback loop between these regions. This finding, thus, nurtures a neurobiological model that could explain the decreased inhibition of affective stimuli by cognitive

  4. Examining lifetime episodes of sadness, help seeking, and perceived treatment helpfulness among US Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Delva, Jorge

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated episodes of sadness, help seeking for episodes of sadness, and perceived treatment helpfulness among Latino/as. Specifically, we examined whether gender, ethnicity, and other socio-cultural variables predicted episodes of sadness, help seeking, and treatment helpfulness. Data were taken from the National Latino Asian American Study which included service use questions for episodes of sadness. We stratified the data by service provider and used multiple logistic regressions as analytic strategy. Latinas had higher rates of episodes of sadness than Latinos, and everyday discrimination was positively associated with sadness. Acculturation was associated with more help seeking. Puerto Ricans had the highest rates of help seeking, and Mexican-Americans the lowest. Discrimination was the strongest predictor of treatment helpfulness from any professional as individuals with discriminatory experiences found services less helpful. Interventions need to address cultural factors but more focus needs to be placed on policies that seek to eliminate inequalities. PMID:21720854

  5. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  6. White matter hyperintensities, suicide risk and late-onset affective disorders: an overview of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, M; Serafini, G; Innamorati, M; Serra, G; Forte, A; Lester, D; Ducci, G; Girardi, P; Tatarelli, R

    2010-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) refer to areas of hyperintense signal on T2- or proton density-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging. Although WMHs are a common finding in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), particularly with a later disease onset, some studies report a higher frequency of WMHs only in unipolar affective disorders. We reviewed the literature examining examining both the severity and presence of WMHs in late life and particularly in individuals with late-onset BD (LOBD). Studies investigating white matter lesions in LOBD were systematically retrieved and the reference lists of these studies were scanned for additional relevant studies of neuroimaging in LOBD. The majority of neuroimaging studies reported an association between older age and LOBD and the presence of WMHs in LOBD. Also, we found in a small sample of patients preliminary evidence of a significant relationship between older age with late-onset BD and WMHs having a higher prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors. In conclusion over 60 years older individuals with LOBD and WMHs might have a type of illness characterized by more neuropathological changes and biologically different compared to non LOBD. This is consistent with the hypothesis of vascular mania. WMHs could be a reliable biological risk marker for late onset mood disorders. PMID:21181087

  7. Neural activity during self-referential working memory and the underlying role of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jin Seong; Shin, Yu-Bin; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Self-referential processing, theory of mind, and working memory are distorted in social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to investigate characteristics of altered self-referential working memory processing and resting-state functional connectivity in patients with SAD. Twenty patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at resting-state and while performing a working memory task containing faces with self-referential positive or negative comments and three memory phases (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval). Task-related results were compared between groups and tested for correlations. Resting-state connectivity between amygdala subregions and regions showing a task-related difference was also compared between groups. Patients compared to controls showed augmented memory for the negative comments, hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction during encoding, and hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during retrieval. At resting-state, increased connectivity of amygdala subregions with multiple task-related regions was found in patients. These findings suggest that the encoding process in SAD is accompanied by altered involvement of self-referential processing and theory of mind, whereas the retrieval process reflects impaired cognitive control. These memory-related processing may be affected by predisposing resting-state hyperconnectivity with the amygdala, and may underlie a hypersensitivity to negative comments and post-event reflection in SAD. PMID:27260987

  8. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  9. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  10. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30 watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  11. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novi Sad among final-year students from elementary and first- and second-year students from high schools. The prevalence of Internet addiction was assessed by using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Results. Out of 553 participants, 62.7% were females, and the average age was 15.6 years. The sample consisted of 153 elementary school students and 400 high school students. Majority of respondents had a computer in their household. Our study showed widespread Internet use among adolescents. Facebook and YouTube were among most visited web-sites. The main purpose of Internet use was entertainment. Estimated prevalence of Internet addiction was high (18.7%, mostly among younger adolescents (p=0.013. Conclusion. Internet addiction was found in every fifth adolescent. Accessibility and availability of Internet use is constantly growing and therefore it is necessary to define more sensitive diagnostic tools for the assessment of Internet addiction and its underlying causes, in order to implement effective preventive programs.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of the Use of Actigraphy for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and objective evaluation of disease severity and/or drug effect is necessary in clinical practice. Wearable accelerometers such as an actigraph enable long-term recording of a patient’s movement during activities and they can be used for quantitative assessment of symptoms due to various diseases. We reviewed some applications of actigraphy with analytical methods that are sufficiently sensitive and reliable to determine the severity of diseases and disorders such as motor and nonmotor disorders like Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, depression, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD for vascular dementia (VD, seasonal affective disorder (SAD, and stroke, as well as the effects of drugs used to treat them. We believe it is possible to develop analytical methods to assess more neurological or psychopathic disorders using actigraphy records.

  13. Is an interest in computers or individual/team sports associated with adolescent psychiatric disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Outi; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The Internet plays a major role in adolescents' free time activities and communication nowadays. The aim here was to investigate the possibility of an association of computers and video games or sports (team, individual) with psychiatric disorders among underage psychiatric inpatients. The series of adolescents (n = 508) had been diagnosed using semistructured interviews (K-SADS-PL). The results showed that an interest in computers and video games did not increase the risk of any specific psychiatric disorder among these adolescent inpatients, but the likelihood of a substance-related disorder was statistically significantly lower among the boys with computers as a hobby. Team sports were related to increased likelihood of conduct disorder among the boys, whereas the likelihood of an affective disorder was reduced. No such association was found in individual sports or among the girls. We conclude that social contacts and peers play an important role in preventing adolescent depression. PMID:21288072

  14. Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair

    OpenAIRE

    Peled, M.; Moretti, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined anger rumination and sadness rumination in clinic-referred adolescents (N=121). Factor analysis indicated that items from analogous anger and sadness rumination measures loaded onto 2 factors tapping anger rumination and sadness rumination, respectively. Structural equation modeling confirmed unique relations between each form of rumination and specific emotional or behavioral problems. Anger and anger rumination were independent predictors of aggression, suggesting that both the ...

  15. Ruminations on rumination: anger and sadness rumination in a normative and clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Peled, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Anger rumination and sadness rumination were examined concurrently in a normative sample of adults (Study 1) and a clinical adolescent sample (Study 2). The purpose of this research was to assess if rumination on anger and sadness have distinct emotional and behavioural associations, and whether it is warranted to conceptualize them as separate constructs. In both studies, factor analysis indicated that items from analogous anger rumination and sadness rumination measures loaded onto two fact...

  16. Age differences in managing response to sadness elicitors using attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated age differences in the use of attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression while regulating responses to sadness-eliciting content. We also tested to what extent these emotion regulation strategies were useful for each age group in managing response to age-relevant sad information. Forty-two young participants (Mage = 18.5, SE = .15) and 48 older participants (Mage = 71.42, SE = 1.15) watched four sadness-eliciting videos (about death/illness, 4...

  17. Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis (AOD. Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.

  18. Factors affecting the risk of developing lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Elizabeth A; Vi, Peter; Reider, Vanesa L; Moore, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Injury and dropout rates during rodwork training appear to reflect difficulties encountered by apprentices adapting to increased physical demands of tying on slab, one of the rodworking tasks with the highest injury risk. Because experience influences work strategies, and consequently the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), this study aimed to identify differences in work practices associated with tying rebar on slab, potentially relevant to back MSD development, in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers. Fourteen male rodworkers were recruited from either experienced (>2 years experience post apprenticeship), or inexperienced (<6 months experience) groups. Both tied an area with rebar laid on the ground. Trunk flexion/extension angles were measured. L4/L5 moments were estimated from T9 Erector Spinae EMG. Experienced workers were found to spend longer periods of time in trunk flexed postures, with lower peak L4/L5 moments. Our findings revealed practices associated with each group might have different implications on back health. PMID:26360195

  19. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Carlsson, Elisabeth; Jones, Annica; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-03-01

    Recent findings from studies on adults show similarities between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress in the form of recurrent memories and intrusive and distressing images of earlier aversive events. Further, treatment models for SAD in adults have been successfully developed by using transdiagnostic knowledge on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Studies on adolescents are though missing. The present study aimed at exploring the association between PTSS and SAD in Swedish adolescents. A second aim was to study mental health services utilization in relation to these conditions. A total of 5,960 high-school students participated and reported on SAD, life time victimization, PTSS and mental health service utilization. Socially anxious adolescents reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than adolescents not reporting SAD and this difference was seen in victimized as well as non-victimized subjects. Contact with a school counselor was the most common mental health service utilization in subjects with SAD and those with elevated PTSS. In the prediction of contact with a CAP-clinic, significant odds ratios were found for a condition of SAD and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 3.53-6.73) but not for SAD only. Screening of PTSS in adolescents with SAD is recommended. The service of school counselors is important in detecting and helping young people with SAD and elevated PTSS. Clinical studies on SAD and PTSS in adolescents could aid in modifying treatment models for SAD. PMID:23099817

  20. Ethical Conduct of Employees in Tourist Organizations in Novi Sad (Serbia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Jovičić; Tatjana Pivac; Aleksandra Dragin

    2011-01-01

    The conduct of employees in tourism, but also all the other factors that participate indirectly in the tourism industry of Novi Sad contributes greatly to creating the image of Novi Sad in the domestic and international market. In that sense, ethical conduct and respect of the code of ethics is the basis of acquiring a good image of Novi Sad and improving the tourist product of Novi Sad. Business ethics includes principles and rules of conduct based on general and business culture and the pri...

  1. An investigation of negative affect, reactivity, and distress tolerance as predictors of disordered eating attitudes across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes. PMID:27018749

  2. Neural responses to affective and cognitive theory of mind in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Park, Bumhee; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Song, Dong-Ho

    2016-05-16

    Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by an impaired Theory of Mind (ToM). Recent evidence suggested that two aspects of ToM (cognitive ToM versus affective ToM) are differentially impaired in individuals with ASD. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in children and adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing children (TDCs). Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 age, IQ matched TDCs participated in this functional MRI study. The ToM task involved the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to a cartoon character based on verbal and eye-gaze cues. In cognitive ToM tasks, ASD participants recruited the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG) to a greater extent than did TDCs. In affective ToM tasks, both ASD and TDC participants showed more activation in the insula and other subcortical regions than in cognitive ToM tasks. Correlational analysis revealed that greater activation of the mPFC/ACC regions was associated with less symptom severity in ASD patients. In sum, our study suggests that the recruitment of additional prefrontal resources can compensate for the successful behavioral performance in the ToM task in ASD participants. PMID:27084690

  3. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  4. Descriptive and numeric estimation of risk for psychotic disorders among affected individuals and relatives: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jehannine C; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G

    2012-03-30

    Studies show that individuals with psychotic illnesses and their families want information about psychosis risks for other relatives. However, deriving accurate numeric probabilities for psychosis risk is challenging, and people have difficulty interpreting probabilistic information; thus, some have suggested that clinicians should use risk descriptors, such as "moderate" or "quite high", rather than numbers. Little is known about how individuals with psychosis and their family members use quantitative and qualitative descriptors of risk in the specific context of chance for an individual to develop psychosis. We explored numeric and descriptive estimations of psychosis risk among individuals with psychotic disorders and unaffected first-degree relatives. In an online survey, respondents numerically and descriptively estimated risk for an individual to develop psychosis in scenarios where they had: A) no affected family members; and B) an affected sibling. Participants comprised 219 affected individuals and 211 first-degree relatives participated. Affected individuals estimated significantly higher risks than relatives. Participants attributed all descriptors between "very low" and "very high" to probabilities of 1%, 10%, 25% and 50%+. For a given numeric probability, different risk descriptors were attributed in different scenarios. Clinically, brief interventions around risk (using either probabilities or descriptors alone) are vulnerable to miscommunication and potentially negative consequences-interventions around risk are best suited to in-depth discussion.

  5. The Role of the Microbiome in the Relationship of Asthma and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Ana F; Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The effect of stress, anxiety and other affective states on inflammatory conditions such as asthma is well documented. Although several immune pathway mechanisms have been proposed and studied, they cannot fully explain the relationship. In this chapter we present a new perspective on asthma development and exacerbation that integrates findings on the role of psychological factors in asthma with the microbiome and the hygiene hypothesis in asthma development.

  6. Schizo-affective disorder (Schneiderian positive), manic type: a comparison with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, E H; Surawicz, F G

    1982-06-01

    Manic patients with (N = 12) and without (N = 27) Schneiderian first rank symptoms (SFRS) were compared with regard to age, age at illness onset, presence of good prognostic signs, psychopathologic variables, treatment, and family history. The lack of group differences seen on many variables is consistent with the notion that SFRS do not define a separate schizo-affective manic subtype with differences in etiology or outcome.

  7. Affective-sexual relationships and eating disorders in obesity context - a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Pereira, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    In human intimacy, affective-sexuality (Ambler, 2012) is variable which promotes physical and emotional well-being in intimate relationships, in general (Brigitta, 2004), and in obese, in particular. Apart from obesity as a risk factor for chronic diseases there is clear correlation between obesity and negative emotional states and vice versa (Kadioglu, 2009; Larsen, 2007). Some studies present a correlation between these two variables, showing body image and self-percept...

  8. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

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    Ahmad Alipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  9. A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

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    Connor, S.E.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Kings Healthcare NHS Trust, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Ng, V. [Department of Neuroimaging, Maudsley Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McDonald, C.; Schulze, K.; Morgan, K.; Dazzan, P.; Murray, R.M. [Division of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Hippocampal shape anomaly (HSA), characterised by a rounded hippocampus, has been documented in congenital malformations and epileptic patients. Subtle structural hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that HSA is more frequent in schizophrenia, particularly in patients from families multiply affected by schizophrenia, and that HSA is transmitted within these families. We also aimed to define the anatomical features of the hippocampus and other cerebral structures in the HSA spectrum and to determine the prevalence of HSA in a control group. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging of a large number of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, many of who came from multiply affected families, relatives of the affected probands, and controls. Quantitative measures of hippocampal shape and position and other qualitative anatomical measures were performed (including depth of dominant sulcus cortical cap, angle of dominant sulcus and hippocampal fissure, bulk of collateral white matter, prominence of temporal horn lateral recess and blurring of internal hippocampal architecture) on subjects with HSA. A spectrum of mild, moderate and severe HSA was defined. The prevalence of HSA was, 7.8% for the controls (n=218), 9.3% for all schizophrenic subjects (n=151) and 12.3% for familial schizophrenic subjects (n=57). There was a greater prevalence of moderate or severe forms of HSA in familial schizophrenics than controls. However, there was no increase in the prevalence of HSA in the unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients or in patients with familial bipolar disorder. HSA was rarely transmitted in families. HSA was frequently associated with a deep, vertical collateral/occipito-temporal sulcus and a steep hippocampal fissure. Our data raise the possibility that HSA is linked to disturbances of certain neurodevelopmental genes associated with schizophrenia. However, the lack of

  10. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

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    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies. PMID:26378358

  11. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder: comparison with adolescents with past histories of major depressive and non-affective disorders, and never mentally ill controls.

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    Klein, D N; Lewinsohn, P M; Seeley, J R

    1997-02-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial functioning of persons who have recovered from dysthymic disorder. Such information might be useful in identifying trait markers for dysthymia, and for guiding continuation and maintenance treatment. We explored this issue using data from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a large community-based study of the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in a high school population. Four groups of adolescents were identified: 38 with a past history of dysthymic disorder; 217 with a past history of major depressive disorder; 142 with a past history of non-affective disorders; and 1079 with no lifetime history of psychopathology. The groups were compared on an extensive battery of psychosocial variables. The most consistent and diagnostically specific finding was that adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder reported having a significantly lower level of social support from friends than each of the other three groups of adolescents. Adolescents with a past history of dysthymic disorder also reported significantly higher levels of depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and daily hassles than adolescents with no lifetime history of psychopathology. In addition, they reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and self-consciousness, but fewer externalizing symptoms than adolescents with a past history of non-affective disorders. These data suggest that adolescents with dysthymic disorder continue to experience significant difficulties in psychosocial functioning even after recovery.

  12. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    Eivind Normann-Eide

    Full Text Available Personality disorders (PDs are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118. There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to

  13. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    Normann-Eide, Eivind; Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  14. Cost effectiveness of olanzapine in prevention of affective episodes in bipolar disorder in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, J; Cerri, K H; Lloyd, A; D'Ausilio, A; Dando, S; Chinn, C

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of olanzapine compared with lithium as maintenance therapy for patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1) in the UK. A Markov model was developed to assess costs and outcomes from the perspective of the UK National Health Service over a 1-year period. Patients enter the model after stabilization of a manic episode and are then treated with olanzapine or lithium. Using the findings of a recent randomized clinical trial, the model considers the monthly risk of manic or depressive episodes and of dropping out from allocated therapy. health care resources associated with acute episodes were derived primarily from a recent UK chart review. Costs of maintenance therapy and monitoring were also considered. Key factors influencing cost effectiveness were identified and included in a stochastic sensitivity analysis. The model estimated that, compared to lithium, olanzapine significantly reduced the annual number of acute mood episodes per patient from 0.81 to 0.58 (difference -0.23; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.12). Per patient average annual care costs fell by 799 UK pounds (95% CI: - 1,824 UK pounds, 59 UK pounds) driven by reduced inpatient days--but the cost difference was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis found the results to be robust to plausible variation in the model's parameters. The model estimated that using olanzapine instead of lithium as maintenance therapy for BP1 would significantly reduce the rate of acute mood events resulting in reduced hospital costs. Based on available evidence, there is a high likelihood that olanzapine would reduce costs of care compared to lithium.

  15. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

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    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  16. Genetic Disorders

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    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  17. Mood Disorders

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    ... they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional ... ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called ...

  18. Seasonal variation in affective and other clinical symptoms among high-risk families for bipolar disorders in an Arctic population

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    Sami Pirkola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In bipolar disorder (BD, seasonality of symptoms is common and disturbances in circadian rhythms have been reported. Objectives: We identified high-penetrance families in a geographically restricted area in Northern Fennoscandia and studied the seasonal variation of clinical symptoms among BD subjects and their healthy relatives. Design: We explored the clinical characteristics of subjects living in Northern Fennoscandia, with extreme annual variation in daylight. Among known indigenous high-risk families for BD, we compared the affected ones (N=16 with their healthy relatives (N=15, and also included 18 healthy non-related controls from the same geographical area. Seasonal fluctuation in clinical measures was followed up at the 4 most demarcated photoperiodic time points of the annual cycle: around the summer solstice and autumn equinox in 2013, the winter solstice in 2013/2014, and the spring equinox in 2014. In the baseline, lifetime manic symptoms [Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ] and morningness–eveningness questionnaire type (MEQ were registered, whereas in the follow-up, depressive [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI] and distress [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12] symptoms and alcohol consumption and sleep were recorded. Results: Possibly indicative or statistically significant differences in symptoms between the affected subjects and their healthy relatives were the BDI winter (13.3 vs. 2.6, t=−2.51, p=0.022 and spring scores (12.6 vs. 3.2, t=−1.97, p=0.063 and GHQ winter (4.2 vs. 0.82, t=−2.08, p=0.052 and spring scores (3.8 vs. 0.82, t=−1.97, p=0.063. Scores were higher among the affected subjects, exceeding a possibly diagnostic threshold (10 and 3 at all the time points, and without the notable seasonality which was observed among the healthy relatives. In the overall population, MDQ and MEQ scores had an inverse correlation (−0.384, significant at 0.016, indicating increased lifetime manic behaviour among

  19. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  20. Knowledge of Social Anxiety Disorder Relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Educational Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…