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Sample records for affective disorder life

  1. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2006-01-01

    -Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...... might be due to the genetic liability to affective disorder. These findings need to be replicated in future family studies.......BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High...

  2. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION, DISSOCIATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS IN REMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Kamaradova, Dana; Velartova, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits, which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. Subjects and methods: To ascertain cognitive function, level of dissociation and quality of life and their interrelations in patients with bipolar affective disorder in remission. Data from D2 Attention Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Trial Making Test, Di...

  3. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through......BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these...... the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  4. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  5. Predictors of recurrence in affective disorder - analyses accounting for individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2000-01-01

    affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity......affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity...

  6. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  7. Mood and affect disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  8. LIFE EVENTS AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar, C.R.; Reddy, Venkataswamy; Isaac, Mohan K.

    1997-01-01

    Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES) was administered to 69 physically ill, 23 patients with somatoform disorders and 45 patients with psychiatric disorders other than somatoform disorders who sought medical help in primary health care settings. The 137 patients were cluster analysed in orderto obtain the patterns of distribution of 39 life events. Five clusters emerged. All the patients in cluster Vhad somatoform disorders and life events had a significant occurrence and discrimin...

  9. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. These two chemicals help regulate a person's sleep-wake cycles, energy, and mood. Shorter days and longer ... doctor. People who have another type of depressive disorder, skin that's sensitive to light, or medical conditions ...

  10. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful. PMID:17037812

  11. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  12. The affective life of semiotics

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Hutta

    2015-01-01

    The paper challenges writings on affect that locate affective dynamism in autonomic bodily responses while positing discourse and language as "capturing" affect. To move beyond such "verticalism", the paper seeks to further an understanding of language, and semiotics more broadly, as itself affective. Drawing on participatory research conducted in Rio de Janeiro, it uses poetic expression as a paradigmatic case of the affective life of semiotics. Conceptually, it builds on Guat...

  13. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  14. Improvement in Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Health-Related Quality of Life with Bright Light Treatment in Persons with Seasonal Affective Disorder and Subsyndromal SAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rastad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of bright light treatment for secondary outcome measures and to explore and validate empirically derived subgroups and treatment effects in subgroups. Methods. A descriptive design. A sample of forty-nine persons (mean age of 45.8 with clinically assessed seasonal affective disorder (SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD participated in a two-group clinical trial evaluating the effects of treatment with bright light therapy. A person-oriented cluster analysis was applied to study treatment effects in subgroups. Results. For the merged group, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (fatigue questionnaire, and health-related quality of life (SF-36 were improved at posttreatment, and results were maintained at the one-month followup. Three distinct subgroups had a high level of fatigue in common, while the level of excessive daytime sleepiness and depressed mood differed between the subgroups. Over time, all subgroups improved following ten days treatment in a light room. Conclusion. Fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and health-related quality of life improve in a similar way as depressed mood following treatment with bright light. The treatment was effective irrespective of the severity of the disorder, that is, for persons with SAD and subsyndromal SAD.

  15. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies.Methods:...

  16. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as re...

  17. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  18. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and ...

  19. Affective Disorders (Depression and Mania) in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, Stanley P.

    1986-01-01

    Affective disorders in adolescents are common and can be clearly differentiated from the “growing up process”. Basic questions about etiology, pathophysiology, psychobiology and treatment of these disorders remain to be answered. Current knowledge suggests that close co-operation between primary care physicians and psychiatrists with specialized training in adolescent psychiatry is necessary for optimum identification and management of these disorders.

  20. Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...

  1. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  2. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L; Kessing, L V

    2007-01-01

    multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a high genetic liability to develop affective disorder is associated with specific personality traits. METHOD: A cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study. Through nation-wide registers, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (high-risk twins) and...... without (the control group/low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified. Personality traits were compared for a total of 211 high-risk and low-risk twins. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the high-risk twins had a higher level of neuroticism than the control twins (P = 0.03). In...

  3. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  4. Premenstrual mood changes in affective disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadirian, A. M.; Kamaraju, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    Mood changes during the premenstrual phase have been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Although there has been significant progress in the diagnosis and etiology of major affective disorders, the relation between these disorders and menstrual changes remains controversial. There have been contradictory reports and speculations on women's susceptibility to psychiatric disorders during the premenstrual phase. We describe three patients with a history of mood swings associated ...

  5. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), somatoform disorder (SoD), comorbid BPD+SoD, and a psychiatric comparison group (PC) to provide a baseline against which to compare the hypothesized elevations in dysfunctional self and affect regulation....

  6. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  7. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and...

  8. Affective Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder - Comorbidity or Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The association between bipolar disorder and borderline personality has been studied by several researchers. Comorbidity has been emphasized by some authors which observe a prognostic impairment of bipolar disorder because the delay of the diagnostic. Symptoms related with alcohol and drugs abuse, suicidary behaviour and impulsivity, often present in borderline patients, make the treatment difficult. Other authors consider these symptoms as being part of the bipolar disease, proposing a continuum between the two entities. In this case, borderline personality would be a mild form of an affective disorder. We will discuss different opinions and their cli- nical and therapeutic consequences.

  9. On the chronobiology of seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne Mara

    2002-01-01

    Chronobiological hypotheses about the pathogenesis of affective disorders have a long history. According to the modern variants, abnormalities of either a sleep-wake cycle dependent process S, or a circadian pacemaker related process C, or an abnor-mal interaction between these two processes underli

  10. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS...

  11. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  12. 脑卒中后情感障碍及对生活质量影响的研究进展%Progress in research on the effects of affective disorder and depression on quality of life after stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟; 江文宇; 林卫

    2015-01-01

    Affective disorder after stroke is a common clinical complication of stroke, including post-stroke depression, anxiety and other symptoms, serious impact to the recovery of stroke patients, quality of life, is one of the clinical problems to be solved. At present, the pathogenesis of post-stroke affective disorders have not yet reached a consensus, a part of the study will be attributed to the social psychological factors, another theory is that its incidence is due mainly to a series of biological behavior in patients with post stroke immune factors, such as neurotransmitter secretion disorder caused by. Summarizes several aspects of affective disorder after stroke from the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, treatment status and influence on the quality of life of patients.%脑卒中后情感障碍是临床常见的脑卒中并发症,包括脑卒中后抑郁、焦虑等病症,对于脑卒中患者的恢复、生活质量等均产生严重影响,是临床亟待解决的问题之一。目前对于脑卒中后情感障碍的发病机制尚未达到共识,一部分研究将其归结于社会心理因素,另一部学说则认为其发病的主要原因是脑卒中后患者机体免疫因子、神经递质等分泌紊乱而产生的一系列生物学行为。本文从脑卒中后情感障碍的流行病学、发病机制、临床表现、治疗现状及对患者生活质量的影响几方面进行综述。

  13. QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Nieznańska, Anna; Baron, Urszula; Jaracz, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the consequences of bipolar disorder there i s a decreased quality of life, including the deterioration of patients’ social functioning. Material: The paper contains an analysis of 24 major publica tions from the years 2009 to 2014, including 17 related to the assessment of quality of life and 7 articles on the bipolar patients’ social functioning. Results: There were selected 8 factors which are related with the assessment of the quality of life of persons w...

  14. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  15. Affective disorders among women during post partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Women, in general, present a high rate of prevalence of affective disorders, mainly depressive ones, during their lives. This is even more evident during their puerperal time, were depression is quite common. This is, probably, due to the fact of a highest physical and emotional needs during this difficult period, for both the mother and the family,as well. This clinical condition will increase both the mobility and mortality rates among puerperal women and will increase the risk for new episodes of depression on future pregnancies. Since we all know that during puerperium, both mother and child are usually attended by the Health System, this is a good time to detect these disorders. Therefore, we will try to review the pertinent medical literature regarding this probem, in order to provide the psychiatrist and another physicians with new, effective tools, that will allow them to recognize earlier, patients with this disorder, handle them properly to avoid all negative consequences.

  16. Affect, Meaning and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Research on quality of life in sociology is largely focused on a narrow range of dimensions including affect, happiness and satisfaction. It largely avoids a concern with the meanings that provide people with the purpose, significance, validity and coherence that are a basis of social relationships and social integration. Evidence is presented…

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  18. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  19. Quality of life in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck;

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results...... to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders...... not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five...

  20. Extra dimensions in all aspects of life - the meaning of life with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rusner, Marie; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brunt, David; Nyström, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Living with Bipolar Disorder (BD) greatly affects the whole life; still the meaning of it is poorly explored from the perspective of the individuals actually living with it. The aim of this study is thus to explore the existential meaning of life with BD. Ten persons, six women and four men, (aged 30_61), diagnosed with BD were interviewed. A reflective lifeworld perspective based on phenomenological philosophy was used. The findings show that living with BD entails experiencing extra dimensi...

  1. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Ali; Deuri, S. P.; Deuri, S. K.; Masroor Jahan; Singh, Amool R.; A N Verma

    2010-01-01

    Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder ...

  2. Comorbid Bipolar Affective Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Childhood: A Case Study and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Amlan K.; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, w...

  3. Early parental death and risk of hospitalization for affective disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Charlotte Weiling; Johansen, Christoffer; Deltour, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood.......Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood....

  4. TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IS IMPORTANT IN TREATING BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Reddy; B Deepika; Harish, S

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism is well documented. There are few studies regarding hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar affective disorder. Here our main motto is to report such a case who was presented with bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism as a co-morbidity & to provide a brief information regarding association of hypothyroidism in bipolar affective disorder. Treatment approaches in such co-morbid conditions.

  5. QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieznańska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the consequences of bipolar disorder there i s a decreased quality of life, including the deterioration of patients’ social functioning. Material: The paper contains an analysis of 24 major publica tions from the years 2009 to 2014, including 17 related to the assessment of quality of life and 7 articles on the bipolar patients’ social functioning. Results: There were selected 8 factors which are related with the assessment of the quality of life of persons with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder: the presence of depressive symptoms, substance use, sleep deficit, religious activity and social support, internalized stigma, suicide attempts in the past, the perception of emotions and impulsivity. It was defined that social functioning of bipolar patients is dependent on the emotional state of patients, and in particular the presence of depressive symptoms. It is dependent also on patients’ cognitive performance and internalized stigma. Conclusions: Assistance in mastering the first symptoms of a depressive phase can help bipolar patients in their smooth social functioning and quality of life. Taking into account the implementation of appropriate therapy with cognitive exercise and which is aimed at reducing internalized stigma, may contribute to improving the quality of life and improve the patients’ social functioning.

  6. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  7. Quality of Life Impairment in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Terri L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the assessment of quality of life in the anxiety disorders is growing. The present study examined quality of life impairments in individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder. Results showed that individuals with these disorders reported less satisfaction with their quality of life than non-anxious adults in the community. However, the degree of quality of life impairment is similar across these three disorders. Additionally, comorbid depre...

  8. Effect of Incident Axis I Disorders on Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Jose M.; Olfson, Mark; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Garcia-Toro, Mauro; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate that mental disorders are inversely associated with quality of life, and that the magnitude of the negative correlation varies across disorders. To examine whether quality of life decreases following new onset of psychiatric disorders, and to characterize variations across disorders. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study representative of the adult US population. Changes were examined in quality of life, as measured by the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12), ...

  9. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  10. The Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Cannabis Use in Daily Life: An Experience Sampling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Tyler; Steven Jones; Nancy Black; Lesley-Anne Carter; Christine Barrowclough

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodolog...

  11. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  12. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf Jeanne M; Arnold L Eugene; Bukstein Oscar G; Hodgkins Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH) to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population) aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a sta...

  13. Quality of Life Among Bipolar Disorder Patients Misdiagnosed With Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, A. George; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Bolge, Susan C.; McDonnell, Diana D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD). We aim to quantify the prevalence of misdiagnosed bipolar disorder among the depression population and evaluate the quality-of-life (QOL) impact of misdiagnoses.

  14. Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, S.; M. Moretti; Haley, G.; Marriage, K.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings...

  15. Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Welch, Stacy S; Grossman, Paul; Reisch, Thomas; Linehan, Marsha M; Bohus, Martin

    2007-04-15

    Many experts now believe that pervasive problems in affect regulation constitute the central area of dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, data is sparse and inconclusive. We hypothesized that patients with BPD, in contrast to healthy gender and nationality-matched controls, show a higher frequency and intensity of self-reported emotions, altered physiological indices of emotions, more complex emotions and greater problems in identifying specific emotions. We took a 24-hour psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring approach to investigate affect regulation during everyday life in 50 patients with BPD and in 50 healthy controls. To provide a typical and unmanipulated sample, we included only patients who were currently in treatment and did not alter their medication schedule. BPD patients reported more negative emotions, fewer positive emotions, and a greater intensity of negative emotions. A subgroup of non-medicated BPD patients manifested higher values of additional heart rate. Additional heart rate is that part of a heart rate increase that does not directly result from metabolic activity, and is used as an indicator of emotional reactivity. Borderline participants were more likely to report the concurrent presence of more than one emotion, and those patients who just started treatment in particular had greater problems in identifying specific emotions. Our findings during naturalistic ambulatory assessment support emotional dysregulation in BPD as defined by the biosocial theory of [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome. PMID:17321599

  16. Therapy for depression in bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for depression in relation to the clinical type of bipolar affective disorders (BAD and to choose optimal treatment regimens for depression in BAD type I (BADI and BAD type II (BADII.Patients and methods. A total of 65 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI and 37 with BADII, were examined. 212 depressive episodes were analyzed in BAD patients, of them there were 74 with BADI and 138 with BADII. The patients with BADI took a combination of an antidepressant (AD and a normothymic (NT, NT and a neuroleptic (NL, AD, NT and NL. Those with BADII received monotherapy with AD or NL, a combination of AD + NT, AD + NL. The patients' status was clinically evaluated using a specially designed questionnaire and the MADRS and CGI psychometric scales at baseline and then at the end of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy.Results. The AD-containing regimens used to treat patients with BADI proved to be more effective; this therapy led to a more marked reduction in depressive symptoms (55.73% in the AD + NT-treated patients; 54.07% in the AD + NT + NL group versus 33.64% in the NT + NL-treated patients, a higher response to therapy, and a larger number of remissions by the end of the investigation (80.0, 72.7, and 33.3%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of transient hypomanic symptoms did not significantly differ in these groups (20.0, 27.3, and 8.3%, respectively. The depressive patients with BADII generally responded better to different therapy regimens (the reduction in depressive symptoms was 52.08, 58.82, 58.40, and 53.98% in the AD, NL, AD + NT, and AD + NL groups; the remission index by the end of the investigation was 60.6, 92.9, 77.8, and 69.2%, respectively; these patients were seen to have less frequently symptoms of an antipole during their treatment (18.2, 7.1, 0.0, and 15.4%, respectively.Conclusion. The incorporation of AD into a therapy regimen in BAD patients

  17. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s (TPC and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, somatoform disorder (SoD, both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD + SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0–6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  18. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... on language processing and episodic memory. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that discrete cognitive impairment is present before the onset of the affective disorder and is genetically transmitted was supported. Thus, cognitive function may be a candidate endophenotype for affective disorders.......BACKGROUND: Patients may present with cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder, but it is unclear whether the impairment is prevalent before onset of the illness. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that genetic liability to affective disorder...

  19. Improving Affect Regulation in Eating Disorders: The Case for Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Rogowski, Augustina

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple studies suggests that regulation of emotions and intensity of affect may be relevant to understanding disordered eating. Emotion regulation concerns the ways in which emotions are managed in daily life, whereas Affect Intensity (Larsen et al., 1986) refers to individuals‟ typical emotional reactivity. The thesis examines emotion regulation and affect in females with eating pathology (subclinical as well as clinical), and looks at ways dysfunctional regulatory strategies...

  20. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    OpenAIRE

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood,...

  1. Mood disorders and quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Luisi, Stefano; Regini, Cristina; Katulski, Krzysztof; Centini, Gabriele; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of the population of women. The exact etiology of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. The spectrum of its symptoms such as hirsutism, skin problems, obesity and finally infertility has a huge negative impact on the individuals' psychological and interpersonal functioning. PCOS symptoms can lead to significant deterioration in quality of life and be highly stressful negatively affecting psychological well-being and sexuality. Fear symptoms like palpitation, being out of breath and tension might be caused by many somatic diseases. Moreover, detection and continuous thinking about illness can lead to significant negative impact on individual functioning in society. PCOS may be a factor potentially favoring the occurrence of mood disorders and depression. Biological, social and psychological consequences of PCOS among women of reproductive age are opening a new perspective on management of women's health in these patients. PMID:26204044

  2. Climate Change Affects Deep Sea Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emma Marris; 秦春雨

    2004-01-01

    @@ The remote and lightless deep-sea floor has long been thought to be protected from events on the surface, such as global warming. But it now seems that climate change impinges on the rhythm of life on the seabed after all.

  3. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Juthamas InchaiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain.Purpose: To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population.Materials and methods: The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity.Results: Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8-3.9], P<0.001. COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4-11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-18.1], P=0.038, respectively but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.0, P=0.105] than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.9], P=0.043, respectively. There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD.Conclusion: Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill

  4. Psychological Intervention for Postpartum Mental Disorders Affects the Quality of Life%心理干预对产褥期精神障碍患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑艳; 高海英; 张继青; 高海江; 孟雪松; 韩丽

    2011-01-01

    探讨心理干预对产褥期精神障碍患者生活质量的影响.将85例产褥期精神障碍患者随机分为研究组45例和对照组40例,两组均给予精神科常规护理,研究组在此基础上根据患者的具体情况,实施有针对性的心理护理干预.于心理护理干预后采用Hamilton抑郁量表(HAMD)、Hamilton焦虑量表(HAMA)和生存质量量表(SF- 36QOL)进行评定分析.心理护理干预后研究组HAMD、HAMA和SF-36QOL三种量表的评分,与对照组比较均有显著性差异(P<0.01).心理护理干预能显著改善产褥期精神障碍患者的心理健康状况,提高患者的治疗依从性和生活质量.%To discuss the effect of psychological intervention on the life of postpartum patients with mental disorders, 85 postpartum patients with mental disorders were divided into two groups randomly, research group(45 patients) and control group(40 patients). Both the tow group were underwent routine psychiatric cares, but psychological care was given to the research group. Hamilton depression scale ( HAMD) , Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and quality of life scale ( SF ~ 36QOL) were used to assess difference of the two groups. There are significant differences between research group and control group(P<0. 01J. Psychological care can improve the metal state of postpartum patients with mental disorders, thus improve their therapy compliance and life quality.

  5. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  6. Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective disorders in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    disorder. Conclusions: We found no evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity at birth (and during upbringing) and the risk of bipolar affective disorders in Denmark, but found some evidence that the diagnostic practices used in Aarhus differed from the rest of Denmark...

  7. Life events in bipolar disorder: Towards more specific models

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence concerning life events as a predictor of symptoms within bipolar disorder. First, key methodological issues in this area are described, and criteria used for including studies in this review are defined. Then findings that negative life events predict worse outcomes within bipolar disorder are reviewed. Beyond general studies on relapse, it is important to differentiate predictors of depression from predictors of mania. When severe negative life events occur,...

  8. Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of borderline patients (and axis II comparis...

  9. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  10. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  11. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  12. Quality of life in fibromyalgia patients with craniomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venere, D; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; De Tommaso, M; Cervinara, F; Re, A; Pettini, F

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a rheumatic disease which affects fibrous tissues and muscles; it is characterized by chronic pain and it is often associated with craniomandibular disorders (CMD). 31 patients were assessed from March 2012 to October 2012 through the administration of specific questionnaires and following neurologic and gnatologic assessment. A relevant corre-lation between FM and CMD emerges from the present study, as 80.6% of our patients report CMD symptoms with high prevalence of myofascial pain (84%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the patients in the present study did not differ in score of quality of life questionnaires from patients with fibromyalgia. The neuropathic pain diagnostic question-naire (DN4) scores were positively affected by belonging to group II of Research Diagnostic Criteria of Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/ TDM) classification, suggesting the possibility of a neuropathic component in chronic pain in this CMD group, as already speculated in our study on the correlation between burning mouth syndrome and CMD and by other au-thors in studies on chronic low back pain. However, further clinic and instrumental studies are needed in order to test this as-sumption. PMID:25674166

  13. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic reso...

  14. Rumination predicts heightened responding to stressful life events in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Gentes, Emily L; Jones, Jason D; Hallion, Lauren S; Coleman, Elizabeth S; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-02-01

    Although studies have documented heightened stress sensitivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. One possible mechanism is the tendency to ruminate in response to stress. We used ecological momentary assessment to study ruminative thoughts after stressful events in 145 adults with MDD, GAD, comorbid MDD-GAD, or no psychopathology. Diagnosed individuals reported more event-related rumination than controls, even after adjusting for event stressfulness. Rumination was equally common in MDD and GAD and was especially severe among comorbid cases. More rumination immediately after the event predicted poorer affect, more maladaptive behavior, and more MDD and GAD symptoms at the next signal, even when pre-event levels of these variables were controlled. Rumination mediated, but did not moderate, the association of stress with affect and with symptoms. Stress-related rumination was more deleterious for diagnosed than healthy individuals, more intense for more severe clinical cases, and more persistent for cases with a greater temperamental vulnerability for emotional disorders. These results implicate rumination as a mechanism of stress sensitivity and suggest pathways through which it may maintain depression and anxiety in everyday life. PMID:25688429

  15. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  16. The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tyler

    Full Text Available Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder.Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms.The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008. However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000, manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009 and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008.The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Breast cancer risk among women with psychiatric admission with affective or neurotic disorders: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen Margrete; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Keiding, Niels; Sawitz, Allen Ronald; Olsen, J.H.; Mortensen, P.B.; Jørgensen, Torben

    neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse......neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse...

  18. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi;

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...

  19. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the...... function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical...... effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used...

  20. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening inst...

  1. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low......-Risk twins. The 109 High-Risk twins had significantly higher evening cortisol levels than the 81 Low-Risk MZ twins, also after adjustment for age, sex, and the level of subclinical depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in awakening cortisol levels between High-Risk and Low-Risk twins. In...

  2. Antecedent life events of binge-eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Kathleen M; Wilfley, Denise; Hilbert, Anja; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of disturbed eating in binge-eating disorder (BED). In a case-control design, 162 matched pairs of black and white women with BED and women with no current psychiatric disorder, and 107 matched pairs of women with BED and a current general psychiatric disorder were recruited from the community for the New England Women's Health Project. Life events in the year before the onset of disturbed eating were assessed re...

  3. Transition of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders from School to Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Presniakova, Natallia

    2014-01-01

    Transition from school to employment is a critical period in the lives of students with disabilities which further affects the quality of their adult lives. For individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders transition is particularly demanding due to numerous challenges associated with the nature of the disorder. For the professionals working with such students transition entails a complex long-term process of preparing the student for the life beyond school with the final aim of inclusive emplo...

  4. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  5. Genetic studies of bipolar affective disorder in large families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, D H; Visscher, P M; Muir, W J

    2001-06-01

    Background Genetic factors are known to be important in the aetiology of bipolar disorder. Aims To review linkage studies in extended families multiply affected with bipolar disorder. Method Selective review of linkage studies of bipolar disorder emphasising the gains and drawbacks of studying large multiply-affected families and comparing the statistical methods used for data analysis. Results Linkage of bipolar disorder to several chromosome regions including 4p, 4q, 10p, 12q, 16p, 18q, 21q and Xq has first been reported in extended families. In other families chromosomal rearrangements associated with affective illnesses provide signposts to the location of disease-related genes. Statistical analyses using variance component methods can be applied to extended families, require no prior knowledge of the disease inheritance, and can test multilocus models. Conclusion Studying single large pedigrees combined with variance component analysis is an efficient and effective strategy likely to lead to further insights into the genetic basis of bipolar disorders. PMID:11388952

  6. Preschool anxiety disorders: comprehensive assessment of clinical, demographic, temperamental, familial, and life stress correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R; Tolep, Marissa R; Bufferd, Sara J; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers' anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multimethod design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least 1 anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous 6 months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers. PMID:23368788

  7. Borderline personality disorder : studies of suffering, quality of life and dialectical behavioural therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Perseius, Kent-Inge

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the present thesis were: * To investigate how women patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) perceive their suffering, quality of life and encounter with psychiatric care (paper 11 and III). * To describe BPD patients' and psychiatric professionals' perceptions of receiving and giving dialectical behavioural therapy, DBT (paper I). * To investigate how starting treatment of BPD patients with DBT affected the psychia...

  8. Symptom dimensions of affective disorders in migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M. A.; Pijpers, J. A.; Wardenaar, K. J.; van Zwet, E. W.; van Hemert, A. M.; Zitman, F. G.; Ferrari, M. D.; Penninx, B. W.; Tervvindt, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A strong association has been established between migraine and depression. However, this is the first study to differentiate in a large sample of migraine patients for symptom dimensions of the affective disorder spectrum. Methods: Migraine patients (n = 3174) from the LUMINA (Leiden Univ

  9. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  10. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...

  11. Extra dimensions in all aspects of life—the meaning of life with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rusner, Marie; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brunt, David; Nyström, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Living with Bipolar Disorder (BD) greatly affects the whole life; still the meaning of it is poorly explored from the perspective of the individuals actually living with it. The aim of this study is thus to explore the existential meaning of life with BD. Ten persons, six women and four men, (aged 30–61), diagnosed with BD were interviewed. A reflective lifeworld perspective based on phenomenological philosophy was used. The findings show that living with BD entails experiencing extra dimensi...

  12. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month. PMID:26587367

  13. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:10414613

  14. Subjective quality of life in war-affected populations

    OpenAIRE

    Matanov, A.; Giacco, D.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, J.; Schützwohl, M.; Priebe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjective quality of life (SQOL) measures are particularly rare and research in post-conflict settings is scarce. Whether social factors independently affect SQOL after war in addition to symptoms has not...

  15. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Jeanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a stable dose of oral ER-MPH to MTS nominal dosages of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg using a predefined dose-transition schedule. Subjects remained on the scheduled dose for the first week, after which the dose was then titrated to an optimal effect. The ADHD Impact Module-Children (AIM-C, a disease-specific validated HRQL survey instrument measuring child and family impact, was used to assess the impact of ADHD symptoms on the lives of children and their families at baseline and study endpoint. Satisfaction with MTS use was assessed via a Medication Satisfaction Survey (MSS at study endpoint. Both the AIM-C and MSS were completed by a caregiver (parent/legally authorized representative. Tolerability was monitored by spontaneous adverse event (AE reporting. Results AIM-C child and family HRQL mean scores were above the median possible score at baseline and were further improved at endpoint across all MTS doses. Similar improvements were noted for behavior, missed doses, worry, and economic impact AIM-C item scores. Overall, 93.8% of caregivers indicated a high level of satisfaction with their child's use of the study medication. The majority of treatment-emergent AEs (> 98% were mild to moderate in intensity, and the most commonly reported AEs included headache, decreased appetite, insomnia, and abdominal pain. Seven subjects discontinued the study due to intolerable AEs (n = 3 and application site reactions (n = 4. Conclusion This study demonstrates that MTS, when carefully

  16. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age. RESULTS: A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years......BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis of......, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67...

  17. Orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders: the impact on oral health and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many conditions may cause painful symptoms in orofacial structures. Among the chronic conditions that affect this area, temporomandibular disorders are the most common. Temporomandibular Disorder is a collective term that includes a number of clinical complaints involving the masticatory muscles, the Temporomandibular Joint and associated structures. In some cases, these complaints can be associated with depression, catastrophizing behavior and impact on quality of life. The present study aims to explain the relationship between Temporomandibular Disorders and pain chronification and their relation to a variety of psychosocial and behavioral comorbid conditions. The mechanisms of pain conduction and suggestions for management are also addressed.

  18. Correction of affective and cognitive disorders in epileptic patients and the value of lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Veniaminovich Kalinin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper characterizes an association of cognitive and affective disorders in epilepsy, which may be a cause of worse quality of life, social dysadaptation, and disability. In this connection, it is imperative to choose correct antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Groups of AEDs with different modes of action are considered, among which, lamotrigine that is noted for its unique profile of not only antiepileptic, but also psychotropic properties is given much attention.

  19. A Comparative Study of Affective Bipolar Disorder with Schizoaffective Disorder from a Longitudinal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna Milin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years there is a great interest for the theory of the “psychotic continuum”, which accepts that there is a transition between schizophrenia and affective pathology, including bipolar disorder with psychotic interferences and the recently introduced diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. There are few studies that analyze bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychosis. The purpose of this study was to observe the way in which the interference of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms can influence the long term evolution of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and the similarities that exists between this type of pathology and schizoaffective disorder. Material and methods: Sixty subjects were selected, who are now diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. All cases have at least 15 years of evolution since the first episode of psychosis and were analyzed in term of their age of onset and longitudinal evolution. Results: The results showed that bipolar patients who had mood incongruent psychotic symptoms had an earlier age of onset and a higher rate of hospitalizations in their long term evolution compared to bipolar patients without psychotic features, which brings them closer to patients with schizoaffective disorder in term of their pattern of evolution. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the interference of mood-incongruent psychosis with bipolar disorder determines a worse prognosis of this disease, very similar with the evolution of patients with schizoaffective disorder

  20. Preterm birth and psychiatric disorder in young adult life

    OpenAIRE

    Nosarti, Chiara; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M.; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats P.; Yin, Li; MacCabe, James; Rifkin, Larry; Hultman, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and delivery-related hypoxia have been associated with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these associations pertain to other adult-onset psychiatric disorders and whether these perinatal events are independent.Objective: To investigate the relationships among gestational age, nonoptimal fetal growth, Apgar score, and various psychiatric disorders in young adult life.Design: Historical population-based cohort study.Setting: Identifica...

  1. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  2. Male experiences of life after recovery from an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Tabita; Wallin, Karin; Pettersen, Gunn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how former male patients perceive life after recovery from an eating disorder. A qualitative method with a phenomenographic approach was used to identify ways of experiencing recovery. Two descriptive categories were developed: body acceptance and self-worth. Six conceptions describe how recovered patients now relate in a balanced way to exercise and food, using strategies to avoid relapse. With a sense of self-acceptance and autonomy, they now appreciate their social life. Some perceive recovery as coping with remaining impulses to diet or exercise. Others experience themselves as totally free from the eating disorder. PMID:22985242

  3. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain...

  4. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that

  5. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding ...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Kelly J. Rohan; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  7. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Emma S J Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like b...

  8. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gebauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments.

  9. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Hørlyck, Lone; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT) adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments. PMID:25379450

  10. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  11. A locus for bipolar affective disorder on chromosome 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, D H; He, L; Morris, S W; McLean, A; Whitton, C; Thomson, M; Walker, M T; Woodburn, K; Sharp, C M; Wright, A F; Shibasaki, Y; St Clair, D M; Porteous, D J; Muir, W J

    1996-04-01

    The main clinical feature of bipolar affective disorder is a change of mood to depression or elation. Unipolar disorder, also termed major depressive disorder, describes the occurrence of depression alone without episodes of elevated mood. Little is understood about the underlying causes of these common and severe illnesses which have estimated lifetime prevalences in the region of 0.8% for bipolar and 6% for unipolar disorder. Strong support for a genetic aetiology is found in the familial nature of the condition, the increased concordance of monozygotic over dizygotic twins and adoption studies showing increased rates of illness in children of affected parents. However, linkage studies have met with mixed success. An initial report of linkage on the short arm of chromosome 11 (ref. 4) was revised and remains unreplicated. Reports proposing cosegregation of genes found on the X chromosome with bipolar illness have not been supported by others. More recently bipolar disorder has been reported to be linked with markers on chromosomes 18, 21, 16 and a region on the X chromosome different from those previously suggested. We have carried out a linkage study in twelve bipolar families. In a single family a genome search employing 193 markers indicated linkage on chromosome 4p where the marker D4S394 generated a two-point lod score of 4.1 under a dominant model of inheritance. Three point analyses with neighbouring markers gave a maximum lod score of 4.8. Eleven other bipolar families were typed using D4S394 and in all families combined there was evidence of linkage with heterogeneity with a maximum two-point lod score of 4.1 (theta = 0, alpha = 0.35). PMID:8630499

  12. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.

  13. Risk markers for affective disorder, a seven-years follow up study of a twin cohort at low and high risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether: familial history of affective disorder, subclinical depressive symptoms and life events (LEs) are predictive of a later development of mood disorder (onset). In a high-risk study, 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin history...... baseline Hamilton 17 score (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.48), Becks Depression Inventory 21 (HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.05-1.24) and neuroticism (HR = 1.08, 95% 1.02-1.12). Finally, the experience of LEs lifetime before baseline predicted onset (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and the experience of LEs during follow......-up also predicted onset (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11). These findings suggest that young individuals at familial risk of affective disorders are at enhanced risk of onset and at further risk when having female sex and more subclinical depressive symptoms at baseline. Further, they seem to experience more...

  14. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah C. M. Kennedy; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Kellie A. Fecteau; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation onl...

  15. Endocrinological disorders affecting neurosurgical patients: An intensivists perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of critically ill neurosurgical patients is often complicated by the presence or development of endocrinological ailments which complicate the clinical scenario and adversely affect the prognosis of these patients. The anatomical proximity to the vital centers regulating the endocrinological physiology and alteration in the neurotransmitter release causes disturbances in the hormonal homeostasis. This paves the way for development of diverse disorders where single or multiple hormones may be involved which can have deleterious effect on the different organ system. Understanding and awareness of these disorders is important for the treating intensivist to recognize these changes early in their course, so that appropriate and timely therapeutic measures can be initiated along with the treatment of the primary malady.

  16. Skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara T; Sato N; Awaji H; Sakamoto H; Nakata R

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we conducted a questionnaire survey to examine the relationship between dietary habits and menstrual disorders in young women. Subjects were recruited from 315 college students and were classified as: Group I, eating breakfast; Group II, skipping breakfast; Group III, not eating fast foods; Group IV, eating fast foods; Group V, not eating processed foods; and Group VI, eating processed foods. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was scored using three grades. All participants were further divided into groups based on having regular or irregular menstruation, having premenstrual symptoms or not, and self-perception of good or poor general health. General health was poor in Groups II and VI, and dysmenorrhea scores were high in Groups II, IV and VI. The incidence of irregular menses was also high in Group II. However, there was no apparent relation between premenstrual symptoms and dietary habits. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

  17. Validation of life-charts documented with the personal life-chart app – a self-monitoring tool for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schärer, Lars O; Krienke, Ute J; Graf, Sandra-Mareike; Meltzer, Katharina; Langosch, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term monitoring in bipolar affective disorders constitutes an important therapeutic and preventive method. The present study examines the validity of the Personal Life-Chart App (PLC App), in both German and in English. This App is based on the National Institute of Mental Health’s Life-Chart Method, the de facto standard for long-term monitoring in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Methods Methods have largely been replicated from 2 previous Life-Chart studies. The particip...

  18. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD and somatoform disorders (SoD, remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method: BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC, PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results: No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation most commonly found in BPD, and

  19. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Freire Bueno; Elisa H. Kozasa; Maria Aparecida da Silva; Tânia Maria Alves; Mario Rodrigues Louzã; Sabine Pompéia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls un...

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME - THE CONSEQUENCE OF LIFELONG TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duška; Graovac, Mirjana; Žarković Palijan, Tija

    2010-01-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing ...

  1. Insight in bipolar disorder: a comparison between mania, depression and euthymia using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Assis da Silva; Daniel C Mograbi; Evelyn V. M. Camelo; Jaqueline Bifano; Mayra Wainstok; Luciana Angélica Silva Silveira; Elie Cheniaux

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether having general insight into bipolar disorder and its symptoms is affected by the mood state of the patient, using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders, a hetero-application scale for people with mood disorders.Methods: Ninety-five patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated and divided into different groups according to the mood state presented during assessment (i.e., euthymia, mania and depression). Sociodemographic and clinical data (Hamilton Depressio...

  2. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. PMID:24467454

  3. Relationship between sleep and health-related quality of life in patients affected with insomnia : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jun; 罗骏

    2013-01-01

    Background Insomnia is a common and increasing illness among general population all over the world. With insomnia, patients would more likely to have physical, social dysfunction and mood disorders, and even have increased risk of accidents. Therefore, identifying the harm of insomnia and improving the quality of life of patients are very important. Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate quality of life in patients affected with insomnia. Particularly foc...

  4. Mental time travel, life story coherence and cultural life scripts in youths with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Stine; Thastum, Mikael; Bohn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember one’s personal past and imagine one’s future serves important social and life defining functions like maintaining identity. Here, 34 youths diagnosed with anxiety disorders (age 10-17) and 34 community based controls wrote about their past weekends, their past and future l...

  5. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four nega...

  6. How life affects the geochemical cycle of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Developing a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they have worked throughout Earth history on various time scales, how they have been affected by biological evolution, and how changes in the carbon content of ocean and atmosphere may have affected climate and the evolution of life are the goals of the research. Theoretical simulations were developed that can be tuned to reproduce such data as exist and, once tuned, can be used to predict properties that have not yet been observed. This is an ongoing process, in which models and results are refined as new data and interpretations become available and as understanding of the global system improves. Results of the research are described in several papers which were published or submitted for publication. These papers are summarized. Future research plans are presented.

  7. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  8. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  9. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioural repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioural adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o and its modulation of m1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signalling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial. recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behaviour and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone.

  10. Insights from ERPs into Emotional Disorders: An affective neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Campanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective neuroscience disposes of complementary imaging tools, some identifying which neural regions are involved in a specific cognitive function, others defining the temporal sequences of these activations with an optimal temporal resolution. The aim of the present manuscript is to show how event-related potentials (ERPs may help us to enhance our understanding of psychopathological conditions. To do so, three experiments from our laboratory will be presented. An emotional oddball design was used, in which participants are confronted with frequent stimuli (neutral faces and deviant stimuli (emotional faces which they have to detect as quickly as possible. These studies address anxiety, the long-term consequences of ecstasy consumption and schizophrenia. Our main purpose is to show that, if previous studies have shown for generalised anxiety disorder, as well as for drug abuse or schizophrenia, P300 alterations, the impaired processes leading to such an identical disturbance are different from one population to the other.

  11. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziwota Ewelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD. Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

  12. How Common Is Disorder? Occurrence of Disordered Residues in Four Domains of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Lobanov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disordered regions play important roles in protein adaptation to challenging environmental conditions. Flexible and disordered residues have the highest propensities to alter the protein packing. Therefore, identification of disordered/flexible regions is important for structural and functional analysis of proteins. We used the IsUnstruct program to predict the ordered or disordered status of residues in 122 proteomes, including 97 eukaryotic and 25 large bacterial proteomes larger than 2,500,000 residues. We found that bacterial and eukaryotic proteomes contain comparable fraction of disordered residues, which was 0.31 in the bacterial and 0.38 in the eukaryotic proteomes. Additional analysis of the total of 1540 bacterial proteomes of various sizes yielded a smaller fraction of disordered residues, which was only 0.26. Together, the results showed that the larger is the size of the proteome, the larger is the fraction of the disordered residues. A continuous dependence of the fraction of disordered residues on the size of the proteome is observed for four domains of life: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses. Furthermore, our analysis of 122 proteomes showed that the fraction of disordered residues increased with increasing the length of homo-repeats for polar, charged, and small residues, and decreased for hydrophobic residues. The maximal fraction of disordered residues was obtained for proteins containing lysine and arginine homo-repeats. The minimal fraction was found in valine and leucine homo-repeats. For 15-residue long homo-repeats these values were 0.2 (for Val and Leu and 0.7 (for Lys and Arg.

  13. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  14. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among flood affected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of exposure to a traumatic event and the subsequent onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the population exposed to floods in Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: Individuals exposed to the 2010 flood in district Shadadkot, Sindh from April 2012 to September 2012. Methodology: Sample of the study comprised of 101 individuals from the flood affected areas in Pakistan. Age range of the participants was 15 to 50 years (M=27.73, SD = 7.19), with participation of both males and females. PTSD was assessed by using the self report measure, impact of Event Scale (IES) and the subjective and objective experience to flood was assessed through Flood Related Exposure Scale (FRES) devised by the authors. Results: The prevalence rate of PTSD among the flood affected population was 35.5%. Trauma had significant positive relation with objective flood exposure and subjective flood exposure (r=.27 and r =.38) respectively. Inverse relation appeared between age and PTSD (r=-.20). PTSD was higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: Understanding the prevalence of PTSD helps the mental health professionals in devising intervention strategies. A longitudinal study design is recommended that may be developed for better understanding of trajectories of trauma response across time span. Our findings may help identify populations at risk for treatment research. (author)

  15. Temporomandibular disorders, voice and oral quality of life in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Cristina Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have shown a relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMD and dysphonia, as well as quality of life in oral health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between severity of vocal self-perception and TMD severity and the correlation between oral health-related quality of life impairment and TMD severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three women aged 20 to 40 years, with or without complaint of dysphonia, were recruited at the Bauru campus of the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the local community. All participants were subjected to an investigation of quality of life related to dental and speech aspects by the application of Oral Health Impact Profile-short form (OHIP-14 and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL protocol. Also, a questionnaire was applied to detect the presence and severity of TMD. RESULTS: There was significant correlation between TMD and quality of life for all aspects analyzed in the oral health protocol, except for function and physical limitation (p>0.05. There was negative correlation between TMD and voice-related quality of life in the total score (p=0.007 as weel as physical (p=0.008 and socio-emotional aspects (p=0.017. In addition, there was statistically significant correlation between TMD and vocal self-perception (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: There is an association between TMD severity, voice-related and oral health-related quality of life. It is important to investigate in future studies the vocal self perception as well as the oral and voice conditions in patients with TMD.

  16. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine...... the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation....

  17. Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relationship between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Ahn, In-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressive symptoms affect the relationship between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the quality of life (QOL) in Korean soldiers. Methods We evaluated past and present symptoms of adult ADHD (the Korean Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Scale and the Wender Utah Rating Scale), depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and QOL (the Korean version of the SmithKline Beecha...

  18. The Association between Psychiatric Disorders and Quality of Life of Patient with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Baiyewu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life (QOL assessment has been employed increasingly to evaluate outcome among patients with chronic medical conditions. Such assessment could be adversely affected by psychiatric disorders, co existing with such a medical condition. Method: A cross sectional study of 251 out-patients with diabetes mellitus was done at a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital using the Composite Diagnostic Interview (CIDI for psychiatric assessment and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief version (WHOQOL-BREF to evaluate the QOL. Results: Fifty (20% of the 251 respondents met the ICD-10 criteria for definite psychiatric diagnosis. Depression accounted for 9.6% while twenty-six (10.4% had anxiety disorder. Of the 35 respondents who performed poorly on the overall quality of life, 17(48.57% had psychiatric diagnosis; 9 were depressed and 8 had anxiety disorder. 39 (15.5% scored poor on the physical health domain. 21(53.8% of the 39 respondents with poor score had psychiatric diagnosis: 13 had depression while 8 had anxiety disorder. On domain 1 (physical health, 51 (20.3% scored poor. Twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 51 (20.3% scored poor on psychological domain (domain 2 twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 of which were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 34 (13.5% scored poor on social relations (domain 3. 19 (55.9% of those who scored poor had psychiatric disorder and the diagnosis was depression. Conclusions: Physicians need to increase their surveillance of psychiatric co-morbidity in diabetes mellitus and collaborate with psychiatrists for a more effective liaison to improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes.

  19. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Tijero, B.; Abecia, L. C.; Gómez-Esteban, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  20. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain [men 59 (56.2%, women 46 (43.85%]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire for quality of life was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index. However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12 in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale. Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  1. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  2. Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: impact of the disorder and of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2013-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by two distinct phenomena: obsessions which are recurrent, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses, and/or compulsions which are repetitive covert or overt actions that are carried out to decrease anxiety. OCD commonly affects young adults, is associated with other comorbid mental illnesses and often has a large treatment gap (the proportion of individuals who have OCD and require care but do not receive treatment). OCD thus runs a chronic and disabling course which compromises an individual's functioning and well-being and ultimately has a rather detrimental impact on the lives of both patients and their families. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly paying attention to humanistic outcomes to encompass broader indicators of disease burden and outcome, one of which is quality of life (QoL). In this review, we provide a summary of the current knowledge of QoL in OCD, its socio-demographic and clinical correlates, and the effects of therapeutic interventions on QoL among those with OCD. Overall, studies indicate that those with OCD had diminished QoL across all domains relative to normative comparison subjects. Patients with OCD scored better on QoL domains than patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas they showed no difference or scored worse than patients with schizophrenia. Although research on socio-demographic correlates of QoL in OCD is largely contradictory, most studies suggest that symptom severity and comorbid depression or depressive symptoms are predictors of decreased QoL in OCD, with numerous studies showing this association across multiple domains associated with QoL. Studies assessing QoL as an outcome of treatment have found an improvement in QoL in people with OCD after treatment with pharmacotherapy or cognitive behavioural therapy with some studies suggesting that this improvement in QoL is correlated with improvement in symptoms. A few

  3. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Echevarría, E.; B. Tijero; Abecia, L. C.; J. C. Gómez-Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life...

  4. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - A Life-Long Risk?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, C E; Jacobs, V R; Bogner, G; Wolfrum-Ristau, P; Fischer, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arterial hypertension is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the latter are responsible for almost half of the deaths in the industrialised nations. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy constitute one of the most frequent causes of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality; on the other hand the occurrence of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy represents a risk for the later development of hypertension and the cardiovascular risks resulting therefrom. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with consecutive cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: Specific selective literature research. Results: After the occurrence of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy the relative risks for hypertension are 3.7 (2.70-5.05), for ischaemic heart disease 2.2 (1.86-2.52), for cerebral insult 1.8 (1.45-2.27) and for mortality resulting from cardiovascular causes 1.5 (1.05-2.14) and are thus significant. According to a recent study 56 % of internal specialists and 23 % of gynecologists do not know about the association of preeclampsia with ischemic heart disease, 48 % and 38 % respectively are not aware of the link with stroke and 79 % and 77 % respectively are not aware of the association with a reduced life expectancy after preeclampsia. The presence of hypertension is not known by many of the patients, merely 28-38 % receive an appropriate therapy. Conclusion: Adequate follow-up after hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the early recognition of and therapy for hypertension represent the cornerstones in the prevention of late cardiovascular sequelae. General practitioners, specialist for internal medicine and gynaecologists have a special responsibility with regard to the reduction of later complications. PMID:24771883

  5. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  6. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population. PMID:22796980

  7. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p ADHD, but not TDC participants, made more errors on negative than positive words [t(24) = -2.58, p ADHD and TDC participants. Between-subjects effects showed that ADHD participants made more errors than TDC, but not BD participants. Our main finding advances what is known about the effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children. PMID:25724546

  8. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  9. Repeated exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and health selection as life course pathways to mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood influences the risk of adult psychiatric disorder. This paper investigates first how cumulative childhood manual SEP influences the risk for mid-life depressive and anxiety disorders and secondly the effects of health selection based on psychological disorder in childhood and psychological distress in early adulthood on mid-life social position. Methods 9,377 participants of the 1958 Birth Cohort were followed up at 45 years w...

  10. History of Affective Disorders Historia de los trastornos afectivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The group of conditions called ‘affective disorders’ resulted from the convergence of certain words, concepts, and behaviors that took place during the early part of the twentieth century. The word ‘affective’ has itself a long and noble history and is part of a panoply of terms which include emotion, passion, sentiment, feeling, mood, dysthymia, cyclothymia, etc. Although these terms name overlapping subjective states, each has a different history and etymology. The semiology of affect disorders has never achieved the richness of the psychopathology of perception and cognition. This resulted from a long-term neglect and also from the obscurity of the subject matter itself. Our current notions of depression and mania date from the second half of the nineteenth century and emerged from the transformation of the old notions of melancholia and mania. The new clinical versions of them combined the new concept of alternating, periodic, circular, or double form insanity. This process culminated with Kraepelin’s concept of ‘manic-depressive insanity’ which included most forms of affective disorder under the same umbrella. Finally, the overinclusive kraepelinian concept was fragmented by the works of Wernicke, Kleist, and Leonhard, capped with the proposal of Angst and Perris to differentiate between unipolar and bipolar psychoses, accepted since 1980 by the DSM-III.El grupo de los denominados “trastornos afectivos” surge de la convergencia, ocurrida al inicio del siglo XX, de ciertos términos (afecto y sus derivados, conceptos (nociones teóricas sobre las experiencias relacionadas con el estado de ánimo y conductas (cambios observables en el discurso y la acción. La propia palabra afectivo tiene una dilatada e ilustre historia, y forma parte de una “panoplia” de vocablos como emoción, pasión, sentimiento, ánimo, afecto, distimia, ciclotimia o disforia, que denominan experiencias subjetivas superpuestas con etimología y

  11. The influence of life events on first and recurrent admissions in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kemner, Sanne M; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Bootsman, Florian; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Vonk, Ronald; van der Schot, Astrid C.; Willem A Nolen; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2015-01-01

    Methods: We collected information about life events and admissions across the life span in 51 bipolar patients. We constructed four models to explore the decay of life event effects on admissions. To test their interaction, we used the Andersen-Gill model. Background: Life events play an important role in the onset and course of bipolar disorder. We will test the influence of life events on first and recurrent admissions in bipolar disorder and their interaction to test the kindling hypothesi...

  12. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Rébecca Robillard; Rico S C Lee; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Django White; Bradley Whitwell; Scott, Elizabeth M; Ian B Hickie

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disord...

  13. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D. C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking pr

  14. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  15. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete; Gissler, Mika; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  16. Cyclothymia reloaded: A reappraisal of the most misconceived affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Hantouche, Elie; Vannucchi, Giulia; Pinto, Olavo

    2015-09-01

    Data emerging from both academic centers and from public and private outpatient facilities indicate that from 20% to 50% of all subjects that seek help for mood, anxiety, impulsive and addictive disorders turn out, after careful screening, to be affected by cyclothymia. The proportion of patients who can be classified as cyclothymic rises significantly if the diagnostic rules proposed by the DSM-5 are reconsidered and a broader approach is adopted. Unlike the DSM-5 definition based on the recurrence of low-grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is best identified as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament (basic mood and emotional instability) with early onset and extreme mood reactivity linked with interpersonal and separation sensitivity, frequent mixed features during depressive states, the dark side of hypomanic symptoms, multiple comorbidities, and a high risk of impulsive and suicidal behavior. Epidemiological and clinical research have shown the high prevalence of cyclothymia and the validity of the concept that it should be seen as a distinct form of bipolarity, not simply as a softer form. Misdiagnosis and consequent mistreatment are associated with a high risk of transforming cyclothymia into severe complex borderline-like bipolarity, especially with chronic and repetitive exposure to antidepressants and sedatives. The early detection and treatment of cyclothymia can guarantee a significant change in the long-term prognosis, when appropriate mood-stabilizing pharmacotherapy and specific psychological approaches and psychoeducation are adopted. The authors present and discuss clinical research in the field and their own expertise in the understanding and medical management of cyclothymia and its complex comorbidities. PMID:26005206

  17. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  18. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  19. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER:CO-MORBIDITY IN MANIC PHASE OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Harish; Tandon, Rajul; Saluja, Bharat; Mohan, Indra

    2002-01-01

    Comorbidity is known to occur among various psychiatric disorders. About the third of the patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder but coexistence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with mania is rare to see. Here we report a case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder where manic phase was accompanied by obsessions of contamination and pathological doubts along with cleaning rituals and spitting rituals.

  20. Identification and management of prodromal symptoms in bipolar affective disorder: the role of individual, disorder, and treatment-related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadon, Lisa Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traditional psychosocial treatments have been adapted for use with individuals with bipolar affective disorders due to the limited prophylactic nature of pharmacotherapy and the recognition of the role of psychosocial factors in the course of this disorder. Psychosocial interventions that include a prodromal monitoring and management component have been empirically shown to be an effective adjunct to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aims: There i...

  1. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  2. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  3. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  4. Hypothyroidism and bipolar affective disorder: Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder has received less attention as compared with that in depressive disorder. Aims: To study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and compare it with a population norm. Settings and Design: The setting was the psychiatry inpatient unit of a tertiary care hospital. The design was retrospective and observational. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed, referring to the case records of 84 cases of bipolar disorder admitted to the Department of Psychiatry in a Tertiary Referral Center during the year 2010-2012. The prevalence of hypothyroidism both subclinical as demonstrated by elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels (cut-off value 4.2 μU/ml and overt hypothyroidism (fasting T4 4.2 μU/ml was calculated. This was compared with the population prevalence of hypothyroidism as determined by an epidemiological study carried out in the year 2009, in the same region. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed. Statistical Analysis: Percentage prevalence of hypothyroidism in the sample was calculated and compared to a population norm. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed using the odds ratio (OR. Results: The total prevalence of hypothyroidism in both males and females in the bipolar group was comparable with that in the general population. There is a significant association between family history of mood disorder in first degree relatives and patients having hypothyroidism (OR 5.504 and P = 0.012. There were no statistically significant associations between thyroid abnormalities and age, duration of illness and lithium prophylaxis. Conclusions: There is no significant association between hypothyroidism and bipolar disorder

  5. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As ...

  6. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in schizophrenia and affective disorders and the correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the seropositivity rates of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and animal contact history between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods Six hundred cases with schizophrenia and 600 with affective disorders were recruited. The serum IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) .And the patients’

  7. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 hea...

  8. Epistatic Interactions between CREB and CREM Variants in Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, Alberto; Marsano, Agnese; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Pae, Chi-Un; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the existence of epistatic interactions possibly influencing psychotropic agents' response between rs6740584 within Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding (CREB) and rs12775799 within cAMP response element-modulator (CREM) variants in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). All BD and MDD patients were administered with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline a...

  9. Clinical study on role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Deepanjali Medhi; PD Das

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to know about the role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression in four groups of patients with dissociative disorder, somatisation disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression. It was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. Methods and materials: It was a case control study with 100 cases of neurotic disorders and depression (25 cases in each group) ...

  10. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik;

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that cannabis use affects negatively on onset and outcome of schizophrenia, but less is known about possible effects in mood disorders. Bipolar in- and outpatients (N = 3459) were enrolled in an observational study. The influence of cannabis exposure on clinical and social...... treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers....... Additionally, cannabis users experienced less satisfaction with life and had a lower probability of having a relationship compared with nonusers. There was little evidence that cannabis-outcome associations were mediated by third variables. An independent impact of cannabis use on psychopathologic outcomes in...

  11. Cognitive bias in healthy participants with symptoms of depression or seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers-Fayer, Fern

    2007-01-01

    Exaggerated cognitive bias is observed in affective disorder patients, and is often probed using the Emotional Stroop (eStroop) task. Few studies of the eStroop have employed Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). Here, High-density ERPs were recorded while healthy subjects with and without sub-syndromal Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) performed eStroop variations containing disorder-congruent words. RTs did not reliably differentiate between groups. Emotional relative to neutral w...

  12. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies ar...

  13. Negative Affective Experiences in Relation to Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at ...

  14. Paraneoplastic disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction: Myastenia gravis associated with paraneoplastic syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonovska Joveva, Elena; Karakolevska Ilova, Marija; Serafimov, Aleksandar; Petrovski, Stefan; Skenderi, Viollca

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders can affect any part of the nervous system. Rarely, the motor neuron or motor axons may be affected in patients with cancer , leading to clinical signs and symptoms that resemble ALS. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prototypic autoimmune disorder of the nervous system. In most cases ,MG is an idiopathic disorder, and the events leading to the production of acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies are not known. About 15% of the patients have a paraneoplastic for...

  15. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders - Associations with baseline deficits and change in subjective cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-08-01

    This is a secondary data analysis from our erythropoietin (EPO) trials. We examine (I) whether EPO improves speed of complex cognitive processing across bipolar and unipolar disorder, (II) if objective and subjective baseline cognitive impairment increases patients׳ chances of treatment-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity were assessed at baseline (week 1), after treatment completion (week 9) and at follow-up (week 14). We used repeated measures analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of EPO on speed of complex cognitive processing. With logistic regression, we examined whether baseline cognitive impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO-treated patients, baseline cognitive impairment increased the odds of treatment-efficacy on cognition at weeks 9 and 14 by a factor 9.7 (95% CI:1.2-81.1) and 9.9 (95% CI:1.1-88.4), respectively (p≤0.04). Subjective cognitive complaints did not affect chances of treatment-efficacy (p≥0.45). EPO-associated cognitive improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening for cognitive dysfunction may be warranted in future cognition trials. PMID:27349944

  16. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.

  17. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  18. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiebzak, Wojciech; Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory in...

  19. Mental Disorder or "Normal Life Variation"? Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…

  20. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBelvindrah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  2. Diabulimia: how eating disorders can affect adolescents with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer

    2014-09-16

    Adherence to self-management and medication regimens is required to achieve optimal blood glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Non-adherence places adolescents at serious risk of short and long-term health complications. Adherence difficulties may be exacerbated by concurrent eating disorders. Diabulimia is a term used to describe the deliberate administration of insufficient insulin to maintain glycaemic control for the purpose of causing weight loss. This article explores the concept of diabulimia and the compounding complications of an eating disorder on maintaining self-management regimens in adolescents with diabetes. PMID:25204951

  3. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  4. Malnutrition affects quality of life in gastroenterology patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kristina Norman; Henriette Kirchner; Herbert Lochs; Matthias Pirlich

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between malnutrition and quality of life in patients with benign gastrointestinal disease.METHODS: Two hundred patients (104 wellnourished and 96 malnourished) were assessed according to the Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Quality of life was determined with the validated Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF 36). Muscle function was assessed by hand grip strength and peak flow.RESULTS: Body mass index, body cell mass, arm muscle area and hand grip strength were significantly lower in the malnourished patients. Quality of life was generally lower when compared to norm values. Seven out of eight quality of life scales (excluding bodily pain) were significantly reduced in the malnourished patients. Comparing patients with liver cirrhosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), patients with IBD experienced significantly lower values in the perception of bodily pain, social functioning and mental health. Malnourished liver cirrhotics suffered reductions in more scales (six out of eight) than malnourished IBD patients did (four out of eight).CONCLUSION: Quality of life is generally low in benign gastrointestinal disease and is further reduced in patients who are classified as malnourished. It appears that liver cirrhosis patients experience a higher quality of life than IBD patients do, but the impact of malnutrition seems to be greater in liver cirrhosis than in IBD.

  5. Religious convictions in patients with epilepsy-associated affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Kondziella, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy often have different mood symptoms and behavioral trait characteristics compared to the non-epileptic population. In the present prospective study, we aimed to assess differences in behavioral trait characteristics between acutely admitted, psychiatric in-patients with epil...... characteristics at admission or in clinical history should alert the psychiatrist and lead to closer examination for a possible convulsive disorder....

  6. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  7. Life Events as Predictors of Mania and Depression in Bipolar I Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L; Cueller, Amy K.; Ruggero, Camilo; Winett-Perlman, Carol; Goodnick, Paul; White, Richard; Miller, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    To date, few prospective studies of life events and bipolar disorder are available, and even fewer have separately examined the role of life events in depression and mania. The goal of this study was to prospectively examine the role of negative and goal-attainment life events as predictors of the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred twenty-five individuals with bipolar I disorder were interviewed monthly for an average of 27 months. Negative and goal-attainment life events were assessed w...

  8. Enhancing quality of life in people with disordered eating using an online self-help programme

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Sau F; Ma, Joyce LC; Russell, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that have a significant effect on afflicted individuals’ quality of life. Evidence has shown that they can be improved with treatment. Internet-based interventions are useful in engaging individuals with eating disorders in self-management and treatment. This study aimed primarily to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating after participating in an open trial of an Internet-based self-help programme,...

  9. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  10. Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Julian D.; Courtois, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Complex PTSD (cPTSD) was formulated to include, in addition to the core PTSD symptoms, dysregulation in three psychobiological areas: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational security. The overlap of diagnostic criteria for cPTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD) raises questions about the scientific integrity and clinical utility of the cPTSD construct/diagnosis, as well as opportunities to achieve an increasingly nuanced understa...

  11. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Epa, Roksana; Czyżowska, Natalia; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MAD...

  12. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epa, Roksana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and Young Rating Scale for Mania (YMRS. Profile of moral reasoning was defined on the basis of the results obtained in the Defining Issue Test (DIT by James Rest. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (and its phases and the profile of moral reasoning: bipolar patients significantly less often than healthy individuals chose answers indicating the postconventional thinking (p=0,000 – and more often – answers indicating stage 3 and those belonging to the anti-institutional thinking index (p=0,000. There was also a relationship shown between the development of moral reasoning and the phase of bipolar disorder: patients in mania less often than per- sons in euthymia chose answers indicating the final stage of moral thinking (p=0,050. There were no significant differences between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in mania and between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in euthymia. Conclusions: The results suggest that the psychological state of the individual may have an impact on the process of moral reasoning – bipolar disorder may to some extent influence the way of thinking about moral dilemmas. The collected data also seem to emphasize the specificity of the manic phase which is especially worth exploration when conducting further studies.

  13. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dziwota Ewelina; Drapala Barbara; Gaj Magdalena; Skoczen Nikodem; Olajossy Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affe...

  14. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Fiori; Luigi Maria Giannetti

    2009-01-01

    Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular...

  15. [Interpersonal violence in the context of affective and psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Hauth, I; Berger, M; Saß, H

    2016-01-01

    Some mental and neurobiological disorders are associated with an increased risk for violence against others. The stigmatization of people with mental illnesses essentially emerges from a distorted perception of this condition. This review article summarizes the available literature on the determinants, prevention, therapy and tools for prediction of serious interpersonal aggression in the context of people with mental disorders. The risks for violence against other people show substantial variation between the various diagnoses. Schizophrenia and mania carry a clearly increased risk particularly at the onset of the disorder but disease-specific pharmacological therapy can reduce these risks. The highest risk factors are in particular previous violence, misuse of alcohol and drugs, male gender and young age. Probabilistic predictions of subsequent aggression against others on an individual-specific basis are only feasible in enriched populations (especially persons with mental illnesses and a previous history of assaults). Valid individual-specific predictions of future violence in the general population or on the basis of diagnoses of mental illness are, however, currently not feasible with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26676656

  16. What happens to anxiety disorders in later life?

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne Gerard JA

    2002-01-01

    Anxiety disorders decline in prevalence with advancing age but remain more common than depressive disorders. They are often of late-onset and there is frequent comorbidity with depressive disorders and physical illness. While anxiety disorders in older people are likely to respond to the same non-pharmacological interventions that have been shown to work in younger people, there is currently little formal evidence of this. Although there is some evidence that the non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic...

  17. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a “user/resource model” tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much “mind extension” than “mind invasion”: affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a “hack” of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  18. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSlaby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a ‘user/resource model’ tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much ‘mind extension’ than ‘mind invasion’: affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today’s corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a ‘hack’ of employees’ subjectivity.

  19. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a "user/resource model" tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much "mind extension" than "mind invasion": affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a "hack" of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  20. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P < 0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  1. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P <0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  2. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...

  3. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...

  4. Major affective disorder in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. A descriptive diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessle, R G; Kittl, S; Fichter, M M; Wittchen, H U; Pirke, K M

    1987-12-01

    DSM-III lifetime diagnoses were assessed in 52 patients with a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa or bulimia by means of a standardised diagnostic interview. It was found that 44.2% had a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-III major affective disorder, with abstaining anorectics having a lower rate of depression than those with bulimic symptoms. In the great majority of cases, the onset of affective disorder post-dated the onset of the eating disorder by at least one year. In patients whose eating disorder was in remission, the rate of depressive symptoms was lower than in those in the acute stage of their illness. These findings, combined with recent studies on biological changes in eating disorders, and psychological theories of depression, suggest that in most cases in which the two conditions are associated, the depression is secondary to the eating disorder. PMID:3502805

  5. Personality Profile of Women Affected with Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Hamid; Abedi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Ameli, Sedigheh Sadr; Samouei, Rahele

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study is to review the psychological profile of female patients with borderline personality disorder in the women referring to the Centers of Counseling and Psychological Services at Isfahan city based on MMPI-2 test and comparing them with ordinary women. Method: The present study is of the type of cause-comparative and the selection of examinees was done in form of random sampling with 50 women with the BPD and 50 ordinary women and through co...

  6. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases and...

  7. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder. PMID:26646576

  8. Homocysteine levels in schizophrenia and affective disorders – focus on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Doaa H Hewedi; Eissa, Abeer M.; Dorota eFrydecka; Błażej eMisiak

    2014-01-01

    Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dys...

  9. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  10. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  11. Impairment of executive function and attention predicts onset of affective disorder in healthy high-risk twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk.......To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk....

  12. Quality of Life in Bipolar Type I Disorder in a One-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aims of this study were (i to compare Quality of Life (QOL of patients with bipolar disorder (BD type I to those with schizophrenia during a one-year period after hospitalization and (ii to assess the association of different domains of QOL with severity of clinical symptoms and level of functioning in bipolar patients group. Method. A hundred and two participants were consecutively recruited before discharge from an acute hospitalization. To measure QOL as the main outcome variable, the Farsi (Persian version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument Short Version (WHOQOL BREF was used. Affective symptoms, overall functioning, and severity of mental illness were assessed as well. The assessment procedure was repeated four, eight, and 12 months after discharge. Results. No significant differences were found between patients with BD and schizophrenia on four domains of WHOQOL BREF at the baseline and the four, eight, and 12 month assessments. Within the subjects with bipolar I disorder, the most stable finding was negative association of depression severity with WHOQOL-BREF on the all four domains during repeated assessments. Conclusion. The findings suggest that persistent depressive symptoms might be the primary determinant of impaired QOL in patients with bipolar I disorder.

  13. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  14. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Zhen WANG; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating ...

  15. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bernegger; Klemens Kienesberger; Laura Carlberg; Patrick Swoboda; Birgit Ludwig; Romina Koller; Nestor D Kapusta; Martin Aigner; Helmuth Haslacher; Michaela Schmöger; Siegfried Kasper; Alexandra Schosser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted...

  16. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire; Barbosa Egberto Reis; Menezes Paulo Rossi; Miguel Filho Eurípedes C.

    1999-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the ro...

  17. Older age may offset genetic influence on affect: The COMT polymorphism and affective well-being across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Sims, Tamara; Best, Sasha E; Carstensen, Laura L

    2016-05-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT_Val158Met) genetic polymorphism has been linked to variation in affective well-being. Compared with Val carriers, Met carriers experience lower affective well-being. In parallel, research on aging and affective experience finds that younger adults experience poorer affective well-being than older adults. This study examined how COMT and age may interact to shape daily affective experience across the life span. Results suggest that Met (vs. Val) carriers experience lower levels of affective well-being in younger but not in older ages. These findings suggest that age-related improvements in emotional functioning may offset genetic vulnerabilities to negative affective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27111524

  18. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  19. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  20. Spiritual Meaning in Life and Values in Patients With Severe Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Philippe; Mohr, Sylvia Madeleine; Olié, Emilie; Vidal, Sonia; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Bancila, Mircea; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality and meaning in life are key dimensions of recovery in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore spiritual meaning in life in relation to values and mental health among 175 patients with schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, and anorexia nervosa. For 26% of the patients, spirituality was essential in providing meaning in life. Depending on the diagnosis, considering spirituality as essential in life was associated with better social functioning; self-esteem; psychological and social quality of life; fewer negative symptoms; higher endorsement of values such as universalism, tradition (humility, devoutness), and benevolence (helpfulness); and a more meaningful perspective in life. These results highlight the importance of spirituality for recovery-oriented care. PMID:26955007

  1. Giant lipoma of the back affecting quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Guler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign tumours composed of adipose tissue. They may be localized in almost all body parts and may be in a giant form. Some of these giant lipomas may transform malignity and cause problems in daily living and detoriate quality of life. Mass localization also restrict body functions. In the present study, a 72-year-old man who presented with a mass enlarged in a time period of two years and because of this could not lie in the supine position, sit in an erect position and dress easily, go outside because of his physical appearance. With surgical treatment a 38 × 22 × 21 cm mass weighing 3575 g was successfully resected. Postoperative early phase complications did not occur. During 48 months of postoperative period, any recurrence was not detected and the patient was free of all his complaints. Cosmetic and functional results of the surgery and patient satisfaction were excellent. After surgery patient's quality of life was improved and restriction of body function was disappeared.

  2. History of Affective Disorders Historia de los trastornos afectivos

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Luque; Germán E Berrios

    2011-01-01

    The group of conditions called ‘affective disorders’ resulted from the convergence of certain words, concepts, and behaviors that took place during the early part of the twentieth century. The word ‘affective’ has itself a long and noble history and is part of a panoply of terms which include emotion, passion, sentiment, feeling, mood, dysthymia, cyclothymia, etc. Although these terms name overlapping subjective states, each has a different history and etymology. The s...

  3. Facial affect recognition across the adult life span

    OpenAIRE

    MOOSAVIAN, Elham; BORRY, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The results of the researches have shown expression and recognition of emotion are two of the basic skills on which normal social interaction is based. As people grow older, they may become wiser and more experienced in interacting with other people, but they can also experience memory loss and cognitive slow-down, influencing the quality of relations in their daily routines. Experimental studies indicate that facial affect recognition, particularly negative emotions, decreases ...

  4. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5......Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time.......1%) with schizophrenia had died over a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes, natural causes and unnatural causes was significantly high for the three conditions. Mortality of ATPDs was greater in men, with about two-thirds of all deaths resulting from natural...

  5. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anth...

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments.Methods and results: We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments.Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models.Keywords: diagnostic criteria, body image, cognition, aesthetical treatments

  7. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:26917961

  8. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:26917961

  9. Stereotyped distribution of proliferating keratinocytes in disorders affecting the epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the technique of autoradiography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) to evaluate keratinocyte proliferation in basal, epibasal, and other epidermal layers in 30 diseases affecting the epidermis. The number and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes were counted in the different layers of the epidermis. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative indices of the different epidermal layers. Such links indicate that the epidermis responds in a rather stereotyped way to various pathological conditions. There exists some regulation in the distribution, number, and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes in the various layers of the epidermis

  10. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements examples from research in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Danilo Arnone,1 Lindsey Marwood,1 Roland Zahn,1–3 Karen E Lythe,2,3 Allan H Young1 1Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, 2Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, 3Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. Keywords: recruitment, affective disorders, advertising, depression, anxiety, bipolar

  11. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  12. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD. PMID:26708440

  13. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  14. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362623

  15. Difficulties in everyday life: young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons' perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15-26) diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC). Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text) produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: "fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability" with the following subthemes: "difficult things," "stress and rest," and "when feelings and thoughts are a concern"; and the theme "struggling to find a life of one's own" with the following subthemes: "decide and carry out," "making life choices," and "taking care of oneself." Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons' everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge these young persons' problems. PMID:24875238

  16. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnoses among electroconvulsive therapy patients with chronic affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Dam, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    investigated. A standardized schema for basic anamnesis and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic and Affective Illness (OPCRIT) were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical affective disorder ICD-10 diagnoses and the formal agreement between clinical...

  17. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people affected depends on the specific disorder. Cushing’s Syndrome Cushing’s syndrome is uncommon, affecting about 10 to 15 out ... Related A-Z Topics Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Cushing Syndrome Newborn Screening All related topics NICHD News and ...

  18. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  19. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  20. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events w...

  1. BINGE EATING DISORDER AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF CANDIDATES TO BARIATRIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, Ana Júlia Rosa Barcelos; PINTO, Sônia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Background : Obesity decreases the quality of life, which is aggravated by the association of comorbidities, and the binge eating disorder is directly related to body image and predisposes to overweight. Aim: Evaluate association between the presence and the level of binge eating disorder and the quality of life of the obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods : Cross-sectional study analyzing anthropometric data (weight and height) and socioeconomics (age, sex, marital status, educatio...

  2. Family Functioning and Quality of Life among Families in Eating Disorders: A Comparison with Substance-related Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Sánchez, Julio César; Parks, Melissa; Álvarez, Tamara; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the family functioning of Spanish parents of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with that of carers of patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) and families of healthy controls (HC). This cross-sectional study included 48 mothers and 45 fathers of 48 adolescent patients with an ED, 47 mothers and 37 fathers of 47 patients with an SRD and 66 mothers and 50 fathers of 68 HCs. Families of ED patients reported lower levels of criticism, symptom accommodation and negative caregiving experience than families of SRD patients. However, relatives of both ED and SRD patients reported similar levels of quality of life related to their mental health. Furthermore, families of HCs generally exhibited better scores on all scales assessing their caregiving experiences. Regarding gender differences, there was a tendency in mothers, primarily those from the ED group, to report more adverse experiences as caregivers compared with fathers. Symptoms characteristic to each disorder may be associated with differential patterns of family functioning and may require specifically tailored family interventions. Early family intervention in adolescence is crucial, as relatives' quality of life does not seem to have been badly affected at this point in the course of the illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26915666

  3. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schütz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale. In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS, life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale, and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales. Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit, communal (e.g., social affiliation, and spiritual (e.g., religion values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect.

  4. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorders : long-term analysis of quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Pieter; Mantione, Mariska; Figee, Martijn; Schuurman, P Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on quality of life (QOL) in therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. DESIGN: 16 patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) (DSM-IV) criteria for OCD and were cons

  5. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  6. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE (HRQoL) IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    RAČANSKÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The dissertation {\\clq}qHealth Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Eating Disorders`` is divided into theoretical and practical part. In the theoretical part is analyzes the problems with eating disorders. It is especially focused on its two basics forms, anorexia nervosa and bulimia which are illnesses occasioned by hypothrepsia. The next part drala with history, symptoms, cause, medication, process, prognosis and complications resulting from these disorders, including the main diagnostic cri...

  7. Relationship between Sleep Disorders, Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Purabdollah; Sima Lakdizaji; Azad Rahmani; Mehrzad Hajalilu; Khalil Ansarin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis as one of the most common autoimmune diseases is known to be one of the leading causes of disability. Sleep disorders have direct influence on patient’s life. According to studies, sleep problems are known to have negative impact on well-being and functioning, but the exact nature of relationship between sleep disorders and Rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, pain and qu...

  8. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy – A Life-Long Risk?!

    OpenAIRE

    Schausberger, C. E.; Jacobs, V. R.; Bogner, G.; Wolfrum-Ristau, P.; Fischer, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arterial hypertension is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the latter are responsible for almost half of the deaths in the industrialised nations. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy constitute one of the most frequent causes of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality; on the other hand the occurrence of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy represents a risk for the later development of hypertension and the cardiovascular risks result...

  9. Charting the internal landscape: Affect associated with thoughts about major life domains explains life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of happiness have examined the impact of demographics, personality and emotions accompanying daily activities on life satisfaction. We suggest that how people feel while contemplating aspects of their lives, including their weight, children and future prospects, is a promising yet uncharted territory within the internal landscape of life satisfaction. In a sample of 811 American women, we assessed women's feelings when thinking about major life domains and frequency of thoughts about each domain. Regression and dominance analyses showed that emotional valence of thoughts about major life domains was an important predictor of current and prior life satisfaction, surpassing, in descending order, demographics, participants' feelings during recent activities, and their neuroticism and extraversion scores. Domains thought about more frequently were often associated with greater emotional valence. These results suggest that life satisfaction may be improved by modifying emotional valence and frequency of thoughts about life domains. Moreover, these thoughts appear to be an important and relatively stable component of well-being worthy of further study.

  10. Escitalopram tolerability as mono- versus augmentative therapy in patients with affective disorders: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso, Chiara Arici, Cristina Dobrea, Giulia Camuri, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo AltamuraUniversity of Milan, Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyBackground: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, widely used in the treatment of affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine its safety and tolerability, as mono- versus augmentative therapy, in a group of patients with affective disorders.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 131 patients suffering from different affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, who received escitalopram for at least 4 weeks. Data were analyzed on the basis of mono- versus augmentative therapy, as well as age, gender, mean daily dosage, and patterns of combination therapy.Results: Sixty-seven (51.1% patients were treated with monotherapy (mean dose of 11.76 mg/day and 64 (48.9% with augmentative escitalopram (mean dose of 12.81 mg/day. The mean duration of escitalopram treatment was 14 months. The most frequently combined compounds were: other antidepressants (36.5%, mood stabilizers (33.4%, and atypical antipsychotics (30.1%. Side effects were reported in 5.3% of the total sample and the most common were insomnia (2.3%, nausea (2.3%, and dizziness (0.8%. No significant difference, in terms of tolerability, in mono- versus augmentative therapy groups was found. In addition, neither age nor gender was significantly correlated with a greater presence of side effects. Finally, no significant correlation between dosage and side effects was observed.Conclusion: Over a 14-month observation period, escitalopram, either as monotherapy or an augmentative treatment, was found to be well tolerated in a large sample of patients with affective disorders, with an overall low rate of side effects.Keywords: affective disorders, escitalopram

  11. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Kashdan; N. Morina; S. Priebe

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174

  13. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saariniemi, Kai M. M.; Asko M. Salmi; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Marjo H. Helle; Pia Charpentier; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three out...

  14. Sensory processing patterns, coping strategies, and quality of life among patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sensory processing, coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL in unipolar and bipolar patients; to examine correlations between sensory processing and QoL; and to investigate the relative contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, sensory processing, and coping strategies to the prediction of QoL. Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven participants, aged 16-85 years (53.6±15.7, of whom 157 had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 110 had bipolar disorder type I and type II, completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced, and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. The two groups were compared with multivariate analyses. Results: The unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ concerning sensory processing, coping strategies, or QoL. Sensory processing patterns correlated with QoL independently of mediation by coping strategies. Correlations between low registration, sensory sensitivity, sensation avoidance, and reduced QoL were found more frequently in unipolar patients than bipolar patients. Higher physical QoL was mainly predicted by lower age and lower sensory sensitivity, whereas higher mental QoL was mainly predicted by coping strategies. Conclusion: While age may predict physical QoL, coping strategies predict mental QoL. Future studies should further investigate the impact of sensory processing and coping strategies on patients’ QoL in order to enhance adaptive and functional behaviors related to affective disturbances.

  15. COMPARISON OF THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF FAMILY BURDEN IN AFFECTIVE DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho; Raj, Lok; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit; Verma, Santhosh K.

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to compare the extent and pattern of burden experienced by relatives of two different patient groups, one with affective disorders and the other with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional assessment of family burden using the Pai and Kapur's Interview Schedule was done in 78 patients with either bipolar disorder or recurrent major depression and 60 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DSM-III. The inter-rater reliability of the interview schedule for burden was also u...

  16. Haloperidol induced obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) in a patient with learning disability and bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhaq, Inam; Abba-Aji, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, a patient with severe learning disability and bipolar affective disorder developed de-nova obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) with haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic medication and the OCS stopped with stopping haloperidol. Antipsychotics are recommended and used as augmentation therapy in resistant cases of obsessive compulsive disorder. Although second generation antipsychotics have been reported to have induced OCS but haloperidol, which is a first generation an...

  17. Gait unsteadiness and fall risk in two affective disorders: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chung-Kang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In older adults, depression has been associated with increased fall risk, but the reasons for this link are not fully clear. Given parallels between major depression and Parkinson's disease, we hypothesized that major depression and related affective disorders would be associated with impairment in the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait cycle timing. Methods We measured stride-to-stride fluctuations of patients with two forms of mood disorders, unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder, and compared their gait to that of a healthy control group. The primary outcomes were two measures of gait unsteadiness that have been associated with fall risk: stride time variability and swing time variability. Results Compared to the control group, the two patient groups tended to walk more slowly and with decreased swing time and increased stride time. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. Compared to the control group, swing time variability was significantly larger in the subjects with bipolar disorder (p Conclusions Patients with MDD and patients with bipolar disorder display gait unsteadiness. This perturbation in gait may provide a mechanistic link connecting depression and falls. The present findings also suggest the possibility that measurement of variability of gait may provide a readily quantifiable objective approach to monitoring depression and related affective disorders.

  18. Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaturaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.

  19. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  20. Affective disorders in patients with HIV infection: impact of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, affective disorders (such as depressed mood) were seen in a considerable number of HIV-1-infected individuals. These disorders were a result of the poor physical condition of the patients, brain involvement by the virus (e.g. encephalopathy) or a reaction to disadvantageous living conditions (losing friends, jobs, etc.). In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), mental illness related to physical weakness is declining, as is the incidence of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. However, depressed mood and fatigue caused by efavirenz (a standard component of HAART) is becoming increasingly important, particularly in individuals who are infected long-term with HIV-1. Whatever the cause of affective disorders, their presence has been shown to negatively influence adherence to HAART and HIV-1 disease progression. Specialist knowledge of HIV-1 infection, and HAART and its psychiatric complications (particularly in subgroups of patients such as drug abusers and older people), is needed to care adequately for patients. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to more fully differentiate between the various aetiologies of affective disorders seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to determine their incidence and prevalence. Such information is important to ensure that affective disorders are recognised and adequately treated, which will in turn improve the efficacy of HAART. PMID:16734500

  1. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  2. Emotion and the affective turn: Towards an integration of cognition and affect in real life experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotion is caused by many factors, some of which are evolutionary, neurological, chemical, environmental, societal, personal and religious. Mostly, however, we are oblivious of the causal factors, many of which may function on a biological level or subconsciously, although the emotional effect is experienced physically and consciously. Emotions change as the trigger mechanisms in the cultural context change. This usually happens unnoticed over long periods. Internet databases have now made it possible to study the use of emotive words; this point is discussed. Of particular interest is the interaction between emotion and reason. Models that reduce emotion to the physical level are scrutinised critically. Reason is not emotionless and emotion is not always irrational. The close interrelationship of emotion and reason often makes it difficult to distinguish accurately between the two. The so-called affective turn takes cognisance of cultural, social, religious and other environmental factors; this broader approach clarifies the importance of affect’s role in rationality. One way of viewing emotion and affect is to look at the accompanying language; here the role of metaphor and narrative is pertinent. The traditional elevation of reason above emotion is examined critically as part of the affective turn that broadens the meaning and scope of emotions. I focus on the role of emotion in religion and factors that influence it, and explore the accent of affect in new spiritualities.

  3. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arrigo Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub

  4. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  5. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  6. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN WOMEN AFFECTED BY POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS

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    Elisabetta eScaruffi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(pathological personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 yrs were evaluated by antropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner's Comprehensive System (CS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to C.S. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders (4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive-aggressive and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive-compulsive and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0%, somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress.Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

  7. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  8. Identification of rare high-risk copy number variants affecting the dopamine transporter gene in mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K; Duong, Linh T T; Ingason, Andrés;

    2015-01-01

    rare high-risk variants of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic screening for CNVs affecting SLC6A3 in 761 healthy controls, 672 schizophrenia patients, and 194 patients with bipolar disorder in addition to 253 family members from six large pedigrees affected by mental disorders...... affective disorders. Recently, copy number variants (CNVs) in SLC6A3 have been identified in healthy subjects but so far, the implication of CNVs affecting this gene in psychiatric diseases has not been addressed. AIMS: In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CNVs affecting SLC6A3 represent...... sizes and two affected several genes in addition to SLC6A3. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that rare high-risk CNVs affecting the gene encoding the dopamine transporter contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and affective disorders....

  9. Quality of life and general health in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Camila Maria Bastos Machado de; Alves, Arthur César de Medeiros; Coelho, Lidiane Thomaz; Alchieri, Joõo Carlos; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate minor psychiatric disorders (general health) and quality of life with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients diagnosed with different TMD classifications and subclassifications with varying levels of severity. Among 150 patients reporting TMD symptoms, 43 were included in the present study. Fonseca's anamnestic index was used for initial screening while axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD) was used for TMD diagnosis (muscle-related, joint-related or muscle and joint-related). Minor psychiatric disorders were evaluated through the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF). An association was found between minor psychiatric disorders and TMD severity, except for stress. A stronger association was found with mild TMD. Considering TMD classifications and severity together, only the item "death wish" from the GHQ was related to severe muscle-related TMD (p = 0.049). For quality of life, an association was found between disc displacement with reduction and social domain (p = 0.01). Physical domains were associated with TMD classifications and severity and the association was stronger for muscle and joint-related TMD (p = 0.37) and mild TMD (p = 0.042). It was concluded that patients with TMD require multiple focuses of attention since psychological indicators of general health and quality of life are likely associated with dysfunction. PMID:23459771

  10. Quality of life and general health in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bastos Machado de Resende

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to associate minor psychiatric disorders (general health and quality of life with temporomandibular disorders (TMD in patients diagnosed with different TMD classifications and subclassifications with varying levels of severity. Among 150 patients reporting TMD symptoms, 43 were included in the present study. Fonseca's anamnestic index was used for initial screening while axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD was used for TMD diagnosis (muscle-related, joint-related or muscle and joint-related. Minor psychiatric disorders were evaluated through the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF. An association was found between minor psychiatric disorders and TMD severity, except for stress. A stronger association was found with mild TMD. Considering TMD classifications and severity together, only the item "death wish" from the GHQ was related to severe muscle-related TMD (p = 0.049. For quality of life, an association was found between disc displacement with reduction and social domain (p = 0.01. Physical domains were associated with TMD classifications and severity and the association was stronger for muscle and joint-related TMD (p = 0.37 and mild TMD (p = 0.042. It was concluded that patients with TMD require multiple focuses of attention since psychological indicators of general health and quality of life are likely associated with dysfunction.

  11. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  12. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan G. Hofmann; Nicola Petrocchi; James Steinberg; Muyu Lin; Kohki Arimitsu; Shelley Kind; Adriana Mendes; Ulrich Stangier

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potent...

  13. Affective Spectrum Disorders in an Urban Swedish Adult Psychiatric Unit: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scharin, M.; Archer, T.; Hellström, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several studies have found that patients with affective-/anxiety-/stress-related syndromes present overlapping features such as cooccurrence within families and individuals and response to the same type of pharmacological treatment, suggesting that these syndromes share pathogenetic mechanisms. The term affective spectrum disorder (AfSD) has been suggested, emphasizing these commonalities. The expectancy rate, sociodemographic characteristics, and global level of functioning in Af...

  14. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  15. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  16. Gender Difference in Associations between Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders and General Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD is known to have strong correlations with psychological factors and to display gender disparity. However, while chronic TMD is known to affect quality of life, large-scale studies investigating the influence on quality of life by gender are scarce.This cross-sectional study assessed the data of 17,198 participants aged ≥19 years who completed chronic TMD and EuroQol-5 Dimension sections in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009. We adjusted for covariates (health behavior, sociodemographic factors in regression analysis for complex sampling design to calculate regression coefficients and 95% CIs for gender difference in the association between chronic TMD and quality of life. We also evaluated which covariates of somatic health, mental health, health behavior, and sociodemographic factors weakened the relationship between TMD and EQ-5D.Prevalence of chronic TMD was 1.6% (men 1.3%, women 1.8%, and chronic TMD persisted to negatively impact quality of life even after adjusting for confounding variables. Low sociodemographic factors and health behavior had a negative effect on quality of life. Somatic health and mental health were most affected by chronic TMD. As for quality of life, women were affected to a greater extent than men by TMD. Women were more affected by osteoarthritis and general mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, and thoughts of suicide, and men by employment.These results imply that chronic diseases and psychological factors are important in chronic TMD, and that there may be physiological and pathological gender differences in TMD.

  17. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  18. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP). PMID:12548347

  19. Psychotic experiences co-occur with sleep problems, negative affect and mental disorders in preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    or definitely present. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was used independently to diagnose DSM-IV-mental disorders. Puberty development and sleep disturbance were self-reported. The associations between PE (any lifetime hallucination and/or delusion) and various mental problems and disorders......-reported mental health difficulties in absence of a diagnosis (31.4%). The risk of delusions increased with onset of puberty. The risk of PE increased with emotional and neurodevelopmental disorders, subthreshold depressive symptoms, sleep problems and lack of sleep, regardless of whether PE were expressed...... as hallucinations and/or delusions. The highest correlations were seen for emotional and multiple disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotic experiences are particularly prevalent in the context of affective dysregulation and sleep disturbance, increase with onset of puberty and represent a trans-diagnostic marker...

  20. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; den Boer, Johan; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    2003-01-01

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the cir

  1. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in f...

  2. LIGHT THERAPY FOR SEASONAL AFFECTIVE-DISORDER - THE EFFECTS OF TIMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; JANSEN, JHC; BEERSMA, DGM; BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1995-01-01

    Background. Sixty-eight patients with seasonal affective disorder participated in a 10 000-lux light treatment study in which two questions were addressed: do response rates differ when the light is applied at different times of the day and does short-term rank ordering of morning and evening light

  3. Affective Modulation of the Startle Response among Children at High and Low Risk for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397

  4. Resilience to affective disorders: A comparative validation of two resilience scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Beek, W.O. de; Lataster, J.; Jacobs, N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resilience to affective disorders in rehabilitating patients or in individuals with a severe disability is of special research interest. However, there is no gold standard for measuring resilience. We aimed to test the accuracy of the Dutch translation of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRSn

  5. Atypical Sensory Processing in Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Non-Affected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Atypical sensory processing is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specific profiles have been proposed in different age groups, but no study has focused specifically on adolescents. Identifying traits of ASD that are shared by individuals with ASD and their non-affected family members can shed light on the genetic underpinnings of ASD.…

  6. Sensory Clusters of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Affective Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Cermak, S. A.; Orsmond, G. I.; Tager-Flusberg, H.; Kadlec, M. B.; Carter, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show variability in their sensory behaviors. In this study we identified clusters of toddlers with ASDs who shared sensory profiles and examined differences in affective symptoms across these clusters. Method: Using cluster analysis 170 toddlers with ASDs were grouped based on parent…

  7. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J.; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J.; Cannon, Dara M.; Murray, Robin M.; McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its

  8. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  9. [Burnout. Stress coping disorder and meaning of life crises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühlmann, T

    2013-09-01

    Burnout is not a medical diagnosis but a developmental aberration which is associated with the risk of subsequent mental and somatic diseases. It can be summarized under a fatigue process with stress symptoms, societal-linked stressors and a driving force stress intensifier. In the mental stress circle, burnout presents as an accelerated vicious spiral driven by high demands. Therapeutic stress management encompasses improvement in life balance, cognitive information processing and functionality of the behavioral pattern as well as deceleration of the stress spiral. Burnout is also a meaning of life crisis, triggered by the narrowing of performance and success. The anthropological therapeutic approach targets an enhancement of self-conception and lifestyle. Other available therapy approaches for burnout include pharmacotherapy, coaching, management consulting and inpatient treatment. PMID:24081586

  10. Rumination Predicts Heightened Responding to Stressful Life Events in Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Gentes, Emily L.; Jones, Jason D.; Hallion, Lauren S.; Coleman, Elizabeth S.; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have documented heightened stress sensitivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. One possible mechanism is the tendency to ruminate in response to stress. We used ecological momentary assessment to study ruminative thoughts following stressful events in 145 adults with MDD, GAD, comorbid MDD-GAD, or no psychopathology. Diagnosed individuals reported more event-related rumination than contro...

  11. Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Weidle, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate important aspects of childhood obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) such as comorbidity and quality of life (QoL). Frequency and continuity of autistic symptoms from preschool age to later childhood in children with OCD were explored as a contribution to the ongoing nosological debate on whether there is an empirical base for summarizing conditions such as OCD, Tourette’s syndrome, eating disorders and autism spectrum diso...

  12. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Quality of Life in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cha, Boseok; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Moon, Eunsoo; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Lee, Sojin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by elevated impulsivity, even during periods of remission. Many recovered BD patients have functional impairments, which can lead to poor quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between impulsivity and QoL in euthymic BD patients. Methods A total of 56 remitted or recovered patients with type I or II BD, diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) crit...

  13. Preschool Anxiety Disorders: Comprehensive Assessment of Clinical, Demographic, Temperamental, Familial, and Life Stress Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Tolep, Marissa R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers’ anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multi-method design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least one anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to pr...

  14. Disordered Eating and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight and Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Lim, Crystal S.; Clifford, Lisa M.; Janicke, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine disordered eating and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural overweight/obese (OW/OB) children. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with 272 rural OW/OB children aged 8–12 years (M = 10.36; SD = 1.39). Child anthropometrics, demographics, disordered eating attitudes, unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs), and HRQOL were measured. Relationships between these variables were analyzed using bootstrapped multiple linear regressions....

  15. Effectiveness of family training and life skills on caring chronic mental disorders in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dareke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is semi-empirical study which is done to examiningthe effectiveness of family trainings and life skills on Caring Chronic Mental Disorders in Mashhad (Iran. 300 participants has been chosen in randomly from the families of chronic mental disorders who has been admitted in round the clock centers in Mashhad and who had been in waiting list and these participants has been divided to two groups of experiment and control randomly and we introduce family trainings and life skills to experiment group. There was no training to control group. These two groups were tested period to the beginning of trainings and post training with instruments such as California Social Adjustment Questionnaire; Families’ Attitude and Awareness about Life Skills and Family Trainings; Rosenberg Self-Esteem; General Health Questionnaire;and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results indicated that training had no effect on the attitude of families toward taking care of mental disorder, but family member،s attitudetoward mental disorder has been changed. This training has been influential on changing family member،s attitude toward life skills, social adjustment, self esteem, mental health increase and reducing mental disorders.

  16. Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients in Iran and Factors Affecting It: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Yaghoubi; Jafar-Sadegh Tabrizi; Mir-Mousa Mirinazhad; Saber Azami; Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad; Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are always one of the major causes of mortality in the world affecting all aspects of patients’ lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life in these patients in Iran through a systematic review on the results of previously conducted studies. Methods: In a systematic review, required information was collected by searching keywords of Iran, quality of life, heart failure, cardiac, heart, and their Pers...

  17. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  18. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  19. Relationship between Sleep Disorders, Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Purabdollah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis as one of the most common autoimmune diseases is known to be one of the leading causes of disability. Sleep disorders have direct influence on patient’s life. According to studies, sleep problems are known to have negative impact on well-being and functioning, but the exact nature of relationship between sleep disorders and Rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis patients. Methods: In a descriptive -correlative study, 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis referred to Tabriz medical university clinics selected by convenience sampling and were assessed by Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13 by descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean (SD and inferential statistics including Spearman correlation analysis, linear regression, x2, t- test and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.41(12.92 years in which most of them (74% were female. The mean (SD quality of life was 40.51(22.94, sleepiness 13.14 (5.6 and pain 6.09 (2.14. There was significant negative relationship between some sleep disorders such as (naps, apnea, asphyxia, ... and pain with quality of life but pain severity had more effect on QOL compared to sleep problems. Furthermore, participants had low quality of life with more restriction in physical (mean=34.71 and general health (mean=34.42.Conclusion: Sleep problems and pain were associated with poor quality of life in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

  20. Alpha oscillations and their impairment in affective and post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders. PMID:27435239

  1. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  2. Abdominoplasty improves quality of life, psychological distress, and eating disorder symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariniemi, Kai M M; Salmi, Asko M; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H; Helle, Marjo H; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo's modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799. PMID:25506426

  3. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  4. [The White man's burden - a case study caught between bipolar affective disorder and Huntington's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowidi, K; Kunisch, R; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Meißner, D; Hennig-Fast, K; Weindl, A; Förster, S; Neuhann, T M; Falkai, P; Berger, M; Musil, R

    2013-06-01

    We report upon a case of a 55 year old patient with a bipolar affective disorder, presenting herself with a depressive symptomatology in addition to a severe motor perturbation. The main emphasis upon admittance was perfecting and improving her latest medication. Four weeks prior to her stay at our clinic a thorough neurological examination had taken place in terms of an invalidity pension trial which did not result in any diagnostic findings. Therefore a neurological disease seemed at first highly unlikely. Even though the prior testing was negative, the ensuing neurological examination at our clinic resulted in movement disorders very much indicative of Huntington's Disease. A detailed investigation in regards to the particular family history of the patient was positive for Huntington's Disease. However, whether the patient's mother had also been a genetic carrier of Huntington's Disease was still unknown at the time the patient was admitted to our clinic. It was nevertheless discovered that her mother had also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder. A genetic testing that followed the neurological examination of the patient proved positive for Huntington's Disease. Neuro-imaging resulted in a bicaudate-index of 2.4 (the critical value is 1.8). In a clinical psychological test battery the ensuing results were highly uncommon for patients with solely a bipolar affective disorder people. Under the medical regimen of Quetiapine, Citalopram and Tiaprid the patient's mood could be stabilized and there was some improvement of her motor pertubation. PMID:23612984

  5. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Appear Not to Be Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien N.H. Abheiden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, more subjective cognitive complaints and white matter lesions are reported compared to women after normal pregnancies. Both have a causal relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aim: To investigate if women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertensive disorders have an increased risk of AD. Methods: A case-control study in women with AD from the Alzheimer Center of the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and women without AD. Paper and telephone surveys were performed. Results: The response rate was 85.2%. No relation between women with (n = 104 and without AD (n = 129 reporting pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders (p = 0.11 was found. Women with early-onset AD reported hypertensive disorders of pregnancy more often (p = 0.02 compared to women with late-onset AD. Conclusion: A reported history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy appears not to be associated with AD later in life.

  6. Defoliation and bark harvesting affect life-history traits of a tropical tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaoue, Orou; Horvitz, Carol; Ticktin, Tamara; Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2013-01-01

    Selectively harvesting whole individuals in managed populations (e.g. fisheries, hunting) has substantial effects on life expectancy and age at maturity. Although demographic rates of trees are impacted by recurrent harvest of plant organs (e.g. fruit, leaf, bark) known as non-timber forest...... life expectancy to perturbation of vital rates to the elasticities of population growth rate, emphasizing how the two kinds of elasticity address distinct biological issues and management goals. Life expectancy was shorter and reproduction delayed in the dry than in the moist region, indicating a cost...... of drought to life-history traits. Harvesting at constant rates only affects (increased) life expectancy in the moist region and (reduced) age at first reproduction in the dry region. Models in which harvest intensity varies stochastically over time show results similar to those with constant...

  7. An insight into light as a chronobiological therapy in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline M Walsh, Lynsey A Atkinson, Sarah A Corlett, Gurprit S Lall Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK Abstract: The field of chronobiology has vastly expanded over the past few decades, bringing together research from the fields of circadian rhythms and sleep. The importance of the environmental day–night cycle on our health is becoming increasingly evident as we evolve into a 24-hour society. Reducing or changing sleep times against our natural instincts to rest at night has a detrimental impact on our well-being. The mammalian circadian clock, termed "the suprachiasmatic nucleus", is responsible for synchronizing our behavioral and physiological outputs to the environment. It utilizes light transcoded by specialized retinal photoreceptors as its cue to set internal rhythms to be in phase with the light–dark cycle. Misalignment of these outputs results in symptoms such as altered/disturbed sleep patterns, changes in mood, and physical and mental exhaustion – symptoms shared by many affective clinical disorders. Key links to circadian abnormalities have been found in a number of disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder, nonseasonal depression, and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, therapies developed through chronobiological research have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of these conditions. In this article, we discuss the impact of circadian research on the management of affective disorders, giving evidence of how a misaligned circadian system may be a contributor to the symptoms of depression and how moderating circadian rhythms with light therapy benefits patients. Keywords: circadian, depression, SAD, nonseasonal, bipolar

  8. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Barbosa Goulardins; Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar Marques; Erasmo Barbante Casella

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse ef...

  9. Predictors of quality of life in a longitudinal study of users with severe mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Tremblay, Jacques; Schmitz, Norbert; Caron, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the end of the 20th century, quality of life has become a key outcome indicator in planning and evaluation of health services. From a sample of 297 users with severe mental disorders from Montreal (Canada), this study aimed to identify the key predictors of subjective quality of life (SQOL). Methods Users were recruited and interviewed from December 2008 to September 2010 and re-interviewed approximately 18 months later. A comprehensive framework including socio-demographic d...

  10. Validation of a specific quality of life questionnaire for functional digestive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chassany, O; Marquis, P.; Scherrer, B.; Read, N.; Finger, T.; Bergmann, J. (Julian); Fraitag, B; Geneve, J; Caulin, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are suitable conditions for assessment of quality of life. Their similarities justify the elaboration of a single specific questionnaire for the two conditions. 
AIMS—To examine the process leading to the validation of the psychometric properties of the functional digestive disorders quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL). 
METHODS—Initially, the questionnaire was given to 154 patients, to assess its acceptability and repro...

  11. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    up against other models than the traditional Kraepelinian dichotomization of the disorders. In conclusion, the results suggest that schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder patients have a genetic vulnerability or predisposition towards the disorders (possibly at least overlapping), and......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the results from 3 cohort studies describing risk factors for and mortality of major psychiatric disorders with focus on comparison between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, the results are evaluated in the context of the dichotomization of...... schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The studies were based on four Danish registers: the Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Cause of Death Register, and the Danish Medical Birth Register. From the registers, large population based cohorts were identified and...

  12. Stability and fluctuation of personality disorder features in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Simms, Leonard J

    2016-07-01

    Very little is known about the daily stability and fluctuation of personality pathology. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated the naturalistic manifestation of personality pathology over the course of 100 days. A group of individuals (N = 101) diagnosed with any personality disorder (PD) completed a daily diary study over 100 consecutive days (Mdn = 94 days, range = 33-101 days). Participants completed daily ratings of 30 manifestations of personality pathology. Patterns of stability and variability over the course of the study were then examined. Results indicated that individual PD manifestations and domains of PD manifestations were variable across days and differed widely in their frequency. Additionally, individual averages and level of variability in PD domains were highly stable across months, individual averages of PD domains were predicted by baseline dispositional ratings of PD traits with a high degree of specificity, and daily variability PD domains was associated with elevated levels of PD traits. This pattern of findings suggests that dynamic processes of symptom exacerbation and diminution that are stable in mean level and variability in expression over time characterizes personality pathology. Further, dispositional ratings are significant predictors of average daily expression of PD features. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196437

  13. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Svechnikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted.

  14. Health-related Quality of Life across the Anxiety Disorders: Findings from a Sample of Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Courtney; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have not compared Health-related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) across all DSM-IV anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions. We compared the effects of each anxiety disorder on HR-QoL, controlling for demographic variables, medical conditions, and comorbid Axis I disorders. Data are obtained from the Primary Care Anxiety Project (PCAP), a naturalistic, longitudinal study of anxiety disorders in 539 primary care patients. Each of the anxiety disorders was associated with worse self-...

  15. Difficulties in everyday life: Young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt H. Ahlström

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15–26 diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC. Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: “fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability” with the following subthemes: “difficult things,” “stress and rest,” and “when feelings and thoughts are a concern”; and the theme “struggling to find a life of one's own” with the following subthemes: “decide and carry out,” “making life choices,” and “taking care of oneself.” Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons’ everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge

  16. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  17. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...... with bipolar disorder (BD), 15 with unipolar disorder (UD) and 15 healthy individuals. Participants' subjectively experienced cognitive function and objective cognitive function were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) and the Screen...

  18. Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients in Iran and Factors Affecting It: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Yaghoubi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are always one of the major causes of mortality in the world affecting all aspects of patients’ lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life in these patients in Iran through a systematic review on the results of previously conducted studies. Methods: In a systematic review, required information was collected by searching keywords of Iran, quality of life, heart failure, cardiac, heart, and their Persian equivalents in databases of Science Direct, Pubmed, IRAN doc, SID, Medlib and Magiran. The selected time period for searching articles was since 2000 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were: releasing of article during 2000 to 2012, articles reporting patients’ quality of life in any domains of heart diseases, and articles published in Persian and English. Extracted results first were summarized in Extraction Table, and then analyzed manually. Results: Finally 18 of 1592 found articles were included in the study. A total of 3,797 cardiac patients' quality of life was measured using six different tools, the most important one of which was SF36 questionnaire. Among eight dimensions of SF36 questionnaire, the highest mean was for social role functioning with average score of 58.37 and the lowest for physical limitation (physical role functioning with score of 42.95. Overall, mean of eight dimensions was 53.19. Among 4 general domains of quality of life, physical activity had the lowest average of 43.63 and average of general dimensions of quality of life was 47.65. The most important factors affecting quality of life were sex, age, education, marital status, occupational status, suffering duration, number of hospitalizations etc. Conclusion: The results of the studies showed relatively low quality of life of cardiovascular patients in general. Therefore, according to the introduced effective factors in this study, it is necessary to consider regular programs

  19. The effect of anogenital warts on life quality of affected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Branko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anogenital warts represent a clinical manifestation of the infection of the lower female genital tract, human papilloma viruses types 6 and 11. They belong to the group of sexually transmitted diseases and then may be localized either on the female or male genitalia. The aim of the study was to show the effect of anogenital warts on life quality of the affected patients. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 200 female patients using the standardized questionnaire filled in by patients under the researcher's supervision immediately before laser wart removal. Each question out of 15 could be answered by one of the suggested answers: always, almost always, sometimes, rarely and never. The answer 'always' was worth one point, 'almost always' two points, 'sometimes' three points, 'rarely' four points and never 'five' points. Life quality was categorized as bad, tolerable, good, very good and excellent. The lower number of points in the questionnaire indicated the worse life quality and the higher number of points demonstrated a better life quality. Results. The study results showed that the highest number of subjects was in the third and fourth decade of life. The presence of anogenital warts had an effect on life quality in most patients. 5% of subjects assessed their life quality as bad, 16% as tolerable, 45% as good and 23% as very good. Only in 11% of patients the presence of anogenital warts did not have any effect on life quality (c2 = 121.680, p< 0.001. Conclusion. The presence of anogenital warts has a significant effect on life quality of affected patients, indicating the significance of their early detection and treatment.

  20. [Validation of the Essen Quality of Life-Index for Eating Disorders (ELI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagay, Sefik; Lindner, Marion; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Schlottbohm, Ellen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was the validation of a short disease-specific questionnaire (ELI, Essen Quality of Life Index for Eating Disorders) to measure the health-related quality of life in patients with eating disorders. A total of 182 currently ill and former eating disordered patients and 87 healthy controls completed the ELI questionnaire as well as other reliable and valid instruments (EDQOL, SF-12, EDI-2, FKB-20, SEED, BSI, IIP-D and SOC-13). In addition, 46 eating disorder patients completed the same questionnaires at the end of therapy. The ELI proved to have a high internal consistency of α=0.96. As expected, one main factor was found with a high declaration of variance of 71.25%. There is also evidence for very good construct validity and good sensitivity for change. Therefore, the ELI is an economic, reliable and valid instrument that assesses disease-specific health-related quality of life of individuals with eating disorders. The questionnaire can be recommended for research as well as clinical care contexts. PMID:25919059

  1. Reciprocal effects of stable and temporary components of neuroticism and affective disorders : Results of a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Penelo, E.; de Rooij, M.; Penninx, B. W.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies show that neuroticism is strongly associated with affective disorders. We investigated whether neuroticism and affective disorders mutually reinforce each other over time, setting off a potential downward spiral. Method A total of 2981 adults aged 18-65 years, cons

  2. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles. PMID:21093444

  3. Sense of Belonging and Life Transitions for Two Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Henri V.; Kontu, Elina K.; Pirttimaa, Raija A.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of belonging refers to the degree to which individuals feel included, accepted, and supported by others in a variety of social settings. This study, based on the narratives of two females (ages 26 and 29) with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), examines sense of belonging and various life transition issues that may appear throughout childhood,…

  4. Societal costs and quality of life of children suffering from attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; Zwirs, B.W.; Bouwmans, C.; Tan, S.S.; Schulpen, T.W.; Vlasveld, L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in the Netherlands on health care utilisation, costs and quality of life of these children, as well as of their parents is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs of patients suffering fr

  5. The impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginç, Kazim; Uguz, Faruk; Karatayli, Savaş; Zeytinci, Esra; Aşkin, Rüstem; Güler, Ozkan; Sahin, Figen; Murat Emül, H; Ozbulut, Omer; Geçici, Omer

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on quality of life in pregnant women. Material and method. Twenty-five pregnant women diagnosed as OCD in two university outpatient clinics were included for the study. Twenty-five pregnant women with no mental disorders and the same sociodemographic properties were taken as the control group. The diagnosis of OCD was confirmed with the DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders Structured Clinic Interview Diagnosis/Clinic Version (SCID-I/CV). In order to measure the severity of OCD Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale was performed. Quality of life was evaluated by WHO (World Health Organisation) Life Quality Scale - Short Form (WHOQOL-Brief). Results. The whole subgroup of points of WHOQOL-Brief was significantly lower in OCD patients compared to control group (in all subgroups Penviromental areas. Besides, there was a negative correlation between the duration of OCD and WHOQOL-Brief psychological health subarea (P <0.05). Conclusion. OCD negatively effects the quality of life in pregnant women and is correlated with the severity of the disorder. PMID:24916624

  6. An Analysis of Specific Life Satisfaction Domains and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Molly; Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; Horn, Thelma; Huebner, E. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research has revealed that overall life satisfaction (LS) is negatively related to disordered eating. This study examined whether specific LS domains (e.g., family, friends, etc.) were more strongly associated with eating behaviors/weight perceptions (e.g., exercising to lose weight, using laxatives to lose weight, etc.) in 723 randomly selected…

  7. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  8. EmoHeart: Conveying Emotions in Second Life Based on Affect Sensing from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Neviarouskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D virtual world of “Second Life” imitates a form of real life by providing a space for rich interactions and social events. Second Life encourages people to establish or strengthen interpersonal relations, to share ideas, to gain new experiences, and to feel genuine emotions accompanying all adventures of virtual reality. Undoubtedly, emotions play a powerful role in communication. However, to trigger visual display of user's affective state in a virtual world, user has to manually assign appropriate facial expression or gesture to own avatar. Affect sensing from text, which enables automatic expression of emotions in the virtual environment, is a method to avoid manual control by the user and to enrich remote communications effortlessly. In this paper, we describe a lexical rule-based approach to recognition of emotions from text and an application of the developed Affect Analysis Model in Second Life. Based on the result of the Affect Analysis Model, the developed EmoHeart (“object” in Second Life triggers animations of avatar facial expressions and visualizes emotion by heart-shaped textures.

  9. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  10. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  11. Does knowledge of cancer diagnosis affect quality of life? A methodological challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milroy Robert

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of an assessment of quality of life in lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether the knowledge of their diagnosis affected their quality of life. Methods Every patient in a defined geographical area with a potential diagnosis of lung cancer was interviewed at first consultation and after a definitive treatment has been given. Quality of life was assessed using three standard measures: the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer supplementary questionnaire (QLQ-LC13. Comparison was made in quality of life scores between patients who knew their cancer diagnosis and those who did not. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients were interviewed. Of these, 30 patients (23% knew and 99 (78% did not know their cancer diagnosis at the time of baseline assessment. The patient groups were similar in their characteristics except for age (P = 0.04 and cell type (P Conclusion The findings suggest that the knowledge of cancer diagnosis does not affect the way in which patients respond to quality of life questionnaires.

  12. Olanzapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with bipolar affective disorder: Does quetiapine holds the solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a rare, severe and life threatening condition induced by antipsychotic medications. It is commonly encountered with the use of first generation antipsychotics, however cases of NMS have been reported with the use of second generation antipsychotics like Olanzapine, Risperidone, Paliperidone, Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone, Amisulpride, Quetiapine and Clozapine, though the incidence of such reports is rare. Due to decreased use of first generation antipsychotics, NMS is reported less frequently now a days. In this case report- we highlight the management issues of a patient suffering from bipolar affective disorder, who had developed NMS following intramuscular injection of haloperidol, which was withdrawn and olanzapine was given later on. The patient had again developed NMS with olanzapine. Finally the patient was managed with modified electroconvulsive therapy and discharged on Lithium carbonate and Quetiapine.

  13. Can different affect focus in early stages of therapy predict outcome for different personality disorders within cluster C?

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study compared how specific affect focuses in early stages of treatment predict outcome (SCL-90) for specific cluster C personality disorders. Method: The sample consisted of patients with cluster C personality disorders from a randomized controlled trial comparing 40-sessions of short-term dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy. Thirty-one patients had an avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), 17 patients had an obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and 10...

  14. STUDY ON EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN EUTHYMIC PHASE OF PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijin Ammanamveetil Ummar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although classically conceptualised as a disorder of mood, a consensus is emerging that patients with bipolar disorder show cognitive deficits both during the acute phase of illness and during remission (Savitz et al., 2005. The cognitive dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder may also be a key to longterm disability, which in turn is likely to adversely affect psychosocial functioning, insight and treatment adherence. AIM To assess the executive functions in euthymic phase of bipolar affective disorder subjects and study the relationship between cognitive functions and illness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 BPAD patients were assessed in the euthymic phase for executive dysfunction on four tests- verbal fluency, Trail making tests, Stroop colour word tests and Wisconsin card sorting tests and compared with controls. An intragroup analysis was then done to determine the effect of illness variables. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the bipolar group when compared to normal controls. On analysing the relation of executive dysfunction with illness variables, only number of episodes had a significant effect, that too on a subtest of Stroop. CONCLUSION The presence of executive dysfunction may be a trait marker of bipolar illness and its relation with progression of illness need to be assessed.

  15. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  16. Specificities of defense mechanisms in bipolar affective disorder: relations with symptoms and therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Defense mechanisms as a central notion of psychoanalysis have inspired various levels of interest in research in psychotherapy and psychopathology. Defense specificities have only recently been investigated systematically with regard to several clinical diagnoses, such as affective and personality disorders. For the present study, 30 inpatients diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder I (BD) were interviewed. An observer-rater method, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS), applied to session-transcripts, of assessment of defenses was used. A matched, nonclinical control group was introduced. Defense specificities in BD encompass a set of 5 immature defenses, of which omnipotence is linked with symptom level. The level of the therapeutic alliance is predicted by mature defenses. These results are discussed with regard to the psychological vulnerability of BD, and treatment implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy with such challenging patients are evoked. PMID:19752647

  17. Ferumoxytol versus placebo in iron deficiency anemia: efficacy, safety, and quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, David C; Dahl, Naomi V; Strauss, William E; Barish, Charles F; Hetzel, David J; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Allen, Lee F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and can adversely affect quality of life. Oral iron is poorly tolerated in many patients with GI disorders. Ferumoxytol is approved for the intravenous treatment of IDA in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol in patients with IDA and concomitant GI disorders. Patients and methods This analysis included 231 patients with IDA and GI disorders from a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating ferumoxytol (510 mg ×2) versus placebo in patients who had failed or were intolerant of oral iron therapy. The primary study end point was the proportion of patients achieving a ≥20 g/L increase in hemoglobin (Hgb) from baseline to Week 5. Other end points included mean change in Hgb, proportion of patients achieving Hgb ≥120 g/L, mean change in transferrin saturation, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Results Significantly more patients with IDA receiving ferumoxytol achieved a ≥20 g/L increase in Hgb versus placebo (82.1% vs 1.7%, respectively; Piron therapy. PMID:27468245

  18. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K.;

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present da...... exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract....

  19. White matter abnormalities: Insights into the pathophysiology of major affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Gianluca; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) has been commonly associated with poor outcome in subjects with major affective disorders. Unfortunately, WMHs may be frequently confounded by the use of psychoactive medications and duration of illness. Although findings from the current literature are quite conflicting, we proposed that subjects with WMHs may be at higher suicidal risk when compared to other subgroups without. Based on the Fazekas modified scale, the severity of WMHs may ...

  20. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard John R; Galea Sandro; Vlahov David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a...

  1. High Prevalence of Affective Disorders among Adolescents Living in Rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Langhaug, Lisa F.; Pascoe, Sophie J.; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Frances M Cowan

    2010-01-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15–23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affectiv...

  2. Sodium Valproate induced priapism in an adult with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetank Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is defined as a prolonged and persistent, painful erection of the penis without sexual stimulation or arousal. There have been a few case report of priapism resulting from the use of antipsychotics. In our case, a 48-year-old male patient with a bipolar affective disorder was experiencing recurrent priapism with sodium valproate. The condition was found to resolve on stopping sodium valproate. There are no known case reports of similar complication with sodium valproate alone.

  3. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  4. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers; Jill eHolley; Mary eDahlgren; Atilla eGonenc; Deborah eYurgelun-Todd; Staci eGruber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  5. Platelet [3H]imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet [3H]imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders

  6. Thought suppression mediates the relationship between negative affect and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lejuez, Carl W; Lynch, Thomas R

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among negative affect, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), thought suppression, and diagnostic symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a community sample (n=127). Findings suggest that the temperamental variable negative affect intensity/reactivity was a stronger predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA. In addition, results indicated that higher thought suppression mediated the relationship between negative affective intensity/reactivity and BPD symptoms, after controlling for a history of CSA. Overall, findings suggest that (a) negative affectivity may be a better predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA, and (b) chronic efforts to suppress unpleasant thoughts may be a regulation strategy underlying the relationship between intense negative emotions and BPD symptoms. PMID:16005704

  7. The reliability of self-assessment of affective state in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2014-05-01

    Some studies have indicated that the capacity of self-assessment of affective state is more compromised during mania than during depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the reliability of self-assessment in bipolar disorder varies as a function of actual affective state (i.e., euthymia, mania, or depression). Sixty-five patients with a diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar disorder were evaluated with regard to the occurrence of an affective syndrome using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. In parallel, we applied the Analog Visual Mood Scale, a self-assessment tool to evaluate mood changes. The same individual prospectively completed the self-assessment scale in different affective states. During depression, the patients' evaluation was significantly different from when they were in manic or euthymic mood states. However, when in mania, the patients evaluated their mood state similarly to when they were euthymic. The bipolar patients in mania but not in depression did not reliably evaluate themselves with regard to their affective state. PMID:24727726

  8. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Boehm

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income. Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.

  9. Unequally Distributed Psychological Assets: Are There Social Disparities in Optimism, Life Satisfaction, and Positive Affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R.; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health. PMID:25671665

  10. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD: Role of lamotrigine augmentation to anti-depressant medication in winter depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic options have been evaluated and tried for seasonal affective disorder (SAD including bright light therapy (BLT, anti-depressants, beta-blockers and psychotherapy, but the data supporting use of mood-stabilizing agents is just handful in spite of this condition being understood most frequently to be associated with bipolar affective disorder II (BPAD II. So we planned to study role of Lamotrigine (Mood stabilizing agent in SAD. Materials and Methods: 30 patients of SAD who were prescribed lamotrigine in addition to antidepressant medications for a minimum of 8 weeks and were assessed for severity using HAM-D were selected retrospectively from the hospital records for this study. HAM-D scores at 2, 4 and 8 weeks were compared to baseline scores. Statistics Analysis: Single tailed t-test was used to study the difference of means to assess the therapeutic response and pre/post analysis of change. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Though no significant difference was seen in HAM-D Scores at 2 weeks of treatment compared to baseline, but results were statistically significant at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with lamotrigine augmentation of antidepressant medications. Conclusion: We conclude that lamotrigine augmentation was found to be effective treatment strategy for managing winter depression phase of Seasonal Affective Disorder.

  11. Nuclear power plant life extension: How aging affects performance of containments & other structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A Dameron; Sun Junling

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on how aging can affect performance of safety-related structures in nuclear power plant (NPP).Knowledge and assessment of impacts of aging on structures are essential to plant life extension analysis,especially performance to severe loadings such as loss-of-coolant-accidents or major seismic events.Plant life extension issues are of keen interest in countries (like the United States) which have a large,aging fleet of NPPs.This paper addresses the overlap and relationship of structure aging to severe loading performance,with particular emphasis on containment structures.

  12. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  13. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early foetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons’ expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or ‘expressive art’ therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion.

  14. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or "expressive art" therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  15. Health Care Use and Quality of Life Among Patients with Asthma and Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jonathan M.; Lehrer, Paul M.; Borson, Soo; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Siddique, Mahmood I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between panic disorder (PD) and health services use, health-related quality of life, and use of short-acting β2-agonists among individuals with asthma. We studied 21 adults with comorbid asthma and panic disorder (asthma-PD) and 27 asthma patients without PD (asthma-only). Participants attended a single session at a laboratory to complete the study. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess use of health care resources for as...

  16. Eating habits and other risk factors: are the future health care service providers really at risk for life style disorders!

    OpenAIRE

    Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi; Krunal Girishkumar Varia; Mitesh Dabhi; Mahesh Choudary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various...

  17. Bipolar affective disorders: Assessment of functional brain changes by means of Tc99m HMPAO neurospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affective Bipolar Disorder (ABD) is observed in all countries of the world with a prevalence fluctuating between 3 and 6.5%. The nature of its clinical manifestations and clinical evolution constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge even for the most experienced clinician. We have analysed by means of NeuroSPECT the neuro functional cortical and subcortical expression of a cohort of 44 eutimic patients with DSM IV criteria compatible with the diagnosis of ABD. The results were expressed in functional 3 dimensional images normalized for volume and compared to a normal data base matched for the age of the patient. Quantitative analyses considered the maximal regional perfusion in each Brodmann area with behavioral significance. The results were expressed in standard deviations with respect to the control population and we considered these findings as a continual variable susceptible to statistical analyses. In the cortex we report the presence of increased perfusion in subregions of areas 8, 9 and 10 of Brodmann (executive area) also in area 7 of Brodmann (posterior parietal lobe). We describe also relative decreased perfusion in areas 24 and 32 (internal frontal lobe), area 25 (affective area), area 21, 22 and 38 (temporal lobe). In subcortical structures we report increased perfusion in thalamus, caudate, and lentiform nucleous with values superior to 3 standard deviations above the normal controls. These findings can constitute neurofunctional markers of ABD that can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool. These findings suggest the participation of cortical/subcortical circuits as the probable etiologic substratum in affective bipolar disorders. Keys: Affective Bipolar Disorders (Au)

  18. Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Howson, Christopher P; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W; Blencowe, Hannah K; Christianson, Arnold L; Kent, Alastair; Malherbe, Helen; Murray, Jeffrey C; Padilla, Carmencita D; Walani, Salimah R

    2016-08-01

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are adopted by United Nations member states, children with congenital disorders remain left behind in policies, programs, research, and funding. Although this finding was recognized by the creation and endorsement of the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution in 2010 calling on United Nations member states to strengthen prevention of congenital disorders and the improvement of care of those affected, there has been little to no action since then. The Sustainable Development Goals call for the global health and development community to focus first and foremost on the most vulnerable and those left behind in the Millennium Development Goal era. To maximize the opportunity for every woman and couple to have a healthy child and to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected, their families and communities, and national health care systems, we propose priority measures that should be taken urgently to address this issue. PMID:27366873

  19. Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, S M; Simons, A D

    1991-11-01

    Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress in the past 2 decades raise several questions concerning traditional diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology. First, comprehensive measures of life stress force investigators to become more precise about the particular stressful circumstances hypothesized to interact with diatheses. Second, the influence of the diathesis on a person's life is typically ignored, which results in several types of possible bias in the assessment of life stress. Finally, information is available on diatheses and stress for specific disorders to provide a foundation for more empirically based hypotheses about diathesis-stress interactions. This possibility is outlined for depression. Such an approach provides the basis for developing broader, yet more specific, frameworks for investigating diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology in general and of depression in particular. PMID:1758917

  20. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for two weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus non-purge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on non-purge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared to a matched time-point on non-purge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. PMID:25688426

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Quality of Life of Individuals With Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Ashley M.; Mandal, Konoy; Lundgren, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of a broad range of life domains using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Method: Forty-eight individuals seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder (mean age = 29.8 years, female = 100%, white = 96.4%) from 2007 to 2009 completed the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; a medical chart review confirmed diagnosis and treatment history. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) and bulimia nervosa (n = 24) were compared. Body mass index (kg/m2), treatment history, number of comorbid psychiatric conditions, and eating disorder severity were used to predict quality of life. Finally, an inductive content analysis was performed on qualitative QOLI responses to contextualize the quantitative findings. Results: Participants with anorexia nervosa, compared to those with bulimia nervosa, reported significantly less satisfaction with the domain of relatives (F1,46 = 5.35; P = .025); no other significant group differences were found. The only significant predictor of QOLI global score was number of previous treatments (F1,41 = 8.67; P = .005; R2 = 0.175). Content analysis of qualitative data yielded complementary findings to the quantitative data; interesting group differences emerged for satisfaction with health with implications for measuring quality of life domains. Conclusions: Across several life domains, individuals seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appear to have similar levels of satisfaction, as evidenced by numeric and descriptive responses. Satisfaction with relatives, however, appears to differ between groups and suggests a specific target for intervention among patients in treatment for anorexia nervosa (eg, a family-based intervention such as the Maudsley approach). The use of quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as the QOLI, provides more clinically meaningful, contextualized information about quality of life than

  2. Does dyselxia affect self-esteem, self-concept and satisfaction with life in university students?

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sarah L

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Previous literature suggests that dyslexia affects self-esteem and self-concept in school children (Humphrey & Mullins, 2004). This study will extend the research into a sample of university students measuring self-esteem, self-concept and satisfaction with life between a dyslexic and non-dyslexic sample, taking gender (males and females) into account. Method: A questionnaire was utilised that included the Burnett Self-Scale, Reading Self-Concept Scale, and the Brief Multidimensio...

  3. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Üstündag; Ayten Demir Zencirci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and analyzed via basi...

  4. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteri...

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test...

  6. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Üstündag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.

  7. Quality of life is impaired in pediatric burn survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Landolt, M A; Buehlmann, C; Maag, T; Schiest, C M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric burn survivors and examined associations between PTSD and HRQOL. METHODS: Forty-three burn survivors, ages 7-16 years, were interviewed at an average of 4.4 years after their accident using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents and the TNO-AZL Child Quality of Life Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight children (18.6%) met DSM-IV criteria for current...

  8. Brief report: quality of life is impaired in pediatric burn survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Landolt, M A; Buehlmann, C; Maag, T; Schiestl, C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric burn survivors and examined associations between PTSD and HRQOL. METHODS: Forty-three burn survivors, ages 7-16 years, were interviewed at an average of 4.4 years after their accident using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents and the TNO-AZL Child Quality of Life Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight children (18.6%) met DSM-IV criteria for current...

  9. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span. PMID:23528790

  10. Treatment of late-life mental disorders in primary care: we can do a better job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moak, Gary S

    2011-01-01

    Health care services provided to older adults today are not as effective as they should be. The quality of care for late-life mental disorders often falls short of desired standards. The growth of the elderly population makes it imperative for the health care system to address late-life mental disorders more effectively. Intervention strategies based in primary care settings show the most promise, but effectiveness will depend on solving the geriatric psychiatry workforce crisis. Collaborative care is one promising model for improving geriatric mental health care delivery in primary care. Diffusion of collaborative care into the health care system and integrating geriatric psychiatry into other models such as geriatric medical homes will require redesign of the organization and financing of primary care and psychiatry to overcome current barriers. Public policy should reflect the essential role of psychiatry in geriatrics and promote the integration of geriatric psychiatry with primary care. PMID:21740202

  11. Intimate Partner Violence, Physical Health, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Latinas

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purposes of this exploratory study were to a) describe physical health symptoms and diagnoses in abused immigrant Latinas, b) explore the relationships between the women’s physical health and their experiences of intimate partner violence, their history of childhood trauma, and their immigration status, and c) explore the correlations between their physical health, health related quality of life (HRQOL), and mental health, specifically symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorde...

  12. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva; Vanessa Mason; Lúcia Abelha; Giovanni Marcos Lovisi; Maria Tavares Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29) attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP) 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negativ...

  13. Quality of Life in Bipolar Type I Disorder in a One-Year Followup

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Homayoun; Sharifi, Vandad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aims of this study were (i) to compare Quality of Life (QOL) of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) type I to those with schizophrenia during a one-year period after hospitalization and (ii) to assess the association of different domains of QOL with severity of clinical symptoms and level of functioning in bipolar patients group. Method. A hundred and two participants were consecutively recruited before discharge from an acute hospitalization. To measure QOL as the main outcom...

  14. IMPACT OF CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF WAR SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Mehmedbašić, Alma; Kučukalić, Abdulah; Džubur Kulenović, Alma; Suljić, Enra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research data from studies of functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry indicate various dysfunctions in certain areas of the brain in individuals who suffer from chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. These abnormalities are involved in the evolution of symptoms of PTSD, deterioration of cognitive functions and decreased quality of life of the survivors. The intensity of these symptoms is in direct correlation with the degree of dysfunction in the central nervous system...

  15. Life Stress and First Onset of Psychiatric Disorders in Daughters of Depressed Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Gershon, Anda; Hayward, Chris; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela; Rudolph, Karen D.; Booster, Genery D.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a comprehensive, interview-based measure of life stress to assess the role of different types of stress in predicting first onset of psychiatric disorders among daughters of depressed (n = 22) mothers and healthy (n = 22) mothers. Several types of stress were assessed: Chronic interpersonal stress, chronic non-interpersonal stress, episodic dependent (i.e., self-generated) interpersonal stress, episodic dependent non-interpersonal stress, episodic independent interpersonal str...

  16. The FNS-based analyzing the EEG to diagnose the bipolar affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panischev, Yu; Panischeva, S. N.; Demin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Here we demonstrate a capability of method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) in analyzing the manifestation bipolar affective disorder (BAD) in EEG. Generally EEG from BAD patient does not show the visual differences from healthy EEG. Analyzing the behavior of FNS-parameters and the structure of 3D-cross correlators allows to discover the differential characteristics of BAD. The cerebral cortex electric activity of BAD patients have a specific collective dynamics and configuration of the FNS-characteristics in comparison with healthy subjects.

  17. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    = 70.393; P > 0.001 and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002.Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.Keywords: children, functional articulation disorders, sensory integration dysfunction, speech therapy, efficacy

  18. Behavioral disorders and low quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Renata C; Soares, Cristina M Bouissou; Diniz, José Silvério S; Lima, Eleonora M; Silva, Jose Maria P; Canhestro, Monica R; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Melo, Carla Cristina D; Dias, Cristiane S; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Correa, Humberto; Oliveira, Eduardo A

    2011-02-01

    Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the quality of life (QOL) of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and to assess the health-related QOL (HRQOL) in 136 patients with CKD. To estimate the prevalence of behavior disorders and analyze HRQOL, we used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life (PedsQL) Core Scales as assessment tools for both the patients and caregivers. When compared to healthy controls, the CKD group had significantly lower scores in almost all PedsQL domains. After adjustment, only absence of religion/other religions remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score [odds ratio (OR) 6.2, P=0.009]. Among the parents, two factors remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score: patients' age >10 years (OR 5.4, P=0.033) and absence of religion/other religions (OR 3.2, P=0.038). The CKD group demonstrated a higher proportion of behavioral and emotional disorders in all SDQ domains. There was a negative correlation between the presence of behavior and emotional disorders and HRQOL score (r= -0.552, Plife quality of this pediatric population. PMID:21110044

  19. Impact of psychiatric disorders on the quality of life of brazilian HCV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Batista-Neves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the impact of psychiatric comorbidities on the health-related quality of life of HCV-infected patients. Assessment of clinical, socio-demographic and quality of life data of the patients followed up at a Hepatology unit was performed by using a standard questionnaire and the SF-36 instrument. Psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian version 5.0.0 (MINI Plus. Evaluation using the MINI plus demonstrated that 46 (51% patients did not have any psychiatric diagnosis, while 44 (49% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Among patients with a psychiatric comorbidity, 26 (59.1% had a current mental disorder, out of which 22 (84.6% had not been previously diagnosed. Patients with psychiatric disorders had lower scores in all dimensions of the SF-36 when compared to those who had no psychiatric diagnosis. Scores of physical functioning and bodily pain domains were lower for those suffering from a current psychiatric disorder when compared to those who had had a psychiatric disorder in the past. Females had lower scores of bodily pain and mental health dimensions when compared to males. Scores for mental health dimension were also lower for patients with advanced fibrosis. The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity was the variable that was most associated with the different scores in the SF-36, compared to other variables such as age, gender, aminotransferase levels, and degree of fibrosis.

  20. Genetic adaptation of the human circadian clock to day-length latitudinal variations and relevance for affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Forni, D; Pozzoli, U; R. Cagliani; C. Tresoldi; G. Menozzi; Riva, S; F. Guerini; Comi, G; Bolognesi, E; Bresolin, N.; Clerici, M.; Sironi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The temporal coordination of biological processes into daily cycles is a common feature of most living organisms. In humans, disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly observed in psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and autism. Light therapy is the most effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and circadian-related treatments sustain antidepressant response in bipolar disorder patients. Day/night cycles represent a major circadian...

  1. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  2. Using of virtual reality technology in acute cerebral stroke and their influense on post-stroke affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslyuk О.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of virtual reality technology in the rehabilitation of patients with cerebral stroke and influence on post stroke affective disorder. Materials and methods. The study included 88 patients with ischemic stroke: 59 men (67% and 29 women (33%. The average age of the patients was 62,05 ± 11,74 years. In the study group included 46 patients, 44 patients in the control group. The groups were matched by age, time from the begin of disease, severity of disease, the severity of motor, affective and cognitive impairments. In addition, in the study group to the program of early rehabilitation to use individual training with virtual reality technology (BTS NIRVANA. The duration of the training was 21 days, 3 times a week for 40 minutes. Results. On the background of rehabilitation in the study group patients had a significant reduced of neurological deficit (p <0,05. Significantly improved neurodynamic and executive cognitive function (p <0,01. In the study group was a statistically significant decrease symptoms of depression on a scale of BDI was 31,7% vs. 20.9% in the control group, anxiety on a scale of HADS was 18,46% (p <0,05 vs. 12,23% (p <0,05 in the control group. Increase motivation and decrease symptoms of apathy in the study group of patients on a scale of AES-C was 13,78% (p <0,05 vs. 1,01 % in the control group. On the background of rehabilitation patients in the study group was no difference between the rates of pathological muscle and mental fatigue. On the background there is rehabilitation of the quality of life due to mobility and activities of daily living. Conclusion. The study showed the positive effect of virtual reality technology for the correction of post-stroke mood disorders.

  3. The Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale (BADDS – a dimensional scale for rating lifetime psychopathology in Bipolar spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current operational diagnostic systems have substantial limitations for lifetime diagnostic classification of bipolar spectrum disorders. Issues include: (1 It is difficult to operationalize the integration of diverse episodes of psychopathology, (2 Hierarchies lead to loss of information, (3 Boundaries between diagnostic categories are often arbitrary, (4 Boundaries between categories usually require a major element of subjective interpretation, (5 Available diagnostic categories are relatively unhelpful in distinguishing severity, (6 "Not Otherwise Specified (NOS" categories are highly heterogeneous, (7 Subclinical cases are not accommodated usefully within the current diagnostic categories. This latter limitation is particularly pertinent in the context of the increasing evidence for the existence of a broader bipolar spectrum than has been acknowledged within existing classifications. Method We have developed a numerical rating system, the Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale, BADDS, that can be used as an adjunct to conventional best-estimate lifetime diagnostic procedures. The scale definitions were informed by (a the current concepts of mood syndrome recognized within DSMIV and ICD10, (b the literature regarding severity of episodes, and (c our own clinical experience. We undertook an iterative process in which we initially agreed scale definitions, piloted their use on sets of cases and made modifications to improve utility and reliability. Results BADDS has four dimensions, each rated as an integer on a 0 – 100 scale, that measure four key domains of lifetime psychopathology: Mania (M, Depression (D, Psychosis (P and Incongruence (I. In our experience it is easy to learn, straightforward to use, has excellent inter-rater reliability and retains the key information required to make diagnoses according to DSMIV and ICD10. Conclusions Use of BADDS as an adjunct to conventional categorical diagnosis provides a

  4. Factors Affecting Sustainable Performance of Construction Projects during Project Life Cycle Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development (SD is one of the main challenges faced by the construction industry, which has acquired global attention. Sustainable performance (SP of a construction project during its life cycle (LC is considered crucial to achieve the SD. The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases in the Gaza Strip. A total of 53 sustainable factors (economic, social, and environmental sustainable factors were identified through extensive literature review and confirmed by experts’ interviews and a pilot study. These factors are classified in relation to the project life cycle phases; inception phase, design phase, construction phase, operation phase, and demolition phase. A structured questionnaire survey is employed in this study for primary data collection. A total of 119 questionnaires were distributed randomly to engineers working in construction projects in the Gaza Strip to solicit their views regarding the factors affecting sustainable performance of construction projects throughout project life cycle phases. The results revealed that five factors among the top ten factors that impacting the sustainable performance of construction projects are classified under the construction phase, which confirmed that the construction process has the most effect on the projects SP. Three factors are classified under the inception phase, which assured that the inception of a potential project has a considerable effect projects. In addition, one factor was classified under operation phase and one factor was classified under demolition phase. The most common factors affecting the SP of construction project through the overall sustainability elements: reusable/recyclable element, provision of services, energy consumption, water cost, and water pollution assessment. Further studies are recommended to explore how to integrated sustainability concepts into

  5. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  6. A survey of children affected by ectomermal dysplasia syndromes shows an increased prevalence of atopic disorders and immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are rare genetic disorders that affect the development of tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Studies and anecdotal experience have indicated that atopic disorders (AD) and immune deficiencies (ID) may be associated with ED in children. Some ED genotypes ...

  7. Teaching for the Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Grades 1-12. A Resource for Teachers of Health and Life Skills, and Career and Life Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource supports a comprehensive school health approach to preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, addressing various aspects of the health and life skills and the career and life management programs of study through an approach that focuses on the development of a healthy self-concept and healthy relationships as fundamental to…

  8. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundLight severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).AimsTo compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception.MethodThis cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).ResultsRespondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence of SAD...... compared with full sight controls, P<0.001. Light perception respondents were more vulnerable to seasonal change than both full sight and no light perception respondents.ConclusionsThe study showed a highly significant association between visual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters, supporting the...

  9. DNA methylation and affective disorder%DNA甲基化与情感障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪雨; 王振华; 王承敏; 施梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent years,epigenetics research mainly focused on DNA methylation.A growing body of research indicated that DNA methylation may play vital role in etiology of affective disorder.With brief introduction of DNA methylation molecular mechanisms and relevance of DNA methylation to affective disorder,this review focuses on some supporting evidence which are recently emerged in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation.Methods We retrievaled related articles from databases,such as PUBMED,Foreign medical information resources retrieval platform,CNKI,Wanfang database,ect,from 2013-06 to 2015-01.Index strategy TI:[depression OR bipolar disorder OR affective disorder] AND All field:DNA methylation.Reading and narrowing the scope of the articles,the experimental design was understanded,such as DNA from either blood cell or brain parenchyma of sample,methods of methylation detection,gene detected and methylation position,etc.The articles included 168 in English and 32 in Chinese.The whole and retained the articles were red about MDD and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation in recent five years.Results Eventually,the article includes 29 articles and two of in Chinese.Most of them are receptor gene epigenetics research associated with disease.Conclusion MDD and bipolar disorder are associated with the higher of DNA methylation levels in multiple gene promoter region,such as GR,BDNF,5-HTR,SLC6A4 and the lower of COMT.This article only from the perspective of affective disorder reviewed the relationship between DNA methylation and diseases.None of other diseases epigenetics research,there is to be perfected in future.%目的 DNA甲基化成为近年来表观遗传学的研究热点.越来越多的研究表明DNA甲基化在情感障碍的发病中也扮演着重要角色.本文综述了DNA甲基化的分子机制,介绍了DNA甲基化与情感障碍的关系,并在此基础上对重性抑郁症与双相情感障碍相

  10. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  11. Mitochondrial genetic analyses suggest selection against maternal lineages in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R; Furlong, R A; Amos, W; Cooper, G; Rubinsztein, J S; Walsh, C; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

    1999-08-01

    Previous reports of preferential transmission of bipolar affective disorder (BP) from the maternal versus the paternal lines in families suggested that this disorder may be caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have sequenced the mitochondrial genome in 25 BP patients with family histories of psychiatric disorder that suggest matrilineal inheritance. No polymorphism identified more than once in this sequencing showed any significant association with BP in association studies using 94 cases and 94 controls. To determine whether our BP sample showed evidence of selection against the maternal lineage, we determined genetic distances between all possible pairwise comparisons within the BP and control groups, based on multilocus mitochondrial polymorphism haplotypes. These analyses revealed fewer closely related haplotypes in the BP group than in the matched control group, suggesting selection against maternal lineages in this disease. Such selection is compatible with recurrent mitochondrial mutations, which are associated with slightly decreased fitness. Although such mismatch distribution comparisons have been used previously for analyses of population histories, this is, as far as we are aware, the first report of this method being used to study disease. PMID:10417293

  12. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Bradley S. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (...

  13. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  14. Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büssing, Arndt; Wirth, Anne Gritli; Reiser, Franz;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one's personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in...... spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41 +/- 13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results: Among...... participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F = 9...

  15. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (phistory of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  16. Healthy Life Style Beheviours of The Nurses and The Determination of Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Curcani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out descriptively with the aim of determining the variables affecting healthy life style behaviors of the nurses. METHOD: The study was carried on between the date’s may-June 2007 at Ataturk University Yakutiye Research Hospital on Suleyman Demirel Training and Research Hospitals. The research was carried out with 205 nurses. In the collection of the data survey form including personal behaviors of the nurses, and the Health Promotion Life-Style Profile prepared by researchers were used in the direction of literature. RESULTS: Total score of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses participating in the research was 121.20±18.30, and sub-group scale scores; health responsibility is 20.88±3.76 and physical activities is 14.04±4.22, and nutritional habit is 19.57±3.80, and mental development is 25.36±4.47, and relations between persons is 24.04±4.07, and stress management is 17.09±3.59. There was statistically significant distinction between total score average and the situation of hawing children, and working duration and education level of the nurses (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the end of the result, it was determined that average of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses was middle level and that the most common and most noticeable health life style behaviors of the nurses was mental development, and that the least applied health life style behaviors of the nurses was physical activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 487-492

  17. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G. Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10, and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8, to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90, negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92, and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94. Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  18. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. PMID:27173657

  19. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interest (ROIs. Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusions: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness.

  20. Quality of Life in Patients with Substance Use Disorders Admitted to Detoxification Compared with Those Admitted to Hospitals for Medical Disorders: Follow-Up Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, John-Kåre; Pripp, Are Hugo; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) in patients admitted to a general hospital was compared with those admitted to a detoxification unit for the treatment of substance use disorder (SUD). This study combines data from two separate data collections: a cross-sectional study in a general hospital unit (somatic sample, N = 519) and a follow-up study in a detoxification unit (SUD sample, N = 140). A total of 659 patients recruited during 2008–2013 were included in this study. All patients completed a generic QoL questionnaire at inclusion, and the SUD sample also completed it at the six-month follow-up. SUD patients experienced comparably low physical QoL and had significantly lower psychological, social, and existential QoL domain scores when compared with the somatic sample. Mental distress and having a SUD were the major factors explaining variations in QoL, with both influencing QoL negatively. In the SUD sample, QoL improved moderately at the six-month follow-up with less improvement for the domain relationship to a partner. To facilitate the recovery of SUD patients, clinicians must view their patients’ situation holistically and invest efforts into the different life domains affected by poor QoL. PMID:27226719

  1. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05. Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009, high self-reported health (p < 0.002, and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04 had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health.

  2. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a...... polymorphism may present with an enhanced stress response. The presence of a specific genotype alone may not enhance the risk of developing an affective episode. Rather, the altered stress response may be expressed only in combination with other risk variants through interactions with the environment....... familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...

  3. The dynamic interplay between appraisal and core affect in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PeterKuppens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Appraisals and core affect are both considered central to the experience of emotion. In this study we examine the bidirectional relationships between these two components of emotional experience by examining how core affect changes following how people appraise events and how appraisals in turn change following how they feel in daily life. In an experience sampling study, participants recorded their core affect and appraisals of ongoing events; data were analyzed using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Valence-appraisal relationships were found to be characterized by congruency: The same appraisals that were associated with a change in pleasure-displeasure (motivational congruency, other-agency, coping potential, and future expectancy, changed themselves as a function of pleasure-displeasure. In turn, mainly secondary appraisals of who is responsible and how one is able to cope with events were associated with changes in arousal, which itself is followed by changes in the future appraised relevance of events. These results integrate core affect and appraisal approaches to emotion by demonstrating the dynamic interplay of how appraisals are followed by changes in core affect which in turn change our basis for judging future events.

  4. Validation of a specific quality of life questionnaire for functional digestive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Marquis, P; Scherrer, B; Read, N; Finger, T; Bergmann, J; Fraitag, B; Geneve, J; Caulin, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are suitable conditions for assessment of quality of life. Their similarities justify the elaboration of a single specific questionnaire for the two conditions. 
AIMS—To examine the process leading to the validation of the psychometric properties of the functional digestive disorders quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL). 
METHODS—Initially, the questionnaire was given to 154 patients, to assess its acceptability and reproducibility, analyse its content, and reduce the number of items. Its responsiveness was tested during two therapeutic trials which included 428 patients. The questionnaire has been translated into French, English, and German. The psychometric validation study was conducted in France, United Kingdom, and Germany by 187 practitioners. A total of 401patients with dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome, defined by the Rome criteria, filled in the FDDQL and generic SF-36 questionnaires. 
RESULTS—The structure of the FDDQL scales was checked by factorial analysis. Its reliability was expressed by a Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.94. Assessment of its discriminant validity showed that the more severe the functional digestive disorders, the more impaired the quality of life (p<0.05). Concurrent validity was supported by the correlation found between the FDDQL and SF-36 questionnaire scales. The final version of the questionnaire contains 43 items belonging to eight domains. 
CONCLUSIONS—The properties of the FDDQL questionnaire, available in French, English, and German, make it appropriate for use in clinical trials designed to evaluate its responsiveness to treatment among patients with dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. 

 Keywords: digestive disorders; irritable bowel syndrome; dyspepsia; quality of life; clinical trial; validation PMID:10075960

  5. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  6. Factors Affecting Quality of Life of the Homebound Elderly Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Murakami, Masahito; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 21 homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients who were 65 years old or over and required care for daily living (12 males and 9 females, average age: 79.3 ± 8.4 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) wa...

  7. Relation of happiness, hope and affection with quality of life in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Nave Leal, Elisabete; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luís; Oliveira, Mário; Silva, Nogueira da; Soares, Rui; Santos, Sofia; Ferreira, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meeting the actual role of positive psychology, begins to be recognized the relation of positive variables with health. Objective: To know the relation of happiness, hope and affection with quality of life in individuals with heart failure. Population and Methodology: 128 individuals with heart failure, 98 men and 30 women, 61.9±12,1 years of age, 6,6±3,9 years in school and 74,2% retired because of this disease. 56,3% were in Class III of New York Heart Association, with poo...

  8. Pathological Motivations for Exercise and Eating Disorder Specific Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Method Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. Results The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Discussion Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED’s detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. PMID:24136170

  9. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age ...

  10. Mood regulation and quality of life in social anxiety disorder: An examination of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Sharon C.; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Marks, Elizabeth H.; Marques, Luana M.; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. ...

  11. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  12. Exploring relationships over time between psychological distress, perceived stress, life events and immature defense style on disordered eating pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Williams, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived stress, immature defense style, depression and anxiety and negative life events all are known to be associated with eating disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between these factors and their relative strength of association with eating disorder symptoms over time. Methods This research was embedded in a longitudinal study of adult women with varying levels of eating disorder symptoms and who were initially recruited from tertiary educationa...

  13. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. PMID:26388103

  14. Brain structural correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without preceding stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E; Subirà, M; Alonso, P; Segalàs, C; Labad, J; Orfila, C; López-Solà, C; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Soriano-Mas, C; Menchón, J M

    2016-08-01

    Objectives There is growing evidence supporting a role for stressful life events (SLEs) at obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) onset, but neurobiological correlates of such effect are not known. We evaluated regional grey matter (GM) changes associated with the presence/absence of SLEs at OCD onset. Methods One hundred and twenty-four OCD patients and 112 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were split into two groups according to the presence (n = 56) or absence (n = 68) of SLEs at disorder's onset. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM8) to obtain a volume-modulated GM map. Between-group differences in sociodemographic, clinical and whole-brain regional GM volumes were assessed. Results SLEs were associated with female sex, later age at disorder's onset, more contamination/cleaning and less hoarding symptoms. In comparison with controls, patients without SLEs showed GM volume increases in bilateral dorsal putamen and the central tegmental tract of the brainstem. By contrast, patients with SLEs showed specific GM volume increases in the right anterior cerebellum. Conclusions Our findings support the idea that neuroanatomical alterations of OCD patients partially depend on the presence of SLEs at disorder's onset. PMID:26784523

  15. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults. PMID:27214523

  16. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder. Other types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , social phobia , and post-traumatic stress disorders . Panic disorder affects women twice as often ...

  17. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  18. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  19. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly. PMID:26938817

  20. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  1. [The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta; Miernik-Jaeschke, Magdalena; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The family burden (FB) has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems) and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers' emotions arising in response to objective difficulties). FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member's illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB. There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. PMID:24946470

  2. The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The family burden (FB has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers’ emotions arising in response to objective difficulties. FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member’s illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB.There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD are scarce.Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive.

  3. Lithium and valproate may affect motor and sensory speed in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    murat ilhan atagun

    2013-01-01

    Results: The Li group was significantly slower than the HC and MF groups in the right hand trial of the Pegboard Test. The Li group scored significantly lower in the right and left hand trials of the finger-tapping test in comparison to the HC and MF groups. All patient groups (MF, Li and VP had slower visual reaction time scores than the HC group. The Li and VP groups had significantly slower auditory reaction time scores than the HC group. Conclusion: Lithium may impair sensory and motor speed more than VP. Medication-free patients differed from healthy controls only in the visual reaction time test. Lithium may disturb movement systems by affecting the complex integration of the brain structures serving motor coordination. These results may also suggest that in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder, disturbance of psychomotor functions may be related to medications.

  4. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  5. A haplotype based study of lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder on the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald. H.; Wang, M.; Vang, A.G.;

    1999-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are a small group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, situated between Norway, Iceland and Scotland. The origin of the population is thought to be a mixture of Norwegian, Danish and British. The islands were populated at the same time as Iceland, i.e. around 1100 years ago......, and the size of the population was around, and occasionally below, 4000 inhabitants until 1800, after which it increased to its present-day level of around 45,000. The population is descended from Scandinavian and British ancestors. Because of the low number of founders and small size for many...... centuries, the Faroese population is perhaps the most valuable European population for genetic mapping of complex disease genes. The present study searched for haplotype sharing on chromosome 18 among eight lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder related, on average, 6.2 generations ago...

  6. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  7. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  8. Stress-related serotonergic systems: implications for symptomatology of anxiety and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. PMID:22484834

  9. Add-on topiramate reduces weight in overweight patients with affective disorders: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredget John

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-gain caused by many psychotropic drugs is a major cause for poor compliance with such medications and could also increase cardio-vascular morbidity among psychiatric patients. Recent reports have shown that the anticonvulsant topiramate causes weight loss in various patient groups. The drug has also shown effectiveness in open trials as a mood stabilizer in patients with affective disorders, but not in controlled trials in the acute treatment of mania. We used topiramate to treat 12 patients with affective disorders who had a body-mass index >30 kg/m2. Methods Topiramate was prescribed as part of our routine clinical practice, as an add-on medication, or as a replacement of a mood stabilizer. Patients' weight was recorded in 1 to 2 monthly intervals. Patients were followed up for between 6 and 12 months. The final dose of topiramate varied from 200 to 600 mg/day. Results Topiramate was effective in reducing the weight in 10 out of the 12 patients. At six months the 12 patients had lost a mean of 7.75 kg (SD = 6.9 kg, p Conclusion The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

  10. Quality of life in 70 women with disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H.; Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Mortensen, Erik L.;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychosocial well-being in women with disorders of sex development (DSD). DESIGN: An open case-control study. METHODS: Social and psychiatric information was collected via a structured interview from 70 Danish women diagnosed...... Checklist' (SCL-90-R; i.e. somatization, depression, and anxiety) respectively. For both measures, higher scores reflected poorer outcomes. RESULTS: Present relationships and having children were less frequent in patients than in controls (P = 0.02 and P

  11. Sensory processing patterns, coping strategies, and quality of life among patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Batya Engel-Yeger; Xenia Gonda; Caterina Muzio; Giorgio Rinosi; Maurizio Pompili; Mario Amore; Gianluca Serafini

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensory processing, coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL) in unipolar and bipolar patients; to examine correlations between sensory processing and QoL; and to investigate the relative contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, sensory processing, and coping strategies to the prediction of QoL. Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven participants, aged 16-85 years (53.6±15.7), of whom 157 had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 110 had bipolar di...

  12. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  13. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  14. No effect of ambient odor on the affective appraisal of a desktop virtual environment with signs of disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Desktop virtual environments (VEs are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and interventions on human behavior and safety related concerns in built environments. For these applications it is essential that users appraise the affective qualities of the VE similar to those of its real world counterpart. Previous studies have shown that factors like simulated lighting, sound and dynamic elements all contribute to the affective appraisal of a desktop VE. Since ambient odor is known to affect the affective appraisal of real environments, and has been shown to increase the sense of presence in immersive VEs, it may also be an effective tool to tune the affective appraisal of desktop VEs. This study investigated if exposure to ambient odor can modulate the affective appraisal of a desktop VE with signs of public disorder. METHOD: Participants explored a desktop VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime, while being exposed to either room air or subliminal levels of unpleasant (tar or pleasant (cut grass ambient odor. Whenever they encountered signs of disorder they reported their safety related concerns and associated affective feelings. RESULTS: Signs of crime in the desktop VE were associated with negative affective feelings and concerns for personal safety and personal property. However, there was no significant difference between reported safety related concerns and affective connotations in the control (no-odor and in each of the two ambient odor conditions. CONCLUSION: Ambient odor did not affect safety related concerns and affective connotations associated with signs of disorder in the desktop VE. Thus, semantic congruency between ambient odor and a desktop VE may not be sufficient to influence its affective appraisal, and a more realistic simulation in which simulated objects appear to emit scents may be required to achieve this goal.

  15. Serotonin Transporter and COMT Polymorphisms as Independent Predictors of Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunho; Choe, Ah Young; Kim, Borah; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Na, Hae-Ran; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence of poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with panic disorder (PD). However, little is known about the factors affecting HRQOL in patients with PD. The authors examined whether 5-HTTLPR tri-allelic approach and Cathechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism can predict HRQOL in patients with PD controlling for sociodemographic factors and disorder-related symptom levels. The sample consisted of 179 patients with PD consecutively recruited from an outpatient clinic and age- and gender ratio-matched 110 healthy controls. The SF-36 was used to assess multiple domains of HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the independent effect of the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val(158)Met on the SF-36 in panic patients. Patients with PD showed lowered HRQOL in all sub-domains of the SF-36 compared to healthy controls. The 5-HTTLPR independently and additively accounted for 2.2% of variation (6.7% of inherited variance) of perceived general health and the COMT Val(158)Met independently and additively accounted for 1.5% of variation (5.0% of inherited variance) of role limitation due to emotional problems in patient group. The present study suggests that specific genetic polymorphisms are associated with certain domains of HRQOL and provides a new insight on exploring the factors that predict HRQOL in patients with PD. PMID:27134498

  16. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Louisa; Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Teichtahl, Andrew J.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Pasco, Julie A.; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Wluka, Anita E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist–hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist–hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction). In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain. PMID:27082599

  17. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman-Peeters, Karlien M C; Ormel, Johan; Van Sonderen, Eric L P; Den Boer, Johan A; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depression and anxiety disorder. We found that daughters had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than sons and that offspring of depressed mothers had a higher risk of anxiety than offspring of depressed fathers. In addition to these main effects, we found an interaction between parent and offspring gender inasmuch that sons of depressed fathers had the lowest risk of depression and anxiety relative to the other groups. A second affected parent tended to increase risk of depression and significantly increased risk of anxiety. However, this effect of a second affected parent on offspring anxiety was most prominent in daughters when the second affected parent was the father, whereas risk in sons did not increase if the father was affected as well. Our results indicate that paternal and maternal depression similarly and additively increase daughters' risk of emotional disorder, but that sons' risk only increases with maternal depression. Intergenerational transmission of emotional disorder seems strongest when the female gender is involved, either in the form of a daughter or a depressed mother. PMID:17941098

  18. Dental health and oral health-related quality of life in children with congenital bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, K; Eshghi, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dental and some other aspects of oral health status of young patients with congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) and the impact of these on their quality of life (OHR-QoL) compared with controls. DMFS-dmfs (Decayed, Missed, Filled Tooth surfaces in permanent and primary teeth) scores, Simplified oral hygiene index, occurance of hypoplasia of first permanent molars, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and occlusion of 46 CBD patients at the age range of 2-15 years and 46 of other children as control were compared, and the impact of their oral health situation on quality of life was also investigated. Data were analysed by chi-square, t-test and Pearson correlation. Patients were significantly more caries-free with less decayed teeth in primary-permanent dentition (P = 0.03, t = -2.17).The mean scores of OHR-QoL of CBD patients and controls were not significantly different. Oral Bleeding was the significant variable in relation to 'oral health-related quality of life' in CBD groups (Pearson correlation, r = -0.56, P = 0.000). OHR-QoL in the control group was related to dmfs score (r = -0.392, P = 0.011) and male gender (r = -0.329, P = 0.026). Congenital bleeding disorder CBD patients were found to have a better dental health situation in primary dentition compared with controls; however, their 'oral health-related quality of life' was similar. Oral bleeding was the only significant factor related to OHR-QoL in CBD. It shows an overall importance of development of comprehensive care centres for CBD as the main cause of this achievement. PMID:22970656

  19. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  20. Individualised Versus Standardised Assessment of Quality of Life in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Padilla, Patricia; del Barrio, Andrés Gómez; Beato-Fernandez, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Individualised measures of quality of life (QoL) refer to instruments that encourage the respondent to actively elicit which areas of their life are most relevant for his/her QoL. The aim of this study is to compare individualised versus standard measures of QoL in a sample of patients with eating disorder (ED). The Schedule for the Evaluation of the Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL) and a generic measure of QoL [World Health Organization Brief Quality of Life Assessment Scale (WHOQOL-BREF)] were applied on two occasions (one-year follow-up) to a sample of 165 patients with ED, 57 recovered patients with ED, and 349 women from the general population. The areas of 'family', 'education/career or job', 'friends', 'leisure', 'romantic partner' and 'health' were identified as the most important for their QoL for all groups, both times. The WHOQOL-BREF was more sensitive than the SEIQoL in detecting changes that occurred over time. Clinical interventions for ED should consider social components as objectives of intervention. PMID:26442984

  1. Costs of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leah S. Kleinman; Ana Lowin; Emuella Flood; Gian Gandhi; Eric Edgell; Revicki, Dennis A

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic affective disorder that causes significant economic burden to patients, families and society. It has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.3%. Bipolar disorder is characterised by recurrent mania or hypomania and depressive episodes that cause impairments in functioning and health-related quality of life. Patients require acute and maintenance therapy delivered via inpatient and outpatient treatment. Patients with bipolar disorder often have contact with the s...

  2. Nature of Sexual Dysfunctions in Major Depressive Disorder and its Impact on Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarshi Guha Thakurta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sexual expression is an essential part of many human relationships, and may enhance quality of life and provide a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depression is associated with impairments of sexual function and satisfaction, even in untreated patients. Most antidepressant drugs have adverse effects on sexual function, but accurate identification of the incidence of treatment-emergent dysfunction has proved troublesome. However, few investigators have reported the base rate for disturbances in sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm or ejaculation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD prior to antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this study is to define the frequency of sexual dysfunction (SD in 60 patients with MDD and examine the relationship between SD and quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction variables. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 24 male and 36 female MDD patients diagnosed by SCID-DSM IV assessment completed a series of psychometric measures including a Sexual Function Questionnaire-Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX which asked about change in sexual interest and function as well as quality of life of life enjoyment using QLESQ-SF. Results: Over 33.33% of men and 42% of women reported decreased sexual interest. Reduced levels of arousal were more common in both men and women (8-22% than ejaculatory or orgasm difficulties (11-16%. In women, SDs were more than males. Quality of life was more impaired in sample with SDs than those without dysfunction showing significant impact of SD on quality of life. Limitation and Conclusion: Although limited by a relatively small sample of drug-free patients with MDD, and by the absence of a non-depressed comparison sample, these results emphasize the importance of factors beyond specific drug effects in the assessment of SD in drug naive-depressed patients.

  3. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

  4. Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

  5. Impact of stressful life events, familial loading and their interaction on the onset of mood disorders - Study in a high-risk cohort of adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegers, MHJ; Burger, H; Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Verhulst, FC; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J

    2004-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are established as risk factors for the onset of mood disorders, but few studies have investigated their impact on the development of mood disorders in adolescents. Aims To study the effect of life events on the development of mood disorders in the offspring of paren

  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, M; Levine, S M; Terman, J S; Doherty, S

    1998-09-28

    This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS. Instruments included the Personal Inventory for Depression and SAD (PIDS) and the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Effects (SAFTEE), which catalogs the current severity of a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and affective symptoms. Data sets from 110 CFS patients matched across seasons were entered into the analysis. Symptoms that conform with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of CFS were rated as moderate to very severe during the winter months by varying proportions of patients (from 43% for lymph node pain or enlargement, to 79% for muscle, joint, or bone pain). Fatigue was reported by 92%. Prominent affective symptoms included irritability (55%), depressed mood (52%), and anxiety (51%). Retrospective monthly ratings of mood, social activity, energy, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed a coherent pattern of winter worsening. Of patients with consistent summer and winter ratings (n = 73), 37% showed high global seasonality scores (GSS) > or = 10. About half this group reported symptoms indicative of major depressive disorder, which was strongly associated with high seasonality. Hierarchical cluster analysis of wintertime symptoms revealed 2 distinct clinical profiles among CFS patients: (a) those with high seasonality, for whom depressed mood clustered with atypical neurovegetative symptoms of hypersomnia and hyperphagia, as is seen in SAD; and (b) those with low seasonality, who showed a primary clustering of classic CFS symptoms (fatigue, aches, cognitive disturbance

  7. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    OpenAIRE

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; Den Boer, J A; Minderaa, R. B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depressio...

  8. Impact of corticotherapy, nutrition, and sleep disorder on quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Giovanna; Nozoe, Karen T; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2016-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the second most common hereditary genetic disease in humans and has elevated mortality. DMD is an X-linked, life-limiting progressive muscle-wasting disease found predominantly in boys and young men. One of the main treatments for patients with DMD is corticosteroids. However, long-term use may cause major side effects such as obesity, a reduction in vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition among patients with DMD, especially obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In children, OSA is associated with obesity and a reduction of vitamin D concentration. In this article we aim to explore the interrelationship that exists between corticosteroids, obesity, OSA, and the risk of osteoporosis. Our main hypothesis is that factors such as nutrition and sleep are related to obesity and OSA, respectively. In addition, the chronic use of corticosteroids, obesity, and OSA are factors that can reduce serum levels of vitamin D, triggering osteoporosis. Thus, these factors play a key role in affecting the quality of life for patients with DMD and intervention based on these aspects may improve survival. PMID:26701140

  9. Differential engagement of cognitive and affective neural systems in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates the neural bases of cognitive control of emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventeen un-medicated PBD patients, 15 un-medicated ADHD patients, and 14 healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 13.78 ± 2.47) performed an emotional valence Stroop Task, requiring them to match the color of an emotionally valenced word to the color of either of two adjacent circles. Both patient groups responded signific...

  10. Comorbidity and quality of life in adults with hair pulling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David C; Maas, Joyce; Twohig, Michael P; Saunders, Stephen M; Compton, Scott N; Neal-Barnett, Angela M; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2016-05-30

    Hair pulling disorder (HPD; trichotillomania) is thought to be associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment. However, few methodologically rigorous studies of HPD have been conducted, rendering such conclusions tenuous. The following study examined comorbidity and psychosocial functioning in a well-characterized sample of adults with HPD (N=85) who met DSM-IV criteria, had at least moderate hair pulling severity, and participated in a clinical trial. Results revealed that 38.8% of individuals with HPD had another current psychiatric diagnosis and 78.8% had another lifetime (present and/or past) psychiatric diagnosis. Specifically, HPD showed substantial overlap with depressive, anxiety, addictive, and other body-focused repetitive behavior disorders. The relationships between certain comorbidity patterns, hair pulling severity, current mood and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life were also examined. Results showed that current depressive symptoms were the only predictor of quality of life deficits. Implications of these findings for the conceptualization and treatment of HPD are discussed. PMID:27137957

  11. Harmed? Harmful? Experiencing Abusive Adult Children With Mental Disorder Over the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael

    2016-09-01

    Older parents of an adult child coping with a mental disorder that is expressed by violent deviant behavior face significant parenting challenges. The purpose of this article is to explore the ways older parents exposed to abuse by their adult children with mental disorder (ACMD) perceived their child's violent deviant behavior along the life course. In a qualitative-phenomenological study, 16 parents aged 58 to 90 were interviewed in depth. Three major themes emerged: (a) ongoing total care for the child's needs along the life course, (b) constructions and perceptions of the child through the years-Parents perceived their children over two continua, reflecting their experience of the child's deviant behavior: the child as more harmed versus more harmful, the child as normative versus pathological-and (c) the parent's emotional world toward the harmed-harmful child. The findings enable a deeper understanding of the various ways in which parents cope with living with deviant behaviors of their ACMD. Hence, this study can serve as a framework for developing tailored and differential intervention methods. PMID:25854589

  12. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  13. Quality of life, functioning and cognition in bipolar disorder and major depression: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura Damiani; Kochhann, Renata; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2016-07-30

    This study aimed to identify profiles of functioning and quality of life (QOL) in depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy adults, as well as the clinical, demographic and cognitive variables associated with each of these profiles. Participants completed the WHODAS 2.0 and WHOQOL-BREF, which were submitted to latent profile analysis. The four cluster solution provided the best fit for our data. Cluster 1 consisted mostly of healthy adults, and had the highest functioning and QOL. Clusters 2 contained older patients with subclinical depressive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities, whose impairments in QOL and functioning were associated with mood symptoms and several cognitive abilities. Patients with MDD, BDI or BDII with mild to moderate depression, such as those in cluster 3, may benefit more significantly from interventions in cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, and sustained attention. Lastly, patients with mood disorders and clinically significant levels of depression, as well as a history of suicide attempts, like those in cluster 4, may benefit from interventions aimed at working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility; that is, the three core executive functions. These findings should be further investigated, and used to guide treatments for patients with mood disorders and different patterns of functional impairment. PMID:27209359

  14. Sex attribution, gender identity and quality of life in disorders of sex development due to 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: methods for clinical and psychosocial assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Risso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of sex in newborns with genital ambiguity is challenging. Information concerning the satisfaction of subjects with disorders of sex development from childhood to adulthood is required in order to address sex attribution policies. This study focuses on the methods that enable clinicians to investigate the alignment of phenotypes with gender identity and quality of life in people with disorders of this kind. These methods are presented as tools for studying a cohort of ten subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism examined between 1985 and 2014 in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Turin: five children and five young adults, four reared as females and six as males. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of a clinical scoring system considering height, genital appearance, gonads and pubertal development. The Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment were adopted. The four male children strongly identified with their assigned sex: male attribution was satisfactory until pubertal age. In young adults the clinical scores ranged between 55-65% for both genders. In the young male, the reduced sexual activity and the poor body image perception strongly affected his quality of life. The clinical scores of the two young female adults (60% for both were not balanced with their quality of life scores (87.5% and 68.75% respectively: individual traits and social-familial context should be investigated in order to explain these differences. Clinical and psychosocial assessment in people with disorders of sex development is mandatory in order to plan care procedures; a detailed analysis requires adequate tools. Clinical scoring system, Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment can be used to investigate the alignment of physical phenotype with gender identity and quality of life.

  15. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies. PMID:26378358

  16. Life Spectacles: Media, Business Synergy, and Affective Work in Neoliberal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Chinese media communicates the meanings of everyday life has been significantly reconfigured since the late 1970s. ‘Folk television’ or ‘life television’ has been developed as a popular television genre that focuses on ordinary people and their lived experiences. This phenomenon reflects the neoliberal development of China’s cultural institutions in general and the privatization of television production and distribution in particular. Meanwhile, cultural enterprises also shape the way in which Chinese citizens conduct themselves. In such domains as leisure and consumption, operators of theme built environments such as theme parks, theme shopping malls, and even residential communities deploy spatial planning and engineering techniques to subtly train their users to behave in a particular way to become proper citizens. This type of business through real estate development, a dominant sector of the Chinese economy, contributes to the national project of managing social risks in China’s neoliberal process. To illustrate how media and leisure companies engage in cultural production appropriate to China’s neoliberal development, this paper examines both a television production of news about ‘ordinary people’ and a theme park operation of ethnic festival by focusing on the relationship between media convergence, business synergy, and affective work.

  17. Association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Renee D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the MECA (Methods in Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent psychopathology, a community-based study of 1,285 youth in the United States conducted in 1992. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between parent/caregiver-reported infection early in life and DSM/DISC diagnoses of mental disorders at ages 9-17. Results Infection early in life was associated with a significantly increased odds of major depression (OR = 3.9, social phobia (OR = 5.8, overanxious disorder (OR = 6.1, panic disorder (OR = 12.1, and oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 3.7. Conclusions These findings are consistent with and extend previous results by providing new evidence suggesting a link between infection early in life and increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders among youth. These results should be considered preliminary. Replication of these findings with longitudinal epidemiologic data is needed. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Psychological Disorders Affect 1 in 7 U.S. Kids Under 9: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, looking for reported speech and language problems, learning disabilities, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, anxiety and more. "Based ...

  19. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  20. An fMRI study of the interface between affective and cognitive neural circuitry in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; O'Connor, Megan Marlow; Harral, Erin M; Sweeney, John A

    2008-04-15

    The pathophysiology of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) impacts both affective and cognitive brain systems. Understanding disturbances in the neural circuits subserving these abilities is critical for characterizing developmental aberrations associated with the disorder and developing improved treatments. Our objective is to use functional neuroimaging with pediatric bipolar disorder patients employing a task that probes the functional integrity of attentional control and affect processing. Ten euthymic unmedicated pediatric bipolar patients and healthy controls matched for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a pediatric color word matching paradigm, subjects were asked to match the color of a word with one of two colored circles below. Words had a positive, negative or neutral emotional valence, and were presented in 30-s blocks. In the negative affect condition, relative to the neutral condition, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated greater activation of bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and left amygdala, and less activation in right rostral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsolateral PFC at the junction of the middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri. In the positive affect condition, there was no reduced activation of PFC or increased amygdala activation. The pattern of reduced activation of ventrolateral PFC and greater amygdala activation in bipolar children in response to negative stimuli suggests both disinhibition of emotional reactivity in the limbic system and reduced function in PFC systems that regulate those responses. Higher cortical cognitive areas such as the dorsolateral PFC may also be adversely affected by exaggerated emotional responsivity to negative emotions. This pattern of functional alteration in affective and cognitive circuitry may contribute to the reduced capacity for affect regulation and behavioral self-control in pediatric bipolar

  1. Treatment of social anxiety disorder using online virtual environments in second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Erica K; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M; Goetter, Elizabeth M; Comer, Ronald; Bradley, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    Over 80% of people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) do not receive any type of treatment, despite the existence of effective evidence-based treatments. Barriers to treatment include lack of trained therapists (particularly in nonmetropolitan areas), logistical difficulties (e.g., cost, time, transportation), concerns regarding social stigma, and fear of negative evaluation from health care providers. Interventions conducted through electronic communication media, such as the Internet, have the potential to reach individuals who otherwise would not have access to evidence-based treatments. Second Life is an online virtual world that holds great promise in the widespread delivery of evidence-based treatments. We assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an acceptance-based behavior therapy in Second Life to treat adults with generalized SAD. Participants (n=14) received 12 sessions of weekly therapy and were assessed at pretreatment, midtreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up. Participants and therapists rated the treatment program as acceptable and feasible, despite frequently encountered technical difficulties. Analyses showed significant pretreatment to follow-up improvements in social anxiety symptoms, depression, disability, and quality of life, with effect sizes comparable to previously published results of studies delivering in-person cognitive behavior therapy for SAD. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312426

  2. Disability and quality of life impact of mental disorders in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This manuscript examines the impact of mental health state and specific mental and physical disorders on work role disability and quality of life in six European countries. Method: The ESEMeD study was conducted in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Individuals a

  3. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  4. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  5. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  6. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Sedláčková, Zuzana; Hruby, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Borderline personality disorder (BPD) significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Sheehan Anxiety Scale. Results BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%), social phobia (20.7%), generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%), adjustment disorder (22.8%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%); 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general) was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21) and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities). The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales) negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains. Conclusion Patients suffering from BPD and comorbid anxiety disorders have a lower level of QoL compared to healthy controls in all measured domains. Negative correlations of the Q-LES-Q domains with clinical scales (Dissociative Experiences Scale, BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Sheehan Anxiety Scale, Clinical Global Impression, and SDS) are noticeable. PMID:27536074

  7. Attitudes towards end-of-life issues in disorders of consciousness: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, A; Ledoux, D; Bruno, M-A; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Gosseries, O; Soddu, A; Schnakers, C; Moonen, G; Laureys, S

    2011-06-01

    , by implicitly recognizing that the latter could be a step on the slippery slope to legalize euthanasia. Given the observed individual variability, we stress the importance of advance directives and identification of proxies when discussing end-of-life issues in patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:21221625

  8. IMPACT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF ADULT OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER ON QUALITY OF LIFE: A PATIENT CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Aleem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the 10th leading cause of disability of all medical conditions in the industrialized world and the ‘Quality of Life’ has emerged as a valid parameter to measure the outcome of illness and effectiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVE To see the quality of life, functioning and clinical variables between the OCD patient and the ‘Patient control’ group MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 120 probands were assessed, of which 60 subjects were OCD patients and 60 stable schizophrenia patients were used as patient control group. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, WHOQOL-BREF, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale were applied as per the protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. RESULTS The cost of medication was significantly higher in OCD group as compared to Schizophrenia Group. Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in OCD group. Global functioning was significantly better in schizophrenia group but quality of life better in OCD group on Physical Health domain and Environment domain of WHOQOL-BREF. CONCLUSION The Psychopathology of OCD spared satisfaction with sleep, ability to perform daily living activities, capacity to work, ability to get around, energy for everyday life, physical pain and need for any medical treatment to function in daily life, satisfaction with the conditions of your living places, access to health services, transport, opportunities for leisure activities, money to meet the needs, availability of the required information, and safety in daily life; when compared to stable schizophrenia patients The Psychopathology of OCD had as severe an impact as Schizophrenia on ‘enjoying life, finding it meaningful, level of negative

  9. Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J Paul; Glover, Gary H; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Chang, Catie; Mackey, Sean; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-03-30

    Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain's salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the real-neurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD. PMID:26862057

  10. Borderline personality disorder and self-conscious affect: Too much shame but not enough guilt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Geiger, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839). Increased shame and decreased guilt independently accounted for significant variance in the association between BPD features and anger, hostility, and externalization of blame. Only increased shame significantly mediated the association between BPD features and anger rumination, and only decreased guilt significantly mediated the relationship between BPD features and aggression. These findings suggest BPD and its associated problems with anger and externalizing may be characterized not only by high levels of shame, but also by lower levels of guilt. Clinical implications include the need to differentiate between self-conscious emotions and teach adaptive responses to warranted guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866901

  11. Association analysis of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Te-Jen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in degrading several different biological amines, including serotonin. Although several pieces of evidence suggested that MAOA is important in the etiology of bipolar affective disorder (BPD, associations for markers of the MAOA gene with BPD were not conclusive and the association has not been investigated in Taiwanese population. This study was designed to illustrate the role of MAOA in the etiology of BPD in Han Chinese. Methods Two markers, a dinucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 and a functional uVNTR on the promoter of the MAOA gene, were used to study the genetic association in 108 unrelated patients with BPD and 103 healthy controls. Allelic distributions of two polymorphisms were analyzed and, caused the MAOA located at X chromosome, haplotype association was performed using haplotype unambiguously assigned in male participants. Results While no difference in allelic distributions of two MAOA polymorphisms was found, the risk haplotype 114S was associated with BPD in male patients (P = 0.03. The significance, however, was not found in female patients with 114S haplotype. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that MAOA may have a gender-specific and small effect on the etiology of BPD in Taiwan. Due to the limited sample size, results from this study need to be confirmed in replicates.

  12. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-03-01

    We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women. PMID:15780693

  13. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy eAir; Michael James Weightman; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition ...

  14. Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvers, JA; Hubbard, AD; Biggs, E; Shu, J.; Fertuck, E; Chaudhury, S.; Grunebaum, MF; Weber, J.; Kober, H; Chesin, M; Brodsky, BS; Koenigsberg, H; Ochsner, KN; Stanley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with...

  15. Parallel fluctuations of psychiatric and neurological symptoms in a patient with multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, A; Eoli, M; La Mantia, L; Erbetta, A

    1995-11-01

    The case of a female patient affected by simultaneously onsetting multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder at age 33 is reported. Over the following years, the patient displayed minor mood fluctuations but, at the ages of 41 and 42 years, respectively, she suffered from a major depressive and a manic episode, both of which were concomitant with a marked worsening in her neurological condition. PMID:8613416

  16. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599

  17. Comparison of child self-reports and parent proxy-reports on quality of life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Juliana CB; Oliveira, Jorge A; Goulardins, Juliana B; Nascimento, Roseane O; Lima, Allana MV; Erasmo B. Casella

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition that affects 3%–7% of the pediatric population and significantly compromises the quality of life (QoL) of these individuals. The aim of the current study was to compare child self-reports and parent proxy reports on the QoL of children with ADHD. Methods Forty-five children with ADHD, combined type, aged 8–12 years without comorbidities, were compared with 43 typically developing children. PedsQL™ 4.0 (P...

  18. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Zuzana Sedláčková,3 Radovan Hruby4 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 4Private Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic Introduction: Borderline personality disorder (BPD significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls.Methods: Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS, and Sheehan Anxiety Scale.Results: BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%, social phobia (20.7%, generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%, adjustment disorder (22.8%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%; 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21 and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities. The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains.Conclusion: Patients suffering

  19. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation. PMID:25870549

  20. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eOker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  1. How and Why Affective and Reactive Virtual Agents Will Bring New Insights on Social Cognitive Disorders in Schizophrenia? An Illustration with a Virtual Card Game Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation. PMID:25870549

  2. An exploratory study of the relationship between diverse life events and personality disorders in a sample of suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Duberstein, Paul; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Dervic, Kanita; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Courtet, Philippe; de Leon, Jose; Oquendo, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder (PD) increases risk for suicidal behavior. Certain life events (LE) can precipitate suicidal behaviors in patients with PD. A fundamental question is whether specific combinations of LE and PD increase suicidal risk. 446 suicide attempters (SA) were recruited from emergency rooms. We used a healthy control group (n= 515) to identify the best cut-off point for the instrument used to diagnose PD. We used the DSM-IV version of the International Personality Disorder Questionn...

  3. [The Influence of Puberty on Neural Systems Subserving Emotion Regulation: Implications for Understanding Risk for Affective Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence, with the onset of puberty, represents a developmental period that, in the context of adverse events, renders youth vulnerable to the onset of psychopathology such as affective disorders. It is also a time when fronto-striatal-limbic systems supporting the processing and regulation of emotion and reward undergo important neuromaturational changes. Despite evidence from epidemiological research suggesting that, particularly in girls, the increase in the rate of depression is more strongly associated with pubertal development than maturational age, researchers are just beginning to scratch the surface regarding the specific influence of puberty on the development of fronto-striatal-limbic systems implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The goal of this review is to a) summarize findings from human neuroimaging studies focusing on the specific influence of puberty or sex hormones on the neurodevelopment of emotional processes, b) highlight the need for a better understanding of neurodevelopmental changes during puberty and how such changes could contribute to developmental trajectories toward the onset of an affective disorder and, c) discuss the potential value of investigating how these changes may contribute to unique opportunities for developing intervention strategies for affective disorders in adolescence. PMID:27570951

  4. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, L.; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Affective disorders are associated with an increased occurrence of cognitive deficits and have been linked to cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The putative molecular mechanisms involved in these associations are however not clear. The aim of this systematic review was to ...

  5. Evidence that the urban environment specifically impacts on the psychotic but not the affective dimension of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymaz, Nil; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Graaf, Ron; Nolen, Willem; ten Have, Margreet; van Os, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: High rates of psychotic disorders and psychotic symptoms have been found in urban environments but reports for bipolar affective illness have been inconsistent, possibly due to failure to stratify for comorbid psychotic symptoms. It was hypothesised, therefore, that any effect of urbanic

  6. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the state of…

  7. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  8. Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A gene in bipolar affective disorder by using family-based internal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethen, M.M.; Eggermann, K.; Propping, P. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well accepted that association studies are a major tool in investigating the contribution of single genes to the development of diseases that do not follow simple Mendelian inheritance pattern (so-called complex traits). Such major psychiatric diseases as bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia clearly fall into this category of diseases. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  9. The DAOA/G30 locus and affective disorders: haplotype based association study in a polydiagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DAOA/G30 (D-amino acid oxidase activator gene complex at chromosomal region 13q32-33 is one of the most intriguing susceptibility loci for the major psychiatric disorders, although there is no consensus about the specific risk alleles or haplotypes across studies. Methods In a case-control sample of German descent (affective psychosis: n = 248; controls: n = 188 we examined seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around DAOA/G30 (rs3916966, rs1935058, rs2391191, rs1935062, rs947267, rs3918342, and rs9558575 for genetic association in a polydiagnostic approach (ICD 10; Leonhard's classification. Results No single marker showed evidence of overall association with affective disorder neither in ICD10 nor Leonhard's classification. Haplotype analysis revealed no association with recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar disorder according to ICD10, within Leonhard's classification manic-depression was associated with a 3-locus haplotype (rs2391191, rs1935062, and rs3916966; P = 0.022 and monopolar depression with a 5-locus combination at the DAOA/G30 core region (P = 0.036. Conclusion Our data revealed potential evidence for partially overlapping risk haplotypes at the DAOA/G30 locus in Leonhard's affective psychoses, but do not support a common genetic contribution of the DAOA/G30 gene complex to the pathogenesis of affective disorders.

  10. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  11. Quality of life in patients with benign thyroid disorders. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Groenvold, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    the demonstration of content validity, i.e. that the questionnaire covers all relevant aspects. We review studies reporting on consequences of thyroid disorders and present the frequency of identified aspects, both overall HRQL issues and classical thyroid symptoms, in order to evaluate which issues...... patients were identified. Generally, data supporting the validity of these questionnaires were sparse. According to the available literature, the quality of life of thyroid patients is substantially impaired over a wide range of aspects of HRQL in the untreated phase and continues to be so in many patients...... also in the long term. Studies systematically exploring the relative importance of these various aspects to thyroid patients are lacking, as is a comprehensive, validated thyroid-specific HRQL questionnaire....

  12. Quality of life impairment and the attitudinal and behavioral features of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M; Vallance, Joanna K; Gleaves, David H; Buckett, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    We examined the relative contribution of different forms of eating disorder (ED) pathology to impairment in mental and physical health-related quality of life (QOL) in women with a wide range of ED symptoms. Female participants from an outpatient ED clinic (n = 53) and the local community (n = 214) completed measures of ED features and mental and physical health-related QOL. Across the sample, ED features were significantly associated with most mental and physical domains of QOL. In multiple regression analyses controlling for age and body mass index, ED features significantly predicted impairment in mental and physical QOL. Extreme shape and weight concern significantly and independently predicted most QOL subscales (β range = 0.19-0.44). The prominent contribution of shape and weight concern to both mental and physical QOL impairment underlines the importance of addressing body dissatisfaction in the treatment and prevention of EDs. PMID:23817157

  13. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  14. Unexpected online gambling disorder in late-life: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, Anne; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fagundo, Ana B.; Moragas, Laura; Wolz, Ines; Veciana De Las Heras, Misericordia; Granero, Roser; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Baño, Marta; Real, Eva; Aymamí, Maria N.; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Menchón, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lifetime prevalence of problem or Gambling disorder (GD) in the elderly (i.e., those over 60 years old) is reported to range from 0.01 to 10.9%. Research has identified several specific risk factors and vulnerabilities in the elderly. Since the late 1990s, an increase in online GD has been observed in the youth population, whereas casinos, slot machines, and bingo seem to be the activities of choice among the elderly. Interestingly, online GD has not been described in the elderly to date. Case Description: We report an 83-year-old man who started online casino gambling from the age of 80 years, leading to debts that exceeded €30,000. He underwent a full clinical and neuropsychological assessment, without any evidence of cognitive impairment or any associated neurodegenerative disease. However, he had risk factors for GD, including adjustment disorder, stressful life events, previous offline casino GD when 50 years old, and dysfunctional personality traits. The change to online GD may have been due to his isolation, movement difficulties, and his high level of education, which facilitated his access to the Internet. Care management focused on individual cognitive-behavioral therapy. Conclusion: The prevalence of online GD may be underestimated among the elderly, and may increase among isolated old people with movement difficulties and ready access to the Internet. However, late-life GD should be considered a diagnosis of elimination, requiring a full medical, psychiatric (including suicide risk), and cognitive assessment. Specific therapeutic approaches need to be proposed and developed. PMID:26074835

  15. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Baiano, Monica; Salvo, Pierandrea; Righetti, Pierluigi; Cereser, Lucia; Baldissera, Erika; Camponogara, Ilenia; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Background People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness’ severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehens...

  16. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Faye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD, quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II. Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were “sensations of shortness of breath or smothering,” “feeling of choking,” and “fear of dying” found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1. Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability.

  17. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  18. A scientific appraisal on hirudotherapy- an evolution in life style disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Nayak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hirudotherapy is a treatment with using of medicinal leech. This kind of therapy is known from the time of extreme antiquity and is still alive nowadays.Aims: At the present era when the world is suffering from a number of disorders occurring due to faulty Life style, Hirudotherapy is an evolutionary mode of treatment. Scientifically it has been proved that Substances in Leech saliva can lower the blood sugar levels and improve pancreatic functions, so can use in diabetes and its complications. Scientific research of Hirudo Medicinalis by number of powerful enzymes extracted from leeches salivary gland secretions among them DESTABILASE which in nature can be found only in leeches. This also explains the Atherogenic Effect provided by the leeches, for they lower the level of Cholesterol and Triglycerides in blood.Conclusion:  As Leech Therapy is being used frequently in a number of disorders, the evidence based concept is the need of the hour. The present paper portrays the scientific substantiation of Hirudotherapy.

  19. Family burden, quality of life and disability in obsessive compulsive disorder: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a psychiatric disorder that often tends to run a chronic course. The lifetime prevalence of OCD is around 1-3%, which is twice as prevalent as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Aim: To asses the family burden, quality of life (QoL and disability in patients suffering from at least moderately ill OCD and then to compare them with schizophrenia patients of comparable severity. Settings and Design: We recruited 70 consecutive subjects (OCD=35, schizophrenia=35 who met study criteria between March 2005 and March 2006 from the psychiatric services of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The severity of illness was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S. Instruments used in the current study were the Family Burden Schedule, the World Health Organization (WHO QoL (Bref and the WHO - Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS. Statistical Analysis: The Fisher′s exact test/chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables and the independent sample t test was used to analyze continuous variables. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare the groups after controlling for potential confounding variables. Pearson′s correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: Overall family burden, financial burden and disruption of family routines were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to OCD although the groups did not differ with respect to other domains of family burden. On the WHO QoL, OCD patients were comparable to schizophrenia patients with respect to the psychological and social domains. On the WHO - DAS, both the groups were similar in all the domains except getting around. Conclusion: Severe OCD is associated with significant disability, poor QoL and high family burden, often comparable to schizophrenia. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the sensitivity among healthcare

  20. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

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    BirteVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine