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Sample records for affecting sperm quality

  1. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice.

  2. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Anbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. Methods: A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010. After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham′s F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm TM , Innovative Biotech, Iran. Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. Results: There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm TM (P = 0.03, whereas no significant difference was found against Ham′s F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm TM (P = 0.02. Conclusions: The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs.

  3. Factors affecting sperm quality before and after mating of calopterygid damselflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality.

  4. Sperm competition, sperm numbers and sperm quality in muroid rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gómez Montoto

    Full Text Available Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass, showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic

  5. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sperm morphology (shape): Does it affect fertility? How is ... semen analysis. This measures many features of the sperm and semen (the fluid in which the sperm ...

  6. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  7. Exposures that may affect sperm DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, L B; Spano, M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal lifestyle exposures are linked to alterations in conventional semen characteristics. Sperm DNA integrity is another marker of semen quality shown to be altered in mice prenatally exposed to chemicals. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, sons were selected for a follow......-up study in 2005-2006. We examined associations between prenatal and current lifestyle exposures and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) among 337 men. Sons of overweight mothers had 22% (95% CI: -3; 52) higher DFI than sons of normal weight mothers and sons of parents with a TTP >12 months had 14% (95% CI: -4...

  8. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  9. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  10. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, Kumiko; UCHIYAMA, Kyoko; KINUKAWA, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was d...

  11. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2011-01-01

    was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  12. Sperm dilution ratio affects post-thaw motility rate and velocity of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Leal, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms and, thus, a necessity of more accurate investigations in all steps of this process. In this study, the effects of sperm dilution ratio on post-thaw sperm quality of Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated. Sperm was diluted in a standard freezing medium (glucose and methyl glycol) at four different ratios (sperm to final volume = 1:5, 1:10, 1:50 or 1:100), frozen in a nitrogen vapour vessel at -170°C and then stored in liquid nitrogen vessel at -196°C. Post-thaw motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; average path = VAP; straight line = VSL) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA) at 10 and 40 s post-activation. The highest motility rates were observed when sperm was frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (76%) and 1:10 (75%). The highest VCL (225 μm/s) and VAP (203 μm/s) were observed at a ratio of 1:10, while VSL was similar among samples frozen at 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 (97-124 μm/s). When those parameters were evaluated again 30 s later, motility decreased significantly in samples frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (57%) and 1:10 (61%), while velocities decreased significantly in all samples regardless of dilution ratio (75-85 μm/s of VCL, 38-53 μm/s of VAP and 25-39 μm/s of VSL). P. lineatus sperm should be frozen at a ratio of 1:10, where both the number of loaded sperm per straw and the post-thaw quality are maximized.

  13. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kumiko; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Kinukawa, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality.

  14. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  15. The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He-Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Passarella, S; Cerolini, S; Zaniboni, L; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Rosato, M P

    2013-11-30

    The effects of post-thaw Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on mobility and functional integrity of frozen/thawed chicken, pheasant and turkey spermatozoa were investigated. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity was also determined as a measure of the effect of irradiation on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Semen samples from each species were collected, processed and frozen according to the pellet procedure. After thawing, each semen sample was divided into two subsamples: the first one was the control; the second one was irradiated with a single mode continuous He-Ne laser wave (wavelength 632.8 nm; 6 mW; 3.96 J/cm(2)). Then the samples were assessed for sperm mobility (Accudenz(®) swim-down test), viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), osmotic-resistance (HOS test) and COX activity. The irradiation was effective Psperm motility in the turkey semen (0.228 ± 0.01 compared with 0.294 ± 0.02). The irradiation also caused an increase (Psperm, without affecting viability and osmotic-resistance. The COX was positively correlated (Psperm, however no significant interactions were found between mobility and COX activity in the three avian species. Due to the difference in energetic metabolism among avian species used in this study, the He-Ne laser irradiation has a differential action on bio-stimulation of turkey, chicken and pheasant spermatozoa. The present results are the first to elucidate the possibility for restoration of motility of cryopreserved avian spermatozoa by bio-stimulation provided via He-Ne laser irradiation.

  16. Tales of the Tail and Sperm Head AchesChanging concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck and tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Héctor E Chemes; Cristian Alvarez Sedo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an update on the variable prognostic significance of different sperm pathologies in patients with severe male factor infertility due to morphology and motility disorders.Severe asthenozoospermia is one of the leading causes of male infertility as spermatozoa cannot reach the oocyte and/or penetrate normally.Identifying structural causes of sperm immotility was of great concern before the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),because immotility was the limiting factor in the treatment of these patients.In these cases,in vitro methods are used to identify live spermatozoa or stimulate sperm motility to avoid selection of non-viable cells.With these advances,fertilization and pregnancy results have improved dramatically.The identification of genetic phenotypes in asthenozoospermia is important to adequately inform patients of treatment outcomes and risks.The one sperm characteristic that seriously affects fertility prognosis is teratozoospermia,primarily sperm head and neck anomalies.Defects of chromatin condensation and acrosomal hypoplasia are the two most common abnormalities in severe teratozoospermia.The introduction of microscopic methods to select spermatozoa and the development of new ones to evaluate sperm quality before ICSI will assure that ultrastructural identification of sperm pathologies will not only be of academic interest,but will also be an essential tool to inform treatment choice.Herein,we review the differential roles played by sperm components in normal fertilization and early embryo development and explore how assisted reproductive technologies have modified our concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head,neck,mid-piece and tail.

  17. Evaluation of Sperm Quality, Maturation and DNA Integrity in Adult Mice Treated with Sulpiride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Salami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of certain antipsychotic drugs has severe effects on fertility in males. Hypothalamus and hypophysial impressions and changes in plasma hormones concentration like prolactin, LH and FSH can affect sperm production. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulpiride on sperm quality, maturation and DNA damage. Methods: Twenty for adult male mice (age: 6-8 weeks were divided into three groups. The treatment group received 40 mg/kg sulpiride solution and the control sham group was given carrier of the drug intraperitoneally (IP daily for 45 days but the control group received nothing. Finally, all the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their cauda epididymis were removed surgically. The excised specimens were placed in 1 ml HTF medium and incubated for 30 min in CO2 incubator to allow the spermatozoa to swim out. Later, sperm count, motility and viability were analyzed. Additionally, sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity were assessed by aniline blue and acridine orange staining. Results: Significant decrease in sperm motility and count were observed in the treatment group while the number of abnormal sperm increased as compared with the other two groups. Sperm viability and DNA maturation showed significant reduction and the rate of DNA damage increased in comparison with the control sham and the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study showed that sulpiride has negative effects on sperm parameters in treated animals and in some cases it could cause secondary infertility.

  18. Effects of Enterobacter cloacae on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Bussalleu, Eva; Garcia-Bonavila, Estela; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of fresh and extended boar sperm often occurs in farms and artificial insemination (AI) centres during semen collection, processing and storage. The presence of bacteria produces detrimental effects on boar sperm quality, which may cause economic losses in reproductive centres. The present study has evaluated for the first time how the presence of Enterobacter cloacae affects the preservation of boar spermatozoa in liquid storage at 15-17 °C for an 11-day period. With this purpose, extended semen samples from seven healthy post-pubertal boars were artificially contaminated with different sperm:bacterium ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:5 and 1:10) of E. cloacae. The 1:0 ratio (non-inoculated) served as a negative control. The most infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10) significantly damaged sperm motility and membrane integrity, increased sperm agglutination, and decreased the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa. In contrast, the negative impact that the lowest bacterial concentration (2:1) had on boar sperm quality was clearly lower. In addition, other parameters such as pH were also more affected at the highest infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10), despite no damage being observed on sperm morphology. In conclusion, the present work shows that damage inflicted by the presence of E. cloacae in boar sperm during liquid storage at 15-17 °C compromises the longevity and fertilising ability of seminal doses when bacterial concentration is higher than a 1:1 ratio. Further research is warranted to address by which mechanism E. cloacae impairs boar sperm quality.

  19. Effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2014-11-30

    Bacteriospermia in boar ejaculates is a frequent finding that compromises the sperm quality and, consequently, causes economic losses in swine industry. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality over a storing period of 11 days at 15-17 ° C. Ten commercial seminal doses coming from post-pubertal and healthy boars were artificially inoculated with different infective concentrations of P. aeruginosa, ranging from 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(4)cfu/mL. Negative controls were non-inoculated doses. Sperm quality, assessed as sperm motility (CASA), sperm viability, acrosome integrity and pH, as well as the bacterial growth, were checked after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days of storage at 15-17 ° C. Results obtained showed significant decreases in the percentages of total and progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity in the greatest infective concentrations (2 × 10(7) and 2 × 10(8)cfu/mL), when compared to the negative control. In contrast, there was no effect on seminal pH throughout the experiment. Results indicate the presence of P. aeruginosa in boar semen, apart from being a potential source for the spread of infectious diseases and harmful impact on sows, negatively affects the longevity and fertilizing ability of boar sperm when present in high concentrations. Thus, P. aeruginosa causes deleterious effects on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 15-17 ° C, thus strict hygienic measures must be implemented in boar studs to minimize bacterial concentration of semen doses.

  20. Transrectal microwave thermotherapy causing a short-time influence on sperm quality in Chinese chronic nonbacterial prostatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Xin; Wang, Han-Zhang; Zhai, Zheng-Xing; Ma, Bao-Liang; Li, Qin-Fang; Xiao, Nan; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2016-08-19

    Chronic prostatitis can affect the sperm's quality. Previous studies have shown that transrectal microwave thermotherapy (TRMT) results in symptomatic relief in patients with chronic prostatitis, but the effects on sperm have not been carefully investigated. This study evaluates the impact of TRMT on the relief or decrease of symptoms and quality of sperm when used to treat patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. TRMT treatment was administered over 5 days, 1 h per day. Semen examination was carried out pretreatment and immediately at the conclusion of the 5-day treatment. Also, it was repeated 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. The treatment's symptom relief efficacy was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). After the treatment, the overall NIH-CPSI scores were lower compared to those of pretreatment. In addition, the white blood cells and lecithin in expressed prostatic secretion were normal after the treatment. The sperm count was decreased by 23.8% 3 months after the treatment, sperm motility was reduced by 10.3% immediately after treatment, and sperm deformity was increased by 17.2%. The sperm volume and PH were not affected. However, the sperm quality recovered after treatment and the malformation rate was also lower at 6 months after treatment. TRMT is a favorable and safe treatment option for patients with nonbacterial chronic prostatitis. It could relieve the patient's symptoms and impact on sperm quality in the short-term.

  1. Sperm quality evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the reproductive season at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, J; Soares, F; Herráez, M P; Dinis, M T; Cabrita, E

    2009-12-01

    Sperm quality seems to be one of the reasons for the reproduction constraints faced by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) aquaculturists. Previous studies in this species indicated that the sperm quality of individuals kept in culture varies throughout the year and that different sperm subpopulations can be identified in ejaculates according to the motility pattern of spermatozoa. Aiming to better understand factors affecting sole sperm quality in captivity, sperm of 11 males was assessed during the reproductive season using different parameters: motility characteristics using CASA analysis; cell plasma membrane resistance to seawater hyperosmolarity; DNA fragmentation with single-cell gel electrophoresis; and early apoptosis, labeled with Annexin-V FITC. Computer-assisted sperm analyses motility data were treated using multivariate analysis to identify the presence of different spermatozoa subpopulations according to their motility pattern. Four distinct sperm subpopulations were obtained: Subpop1, which includes fast linear spermatozoa; Subpop2, made up of fast nonlinear spermatozoa; Subpop3, which includes slow linear spermatozoa; and Subpop4, which contains slow nonlinear spermatozoa. The sperm subpopulation structure varied with time after activation and with male. Low cell resistance to the seawater hyperosmotic conditions was noticed. The Annexin-V assay allowed the identification of an apoptotic population ranging from 6% to 20%. A high percentage of cells (64.1%) showed a DNA fragmentation level below 30%, but these values varied significantly between males. DNA fragmentation appears to be related to cell membrane resistance to hyperosmotic conditions faced by the cells when in contact with seawater. This condition seems to modulate the composition of the motile sperm population and performance after activation. This phenomenon could be related to the spermatozoa maturation process.

  2. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jessica A; Galloway, Tamara S; Mondal, Debapriya; Esteves, Sandro C; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from these devices could potentially affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving, and there are unexplained declines in semen quality reported in several countries. Given the ubiquity of mobile phone use, the potential role of this environmental exposure needs to be clarified. A systematic review was therefore conducted, followed by meta-analysis using random effects models, to determine whether exposure to RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinic and research centres. The sperm quality outcome measures were motility, viability and concentration, which are the parameters most frequently used in clinical settings to assess fertility. We used ten studies in the meta-analysis, including 1492 samples. Exposure to mobile phones was associated with reduced sperm motility (mean difference -8.1% (95% CI -13.1, -3.2)) and viability (mean difference -9.1% (95% CI -18.4, 0.2)), but the effects on concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies. We conclude that pooled results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Further study is required to determine the full clinical implications for both sub-fertile men and the general population.

  3. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  4. The effects on boar sperm quality of dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differ among porcine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.

  5. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  6. Fertilisation is not a new beginning: sperm environment affects offspring developmental success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Hannah; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-08-15

    For organisms with complex life histories, the direction and magnitude of phenotypic links among life-history stages can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. While the phenotypic links between mothers and offspring, as well as between larvae and adults, are well recognised, the links between sperm phenotype and offspring phenotype have been less well explored. Here, we used a split-clutch/split-ejaculate design to examine whether the environment that sperm experience affects the subsequent performance of larvae in the broadcast spawning marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa. The environment that sperm experienced affected the developmental success of larvae sired by these sperm; larvae sired by sperm that experienced low salinities had poorer developmental success than larvae sired by sperm that experienced a normal salinity. When we explored the interactive effects of the sperm environment and the larval environment with an orthogonal design, we found an interaction; when sperm and larvae experienced the same environment, performance was generally higher than when the sperm and larval environments differed. These effects could be due to selection on specific sperm phenotypes, phenotypic modification of the sperm or both. Together, our results challenge the traditional notion that sperm are merely transporters of genetic material; instead, significant covariance between sperm and offspring phenotypes exists. Our study adds to a growing list that demonstrates that fertilisation does have a homogenising effect on the phenotype of the zygote, and that events before fertilisation during the gamete phase can carry through to affect performance in later life-history stages.

  7. Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

  8. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  9. Low lead environmental exposure alters semen quality and sperm chromatin condensation in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Cebrián, Mariano E; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated environmental-lead (Pb) effects on semen quality and sperm chromatin, considering Pb in seminal fluid (PbSF), spermatozoa (PbSpz), and blood (PbB) as exposure biomarkers in urban men (9.3 microg/dL PbB). Several individuals (44%) showed decreases in sperm quality; sperm concentration, motility, morphology and viability associated negatively with PbSpz, whereas semen volume associated negatively with PbSF. Multiple linear regression estimated PbSF and PbSpz thresholds for alterations in semen quality. Forty-eight percent of samples showed high values of nuclear chromatin condensation (NCD) positively associated with PbSF and zinc in spermatozoa (ZnSpz). ZnSpz values were higher than in fertile men. These results suggest that Pb may affect sperm chromatin by altering sperm Zn availability. PbB was not associated with semen quality or NCD, suggesting that Pb in semen compartments assesses better the amount of Pb in the reproductive tract; therefore, these are better biomarkers to evaluate toxicity at low Pb-exposure levels.

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  11. Sperm Affects Head Sensory Neuron in Temperature Tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Sonoda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to environmental temperature change is essential for the survival and proliferation of animals. The process is controlled by various body tissues, but the orchestration of activity within the tissue network has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we show that sperm affects the activity of temperature-sensing neurons (ASJ that control cold tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetic impairment of sperm caused abnormal cold tolerance, which was unexpectedly restored by impairment of temperature signaling in ASJ neurons. Calcium imaging revealed that ASJ neuronal activity in response to temperature was decreased in sperm mutant gsp-4 with impaired protein phosphatase 1 and rescued by expressing gsp-4 in sperm. Genetic analysis revealed a feedback network in which ASJ neuronal activity regulates the intestine through insulin and a steroid hormone, which then affects sperm and, in turn, controls ASJ neuronal activity. Thus, we propose that feedback between sperm and a sensory neuron mediating temperature tolerance.

  12. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  13. Effect of semen preparation technique and its incubation on sperm quality in the Moroccan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulmaouahib, S; Madkour, A; Kaarouch, I; Saadani, B; Sefrioui, O; Louanjli, N; Copin, H; Cadi, R; Benkhalifa, M

    2016-09-05

    In in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm preparation as critical part and influencing the sperm quality is especially dependent on the chosen technique itself and incubation parameters including temperature and CO2. In this study, we compared firstly density-gradient centrifugation technique (DGC) to the adapted DGC using the sperm pellet of 80% fraction (DGC/80P) in order to improve the sperm yield. Secondly, this study led to evaluate different sperm incubation conditions based on temperature effect (room temperature (RT = 23°C) versus 35°C) and in the other hand, with or without 5% CO2 during 24 hrs. Based on evaluating sperm conventional parameters and the DNA damage using TUNEL assay, our result showed that DGC/80P increased sperm quality compared to DGC with 25% of improvement. For temperature incubation effect after 24 hrs, 35°C increased the DNA damage and decreased the sperm quality while RT could improve sperm motility by 38%. Moreover, the sperm incubation with 5% CO2 after 24 hrs realised a negative impact on sperm parameters and its DNA damage. Indeed, for current IVF practice, a good sperm quality can be maintained for several hours at room temperature, while the sperm preparation is processed using the DGC/80P without CO2.

  14. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-09-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

  15. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  16. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  17. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality.

  18. Influence of temperature and sperm preparation on the quality of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Annelies; Klerkx, Elke; Huyser, Carin; Bosmans, Eugene; Campo, Rudi; Ombelet, Willem

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term (24h) in-vitro sperm incubation at room temperature (RT; 23°C) versus testis temperature (35°C) on various sperm-quality parameters. Semen samples (n=41) were prepared both by density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) and the swim-up technique in order to compare the influence of sperm preparation on sperm quality after incubation. Progressive motility and morphology were significantly higher after incubation at RT compared with 35°C (Psperm preparation was significantly higher in DGC compared with swim-up samples (Psperm quality when incubation is performed at RT. These findings may convince laboratories to change the routinely used sperm storage conditions in order to maximize the quality of the prepared sperm sample.

  19. Analysis of Change in Sperm Quality of Chinese Fertile Men druing 1981-1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树成; 王弘毅; 王介东

    1999-01-01

    By literature search,114 papers for fertile male sperm quality including 256 set data were collected from 9292 persons and 11 726 assays involving 39 cities and counties.Results of analysis showed a decrease in mean concentration of sperm from 103.02×106/ml(1983)to 83. 84×106/ml(1996),sperm motility was decreasedfrom 75.11%(1982)to 67.27%(1996)and percentage of sperm with normal morphology was reduced from 85.02%(1983)to 77.89%(1996),thus showing the definite negative correlation and being statistically significant(P0.05).It is interesting to note that although Chinese sperm quality is better,it declines significantly faster than that of western countries at the same period.It is possible that the decline of sperm quality is due to problem of environmental quality.The authors suggest the emphasis of basic research in relevant fields.

  20. Acute BRSV infection in young AI bulls: effect on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, K; Koskinen, E; Vahtiala, S; Andersson, M

    2009-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important part of the calf pneumonia complex, occasionally affecting even adult cattle. However, the pathogenicity of BRSV in animals older than 6 months is often neglected. Finland is free of many contagious diseases in farm animals, and this gives a good opportunity to study the effects of specific pathogens on bovine reproduction. This report describes the deteriorating effects of BRSV epizootics on sperm morphology and fertility of young dairy bulls (n = 79) at a bull station. More than half of the young bulls had a clinical respiratory disease caused by BRSV during their quarantine when they were 6 months old. Four of seven subsequent quarantine groups were affected. Six months later, when these seropositive bulls (n = 54) came into semen production, they had poorer sperm morphology, and the proportion of normal spermatozoa was 74.1% in BRSV-seropositive animals compared with 81.2% in seronegative bulls (n = 25) (p = 0.035). Field fertility was also slightly affected, the 60-day non-return rates were 75.2% and 76.8% for BRSV seropositive and seronegative bulls respectively (p = 0.014). Potential reasons for lowered sperm quality are discussed here.

  1. Sperm quality assessments for endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen Texanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Eilts, Bruce E.; Guitreau, Amy M.; Figiel, Chester R.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) and computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CASA) methods were developed and validated for use with endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus collected (n=64) during the 2006 spawning season. Sperm motility could be activated within osmolality ranges noted during milt collections (here 167–343 mOsm/kg). We hypothesized that sperm quality of milt collected into isoosmotic (302 mOsm/kg) or hyperosmotic (500 mOsm/kg) Hanks' balanced salt solution would not differ. Pre-freeze viabilities were similar between osmolalities (79%±6 (S.E.M.) and 76%±7); however, post-thaw values were greater in hyperosmotic buffer (27%±3 and 12%±2; P=0.0065), as was mitochondrial membrane potential (33%±4 and 13%±2; P=0.0048). Visual estimates of pre-freeze motility correlated with total (r=0.7589; range 23–82%) and progressive motility (r=0.7449) by CASA and were associated with greater viability (r=0.5985; Pr=-0.83; P=0.0116) and mitochondrial function (r=-0.91; P=0.0016). By FCM-based assessments of DNA integrity, whereby increased fluorochrome binding indicated more fragmentation, higher levels were negatively correlated with count (r=-0.77; Pr=-0.66; P=0.0004). Fragmentation was higher in isotonic buffer (P=0.0234). To increase reproductive capacity of natural populations, the strategy and protocols developed can serve as a template for use with other imperiled fish species, biomonitoring, and genome banking.

  2. Temperature management during semen processing: Impact on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Henning, H; Rüdiger, K; Wallner, U; Waberski, D

    2013-12-01

    Freshly collected boar spermatozoa are sensitive to a fast reduction in temperature because of lipid phase transition and phase separation processes. Temperature management during semen processing may determine the quality of stored samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of isothermic and hypothermic semen processing protocols on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory study, ejaculates (n = 12) were first diluted (1:1) with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) at 32 °C, then processed either with isothermic (32 °C) or hypothermic (21 °C) BTS, stored at 17 °C, and assessed on days 1, 3, and 6. Temperature curves showed that 150 minutes after the first dilution, semen doses of both groups reached the same temperature. Two-step hypothermic processing resulted in lower sperm motility on days 1 and 6 (P sperm on days 3 and 6 (P boar semen compared with isothermic dilution and that the type of semen extender affects the outcomes.

  3. Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins to the thawing extender: effects on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, C; Gómez-Fernández, J; Gómez-Izquierdo, E; Mocé, E; de Mercado, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect that the addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) to the thawing extender has on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Pooled semen (n = 5) from three boars was used for the experiments. The semen was cryopreserved with an egg-yolk-based extender, it was diluted after thawing in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/500 × 10(6) sperm), and these samples were incubated at 37°C for 150 min. The following parameters of sperm quality were evaluated 30 and 150 min after incubation: sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM; %), sperm with normal acrosomal ridge (NAR; %), total motile sperm (TMS; %), progressively motile sperm (PMS; %) and kinetic parameters. Both SIPM and NAR increased (p < 0.05) when the thawing extender was supplemented with 12.5, 25 and 50 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. Nevertheless, motility decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of CLC exceeded 12.5 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. In conclusion, our results suggest that the supplementation of thawing extenders with CLC improves sperm viability and reduces acrosome damage after freezing/thawing.

  4. Cryopreservation of Iberian pig spermatozoa. Comparison of different freezing extenders based on post-thaw sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Ana; Gómez, Emilio; Sanz, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of different freezing extenders against cryopreservation injuries on Iberian boar sperm. The sperm-rich fraction was collected and pooled from six sexually mature Iberian boars, and was frozen in different extenders containing glucose, lactose or fructose as sugar source and including Orvus ES Paste only in the freezing extender-2 (Glucose; Lactose and Fructose) or in both freezing extenders (Glucose2; Lactose2 and Fructose2). During the cryopreservation process, the supernatant was removed after the centrifugation step, then was extended with freezing extender-1 for the equilibration period and with freezing extender-2 immediately before freezing. Post-thaw sperm characteristics, such as plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (Rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity (NAR), were monitored. Overall sperm motility and the individual kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa (assessed by the computer-aided sperm analysis system Sperm Class Analyzer [SCA]) were recorded in the different experimental treatments. Measurements were taken at 30 and 150 min post-thaw. The state of the acrosome after thawing did not show significant differences between the freezing extenders studied. Freezing-thawing caused a significant decrease (Psperm motility and kinematic parameters were concurrent with reduced sperm characteristics. It can be suggested that in the Iberian pig, the beneficial effects of Orvus ES Paste during the freezing process of spermatozoa is time dependent. The analysis of different sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function, determined that the extenders studied in the present experiment affected the quality of frozen-thawed semen in Iberian boar.

  5. Sperm quality before treatment in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma enrolled in EORTC-GELA Lymphoma Group trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaalj, Marleen A. E.; Heutte, Natacha; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Carde, Patrice; Noordijk, Evert M.; Ferme, Christophe; Thomas, Jose; Eghbali, Houchingue; Brice, Pauline; Bonmati, Caroline; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although widely recommended, cryopreservation of sperm is sometimes not performed for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma because of presumed poor sperm quality related to the disease. We investigated sperm quality and factors determining it in untreated patients with early stage Hodgkin's l

  6. Inhibition of sperm motility does not affect live-dead separation of bull sperm by glass beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert H. Foote

    2001-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to explore factors which influence binding of dead versus live sperm to glass filters.Methods: Multiple semen collections from bulls were used to explore selective filtration of bull sperm as influenced by nonlethal inhibition of sperm motility with fluoride, killing of sperm by quick-freezing, alteration of the glass surface with silicone, and different intervals of sexual rest between semen collections. Results: A comparison of glass spheres 100, 200 and 390 μm in diameter indicated that 200μm spheres were optimal for selective filtration. Quantitative separation of live from dead sperm was demonstrated with a correlation between the percentage of motile sperm and retention of sperm by the filter of r =-0.87 (P < 0.05). Up to 0.02 mol/L NaFl did not alter the proportion of sperm retained by the filter despite inhibiting sperm motility during filtration, an inhibition which was reversible. Proportions of live-dead sperm, based upon eosin staining, were unaffected by fluoride. Coating the glass spheres with silicone greatly reduced selective filtration. Dead sperm adherence to glass wasreduced and resistance to NaFl inhibition was increased by daily ejaculation versus one-week intervals of sexual rest. Conclusion: These studies indicate that the adherence of sperm to glass is primarily due to some form of physico-chemical change accompanying death of the sperm cell independent of active sperm motility. This attraction between the sperm plasma membrane and glass is modified by the age of the ejaculated sperm. This information is useful in evaluating different clinical procedures used for sperm separation.

  7. A multi-regional study on new approaches to investigate the quality of human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, Hiva; Nielsen, H. Ingolf; Van Der Horst, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data has also shown that there is less fragmented sperm in 2nd and 3rd ejaculates compared to first ones which could be a major factor in determining the pregnancy outcome. Assessing this factor objectively and relating it to other parameters in sperm quality in this study...... the number of failed implantations and repeated abortions. Conclusion: Collecting and analyzing the samples from different locations (different countries and continents) using the SCA (Sperm Class Analyzer, Microptic, Spain) which has eliminated the inter technician variation and provides quantitative data...... and a means to assess samples at the exact same scale, will provide a comparison of the average sperm statistics and also the quality of consecutive sperm samples in these different locations. This would specially prove to be of utmost importance in determining and endorsing a global scale for the computer...

  8. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan D. Clotfelter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control, or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm.

  9. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μ M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μ M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm.

  10. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase) mediates fertilization in mice by binding to specific O-linked oligosaccharide ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. Before binding the egg, sperm GalTase is masked by epididymally derived glycosides that are shed from the sperm surface during capacitation. After binding the egg, sperm- bound oligosaccharides on ZP3 induce the acrosome reaction by receptor aggregation, presumably involving GalTase. In this study, we asked how increasi...

  11. Hexavalent chromium affects sperm motility by influencing protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Linqing; Wang, Lirui; Fu, Jieli; Li, Yuhua; Zhao, Na; Li, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium reportedly induces reproductive toxicity and further inhibits male fertility in mammals. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which hexavalent chromium affects motility signaling in boar spermatozoa in vitro. The results indicated that Cr(VI) decreased sperm motility, protein phosphorylation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and metabolic enzyme activity starting at 4μmol/mL following incubation for 1.5h. Notably, all parameters were potently inhibited by 10μmol/mL Cr, while supplementation with the dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) prevented the inhibition of protein phosphorylation. Interestingly, high concentrations of Cr (>10μmol/mL) increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of some high-molecular-weight proteins in the principle piece but decreased that in the middle piece associated with an extreme reduction of sperm motility. These results suggest that chromium affects boar sperm motility by impairing tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of sperm by blocking the cAMP/PKA pathway in boar sperm in vitro.

  12. Effects of Lifestyle Exposure and Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality Parameters of Fertile Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spermatogenesis is vulnerable to disruption. Some sperm quality studies have reported unfavorable trends in male reproductive health indicators, and lifestyle exposures (LE) and excess body adiposity have been among the factors implicated. LE (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumpt...

  13. Colloid single-layer centrifugation improves post-thaw donkey (Equus asinus) sperm quality and is related to ejaculate freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, I; Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Urbano, M; Hidalgo, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether colloid single-layer centrifugation (SLC) improves post-thaw donkey sperm quality and if this potential enhancement is related to ejaculate freezability. Semen from Andalusian donkeys was frozen following a standard protocol. SLC was performed on frozen-thawed semen and post-thaw sperm parameters were compared with uncentrifuged samples. Sperm quality was estimated by integrating in a single value sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), morphology and viability (evaluated under brightfield or fluorescence microscopy). Sperm freezability was calculated as the relationship between sperm quality obtained before freezing and after thawing. Ejaculates were classified into low, medium and high freezability groups using the 25th and 75th percentiles as thresholds. All sperm parameters were significantly (Pdonkey semen, in particular for those ejaculates with low freezability.

  14. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  15. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, I M W; Pierik, F H; DE Jong, F H; Thomas, C M G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males participated in a 26-week intervention study consisting of a daily treatment with folic acid (5 mg/day) and zinc sulphate (66 mg/day), or placebo. Pre- and post-intervention semen parameters, serum folate, zinc, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin B concentrations were measured. The results indicated that intervention treatment significantly increased sperm concentration in subfertile males. Other semen and endocrine parameters were not affected by intervention treatment. At baseline, positive correlations were found between serum zinc and sperm concentration, motility and inhibin B. Serum zinc and FSH were inversely correlated. As (already) well known from previous research, inhibin B positively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and morphology, and was inversely correlated with FSH. The latter was positively correlated with testosterone. In addition, testosterone and inhibin B were inversely correlated. After intervention, the correlations with zinc disappeared. We conclude that the increase in sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention is not the result of alterations in FSH, testosterone or inhibin B concentrations. Although zinc and folate have several effects on spermatogenesis, the underlying mechanisms involved are not clear.

  16. Sperm quality in mice acutely treated with parathion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CristianSobarzo; EduardoBustos-Obregón

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the toxic effect of a single injection of the organopbospborous agropesticide, parathion, on spermatogenesis in immature male mice. Methods: Seven-day old mice received a single injection of parathion intraperitoneally at a dose of 1/3 LD50. The epididymal sperm count, sperm morphology and chromatin thermal stability were analyzed 28 and 50 days after injection. Results: Sperm counts were decreased and teratozoospermia and thermal denaturation of DNA increased after parathion injection. Sperm parameters were changed to a greater extent in younger animals, denoting a nigher lability of spermatogenic process at its beginning. The damages could recover a long time after parathion administration. Conclusion: Organopbospborous agropesticides are testicular toxicants, eliciting reversible cytotoxic and cytogenetic alterations in germ cells.

  17. Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy.

  18. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml (p value< 0.001, and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

  19. Does sperm DNA fragmentation affect the developmental potential and the incidence of apoptosis following blastomere biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Tahereh; Salehi, Mohammad; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Fadaei-Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Dehghani-Mohammadabadi, Maryam; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Common methods employed in assisted reproduction technology (ART) include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with an unspecified level of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SDF on human preimplantation embryo development and the incidence of apoptosis following a single blastomere biopsy. Using sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) to assess SDF, a total of 20 processed semen samples were categorized into two groups; group I: SDF ≤30% and group II: SDF >30%. After ICSI, fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality score were assessed. A single blastomere was biopsied from day 3 embryos and development was monitored on day 4. The frequency of apoptosis in biopsied embryos was assayed by TUNEL and the level of BCL-2, BAX, hsa-mir-15a, and hsa-mir-16-1 were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SCD was found to be negatively correlated with sperm motility and normal form spermatozoa (p 0.05). SDF >30% had no negative effect on potential development and did not increase the proportion of apoptotic cells and the level of apoptosis-related genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in group II vs. group I (p > 0.05). It appears that at the levels assessed paternal genome damage had little if any negative effect on preimplantaton embryo development and apoptosis following single blastomere biopsy. This may reflect the selection of morphologically normal sperm for ICSI and the repair capacity of the oocyte.

  20. Sperm quality and selected biochemical parameters of seminal fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, L; Wąchocka, A; Brodzki, P; Wrona, Z; Piech, T; Wawron, W; Chałabis-Mazurek, A

    2015-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs is most commonly associated with age and increasing concentrations of dihydrotesterone, a hormone that stimulates growth and secretion of the prostatic epithelial cells. During this process, the biochemical composition of prostatic secretion changes, which can affect the quality of semen and limit the ability of the sperm to contribute to fertilization. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine possible correlation between BPH and biological quality of semen. The study was performed in 11 sexually mature dogs of various breeds. Animals were divided into two groups: healthy dogs (Group I; n = 5; mean age 4.32; SEM = 1.28) and dogs with BPH (Group II n = 6; mean age 6.16; SEM = 0.65). Semen and prostate secretions were collected and evaluated in this study. Standard semen examinations were conducted in the ejaculates collected; moreover, the extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation was determined. The selected biochemical parameters were determined in the prostate secretion. According to the examination results, there were no significant differences in standard semen parameters between the two groups of dogs. Nevertheless, morphological tests of semen in dogs with BPH demonstrated elevated percentages of primary defects in spermatozoa. A significant increase (P = 0.01) in DNA defragmentation of sperm was found in dogs with BPH. Moreover, changes in the biochemical composition of prostate secretion were demonstrated. In dogs with BPH, pH of prostate secretions was greater (P = 0.03), concentrations of cholesterol increased while concentrations of Zn and Cu decreased. The study findings reveal that BPH does not change semen quality in dogs.

  1. Impairment on sperm quality and fertility of adult rats after antiandrogen exposure during prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; Alves, Thaís Regina; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; Fernandez, Carla Dal Bianco; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Klinefelter, Gary R; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of antiandrogen exposure during the prepubertal period on reproductive development and reproductive competence in adults. Male rats were divided into two groups: flutamide, receiving 25 mg/kg/day of flutamide by oral gavage and control, receiving vehicle daily. Dosing continued from PND 21 to 44, and animals were killed on PND 50 or PND 75-80. The epididymis, prostate, vas deferens and seminal vesicle weights were lower in Flutamide group on PND 50, while on PND 80 only seminal vesicle weight was reduced. Fertility assessed by IUI revealed a decrease in the fertility potential in the flutamide-treated adults. Flutamide accelerated sperm transit time through the epididymis, impairing sperm motility and storage. A quantitative analysis of the cauda sperm membrane proteome revealed a few significant changes in protein expression. Thus, exposure to flutamide during the prepubertal period compromises the function of the epididymis along with epididymal sperm quality at adulthood.

  2. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  3. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial

  4. The quality of cryopreserved sperm collected from feline caudal epididymides stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Mari; Kaihara, Aya; Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2011-10-01

    On the assumption that animals of wild feline species died in the field, caudal epididymal sperm were cryopreserved following storage of the feline epididymides at 20°C for 0-24 hr, and their qualities were observed. Compared to the qualities at 0 hr, no significant differences were noted following 12 hr of storage at 20°C. On comparison of the qualities between caudal sperm cryopreserved after 24 hr storage at 4°C and after 12 hr at 20°C followed by 12 hr storage at 4°C, no significant differences were noted. These findings suggest that the cryopreserved sperm collected from epididymides of dead animals might be useful for artificial insemination if cryopreservation was performed within 12 hr exposure to ambient temperature.

  5. Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aliabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC, which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF, which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures. Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF, then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference. Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC. Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.

  6. Association between air pollution and sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zibing; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Meixia; Lan, Lan; Qiao, Zhijiao; Cui, Yan; An, Jinghuan; Wang, Nan; Fan, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been clearly linked to adverse reproductive outcome and fecundation index, but its effects on male semen quality are still uncertain. In this study, we reviewed information from ten studies to get the qualitative evidence of the influence of the ambient air pollution on sperm quality and collected data from six of the ten studies to conduct meta-analysis. The original studies classified participants into different exposure levels and the highest and lowest expose levels were chosen as high expose and low expose groups, respectively. The random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis with the weight mean difference (WMD) as the measure indicator. The WMDs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) of sperm volume, sperm count, semen concentration, sperm progressive motility, total motility, and normal morphology were 0.09 (-0.04, 0.23), 0.46 (-4.47, 5.39), -8.21 (-20.38, 3.96), -7.76 (-16.26, 0.74), -7.61 (-16.97, 1.74) and -3.40 (-7.42, 0.62), respectively. In conclusion, although the differences are not statistically significant between the two groups, the overall trends and evidence from this review indicate the chronic exposure to ambient pollutants at high level may alter men sperm quality.

  7. Effects of exposure to 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol on sperm quality of tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, A L; Martín-Hidalgo, D; Fallola, C; Gil, M C

    2015-10-01

    Alterations of sperm quality were studied in tench (Tinca tinca) exposed to sub-lethal doses of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol-EE2-(50, 100 and 500μg/kg t.w) under semi-static conditions for 30 days. Thus, different biomarkers of sperm quality were assessed: concentration and volume of ejaculate, total number of spermatozoa, percentage of motile spermatozoa, sperm motility and percentage of live and dead spermatozoa. Sperm motility was examined by computer-assisted image analysis and the viability of spermatozoa was assessed through flow cytometry. The most relevant alterations observed were significant reductions in the reproductive parameters such as testicular somatic index, spermatozoa concentration, straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and wobble in tench exposed to 50μg/kg t.w of EE2. Our study about the effects of EE2 on the sperm quality in tench provides new evidences which strengthen the fact that this synthetic estrogen is included in the list of non-monotonic dose response compounds in animal studies.

  8. Effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic E. coli on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussalleu, E; Yeste, M; Sepúlveda, L; Torner, E; Pinart, E; Bonet, S

    2011-09-01

    The presence of bacteria in boar semen causes economic losses in artificial insemination (AI) centers, as a consequence of alterations on boar sperm quality. For this reason, the effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) on boar sperm quality were determined in this study, by conducting two experiments. The first one consisted of assessing these effects on boar sperm quality after incubating the inoculated doses at 37°C for a 96-h period, whereas the second inoculated doses were stored at 15°C during 11 days. In both experiments, the infective concentrations ranged from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(2)cfu mL(-1); the negative control being a non-inoculated dose. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, we checked by PCR for the presence of bacteria in all tubes. Sperm quality (sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm morphology) was assessed at 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h after inoculations in the first experiment (37°C), and after 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days in the second (15°C). Whereas no changes were observed in sperm morphology in both experiments, the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa dramatically diminished after 24h of incubation at 37°C, the effect being more detrimental at the highest infective concentration of microbes. Moreover, a significant decrease in the percentage of viable spermatozoa in the tube inoculated with the highest concentration (10(8)cfu mL(-1)) was detected after 24h of incubating contaminated doses at 37°C. After 48h of incubation, the presence of infective concentrations of ETEC and VTEC from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(3)cfu mL(-1) resulted in a significant diminution in the percentage of viable spermatozoa. These results suggest that ETEC and VTEC PCR analyses should be done in doses destined for AI to minimize the use of doses with diminished sperm quality due to the presence of bacteria and to avoid the potential spread of infective diseases.

  9. The Effects of Astragalus Membranaceus Extract on Sperm Quality in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江峰; 王益鑫; 盛新福; 夏立程; 钱宪明; 吴裕伦

    1999-01-01

    This study is to explore the effects on sperm quality and fertilizing ability by using astragalus merrdrranaceus extract as additive among infertile males.Human sperms were cultured in the concentrated astragalus membranaceus extract for 1 h,then semen parameters were measured by the equipment of computer-assisted semenanalyzer(CASA).The results are as follows:compared with the original semen,the sperm motility and velocity,the percentage of grade A sperms and the swayingfrequency of sperm heads were improved markedly in the semen treated with astra-galus membranaceus extract(P<0.05).Meanwhile,the astragalus membranaceus aqueous extract was analyzed by atomic absorption spectroplvotometer.It was foundthere exist several metal elements and a certain amount of trace elements in the extract(10mg/ml).The concentration of K+,Ca2-,Zn2- were 25.1 μg/ml,7.28 μg/ml,and 0.47 μg/ml respectively.The influence of this additive on artificial insemination was also discussed.We considered that the studied Chinese herbal medicine additive has good effects on sperm preparation in vitro,and this might be a potential method in assisted reproductive technology.

  10. Use of computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) for monitoring the effects of pollution on sperm quality of fish: application to the effects of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) has been used to analyse the effects of cadmium and zinc on the motility of fish sperm treated either for 24h after partial dilution in an extender, or during the final dilution step on the microscope stage during video recording. The progressive motility of catfish sperm, which was not affected by storage for 24h, was decreased after exposure to 100 ppm cadmium or 2000 ppm zinc in extender for 24h. Only 1000 ppm cadmium or 2000 ppm zinc had any effect ...

  11. Improvement of post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Arian rooster by oral administration of d-aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mahdi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Kohram, Hamid; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of d-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on post-thawed sperm quality, fertility and hatchability outcomes in male broiler breeders. Twenty 55-week-old roosters were selected and equally split into four groups (n = 5 rooster/group). Different daily D-Asp doses including 0 (D-0), 100 (D-100), 200 (D-200) or 300 (D-300) mg/kg BW were capsulated and individually administered for 12 weeks to roosters in each group. Semen samples were weekly collected from 7th to 12th week of experiment. Sperm quality from 7th to 11th week was evaluated in both fresh (total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality) and post-thawed (total and forward motility, plasma membrane functionality, apoptosis status and mitochondrial activity) conditions. Also, collected semen samples on the 12th week were frozen and artificially inseminated to evaluate fertility and hatchability. The results from fresh condition showed that total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality were significantly higher in D-200 compared to other groups. Also, interaction effect of time and treatment was not significant for all assessed parameters in fresh condition. In post-thawed condition, D-200 showed significantly higher total and forward motility, fertility and hatchability compared to other groups. The higher value for plasma membrane functionality and mitochondrial activity was observed in D-200 compared to D-0 and D300 groups. However, the percentage of live, early apoptotic and dead spermatozoa were not significantly affected by applied treatment in the current study. No significant difference for time and treat interaction effect was observed for all assessed parameters except forward motility. In conclusion, it seems that D-Asp administration could improve fresh and post-thawed sperm quality and post-thawed sperm fertility in male broiler breeders.

  12. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  13. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglero, Manuel M; Taggart, Mark A; Castellanos, Pilar; Mateo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa.

  14. Impairments in aromatase expression, reproductive behavior, and sperm quality of male fish exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyón, Noelia F; Roggio, María A; Amé, María V; Hued, Andrea C; Valdés, María E; Giojalas, Laura C; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María A

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence shows that environmental estrogen can reach levels that are high enough to exert adverse reproductive effects on wild fish populations. The authors report different parameters of male reproductive behavior, brain, and gonadal aromatase expression, as well as sperm quality in an internally fertilizing fish species (Jenynsia multidentata, Jenyns) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E(2) ). Adult males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 250 ng/L E(2) over 28 d. The authors' findings demonstrate that E(2) exposure resulted in a very clear increase in brain aromatase transcript abundance at all assayed concentrations compared with control; however, no effects on gonadal aromatase expression were observed. Behavioral measures revealed increased sexual activity at 50 ng/L but not 100 or 250 ng/L E(2) . In contrast to the molecular and behavioral responses, the condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and sperm quality were unaltered by E(2) exposure. The results from the present work suggest that E(2) affects some aspects of the reproductive biology of J. multidentata. These modifications in the reproductive biology caused by exposure to E(2) could potentially lead to long-term effects at population levels that may not always be immediately evident. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the combined effect of E(2) on aromatase expression, sexual behavior, and sperm parameters in fish.

  15. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P sperm count (P sperm (P sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  16. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection cr...

  17. Quality Control of Boar Sperm Processing : Implications from European AI Centres and Two Spermatology Reference Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesenbeck, A; Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Henning, H; Waberski, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increased automatization has resulted in a higher efficiency of boar semen processing in AI laboratories. Sophisticated laboratory management and efficient quality control programmes are needed for current tendencies in major pork-producing countries to reduce the sperm number per A

  18. The osmotic tolerance of boar spermatozoa and its usefulness as sperm quality parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Briz, Mailo; Pinart, Elisabeth; Sancho, Sílvia; Bussalleu, Eva; Bonet, Sergi

    2010-06-01

    Predicting the fertility outcome of ejaculates is very important in the field of porcine reproduction. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of different osmotic treatments on boar spermatozoa and to correlate them with fertility and prolificacy, assessed as non-return rates within 60 days (NRR(60d)) of the first inseminations, and litter size (LS), respectively. Sperm samples (n=100) from one hundred healthy Piétrain boars were used to assess 48 treatments combining different osmolalities (ranged between 100 and 4000 mOsm kg(-1)), different compounds used to prepare anisotonic solutions, and two different modalities: return and non-return to isotonic conditions. Sperm quality was evaluated before and after applying the treatments on the basis of analyses of sperm viability, motility, morphology and percentages of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test, linear regression analyses (Pearson correlation and multiple regression) and Jackknife cross-validation. Although three conventional parameters: sperm viability, sperm morphology and the percentages of acrosome-intact spermatozoa were significantly correlated with NRR(60d) and with LS, their respective osmotic tolerance parameters (defined for each parameter and treatment regarding with negative control) presented a higher Pearson coefficient with both fertility and prolificacy in three treatments (150 mOsm kg(-1) with non-return to isotonic conditions, 200 mOsm kg(-1) with return and 500 mOsm kg(-1) using sodium citrate and non-return to isotonic conditions). We conclude that osmotic resistance in sperm viability, sperm morphology and acrosome-intactness in the treatments mentioned above could be assessed along with classical parameters to better predict the fertilising ability of a given ejaculate.

  19. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  20. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

  1. Effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on sperm quality and pregnancy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Baccetfi; P.Piomboni; E.Bruni; S.Capitani; L.Gambera; E.Moretti; K.Sterzik; E.Strehler

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the possible links between ultrastructural sperm quality and the clinical pregnancy rate in infertile males treated with FSH before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods: Forty-four infertile males with idiopathic oligo-asthenozoospermia were randomly allocated to the treated (n=24) and non-treated (control,n=20) groups. Semen analysis was carried out by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and 12 weeks after FSH therapy. ICSI was performed in all couples. Results: TEM revealed a significant improvement in sperm quality after FSH treatment, particularly in men with their partners achieving clinical pregnancy. The pregnancy rate was 33% in the treated group and 20% in the control. Conclusion: Results highlight a positive role of FSH therapy in infertile males before ICSI, which was correlated with an increased pregnancy rate in treated couples.We believe that improved sperm ultrastructure after FSH therapy could positively influence the quality and early stage of embryo development, thereby increasing the probability of embryo implantation.

  2. Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-01-17

    Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 μg/l vs. 106.7±17.3 μg/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey.

  3. Boar sperm quality in relation to presence of sp32-like protein in spermatozoa - preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzołek Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse sperm proteomes of ejaculates from Polish Large White (PLW and Polish Landrace (PL boars and to identify differences which putatively influence semen quality. Spermatozoa protein profiles were analysed by electrophoretic methods followed by selected techniques to evaluate semen quality on the following factors: sperm motility, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA production, ATP content, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, total antioxidant status (TAS, and total oxidant status (TOS of seminal plasma. A protein with an estimated molecular weight of 30 kDa was found in spermatozoa of selected ejaculates. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that this polypeptide is most similar to proacrosin binding protein (sp32. The presence of the protein was more frequently observed in sperm extracts obtained in spring-summer period. Ejaculates containing sp32-like protein demonstrated significantly higher spermatozoa motility, lower inhibition of MDA production by seminal plasma, and higher SOD activity in seminal plasma. Boar semen which included sp32-like protein also demonstrated lower ATP levels in spermatozoa as well as higher TAS and lower TOS of seminal plasma, though the differences were not statistically significant. Ejaculates from PLW boars, with sp32-like protein present in sperm, were characterised by significantly higher sperm motility, lower ATP content in spermatozoa, and higher TAS of seminal plasma. The diminished parameters of semen quality were observed in ejaculates from PL boars that also contained the discussed protein, but the differences were not statistically significant. These findings suggest that the presence of sp32-like protein in boar spermatozoa could influence semen quality

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (Pamino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (Pamino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  5. White tea consumption restores sperm quality in prediabetic rats preventing testicular oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro F; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Dias, Tânia R; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Silva, Branca M

    2015-10-01

    Prediabetes represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It encompasses some, but not all, T2DM diagnostic criteria. Prediabetes has been recently associated with altered testicular function and increased testicular oxidative stress (OS). Tea is widely consumed and its anti-hyperglycaemic/antioxidant properties are known. This study aimed to evaluate whether white tea (WTEA) consumption by prediabetic rats could prevent testicular OS, preserving sperm quality. For that purpose, WTEA (presenting a high catechin content) was given to 30-day-old streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rats for 2 months. Testicular antioxidant potential and OS were evaluated, as well as sperm parameters, by standard techniques. WTEA consumption improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic rats. Testicular antioxidant potential was increased by WTEA consumption, restoring protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, although glutathione content and redox state were not altered. WTEA consumption improved sperm concentration and sperm quality (motility, viability and abnormality) was restored. Overall, WTEA consumption improved reproductive health of male prediabetic rats. Based on the study results, WTEA consumption appears to be a natural, economical and effective strategy to counteract the deleterious effects of prediabetes on male reproductive health, but further studies will be needed before a definitive recommendation is made.

  6. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Faure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. METHODS: Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. RESULTS: After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points. At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139 and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139 blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139 while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. CONCLUSION: This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  7. In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A.; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor. PMID:24520319

  8. Sperm quality and fertility of boar seminal doses after 2 days of storage: does the type of extender really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Reixach, Josep; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The present approach was designed to evaluate the extender effects on sperm quality and fertility of short-term refrigerated seminal doses from Landrace boars lodged in husbandry-controlled conditions. For this purpose, we analyzed the sperm quality of seminal doses diluted in short-term (Beltsville Thawing Solution) and extra-long-term (Duragen) extenders from Days 0 to 2 of storage at 17 °C during an 8-month period. Pregnancy rates and litter size were evaluated from double inseminations within an interval of 12 hours (36 and 48 hours of refrigeration) of multiparous females using seminal doses diluted in each extender type. Sperm quality was assessed from the analyses of sperm motility and kinetics, sperm viability, expressed as plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels, and acrosin activity. Results indicated significant differences between the extenders in the sperm quality of seminal doses. Therefore, the seminal doses diluted in Duragen had higher percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and membrane-intact spermatozoa than those diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution throughout all the experimental months. Nevertheless, despite these differences in preserving the sperm quality, pregnancy rates (>90%) and litter sizes (>10 piglets born per litter) were similar between the extenders. Our results had great relevance from a practical point of view because they reported lack of an extender effect on the reproductive performance of seminal doses during short-tem storage.

  9. Developmental temperature affects the expression of ejaculatory traits and the outcome of sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E

    2014-09-01

    The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection.

  10. Effect of Swim-Up and Percoll Treatment on Sperm Quality andIn vitro Embryo Development in Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ben; CUI Yan; YU Si-jiu

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of different sperm preparation treatments on yak sperm quality andin vitro embryo development. Frozen-thawed semen samples were treated using swim-up or percoll gradient centrifugation methods. Sperm concentration, progressive motility, recovery of motile sperm, membrane integrity, acrosome and chromatin integrity were scored and compared in recovered samples and controls. In addition, the effects of two sperm separation treatments on embryos capable of cleavage andin vitro development to the blastocyst stage were evaluated. Swim-up separated sperm showed a higher motility, while the concentration of spermatozoa recovered and percent recovery of motile sperm were higher with percoll gradient centrifugation separation. According to the optical and electron microscopies, swim-up produced higher percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane and acrosome than percoll gradient centrifugation separation. However, there was no difference in the percentage of sperm with intact chromatin between two treatment groups. Cell numbers in the blastocysts of two groups were not different. The blastocyst rate was similar in both groups, whereas cleavage rate was higher when swim-up was used.

  11. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  12. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  13. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  14. Alfa-lipoic acid protects testosterone secretion pathway and sperm quality against 4-tert-octylphenol induced reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Azza I; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Koriem, Khaled M; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) (50 mg/kg bw) against 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) (50 mg/kg bw) induced reproductive toxicity in male rats was studied. LA was injected 1h prior to OP administration three times a week. OP caused significant increase in oxidative stress in hypothalamus and epididymal sperm, disturbed hormonal levels in serum, decreased sperm quality, increased DNA fragmentation and loss of 35 and 95 kDa proteins in sperm, as well as elevated proliferating index in testis. LA protected against oxidative stress through promoting the levels of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in hypothalamus and sperm. In addition, LA prevented the decrease in testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and inhibited the elevations in sex-hormone-binding globulin levels and showed normal sperm quality. LA modulated proliferation of germ cell, protected against DNA fragmentation and maintained membrane protein organization in the sperm. In conclusion, LA normalized oxidative stress and protected testosterone synthesis pathway across hypothalamus-testicular axis and sperm quality indicating its defensive influence against OP-induced oxidative reproductive dysfunction in male rats.

  15. Short communication. Stallion sperm quality after combined ejaculate fractionation and colloidal centrifugation

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    Francisco Crespo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the possible additive benefit of ejaculate fractionation and colloidal centrifugation on stallion sperm quality. Using an open-end artificial vagina, the sperm-rich fraction (FRAC-1 was separated from the rest of the ejaculate (FRAC-2 and a third sperm sample representing the combined ejaculate was reconstituted post-ejaculation (RAW. Each semen sample was processed for colloidal centrifugation. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was 17.8 ± 7.0% in RAW and 14.6 ± 9.5% in FRAC-1 but decreased to 11.4 ± 4.7% and 9.6 ± 6.9% respectively, after colloidal centrifugation. A sperm DNA fragmentation index of 10.9 ± 5.1% was observed in RAW and 7.5 ± 2.4% in FRAC-1 semen collected with the AV but this decreased to 7.8 ± 2.8% and 5.2 ± 2.3% after colloidal centrifugation. The rate of increase in sperm DNA fragmentation during the first 6 h of incubation at 37 ºC was 1.8 ± 0.9% per hour in RAW semen and 2.0 ± 2.0% per hour in FRAC-1 but this significantly decreased to 1.3 ± 1.4% and 0.9 ± 0.8% respectively after colloidal centrifugation. While stallion seminal characteristics can be improved using colloidal centrifugation, further enhancement is possible if the ejaculate is initially fractionated.

  16. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

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    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin

  17. The Association Between Calcium, Magnesium, and Ratio of Calcium/Magnesium in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Miao, Maohua; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Kanglian; Wu, Bin; Dai, Qi; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationships between calcium, magnesium, and calcium/magnesium ratio in semen plasma and sperm quality. It was a cross-sectional study based on a program aiming at promoting the reproductive health in less-developed areas. A total of 515 men aged between 18 and 55 years provided semen specimens at family planning clinics in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations in semen plasma were measured with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sperm quality, including sperm motility and concentration, was evaluated by using a computer-assisted sperm analysis method. The medians of seminal plasma calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were 9.61, 4.41, and 2.23 mmol/l, respectively. Calcium concentration and calcium/magnesium ratio were negatively associated with sperm concentrations (β = -0.47, P = 0.0123 for calcium; β = -0.25, P = 0.0393 for calcium/magnesium ratio) after adjusting for zinc and other covariates. In stratified analyses, the association between calcium and sperm concentrations only persisted among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of ≤2.5 (β = -0.71, P = 0.0268). In the same stratum, magnesium was associated with increased sperm concentration (β = 0.73, P = 0.0386). Among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of >2.5, neither calcium nor magnesium was associated with sperm concentration. In conclusion, total calcium and magnesium concentrations were associated with sperm concentration among subjects with a lower calcium/magnesium ratio. The calcium and magnesium ratio had a modifying effect on the associations of calcium and magnesium with sperm concentration.

  18. Human sperm quality and lipid content after migration into normal ovulatory human cervical mucus containing low numbers of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nozha Chakroun-Feki; Patrice Therond; Martine Couturier; Florence Eustache; Gerard Limea; Alain Legrand; Pierre Jouannet; Jacques Auger

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the presence of low number of leukocytes in normal ovulatory cervical mucus and sperm quality and lipid content after migration. The percentages of live, motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa, movement parameters assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction measured by flow cytometry were determined before and after migration. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to measure the sperm lipid content, including the various diacyl subspecies. The number of leukocytes found in solubilized mucus samples was counted using a haemocytometric method. Overall, the presence of leukocytes in the cervical mucus samples did not significantly influence sperm motility and morphology, sperm kinematic parameters, or the sperm content in sphingomyelin or cholesterol. In contrast, after migration, the decrease in various sperm diacyls and the level of induced acrosome reaction was significantly less pronounced in mucus samples containing ≥ 104 leukocytes than in mucus samples with no or rare leukocytes whereas the level of induced acrosome reaction was higher. The present data suggest that the low level of leukocytes found in normal ovulatory cervical mucus could influence the process of sperm lipid remodelling/capacitation.

  19. The Effects of Different Doses of Ketamine on Quality of Normal Ejaculated Sperm

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    Forouzan Absalan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic in human and animal medicine, is also a recreational drug used by young adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ketamine on membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in humans. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 40 males with normal semen samples over one month (August 2012. Subjects were randomly allocated to four groups (Control and case I, II and III whose semen samples were adjusted to different concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 5 μL for one hour. Sperm analysis was performed for routine parameters, motility and morphology. Evaluation of membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation was done by eosin-Y staining and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total sperm motility in all case groups were significantly lower compared with the control group. In case group III, progressive motility showed significant difference with case group II. After addition of ketamine, sperm had evidence of coiled tails in all case groups compared to the control group however this observation was not significant. Evaluation of membrane integrity showed the rate of necrospermia increased in all case groups. However, ketamine only significantly affected membrane integrity in case group III. SCD staining showed that in the control group nucleoids with medium halos (63.44 ± 1.2 were significantly different compared to the case groups I (15.44 ± 0.45, II (9.05±1.16 and III (10.55 ± 1.14, respectively. Between case groups, nucleoids with large and medium halos showed significant differences in case groups II and III compared with case group I. Nucleoids with medium halos were significantly different between case groups II and III. Conclusion: Ketamine, through its effect on membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation, decreased

  20. Sperm motility patterns in Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) semen: effects of body weight, age, and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify sperm subpopulations with specific motion characteristics in fresh Andalusian donkey ejaculates; (2) evaluate the effects of individual donkey and ejaculates within the same donkey on the distribution of the subpopulations found; and (3) explore the relationship between the age and the body weight of donkey donors, the sperm quality parameters, and the sperm subpopulations structure. Sixty ejaculates from 12 Andalusian donkeys (five ejaculates per donkey), ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, were collected. Immediately after collection, sperm characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, objective sperm motility, and sperm morphology) were assessed. Donkeys were evaluated for body weight. Significant (P donkeys and the pH (r = -0.52), sperm motility (percentage of motile spermatozoa: r = -0.31; percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa: r = -0.34), and total sperm abnormalities (r = 0.38). The correlations of the age with the measures of semen quality were low and not significant (P > 0.05). A multivariate clustering procedure separated 65,342 motile spermatozoa into four subpopulations: subpopulation 1, consisting of slow and nonprogressive spermatozoa (15.4%), subpopulation 2, consisting of moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa (35.9%), subpopulation 3, consisting of highly active but nonprogressive spermatozoa (18.5%), and subpopulation 4, consisting of highly active and progressive spermatozoa (30.2%). The distribution of these subpopulations varied significantly (P donkey, the ejaculate of the same donkey, the total motility, and the overall sperm concentration. Our results show the existence of four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations in Andalusian donkey ejaculates, and suggest a high heterogeneity in the ejaculate structure in donkey. The relationship between the distribution of the sperm subpopulations and individual donkey, total motility, and sperm concentration shows that the spermatozoa of each

  1. Ubiquitination of prohibitin in mammalian sperm mitochondria: possible roles in the regulation of mitochondrial inheritance and sperm quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston E; Ramalho-Santos, João; Sutovsky, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Ubiquitination of the sperm mitochondria during spermatogenesis has been implicated in the targeted degradation of paternal mitochondria after fertilization, a mechanism proposed to promote the predominantly maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in humans and animals. The identity of ubiquitinated substrates in the sperm mitochondria is not known. In the present study, we show that prohibitin, a highly conserved, 30- to 32-kDa mitochondrial membrane protein, occurs in a number of unexpected isoforms, ranging from 64 to greater than 185 kDa in the mammalian sperm mitochondria, which are the ubiquitinated substrates. These bands bind antiubiquitin antibodies, displaying a pattern consistent with polyubiquitinated "ladders." Immunoprecipitation of sperm extracts with antiprohibitin antibodies followed by probing of the resultant immunocomplexes with antiubiquitin yields a banding pattern identical to that observed by antiprohibitin Western blot analysis. In fact, the presumably nonubiquitinated 30-kDa prohibitin band shows no antiubiquitin immunoreactivity. We demonstrate that ubiquitination of prohibitin occurs in testicular spermatids and spermatozoa. Ubiquitinated prohibitin molecules also accumulate in the defective fractions of ejaculated spermatozoa, which are thought to undergo surface ubiquitination during epididymal passage. In such sperm fractions, ubiquitin also coprecipitates with tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, presumably contributed by the axonemes of defective, ubiquitinated spermatozoa. The results of the present study suggest that prohibitin is one of the ubiquitinated substrates that makes the sperm mitochondria recognizable by the egg's ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolytic machinery after fertilization and most likely facilitates the marking of defective spermatozoa in the epididymis for degradation.

  2. Selenium in blood, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa of stallions and its relationship to sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmann, H; Keppler, S; Höltershinken, M; Bollwein, H; Behne, D; Alber, D; Bukalis, G; Kyriakopoulos, A; Sieme, H

    2010-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Until now, little data existed regarding the relationship between selenium and sperm quality in the stallion. Selenium, or selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, was determined in red blood cells, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and the percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMS), intact membranes (PMI), altered (positive) acrosomal status (PAS) and detectable DNA damage, determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay, were evaluated in 41 healthy stallions (three samples each). The pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (PRC) served as an estimation of fertility. An adverse effect on stallion fertility caused by low dietary selenium intake was excluded, as all stallions had sufficient selenium levels in their blood. Interestingly, no significant correlations (P > 0.05) between the selenium level in blood and the selenium level in seminal plasma or spermatozoa were found, suggesting that the selenium level in blood is no indicator of an adequate selenium supply for spermatogenesis. The selenium level in spermatozoa (nmol billion(-1)) was correlated with PMI, PMS and PAS (r = 0.40, r = 0.31 and r = -0.42, respectively; P selenium concentration in spermatozoa (nmol g(-1)) was correlated with PRC (r = 0.40, P selenium status for the male equine reproduction requires the analysis of selenium in spermatozoa. Furthermore, selenium is associated with improved sperm quality and fertility in the stallion.

  3. Effects of bovine serum albumin on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-G; Yan, G-J; Hong, J-Y; Su, Z-Z; Yang, G-S; Li, Q-W; Hu, J-H

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/l) of BSA, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analysed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 3, 4 and 5 g/l BSA could improve boar sperm motility, effective survival time and plasma membrane integrity (p sperm acrosome integrity and T-AOC activity among these three groups (p > 0.05). The semen sample diluted with Modena containing 4 g/l BSA could achieve optimum effect, and sperm survival time was 7.5 days. After 7 days preservation, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were 54%, 49% and 78%, respectively. T-AOC activity and MDA content were 1.03 U/ml and 17.5 nmol/ml, respectively. In conclusion, Modena supplemented with BSA reduced the oxidative stress and improved the sperm quality of boar semen during liquid storage at 17°C, and 4 g/l BSA was the optimum concentration. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacities of BSA in liquid preserved boar semen.

  4. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  5. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits.

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    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR. Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a "folded head"-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  7. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  8. Dietary probiotic supplement positively affects sperm motility in obese murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    at assessing the use of L.Rhamnusus on obese male fertility characteristics. We proposed that this probiotic can not only reduce the weight but in parallel would enhance sperm motility in obese male mice. Diet-induced obese C57BL/6NTac mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups and treated with a single daily...... dose (1x109CFU) of L.Rhamnusus (test group) or physiological saline (control group) for 4 weeks. Sperm motility and kinematics were assessed by the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA). The control group maintained a raising trend in weight gain leading to a significant difference on week 5 continuing to week 8...... percentage of progressive sperm, suggesting a possible increase in pregnancy. The effect mechanism of L.Rhamnusus could be either through direct influence on sperm motility or indirectly due to the promotion of weight loss. The latter hypothesis is due to the fact that weight-loss leads to scrotal...

  9. 实时精子分离系统对猪精子冷冻品质的影响%Effect of real-time sperm separation system on the quality of boar sperm frozen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海; 李青旺; 胡建红; 张树山

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to explore the effect of real-time sperm separation system on the quality of boar semen frozen.【Method】 Original semen was separated with real-time sperm separation system and tubule-froze with liquid nitrogen.The original semen was looked as control group,and the effect of real-time sperm separation system on the quality of boar semen frozen was detected.【Result】 After the separated semen was thawed,the sperm motility,the rate of spermatozoa with intact acrosome,the rate of spermatozoa with normal plasma membrane,the rate of spermatozoa with normal chromatin of the separated group were higher than those of the control group(P0.01);For the rate of spermatozoa with normal morphology,the separated group was better than that of the control group(P0.01),but it was not affected by the freeze-thaw process(P0.01);The spermatozoa density was not significantly affected by the separation process(P0.01).【Conclusion】 The real-time sperm separation system can significantly improve the quality of boar frozen semen.%【目的】探索实时精子分离系统对猪精子冷冻品质的影响。【方法】采用实时精子分离系统对精液进行分离优选,液氮冷冻法制作细管冻精,以未分离精液为对照,检测实时精子分离系统对猪精子冷冻品质的影响。【结果】分离优选精子解冻后,精子活率、顶体完整率、质膜完整率、正常染色质率均明显高于对照组(P〈0.01);分离组精子的正常形态率也显著高于对照组,且未受冷冻-解冻过程的影响(P〉0.01);分离过程对精子密度也未产生显著影响(P〉0.01)。【结论】实时精子分离系统可以显著改善猪冷冻精液的品质。

  10. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (Psperm membrane integrity and fluidity and sperm motility. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  11. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  13. Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşi, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men.

  14. RNA interference of the period gene affects the rhythm of sperm release in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Joanna; Bebas, Piotr; Gvakharia, Barbara O; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2009-02-01

    The period (per) gene is 1 of the core elements of the circadian clock mechanism in animals from insects to mammals. In clock cells of Drosophila melanogaster, per mRNA and PER protein oscillate in daily cycles. Consistent with the molecular clock model, PER moves to cell nuclei and acts as a repressor of positive clock elements. Homologs of per are known in many insects; however, specific roles of per in generating output rhythms are not known for most species. The aim of this article was to determine whether per is functionally involved in the circadian rhythm of sperm release in the moth, Spodoptera littoralis. In this species, as in other moths, rhythmic release of sperm bundles from the testis into the upper vas deferens occurs only in the evening, and this rhythm continues in the isolated reproductive system. S. littoralis was used to investigate the expression of per mRNA and protein in the 2 types of cells involved in sperm release: the cyst cells surrounding sperm bundles in the testes, and the barrier cells separating testicular follicles from the vas deferens. In cyst cells, PER showed a nuclear rhythm in light/dark (LD) cycles but was constitutively cytoplasmic in constant darkness (DD). In barrier cells, nuclear cycling of PER was observed in both LD and DD. To determine the role of PER in rhythmic sperm release in moths, testes-sperm duct complexes were treated in vitro with double-stranded fragments of per mRNA (dsRNA). This treatment significantly lowered per mRNA and protein in cyst cells and barrier cells and caused a delay of sperm release. These data demonstrate that a molecular oscillator involving the period gene plays an essential role in the regulation of rhythmic sperm release in this species.

  15. Helium-neon laser irradiation of cryopreserved ram sperm enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP levels improving semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Di Iorio, M; Bailey, J L; Manchisi, A; Passarella, S

    2016-08-01

    This study examines whether and how helium-neon laser irradiation (at fluences of 3.96-9 J/cm(2)) of cryopreserved ram sperm helps improve semen quality. Pools (n = 7) of cryopreserved ram sperm were divided into four aliquots and subjected to the treatments: no irradiation (control) or irradiation with three different energy doses. After treatment, the thawed sperm samples were compared in terms of viability, mass and progressive sperm motility, osmotic resistance, as well as DNA and acrosome integrity. In response to irradiation at 6.12 J/cm(2), mass sperm motility, progressive motility and viability increased (P < 0.05), with no significant changes observed in the other investigated properties. In parallel, an increase (P < 0.05) in ATP content was detected in the 6.12 J/cm(2)-irradiated semen samples. Because mitochondria are the main cell photoreceptors with a major role played by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the COX reaction was monitored using cytochrome c as a substrate in both control and irradiated samples. Laser treatment resulted in a general increase in COX affinity for its substrate as well as an increase in COX activity (Vmax values), the highest activity obtained for sperm samples irradiated at 6.12 J/cm(2) (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in these irradiated sperm samples, COX activity and ATP contents were positively correlated, and, more importantly, they also showed positive correlation with motility, suggesting that the improved sperm quality observed was related to mitochondria-laser light interactions.

  16. Episodic air pollution is associated with increased DNA fragmentation in human sperm without other changes in semen quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubes, J.; Selevan, S.G.; Evenson, D.P.; Zudova, D.; Vozdova, M.; Zudova, Z.; Robbins, W.A.; Perreault, S.D. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This study examined potential associations between exposure to episodes of air pollution and alterations in semen quality. The air pollution, resulting from combustion of coal for industry and home heating in the Teplice district of the Czech Republic, was much higher during the winter than at other times of year with peaks exceeding US air quality standards. Young men from Teplice were sampled up to seven times over 2 years allowing evaluation of semen quality after periods of exposure to both low and high air pollution. Routine semen analysis (sperm concentration, motility and morphology) and tests for sperm aneuploidy and chromatin integrity were performed, comparing measurements within each subject. Exposure was classified as high or low based on data from ambient air pollution monitoring. Using repeated measures analysis, a significant association was found between exposure to periods of high air pollution (at or above the upper limit of US air quality standards) and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation according to sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Other semen measures were not associated with air pollution. It is concluded that exposure to intermittent air pollution may result in sperm DNA damage and thereby increase the rates of male-mediated infertility, miscarriage, and other adverse reproductive outcomes.

  17. Quality of human spermatozoa: relationship between high-magnification sperm morphology and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maettner, R; Sterzik, K; Isachenko, V; Strehler, E; Rahimi, G; Alabart, J L; Sánchez, R; Mallmann, P; Isachenko, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work is to establish the relationship between the morphology of Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI)-selected spermatozoa and their DNA integrity. The 45 ejaculates were randomly distributed into three treatment groups: normozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic and oligoasthenotheratozoospermic samples. The evaluation of DNA integrity was performed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. It was established that DNA integrity of spermatozoa is strongly dependent on ejaculate quality (P 0.1). With decreased ejaculate quality, the percentage of spermatozoa with nonfragmented DNA decreased significantly (P < 0.05) independent from morphological class. Nevertheless, the rate of IMSI-selected spermatozoa with fragmented DNA within of Class 1 in normozoospermic (Group 1), in oligoasthenozoospermic (Group 2) and in oligoasthenotheratozoospermic (Group 3) samples was 21.1%, 31.8% and 54.1%, respectively. In conclusion, there is a direct relationship between morphological parameters of spermatozoa and their DNA integrity. However, the IMSI technique alone is not enough for the selection of spermatozoa with intact nuclei.

  18. Protective Effect of Melatonin on the Quality of Spermatogenesis and Sperm Parameters in the Mice Treated with Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mohammad Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Melatonin, the most important secretary hormone of pineal gland, as a powerful antioxidant has a high potent for neutralizing the toxicity of drugs. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate the effect of melatonin on testicular damage and sperm parameters deficiency induced by acetylsalicylic acid, in adult male mice. Materials & Methods: Male NMRI mice were divided into 4 groups: 1 control 2 acetylsalicylic acid treated group 3 melatonin treated group 4 Melatonin-acetylsalicylic acid treated group. Acetylsalicylic acid was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg orally through gavage for 14 days. Melatonin was administered in dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 days intraperitoneally. The control mice were received vehicle (normal saline orally through gavage. The animals were sacrificed and their testes and epididymis were dissected on the 15th day after the treatment. Evaluations were made by determining Johnson's score, epididymal sperm count, and sperm morphology and sperm motility. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test. Results: Acetylsalicylic acid treated mice showed a reduction in Johnson's score and quality of spermatogenesis (P<0.05, sperm count, normal morphology and motility percent (P<0.001, compared to the control. Melatonin in group 4, significantly increased maturation of seminiferous tubules (P<0.05, and quality and quantity of sperm parameters (P<0.05 in comparison with group 2. Conclusion: It seems that intraperitoneal administration of melatonin for 5 days is a potentially beneficial agent to improve the quality of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in testis damaged by acetylsalicylic acid, probably by decreasing oxidative stresses. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:29-36

  19. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10(9) sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation.

  20. New insights about the evaluation of human sperm quality: the aromatase example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male contribution to the couple's infertility is at first evaluated by the routine examination of semen parameters upon optical microscopy providing valuable information for a rational initial diagnosis and for a clinical management of infertility. But the different forms of infertility defined according to the WHO criteria especially teratozoospermia are not always related to the chromatin structure or to the fertilization capacity. New investigations at the molecular level (transcript and protein could be developed in order to understand the nature of sperm malformation responsible of human infertility and thus to evaluate the sperm quality. The profile analysis of spermatozoal transcripts could be considered as a fingerprint of the past spermatogenic events. The selection of representative transcripts of normal spermatozoa remains complex because a differential expression (increased, decreased or not modified levels of specific transcripts has been revealed between immotile and motile sperm fractions issued from normozoospermic donors. Microarrays tests or real-time quantitative PCR could be helpful for the identification of factors involved in the male infertility. Differences in the expression of specific transcripts have been reported between normal and abnormal semen samples. With the aromatase example, we have noted a negative strong correlation between the amount of transcript and the percentage of abnormal forms especially in presence of head defects. Immunocytochemical procedures using fluorescent probes associated with either confocal microscopy or flow cytometry can be also helpful to proceed with further investigations about the localization of proteins in the compartmentalized spermatozoa or the acrosome reaction. The dual location of aromatase both in the equatorial segment, the mid-piece and the tail could explain the double role of this enzyme in acrosome reaction and motility.

  1. Effects of advanced selection methods on sperm quality and ART outcome : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, Tamer M.; Land, Jolande A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current routine semen preparation techniques do not inclusively target all intrinsic sperm characteristics that may impact the fertilization potential. In order to address these characteristics, several methods have been recently developed and applied to sperm selection. The objective of

  2. The effect of glutathione addition in sperm diluent on the quality of bovine chilled semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted at the Laboratory of Physiology Reproduction, Research Institute for Animal Production (RIAP, Ciawi-Bogor, West Java. Sperms were collected from FH bulls with body weight 613 kg (FH-1 and 480 kg (FH-2 twice a week. Briefly after quality evaluation, semen was diluted in Tris-Citrate buffer medium, containing egg yolk (20% v/v and (4% v/v glycerol to get spermatozoa concentration of 50 x 106 per ml. Sperm diluents were added with glutathione (GSH with doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mM as treatments A, B, C and D respectively. The diluted semen was then cooled from 35 to 5°C using a cooling machine for 60 minutes then stored in the refrigerator (5°C. Recorded parameters were the survivability of spermatozoa by evaluating the percentage of motile and live, the condition of acrosome and plasma membrane. Data were analysed by completely randomised design with the general linear model (GLM procedure. The characteristics of collected semen were normal. Viability of spermatozoa stored at 5°C for 0, 1, 4 and 8 days shown by intact acrosomal were 74.42; 69.27; 57.80 and 42.58% for A, B, C and D respectively. Those data were significantly different (P<0.01. Motility, live and intact plasma membrane were 46.72; 52.34; 53.44 and 51.09%; 63.59; 69.11; 68.64; and 66.89%, and 66.01; 69.75; 68.38 and 68.44% for treatment A, B, C and D respectively. Additional 0.5 mM GSH gave the highest (P<0.01 motility, live and intact plasma membrane of sperm. Therefore, it is concluded that the effect of addition 0.5 mM of GSH to the sperm diluents can improve the viability of spermatozoa and possibly protect the spermatozoa from free radical damage.

  3. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Labas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC–MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ and seminal plasma (SP. We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  4. Effect of single layer centrifugation using Androcoll-E-Large on the sperm quality parameters of cooled-stored donkey semen doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, I; Dorado, J; Ramírez, L; Morrell, J M; Acha, D; Urbano, M; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single layer centrifugation (SLC) using Androcoll-E-Large on donkey sperm quality parameters after 24 h of cool-storage. Ejaculates were collected from Andalusian donkeys and then cooled at 5°C. SLC was carried out after 24 h of cool-storage using Androcoll-E-Large. In the first experiment, all sperm parameters assessed (total and progressive sperm motility, viability, sperm morphology and sperm kinematics VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were statistically compared between semen samples processed or not with Androcoll-E-Large. Significant differences (Pdonkeys, increasing the sperm quality of cooled-stored donkey semen doses after 24 h of cool storage.

  5. Effect of Myoinositol and Antioxidants on Sperm Quality in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutolo, Elisa; Lippa, Assunta; Iaconianni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the effects of a dietary supplement in patients affected by reduced sperm motility (asthenospermic males) with metabolic syndrome. The product tested was Andrositol®, which contains myoinositol (MI) as principal compound, in association with other molecules, and the parameters evaluated were semen characteristics as well as hormone and metabolic profiles. The inclusion criteria were subjects aged over 18 years, with asthenospermia and metabolic syndrome. The exclusion criteria were presence of cryptorchidism, varicocele, and prostatitis. For this study, 45 males who had such features were enrolled. Their selection was made according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (5th Edition) for the Evaluation of Human Semen. Hormone and metabolic profiles and semen parameters were assessed at the beginning of the study and after three months of treatment with Andrositol. The differences between the values before and after the supplementation were found statistically significant. Andrositol normalized the metabolic profile of these patients, improving their insulin sensitivity. Moreover, testosterone levels were increased and the semen characteristics, such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, highly improved. In conclusion, the association of MI with other molecules (micronutrients and vitamins) could be an effective therapy for metabolic disorders, as well as hormonal and spermatic changes responsible for male infertility.

  6. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males part

  7. The effects of inbreeding on sperm quality traits in captive‐bred lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1972)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, K.; Butts, I. A. E.; Smith, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    depression in the studied population, due to purging, low levels of inbreeding or lack of detection at the gametic level, or (ii) relaxed selective pressures due to benign hatchery conditions. The present study provides significant insight into the effects of inbreeding on sperm quality in a captive...

  8. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  9. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: sperm motility, viability, and hatching success of embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elaborate cryopreservation methods for ex situ conservation of European catfish. The success of sperm cryopreservation was evaluated by post-thaw sperm motility and velocity, percentage of live spermatozoa and fertility (hatching rates) using frozen/thawed sperm. The best hatching rates of 82-86% were obtained with sperm stored for 5 h before freezing in immobilizing solution and frozen with Me2SO in concentrations of 8, 10, and 12%, or with a mixture of 5% Me2SO and 5% propandiole. These results did not significantly differ from the fresh sperm control sample. The percentage of live spermatozoa in frozen/thawed sperm did not correlate with hatching rate or motility of spermatozoa, but was negatively correlated with velocity of spermatozoa (r=-0.47, P=0.05). The percentage motility in frozen/thawed sperm ranged from 8 to 62%, when sperm was stored in immobilizing solution 5h before freezing. The average value in the fresh sperm (control) was 96%. The frozen/thawed sperm motility rate significantly correlated with the hatching rate (r=0.76, P=0.0002), but not with the percentage of live spermatozoa (r=0.16, P=0.52) or the sperm velocity (r=0.07, P=0.79). The velocity of frozen/thawed spermatozoa ranged from 37 to 85 microm/s, whereby methanol concentrations of 7.5 and 10% resulted in highest velocities. Freezing sperm volumes of 1-4 ml did not affect the quality of frozen/thawed sperm.

  10. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    of ejaculated sperm that was stored in a queen's spermatheca. Both longer sperm and shorter sperm could be preferentially stored, depending on the colony in which the males and queens were born and raised. These results indicate that the genotype of males may affect sperm length and that cryptic female choice...

  11. Combined Effect of Trolox and EDTA on Frozen-Thawed Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Keshtgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The freezing and thawing process not only is associated with serious damage to sperm such as damage to the plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane but also changes the membrane permeability to some ions including calcium. Also, the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during the freezing-thawing process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of the effects of Trolox as an antioxidant and edetic acid (EDTA as a calcium chelator on frozen-thawed (FT sperm and compare these effects with those on fresh sperm. This study was done on these men of 25 healthy men, who referred to Shiraz Infertility Centerbetween2012 and2013. Normal samples were transferred to the ReproductivePhysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. The samples were divided into two groups randomly: fresh and FT sperm groups. Each group was divided into five subgroups: control group, the solvent group (0.1%dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], Trolox group (200μM, EDTA group (1.1mM, and Trolox+EDTA group. The percentages of motility, viability, and acrosome-reacted sperm were tested. The percentages of motility and viability in the FT sperm were lower than those in the fresh sperm. The progressive motility of the FT sperm was improved nonsignificantly with Trolox+EDTA. However, the effect of Trolox+EDTA on the progressive motility of the FT sperm was much more than that on the fresh sperm. The fewest acrosome-reacted sperm were observed in the EDTA-containingFT sperm. Antioxidant supplementation or omission of extracellular calcium may partly improve motility and also reduce acrosomal damage in FT sperm.

  12. Effects of Aging on Spermatogenesis, Sperm Maturation and Fertility in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-ju CHEN; Wei-jie ZHU; Jing LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of aging on spermatogenesis in testis, sperm maturation in epididymis, and fertility in mice.Methods Testicular specimens, caput epididymal sperm and cauda epididymal sperm were obtained from Kuming mice (18-month aged group, n=15; 6-month young group as control, n=15). The testicular histological examinations and quantitative evaluations on spermatogenesis were performed. Sperm parameters including sperm density, sperm viability, sperm motility, and normal morphological rate were assessed. The fertilization rate and embryo development were measured by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture.Results The histological changes of testes in aged mice were mainly seminiferous tubule atrophy and hypospermatogenesis. In aged testes, a significant decline was found in the numbers of round spermatids and elongated spermatids per Sertoli cell (P<0.01). Sperm density, sperm motility and normal morphological rate in caput epididymis and cauda epididymis in aged mice significantly decreased (P<0. 05). The fertilization rate and embryo development of aged group were lower than those in the control(P< 0.01).Conclusions Spermatogenesis and sperm functions could be maintained in the aging male. However, aging affects spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, which leads to lower the quality of sperm, including sperm fertilizing capacity. The development of embryo from aging sperm would have more abnormalities.

  13. The effect of presence of facultative bacteria species on semen and sperm quality of men seeking fertility care

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Enwuru; B. Iwalokun; V.N. Enwuru; O. Ezechi; A. Oluwadun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infections of male urogenital tracts may contribute to male infertility. However, the effects of bacterial presence on sperm quality and fertility are controversial. Objectives: We investigated the occurrence of non-specific bacteria and quality/quantity of semen of infertile and fertile control groups in Nigeria. Subjects and methods: We investigated 162 infertile and 54 fertile men. Spermiogram, culture, bacterial isolation and characterization were conducted. Results...

  14. Does the microbial flora in the ejaculate affect the freezeability of stallion sperm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ferrusola, C; González-Fernández, L; Muriel, A; Macías-García, B; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Tapia, J A; Alonso, J M; Peña, F J

    2009-06-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the possible relationship between the microbial flora in the stallion ejaculate and its ability to freeze,three ejaculates from five stallions were frozen using a standard protocol. Before freezing, an aliquot was removed for bacteriological analysis. Bacterial growth was observed in all the ejaculates studied. The isolated microorganisms were:Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. (in all the stallions), beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (in stallions 3 and 4), Corynebacterium spp. (in stallions 1, 3-5), Rhodococcus spp. (in stallion number 2), Pseudomonas spp. (in stallion number 1) and Klebsiella spp. (in stallions 1, 3 and 5). The presence and richness of Klebsiella and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in the ejaculate were related to two sperm variables post-thaw,namely the proportion of dead spermatozoa (ethidium+ cells; r = 0.55, p < 0.05) and the amplitude of lateral displacement of the sperm head (ALH, microm; r = -0.56, p < 0.05), respectively.The degree of growth of Corynebacterium spp. in the ejaculate was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa showing high caspase activity post-thaw(r = 0.62, p < 0.05). The presence and number of colonies of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus were negatively correlated (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) with low sperm caspase activity. It is concluded that the microbial flora of the equine ejaculate maybe responsible for some of the sublethal damage experimented by the spermatozoa during cryopreservation.

  15. Ameliorating Effect of Ginseng on Epididymo-Orchitis Inducing Alterations in Sperm Quality and Spermatogenic Cells Apoptosis following Infection by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epididymo-orchitis (EO potentially results in reduced fertility in up to 60% of affected patients. The anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG and its ability to act as an immunoenhancer in parallel with the beneficial effects of this ancient herbal medicine on the reproductive systems of animals and humans led us to evaluate its protective effects against acute EO. Materials and Methods: This animal experimental study was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS, Zanjan, Iran during 2013-2015. We divided 50 Wistar rats into five following groups (n=10 per group: i. Control-intact animals, ii. Vehicle-phosphate buffered saline (PBS injection into the vas deferens, iii. KRG-an intraperitoneal (IP injection of KRG, iv. EO-an injection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strain M39 into the vas deferens, and v. EO/ KRG-injections of both UPEC strain M39 and KRG. The treatment lasted seven days. We then evaluated sperm parameters, number of germ cell layers, Johnson’s criteria, germ cell apoptosis, body weight and relative sex organs weight. Results: Acute EO increased the relative weight of prostate and seminal vesicles (P≤0.05. It also reduced sperm quality such as total motility, sperm concentration (P≤0.01, and the percentage of normal sperm (P≤0.001. Moreover, acute EO decreased Miller’s (P≤0.05 and Johnsen’s scores and increased apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells (P≤0.001. KRG treatment decreased prostate weight gain (P≤0.05 and improved the percentage of sperm with normal morphology, total motility (P≤0.01, and progressive motility (P≤0.05. The apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells reduced (P≤0.001, whereas both Johnsen’s (P≤0.01 and Miller’s criteria increased in the KRG-treated EO testis (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Consequently, KRG ameliorated the devastating effects of EO on the sperm retrieved from

  16. Ameliorating Effect of Ginseng on Epididymo-Orchitis Inducing Alterations in Sperm Quality and Spermatogenic Cells Apoptosis following Infection by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehdi; Jani, Soghra; Kazemi, Mahsa; Zeighami, Habib; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mazloomi, Sahar; Shokri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objective Epididymo-orchitis (EO) potentially results in reduced fertility in up to 60% of affected patients. The anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and its ability to act as an immunoenhancer in parallel with the beneficial effects of this ancient herbal medicine on the reproductive systems of animals and humans led us to evaluate its protective effects against acute EO. Materials and Methods This animal experimental study was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran during 2013-2015. We divided 50 Wistar rats into five following groups (n=10 per group): i. Control-intact animals, ii. Vehicle-phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection into the vas deferens, iii. KRG-an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of KRG, iv. EO-an injection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain M39 into the vas defer- ens, and v. EO/ KRG-injections of both UPEC strain M39 and KRG. The treatment lasted seven days. We then evaluated sperm parameters, number of germ cell layers, Johnson’s criteria, germ cell apoptosis, body weight and relative sex organs weight. Results Acute EO increased the relative weight of prostate and seminal vesicles (P≤0.05). It also reduced sperm quality such as total motility, sperm concentration (P≤0.01), and the percentage of normal sperm (P≤0.001). Moreover, acute EO decreased Miller’s (P≤0.05) and Johnsen’s scores and increased apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells (P≤0.001). KRG treatment decreased prostate weight gain (P≤0.05) and improved the percentage of sperm with normal morphology, total motility (P≤0.01), and progressive motility (P≤0.05). The apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells reduced (P≤0.001), whereas both Johnsen’s (P≤0.01) and Miller’s criteria increased in the KRG-treated EO testis (P≤0.05). Conclusion Consequently, KRG ameliorated the devastating effects of EO on the sperm retrieved from either

  17. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: the impact of spermatogenesis quality on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in 108 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabador, M A; Pagin, A; Lefebvre-Maunoury, C; Marcelli, F; Leroy-Martin, B; Rigot, J M; Mitchell, V

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), it is not known whether the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) depend on the quality of testicular spermatogenesis (as determined histopathologically). We retrospectively studied the impact of spermatogenesis quality on ICSI outcomes in 108 azoospermic men with CBAVD consulting in a university hospital's department of andrology and reproductive biology. As part of an ICSI program, sperm samples were obtained from the epididymis [by microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA); n = 47] or the testis [by testicular sperm extraction (TESE); n = 14] or both (MESA + TESE, n = 47). In the TESE group (i.e., TESE-only and MESA + TESE), spermatogenesis was normal in 21 of the 108 men (19.4%) and hypospermatogenesis occurred in 33 (30.5%). The fertilization rate was significantly lower in the hypospermatogenic group than in the normospermatogenesis group (65.6 and 72.9%, respectively; p = 0.02); this was also true for the embryo cleavage rate (88.6 and 92.1%, respectively; p = 0.007), and the proportion of embryos with fewer than 30% of enucleate fragments (79.5 and 86.9%, respectively; p = 0.02). Our study results showed that impaired spermatogenesis had a negative impact on certain early-stage biological outcomes of ICSI. In CBAVD, male factors are likely to exert a harmful effect on the early stages of embryo development.

  18. Effect of extender and amino acid supplementation on sperm quality of cooled-preserved Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available liquid stallion semen extenders for the preservation of Andalusian donkey semen at 5°C for up to 72h, and to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition on sperm quality of cooled donkey semen. In addition, this study investigated the effect of seasons on semen characteristics of Andalusian jackasses. Throughout a year, 50 ejaculates were collected from ten adult donkeys and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. In Experiment 1, semen samples (n=32) were pooled, divided into two aliquots, and cooled in either Gent(®) A or INRA 96(®). In Experiment 2, pooled semen samples (n=9) were cooled in Gent A(®) supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60mM for each glutamine, proline, or taurine. Fresh semen and chilled samples were assessed for sperm motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Sperm motility variables were greater (Psperm variables were observed among seasons. In conclusion, Gent(®) A maintained sperm motility characteristics after 72h of cold storage to a greater extent than INRA 96(®). Moreover, motility was greater when Gent(®) A supplemented at different concentrations of amino acids than Gent(®) A with no supplementation. An effect of seasons on the semen quality of the Andalusian donkey was demonstrated.

  19. Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats

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    Jalil Abshenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12 or three treatment groups each containing twelve animals. Animals in the first treatment group was gavaged with copper sulfate, the second treatment group was injected with zinc sulfate, and the third treatment group was given combined treatment of copper and zinc. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar methods. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on day 28 and 56 after treatments for sperm quality evaluations. Results: In spite of testicular weight reduction 56 days after copper consumption in comparison to the control group (p=0.002, there was not a significant difference between the control and combined treatment of copper and zinc group (31.40±0.55 vs. 28.63±0.55, p=0.151. Administration of copper caused a significant decrease in the sperm count, viability and motility after 56 days compared to the control group. However, a complete recovery in sperm count was seen in combined treatment of copper and zinc group after 56 days compared to the control group (p=0.999 and a partial improvement was seen about the percentage of viability and motility (p<0.001. Conclusion: Adverse effects of long term consumption of copper on sperm quality could be prevented by zinc therapy in rats.

  20. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  1. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    OpenAIRE

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Hannah K Gendelman

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 ...

  2. Protein expression pattern of PAWP in bull spermatozoa is associated with sperm quality and fertility following artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chelsey E; Krieger, Kari Beth; Sutovsky, Miriam; Xu, Wei; Vargovič, Peter; Didion, Bradley A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hennessy, Madison E; Verstegen, John; Oko, Richard; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Post-acrosomal WW-domain binding protein (PAWP) is a signaling molecule located in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS) of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized that the proper integration of PAWP in the sperm PAS is reflective of bull-sperm quality and fertility. Cryopreserved semen samples from 298 sires of acceptable, but varied, fertility used in artificial insemination services were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for PAWP protein. In normal spermatozoa, PAWP fluorescence formed a regular band around the proximal PAS. Anomalies of PAWP labeling in defective spermatozoa were reflected in flow cytometry by varied intensities of PAWP-induced fluorescence. Distinct sperm phenotypes were also identified, including morphologically normal and some defective spermatozoa with moderate levels of PAWP; grossly defective spermatozoa with low/no PAWP; and defective spermatozoa with high PAWP. Analysis by ImageStream flow cytometry confirmed the prevalence of abnormal sperm phenotypes in the spermatozoa with abnormal PAWP content. Live/dead staining and video recording showed that some abnormal spermatozoa are viable and capable of progressive motility. Conventional flow-cytometric measurements of PAWP correlated significantly with semen quality and fertility parameters that reflect the sires' artificial insemination fertility, including secondary sperm morphology, conception rate, non-return rate, and residual value. A multiplex, flow-cytometric test detecting PAWP, aggresomes (ubiquitinated protein aggregates), and acrosomal integrity (peanut-agglutinin-lectin labeling) had a predictive value for conception rate, as demonstrated by step-wise regression analysis. We conclude that PAWP correlates with semen/fertility parameters used in the cattle artificial insemination industry, making PAWP a potential biomarker of bull fertility.

  3. Cryopreservation of Boer goat spermatozoa: Comparison of two freezing extenders based on post-thaw sperm quality and fertility rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Aji Pamungkas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Boer goat have recently been popularly used for cross breeding with local goats. However, it is currently considered a breed at very limited number with relatively high prices . In this context, the cryopreservation of spermatozoa is important because it could be conserved for a very long period of time. Egg yolk extenders are most commonly used for cryopreservation of goat sperm. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of two extenders to maintain sperm viability after cryopreservation. Semen from three male Boer goat aged about 2-3 years old was collected using artificial vagina and frozen with Tris and Triladyl extender. The results showed that percentage of motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa with Tris and Triladyl extenders at every stage of cryopreservation showed not significantly difference (P>0.05, except the percentage of sperm motility post thawing of Triladyl was higher than Tris extender (52.00±4.47% vs 47.50±2.74%, P<0.05. Cryopreserved semen in Tris extender provided the same fertility rates after cervical insemination compared to Triladyl (62.50% vs 60.00%. In conclusion, the Tris extender has the same capabilities to Triladyl in cryopreservation of Boer goat spermatozoa as to maintain sperm quality and fertility rates.

  4. Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Abshenas; Homayoon Babaei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old) male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12) or three treatment groups ea...

  5. Sperm quality improvement after natural anti-oxidant treatment of asthenoteratospermic men with leukocytospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Piomboni; Laura Gambera; Francesca Serafini; Giovanna Campanella; Giuseppe Morgante; Vincenzo De Leo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the immune-modulating and anti-oxidant effects of beta-glucan, papaya, lactoferrin, and vitamins C and E on sperm characteristics of patients with asthenoteratozoospermia associated with leucocytosis. Methods:Fifty-one patients referred to our Sterility Center for semen analysis were selected. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after patient's treatment with beta-glucan, lactoferrin, papaya, and vitamins C and E. DNA damage was assessed by the acridine orange test and sperm structural characteristics were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: After 90 days of treatment, an increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (17.0±5.2 vs. 29.8±6.5) and total progressive motility (19.0±7.8 vs. 34.8±6.8) were detected. Structural sperm characteristics as well as chromatin integrity were also improved after treatment. In terms of leukocyte concentration in seminal fluid, a significant reduction was recorded (2.2±0.9 vs. 0.9±0.2). Conclusion: The treatment of an inflammatory process by the synergic action of immune modulators and anti-oxidants could protect sperm during maturation and migration, leading to improved sperm function.

  6. Comparison between the quality and function of sperm after semen processing with two different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.E. Hammadeh; P.M. Zavos; P.Rosenbaum; W.Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To compare the recovery rate of morphologically normal and chromatin condensed spermatozoa from native se men samples using the SpermPrepTM filtration columns and Percoll gradient centrifugation and to determine the influence of the two processing techniques on fertilization and pregnancy rates in an IVF-ET program. Methods: Sixteen se men samples obtained from patient's husband were included in this study. Each was divided into two aliquots. The first aliquot was processed with SpermPrepTM filtration columns and the second, Percoll gradient centrifugation. Smears were made before and after semen processing with both methods for the evaluation of chromatin condensation (chromomycine CMA3) as well as morphology (strict criteria) of spermatozoa. One hundred and seventy oocytes were retrieved from the patients and the oocytes from each patient were subdivided into two sets: one set was inseminated using spermatozoa processed with SpermPrepTM and the other inseminated after semen processing with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Re suits: The Percoll method yielded a significantly higher percentage of chromatin condensed (90.8 ± 6.5 % vs 82.3 ± 8.8 %, P = 0.017) and morphologically normal spermatozoa (12.9 ± 7.4 % vs 6.9 ± 4.8 %, P = 0.001) in com parison to SpermPrepTM. Whereas, sperm count recovery rate was significantly higher after the use of SpermPrepTM than after the Percoll gradient centrifugation. The fertilization rate was similar between the two methods. Conclusion:Semen processing with Percoll should be recommended for intracytoplasmic sperm injection as the natural selection is bypassed and the SpermPrepTM technique could be recommended for 1VF and IUI programs as the sperm concentration plays a more significant role in these procedures.

  7. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies (ART), but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment of severe oligozoospermia. Patients and Methods 966 cycles (812 couples) of severe oligozoospermia diagnosed by spermatozoa count ≤ 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa ≤ 2 × 106/mL were divided into four groups in according to the number of motile spermatozoa in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval (Group B—E). The control (Group A) was 188 cycles of moderate oligozoospermia with spermatozoa count > 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa > 2 × 106/mL. All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes (the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo) and clinical outcomes (the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth). Quality of embryo transfer (ET) was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes. Results The reduction in the number of motile sperm in four groups of severe oligozoospermia gave rise to comparable inability of the fertilization (p < 0.001) and a decreased rate of good-quality embryo at Day 3 (p < 0.001) by compared to the control. The cleavage rate of the derived zygotes was similar to the control. ET classes significantly affected the clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). Class I ET gave rise to similar rates of clinical outcomes between five groups, but Class II and Class III ET retarded the rates of pregnancy, implantation and live birth and this particularly occurred in Group C, D and E. The rate of early miscarriage was not comparably different between groups

  8. Correlation between diameter and testicular sperm quality in sheep’s creole, municipality of Soracá Boyacá

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    Nestor Palacios Moreno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the correlation between testicular diameter (TD and sperm quality in a group of native sheep in the town of Soracá Boyacá, for possible selection values , considering the importance of reproduction in the sheep-culture and the search efficiency in the selection and management of players. The evaluation procedure was carried out by testing macroscopic and microscopic semen quality and testicular size measurement over a specific measuring tape for the case of comparing the diameters testicular ultrasonography was used as complementary test. The correlation of the results with respect to DT semen parameters (macroscopic and microscopic as volume (V, sperm concentration (SC, mass motility (MM and individual motility (MI was significant, as evidenced by the coefficient correlation of 0.81 between DT and CE. The correlation coefficients between DT and V, DT and MI were low with 0.29 and 0.27 respectively, recorded the lowest correlation was present between DT and MM with 0.09. This leads to the conclusion that the greater the testicular diameter (TD better sperm quality, and their values can serve as indicators as to the fertility of native sheep breeding males in seminal samples collected by electro-ejaculator.

  9. Blood and seminal plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc and testosterone and their relationship to sperm quality and testicular biometry in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel S B; Fioratti, Eduardo G; Ramos, Renata S; Neves, Renato C F; Ferreira, João Carlos P; Cardoso, Guilherme S; Padilha, Pedro M; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2014-11-10

    The aim of this study was to assess seminal plasma (SP) and serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and testosterone (T) in domestic cats and determine whether these are related to sperm quality and testicular biometry. Six tomcats were collected using an artificial vagina and sperm analysis included motility by CASA, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and sperm count. Serum and SP were submitted to total T concentration determination using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique while Zn and Se were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum T concentrations were greater compared to SP concentrations, but both values were significantly correlated. Se concentrations were higher in serum, whereas SP had greater Zn values. Concentrations of Se, Zn and T were not correlated with each other either in serum or SP. Negative correlations were detected between Se concentrations in SP and total sperm head defects, and between Se concentrations in serum and VAP, VSL, STR, and LIN. Serum concentrations of Zn were negatively correlated with total abnormal sperm and midpiece defects and positively related to progressive motility. Both serum and SP concentrations of T had no relationship with sperm quality. Concentrations of Se exhibited a negative correlation with total testicular weight, whereas T concentrations in SP and serum were correlated with total testicular volume and weight. In conclusion, both Se and Zn concentrations in serum were correlated to sperm quality variables in the domestic cat, thus, making these potential candidates for fertility markers.

  10. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Cui-Ling Liang; Jun-Qing Wu; Chen Xu; Shi-Xiao Qin; Er-Sheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality. Methods:From 2001 to 2003, 346 eligible patients aged 20-45 years were invited from two hospitals in Shanghai, China, to participate in an investigation which included questionnaires about general and reproductive health, an external genital tract examination, UU culture and semen analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine whether UU had a significant effect on semen quality after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Findings suggested that UU infection was associated with higher semen viscosity and lower semen pH value. Sperm concentration was lower in UU positive subjects than that in UU negative subjects (54.04 × 106/mL vs.70.58 × 106/mL). However, Uudid not significantly affect other semen quality indexes. Conclusion: UU infection of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality.

  11. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

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    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  12. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions.

  13. Effect of testicle postmortem storage on goat frozen-thawed epididymal sperm quality as a tool to improve genebanking in local breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, F; Madeddu, M; Gliozzi, T M; Gandini, G; Pizzi, F

    2014-03-01

    The interest to develop assisted reproductive technologies and cryobanking for farm animal genetic resource conservation has recently increased. However, cryopreservation for ex-situ management of genetic diversity sometimes is not routinely feasible, owing to the lack of facilities (AI centres, laboratories) and expertise near the local breed farming area. In these cases, epididymal sperm obtained from slaughtered or castrated animals, associated with the possibility of managing rather long periods between animal death, sperm recovery and freezing, would increase the opportunities to create semen storages. This investigation addresses the pre-freeze/post-thaw quality of goat epididymal sperm as a function of testicle storage temperature (environment or +5°C) and time elapsed between animal's death and sperm recovery (0, 24, 48, 72 h) to establish the optimal protocols for the recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm in this species. Testicles of 50 mature bucks collected at the abattoir were divided in two groups: half of the testicles (n=50) were transported to the laboratory at environment temperature (E), whereas the remaining half (n=50) at a refrigeration temperature (R) of +5°C. In the two groups (E) and (R), one testicle from each pair was processed after slaughter forming the time 0 groups (0E and 0R). The contralateral testicle was processed after 24, 48 or 72 h of storage, at the corresponding temperature. Sperm motility and kinetic parameters, viability and morphology were assessed in pre-freeze and post-thaw samples. Until 48 h postmortem, both E and R temperatures are able to maintain good pre-freeze epididymal sperm quality. After 48 h postmortem, R temperature is fundamental to reduce epididymal sperm quality decay in pre-freeze samples. Moreover, testicle refrigeration also has a positive impact on post-thaw samples, allowing a lower decline through time considering total motility, kinetics parameters, sperm viability and sperm

  14. Evaluation of sperm quality snakes Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860 (Serpentes, Dipsadidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860, is a species widely distributed in the Pampa Domain, occurring in Rio Grande do Sul, Argentina and Uruguay, mainlyin the pampa region. In the coastal region of southern Brazil this is serpent is considered one of the most abundant. The purpose of the present study is to describe the techniques of sperm evaluation in vitro for E. poecilogyrus sublineatus in the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After laparatomy the efferent vases were collected and the semen was diluted in 1ml Beltsville Thawing Solution. The characteristics of motility, membrane integrity, mitochondria, acrosome, DNA, cell viability and cellular functionality were evaluated. Fluorescent probes were used for the evaluation of sperm structure in epifluorescence microscope. With the techniques described, it was possible to identify intact and injured cells, enabling the determination of cell characteristics for the spring season (October and November. It was observed in the analyses that 80% of sperm cells were mobile and that 84.1 ± 8.0% of sperm membranes were intact. The standards found were of 48 ± 13.8% of intact acrosome, 73.6 ± 6.0 of perfect DNA and of 91.8 ± 4.0 of functional mitochondria. Thus, these values from the sperm analysis can be used as standards for the species Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus.

  15. Evaluation of sperm quality snakes Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Varela, A S; Cardoso, T F; Silva, E F; Loebmann, D; Corcini, C D

    2017-01-12

    Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860), is a species widely distributed in the Pampa Domain, occurring in Rio Grande do Sul, Argentina and Uruguay, mainlyin the pampa region. In the coastal region of southern Brazil this is serpent is considered one of the most abundant. The purpose of the present study is to describe the techniques of sperm evaluation in vitro for E. poecilogyrus sublineatus in the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After laparatomy the efferent vases were collected and the semen was diluted in 1ml Beltsville Thawing Solution. The characteristics of motility, membrane integrity, mitochondria, acrosome, DNA, cell viability and cellular functionality were evaluated. Fluorescent probes were used for the evaluation of sperm structure in epifluorescence microscope. With the techniques described, it was possible to identify intact and injured cells, enabling the determination of cell characteristics for the spring season (October and November). It was observed in the analyses that 80% of sperm cells were mobile and that 84.1 ± 8.0% of sperm membranes were intact. The standards found were of 48 ± 13.8% of intact acrosome, 73.6 ± 6.0 of perfect DNA and of 91.8 ± 4.0 of functional mitochondria. Thus, these values from the sperm analysis can be used as standards for the species Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus.

  16. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  17. Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities. Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility. Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history...

  18. Assessment of sperm morphology without quality control may be meaningless for clinicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-Shou Yao; Xin-Zong Zhang; Ying Wu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Recently we read several articles related to sperm morphology [1-3] published on the Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology on Semen Analysis in 21st Century Medicine and were quite enlightened; herein we would like to present some of our views and suggestions. Assessment of sperm morphology, motility and concentration provides a basis for decision on patient care. A number of studies have shown a statistical association between morphologically normal spermatozoa and fertility [4, 5]. Data from assisted reproductive technology programs also suggest that, if the percentage of sperm with normal morphology falls below 15%assessed with methods and definitions described in the Manual, the fertilization rate in vitro decreases [6].

  19. Effects of Vitamin E Addition to Chicken Semen on Sperm Quality During in Vitro Storage of Semen

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    Saleh Tabatabaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of the vitamin E addition in different levels to the extender of chicken semen on spermatozoa quality during storage of semen at 4°C for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours. Eight young Ross broiler breeder strain 308 roosters were used in this experiment. The collected semen from all roosters was mixed together and diluted with modified a Ringer’s solution. The diluted pooled semen was divided into 5 treatments (T. T1 was a control group without any vitamin E addition. For T2 to T5 groups 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % vitamin E (w/v, were added respectively. Treatments were evaluated for sperm motility, sperm viability and probable morphological defects after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 24 hours of incubation at 4°C. The evaluations of spermatozoa immediately after semen collection, were revealed no significant differences among values of treatment groups, whereas after incubating the treatments for different spans of time, the sperm progressive motility and viability rates for groups supplemented with vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the control group. In addition, morphological defect rates of chicken spermatozoa in the groups supplemented with different levels of vitamin E were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than that in control group. According to the results of this study we conclude that, the most excellent level of vitamin E for supplementation to the extended semen of chicken in order to improve the sperm motility and viability plus to reduce the morphological defect rates of the spermatozoa up to 24 hours storage time at 4°C is 2 % (w/v.

  20. Acute hypoxic exposure affects gamete quality and subsequent fertilization success and embryonic development in a serpulid polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer.

  1. Analysis of routine and novel sperm selection methods for the treatment of infertile patients undergoing ICSI procedure

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    Leila Azadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART depends on many factors such as sperm preparation methods, embryo quality and factors that may affect implantation. In Intra-cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI, sperm selection is mainly based on sperm motility and morphology; however, studies have revealed that these parameters cannot guarantee the genomic health. Recently, researchers and scientific have focused on new sperm selection methods based on cellular and molecular properties. Therefore, the aim of this review article was to introduce the routine and novel sperm selection methods, advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and their clinical analysis. Methods: The papers related to routine and novel sperm selection methods based on function tests and clinical outcomes were retrieved from PubMed and Entrez databases and other ISI-related databases. Results: Novel sperm selection methods which are based on selection of a single sperm (like IMSI and ability of sperm to bind to zona are time-consuming and costly. In addition, assessment of DNA fragmentation is difficult for the selected sperm. However, methods that select a population of spermatozoa like Zeta are less time-consuming and suitable for assessment of sperm chromatin integrity. Conclusion: In clinical applications, simultaneous use of traditional and novel approaches may improve ICSI outcome. However, further studies are needed to select an appropriate sperm selection procedure.

  2. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  3. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

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    Ju-Fen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles, 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands′ sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001, crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05 and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05. The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05, but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  4. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  5. Effects of MboII and BspMI polymorphisms in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Na; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Li-Guo

    2011-06-01

    The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays an essential physiological role in reproductive function, which triggers the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of polymorphisms of GnRHR gene on the quality of fresh and frozen semen in Holstein bulls. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect G286A and T340C transitions determining MboII and BspMI polymorphisms, respectively, in the exon I of bovine GnRHR gene and evaluated its associations with sperm quality traits in 131 Holstein bulls. In polymorphic locus 286, bulls with the GA genotype had significantly higher sperm motility in frozen semen (FMOT) than GG genotype (P bulls with heterozygote CT genotype had significantly higher sperm motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), and lower abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) than homozygote TT genotype (P Bulls contained one A allele or C allele had a favorable, positive effect on sperm quality traits. These results indicate that GnRHR gene can be a potential marker for improving sperm quality traits, and imply that bulls with GA or CT genotype should be selected in breeding program.

  6. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

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    Burak Ozkosem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old, adult (8-month-old, and old (20-month-old Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice.

  7. Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay

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    Hugo Petrocelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, natural photoperiod, and room temperature at the housing facility on boar semen characteristics in Uruguay (34º66'S; 56º29'W. For this purpose, 117 ejaculates, obtained from eight adult males collected through 12 consecutive months, were assessed for sperm viability, DNA integrity, abnormalities (total, primary, and secondary, ejaculate volume, and sperm concentration. Viability, total and primary abnormalities, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by season. Sperm viability, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by natural photoperiod. In general, autumn and the decreasing photoperiod had a negative impact on most of the semen characteristics, except for volume. Housing temperature did not affect semen characteristics. In boars living in temperate climates, semen quality is negatively affected during autumn and is related to photoperiod changes; however, the effects of temperature changes in housingdo not affect these seminal characteristics. In this scenario, seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow fertilization. Consequently, semen quality control especially during autumn is imperative for the best boar selection to be used for insemination purposes. Seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow reproductive performance. This issue will be addressed in a future investigation.

  8. A comparative study of Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll separation techniques on sperm quality and IVF results for cryopreserved bovine semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Lee; Kim, Sue-Hee; Ji, Dong-Beom

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of spermatozoa separation techniques on sperm quality and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) results for cryopreserved bovine semen. Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll gradient separation techniques were used for sperm separation and sperm motility, morphology and membrane integrity were evaluated before and after separation. Also, cleavage and blastocyst developmental rate were investigated after IVF with sperm recovered by each separation technique. The motility of samples obtained by the three separation techniques were greater compared to the control samples (p < 0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma-membrane integrity, identified by 6-carboxyfluoresceindiacetate/propidium iodide fluorescent staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, was highest in the glass wool filtration samples (p < 0.05). The cleavage and blastocyst rate of total oocytes produced from glass wool filtration samples were also higher than the control and Sephadex filtration samples (p < 0.05), but were not significantly different from Percoll separation samples. However, a significantly greater number of cleaved embryos produced by glass wool filtration developed to blastocyst stage than those produced by Percoll separation (p < 0.05). These results indicate that spermatozoa with good quality can be achieved by these three separation techniques and can be used for bovine IVF. In particular, it suggests that glass wool filtration would be the most effective method of the three for improving sperm quality and embryo production for cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. PMID:19687626

  9. Adaptation of ubiquitin-PNA based sperm quality assay for semen evaluation by a conventional flow cytometer and a dedicated platform for flow cytometric semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Sutovsky, M; DeJarnette, J M; Marshall, C; Sutovsky, P

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of semen quality evaluation is to predict the fertility potential of the sample in an objective, rapid and inexpensive manner. However, utilization of sperm quality biomarkers such as ubiquitin and lectin Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) for flow cytometric semen evaluation might eliminate the need for visual assessment by microscopy. Herein, we demonstrate a robust ubiquitin and PNA-based semen evaluation conducted on a simple, easy to operate, dedicated sperm flow cytometer, EasyCyte Plus (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France). Semen samples were collected periodically from two dairy bulls, which were subjected to temporary scrotal insults to induce variable semen quality. Samples were labeled with fluorescently-conjugated anti-ubiquitin antibodies (bind exclusively to the surface of defective sperm) and lectin PNA (binds to acrosomal surface in prematurely capacitated and acrosome-damaged sperm). Fluorescent properties of the samples were measured with a conventional flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson FACScan; Becton Dickinson Corp., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and by the EasyCyte (IMV Technologies) instrument. Data from the two flow cytometers were positively correlated for the percentage of PNA-positive sperm with a damaged acrosome (r = 0.47; P flow cytometric semen evaluation.

  10. Assessment of sperm quality traits in relation to fertility in boar semen

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    Zilinskas Henrikas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been published where sperm plasma membrane integrity correlated to fertility. In this study we describe a simple fluorometer-based assay where we monitored the fluorescence intensity of artificially membrane-ruptured spermatozoa with a fixed time staining with fluorescent DNA dyes. Methods Membrane-impermeant fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33258 (H258 and propidium iodide (PI were used to measure the fluorescence of the nucleus in artificially membrane ruptured spermatozoa and membrane-permeant dye Hoechst 33342 (H342 was used to measure fluorescence of intact spermatozoa. The concentration of spermatozoa in insemination doses varied from 31.2 × 106/ml to 50 × 106/ml and the average value was 35 × 106/ml. Each boar was represented by three consecutive ejaculates, collected at weekly intervals. Nonreturn rate within 60 days of first insemination (NR % and litter size (total number of piglets born of multiparous farrowings were used as fertility measures. Results Sperm fluorescence intensity of H258 and H342, but not the fluorescence intensity of PI-stained spermatozoa correlated significantly with the litter size of multiparous farrowings, values being r = - 0.68 (P Conclusions The increase in fluorescence values of membrane-ruptured H258 and unruptured H342-stained spermatozoa in boar AI doses can be associated with smaller litter size after AI. This finding indicates that the fluorescence properties of the sperm nucleus could be used to select for AI doses with greater fertilizing potential.

  11. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

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    Takashi Yamane

    Full Text Available Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  12. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  13. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced early-life nutrition (∼130% of required energy and protein) increased testes size and weight (∼20-25%) and reduced age at puberty (∼1 month) in beef and dairy bulls, compared with those fed 70% of dietary requirements. The objective was to determine effects of early-life (2-31 weeks) nutritional modulation on feed costs, predicted number of harvestable sperm and doses of semen, and semen quality. Calves (∼1 week old) were randomly allocated into three groups that were fed 4, 6, or 8 L/day of milk (low [n = 8], medium [n = 9], and high groups [n = 9], respectively) from ages 2 to 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were weaned, transitioned onto barley silage-based diets, to receive ∼70, 100, or 130% of recommended amounts of energy and protein (feed costs were ∼CDN$280 more per bull to feed high versus low diets from 2 to 31 weeks). After 31 weeks, all bulls were fed a medium diet. Semen was collected, by electroejaculation, from 51 to 73 weeks, extended, chilled, and cryopreserved. Bulls fed high nutrition were numerically younger (P = 0.45) at sexual maturity (sperm with ≥30% progressive motility, ≥70% morphologically normal, and ≤20% abnormal heads), first acceptable post-chill sperm motility (>50%; P = 0.66) and first acceptable post-thaw motility (>25% progressive; P = 0.25) than bulls in the low-nutrition group. Semen from three bulls per group was used for in vitro fertilization (total of 1249 bovine oocytes); there were no significant differences among groups in fertilization percentage (mean ± SEM of 68.0 ± 8.7, 77.1 ± 3.5, and 68.7 ± 4.5% for low, medium, and high, respectively) or blastocyst yield (31.5 ± 5.6, 41.4 ± 4.9, and 33.7 ± 4.6%). On the basis of analysis of 2D gels of sperm proteins, 380 spots were identified on the fused master gel, but no spots were differentially expressed across groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in semen quality or sperm function among bulls fed

  14. Zinc protects sperm quality in assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术中锌对精子的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正尧; 吴金香; 尤柳霞; 蔡俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Aim:To study the action of zinc that reduces sperm damage in assisted reproductive tech-nology.Methods:The preferred sperms selected by density gradient centrifugation were divided into blank control group,hydrogen peroxide-treated group,and experimental group which was treated with both hydrogen peroxide and Zinc;The three groups were compared in sperm motility,viability,sperm plasma membrane integrity,and sperm DNA fragmentation after 5h incubation.Results:The sperm mo-tility and vitality decreased,the membrane integrity was destroyed,and the sperm DNA was damaged af-ter the sperms were incubated with hydrogen peroxide.However,Zinc could protect the sperms from the damage significantly.Conclusion:Zinc reduces sperm damage in the assisted reproductive technology, and thereby improves the quality of sperm.%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中锌保护精子损伤的作用。方法:应用精子密度梯度离心的方法进行精子优选,优选的精子分为空白对照组、过氧化氢处理组和实验组,实验组受过氧化氢刺激同时加入锌,培养5h 后比较3组精子的存活率、活力、精子质膜完整性及精子 DNA 碎片。结果:过氧化氢刺激后精子的存活率、活力差,精子质膜完整性破坏,大量精子 DNA 损伤,而锌能明显保护精子质量的作用。结论:在辅助生殖技术中锌可抑制精子损伤,从而提高精子质量的作用。

  15. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

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    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  16. Effect of chocolate and Propolfenol on rabbit spermatogenesis and sperm quality following bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Biagi, Marco; Cardinali, Raffaella; Mazzi, Lucia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Manca, Daniela; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of chocolate and propolis-enriched diets on rabbit spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and ultrastructure following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. The LPS-Propolfenol(®) group received propolis (500 mg/kg/day) in their diet for 15 days, while the LPS-chocolate group was fed 70% cacao chocolate (1 g/1 kg/day) for the same period. Following the diet treatments, rabbits in the LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate groups, and an LPS group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 μg/kg LPS, and the control group received only saline. Kinematic sperm traits were evaluated with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and ultrastructural characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Testicular and epididymal tissues were observed by light microscopy and TEM and multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect and quantify toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression. The values of the analyzed semen parameters of rabbits treated with LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate did not show any variations compared with the control group, but they were lower in rabbits treated only with LPS. Alterations observed in the testicular tissue of LPS treated-rabbits were not detected in specimens from the LPS-chocolate and LPS-Propolfenol(®) groups, which showed normal spermatogenesis. The TLR-4 mRNA expression was similar in controls, in LPS treated, and in LPS-chocolate groups, but it was significantly (p chocolate and propolis-enriched diet showed a protective effect on the spermatogenetic process of buck rabbits following LPS treatment.

  17. Semen quality parameters, their inter-relationship and post-washing sperm attributes of Rhode Island Red roosters

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    R. Richard Churchil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiments were conducted (a to evaluate the semen attributes of older Rhode Island Red (RIR roosters and the inter-trait relationships, (b to test sperm washing and storage duration suitable for gene transfer experiments. Materials and Methods: The semen characteristics of older RIR roosters were studied, and Pearson correlation analysis was done to demonstrate the inter-trait relationships. Progressive motility and percent live sperms were tested at different post-washing intervals to identify suitable sperm processing conditions for gene transfer experiments. Results: The volume, appearance score, initial motility, sperm count and percent live and abnormal spermatozoa were 0.38 ml, 3.58, 80.34%, 4.03 × 109 sperms/ml, 83.18% and 4.52% respectively. Positive correlation was observed among appearance score, motility, live sperm and sperm count. Semen volume is negatively correlated with all the other characters except live sperms, whereas, percent abnormal sperms negatively associated with all the other traits. Significant (p<0.05 decrease in terms of motility and live sperm was recorded at 60 min post-washing. Conclusion: The semen attributes of RIR roosters compares well with the other breeds of chicken. The appearance score can be used to assess fertility where microscopic evaluation facilities are limited. The sperm washing protocol tested in the experiment is suitable for gene transfer experiments.

  18. Greenhouse climate control affects postharvest tomato quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Schouten, R.E.; Qian, T.; Dieleman, J.A.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, important quality properties such as firmness, sugar and acid levels were measured and analysed in tomatoes harvested from three greenhouses during a five month period and stored at 16 degrees C for over 20 days. Tomatoes were harvested from three identical, neighbouring, greenhouses

  19. How Microorganisms Affect Food Safety and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    The main methods of preservation for shelf-stable foods are controlling the water activity or lowering the pH. Factors are often combined, like lowering pH AND using refrigeration. Understanding how food supports the growth of microorganisms can help improve both food safety AND food quality. This guide can help you manipulate your food to create a safe product.

  20. 糖尿病对精子形态和精液质量的影响及相关机制研究%Effects of diabetes on sperm morphology and semen quality and related mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁涛; 李俊明; 胡毅娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)对男性精子形态和精液质量的影响,初步阐明DM影响精液质量的相关机制。方法选取100例2014年-2015年来我院生殖中心就诊的成年男性,分为两组,一组为50例DM男性患者,另一组为50例健康成年男性,对比分析两组患者的精子形态和精液质量,以及血清中促卵泡激素(FSH)、促黄体生成素(LH)、泌乳素(PRL)、睾酮(T)等各项激素及精液中抗精子抗体。结果⑴DM组精液精子浓度低于对照组精液精子浓度(P<0.01),DM组精液精子总数低于对照组(P<0.01),DM组精液精子总活动率低于对照组(P<0.05)。⑵DM组和对照组畸精症和抗精子抗体阳性的发生率无统计学差异,但是单独对畸精症组与非畸精症组进行血糖及糖化血红蛋白浓度对比,发现畸精症组血糖值高于非畸精症组(P<0.05);糖化血红蛋白浓度高于非畸精症组(P<0.05)。⑶DM组相比对照组T显著性下降(P<0.01),而FSH、LH、PRL无明显改变。结论 DM可下调男性患者的精子浓度、精子总数及总活动率,但对精子形态无显著影响,提示DM主要通过影响精子生成或抑制精子活力从而导致男性生育力的下降。%Objective To investigate the effect of DM on male sperm morphology and sperm quality,and illustrate its possible mechanism. Methods A total of 100 adult male who come to our reproductive center for test in 2014-2015 year. 50 DM patients were designed as DM group,and another 50 healthy adult males were designed as control group. Comparative Analysis of the dia-betic male patients and healthy controls’s sperm morphology and sperm quality and peripheral blood serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH),prolactin (PRL),testosterone (T),anti-sperm antibodies. Results ⑴Through comparative analysis of the indicators DM and control groups semen found that DM

  1. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH and testosterone (T levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD on top-up transfusion (TTx and those on exchange transfusion (ETx regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner′s stage 5, and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins′ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01. Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated

  2. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, respectively. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were decreased in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish following 15 and 30d of exposure, respectively. In DEHP treated goldfish, gnrh3, kiss1 and its receptor (gpr54) mRNA levels did not change during the experimental period. In E2 treated goldfish, gnrh3 mRNA levels were...... decreased at day 7, but kiss1 and gpr54 mRNA levels were increased at day 30 of exposure. The mRNA levels of genes encoding testicular LH and androgen receptors remained unchanged in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish. In contrast to E2 treated goldfish, vitellogenin production was not induced in DEHP treated...

  3. Assessment of sperm quality, oxidative stress injury as well as ACP, AC and PDE expression in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia before and after qilin pill treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Jun Zhang; Jian-Gang Kuang; Tao Ren; Peng Liu; Long Liu; Yu-Gang Liu; Zhi-Ping Lei; Ma-Long Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the sperm quality, oxidative stress injury as well as ACP, AC and PDE expression in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia before and after qilin pill treatment. Methods:A total of 60 patients with oligoasthenozoospermia were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group received routine western medicine treatment, observation group received qilin pill + conventional western medicine treatment, and then differences in sperm quality, oxidative stress injury, ACP, AC and PDE expression, etc. were compared between two groups after treatment.Results:Semen volume and sperm density in semen samples of observation group after qilin pill treatment were higher than those of control group; serum FSH and LH levels were lower than those of control group, and the T level was higher than that of control group; ROS and MDA levels in seminal plasma were lower than those of control group, and SOD level was higher than that of control group; ACP, AC, -Glu and Fru levels in seminal plasma were higher than those of control group, and PDE level was lower than that of control group.Conclusion: Qilin pill can improve sperm quality and optimize testicular internal environment in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia, and it has positive clinical significance.

  4. Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM.

  5. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Testis size and amplexus position, but not arm strength, affect fertilization success in a chorusing frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Thyer, Evan M; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-02-01

    Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth. Here, we focused on the factors affecting postcopulatory fertilization success during group spawning, using paternity data from natural choruses. Competitive fertilization success depended on the time spent amplexed and amplexus position. Relative testes size but not arm girth, contributed to fertilization success, but the effect of testes size depended on amplexus position. Our findings offer within species empirical support for recent sperm competition models that incorporate precopulatory male-male competition, and show why an understanding of the evolution of animal weapons requires a consideration of both pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection.

  6. Protective effect of Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Ting; Wen, Duan-Gai; Hou, Jian-Quan; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation brings sublethal damage to sperm, resulting in reduced fertile life of sperm. Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides (RPs) have antiviral, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In the present study, the cryoprotective effect of RPs on boar sperm quality parameters after frozen-thawed process was investigated. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with RPs added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/L and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were assessed. Addition of RPs significantly improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and decreased sperm malonaldehyde level (pboar sperm.

  7. Mind wandering, sleep quality, affect and chronotype: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18-50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be important in

  8. Mind wandering, sleep quality, affect and chronotype: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Carciofo

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270 were completed with Chinese adults aged 18-50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative. Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which

  9. Different sperm sources and parameters can influence intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes before embryo implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-hong LU; Hui-juan GAO; Bai-jia LI; Ying-ming ZHENG; Ying-hui YE; Yu-li QIAN; Chen-ming XU; He-feng HUANG; Fan JIN

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of sperm with different parameters and sources on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),1972 ICSI cycles were analyzed retrospectively.Groups 1 to 5 were composed of cycles using ejaculated sperm and were grouped according to sperm quantity,quality,and morphology into normal (288 cycles),or mild (329 cycles),moderate (522 cycles),severe (332 cycles),and extremely severe (171 cycles)oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia and/or teratozoospermia (OAT) groups.Group 6 was composed of 250 cycles using testicular or epididymal sperm,and Group 7 consisted of 80 cycles using frozen-thawed sperm.We found that fertilization rates were gradually reduced from Groups 1 to 6,and reached statistical difference in Groups 5 and 6 (P<0.05).The high-quality embryo rate was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2,3,5,6,and 7 (P<0.05).No statistical differences were observed in the rates of embryo cleavage,clinical pregnancy,miscarriage,live-birth,premature birth,low birth weight,weeks of premature birth,average birth weight,or sex ratio for all seven groups (P>0.05).A total of nine cases of malformation were observed,with a malformation rate of 1.25% (9/719).In conclusion,different sperm sources and parameters can affect ICSI outcomes before embryo implantation.A full assessment of offspring malformation will require further study using a larger sample size.

  10. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  11. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  12. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High......-Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...... for the effect of subclinical anxiety and depressive symptoms, the differences were significant on the domain environment and total WHOQoL-BREF and marginally significant on the domain physical health and overall quality of life. LIMITATIONS: It is not possible from the cross-sectional analyses to distinguish...

  13. Effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on the post-thaw sperm quality of Iberian red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel-López, L; García-Álvarez, O; Parrilla, I; Del Olmo, D; Maroto-Morales, A; Fernandez-Santos, M R; Ortiz, J A; Soler, A J; Martínez, E M; Vazquez, J M; Garde, J J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on post-thaw characteristics and fertility of red deer (Cervus elaphus) sperm for the first time. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 10 mature stags during the breeding season, and each ejaculate split into four experimental groups: Bulk sorted spermatozoa, sorted but not sexed (BSS); sorted high purity X-spermatozoa (XSS); sorted high purity Y-spermatozoa (YSS); and, control non-sorted spermatozoa (NS). Following, all samples were frozen over liquid nitrogen. Two straws per stag and sample type were analyzed immediately post-thaw and following a 2-h incubation period at 37 °C. Post-thaw total motility (TM) as assessed by CASA was not different (P sperm. For XSS, post-thaw TM was lower (39%, P  0.05) to that of YSS (47%) sperm. The percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa as assessed by PI/YO-PRO-1 and flow cytometry analysis, was higher (17%, P ≤ 0.05) for XSS sperm than NS (12%), BSS (13%) and YSS (14%) sperm. Following incubation there were no differences (P > 0.05) in TM or percent apoptosis among treatments. Post-thaw chromatin stability calculated as the DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) was similar among treatments; following incubation %DFI increased in all except YSS, which displayed the lowest value (P sperm, respectively (P sperm displayed acceptable post-thaw sperm evaluation parameters and the expected offspring sex ratio. More studies are needed to understand the source of sperm damage that may compromise the fertility of Y-sorted red deer sperm.

  14. Characteristics of stallion epididymal spermatozoa at collection and effect of two refrigeration protocols on the quality of the frozen/thawed sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, T; Lopes, G; Ferreira, P; Leal, I; Rocha, A

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is a useful tool to preserve genetic material of valuable stallions after emergency castration or unexpected death. For that, testicles and epididymides are generally sent refrigerated to the laboratory. Collection of epididymal spermatozoa is a simple procedure that reduces the volume of the material to be shipped, and may improve the quality of the chilled epididymal sperm cells. In the present study we compared the characteristics of frozen/thawed epididymal spermatozoa after refrigeration of the epididymis or after direct refrigeration of the extended epididymal sperm cells. Ejaculated sperm samples were obtained from 10 healthy stallions with at least 15 days of sexual rest, before routine orchiectomies. Spermatozoa were recovered from the epididymal tail immediately after castration (EPI), after refrigeration of the epididymis for 24h at 4°C (EPI R) and recovered from epididymal tail immediately after castration and stored for 24h at 4°C (EPI RR). Total motility, straight-line velocity, percentage of rapid cells, viability and morphological defects were similar (p>0.05) among different treatments, and post-thaw viability was higher (psperm. The similarity of post-thaw parameters led us to conclude that immediate collection and refrigeration of the epididymal sperm cells or refrigeration of the whole epididymis are equally efficient as a means of transporting material for 24h before cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa.

  15. Sperm DNA assays and their relationship to sperm motility and morphology in bulls (Bos Taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Rosanna; Romano, Juan E; Varner, Dickson D; Di Palo, Rossella; Love, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    The relationship among sperm DNA assays in bulls with different sperm motility and morphology measures has not been reported. The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe Comet assay measures and examine their repeatability (inter- and intra-assay); (2) compare sperm DNA quality assays (i.e., Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay-SCSA; alkaline and neutral Comet assays and Sperm Bos Halomax assay-SBH) in two groups of bulls selected on either greater and lesser sperm motility and morphology (greater compared with lesser); (3) determine the relationship among DNA assays and sperm motility and morphology values. Inter-assay repeatability was greater for the neutral Comet assay as compared to the alkaline Comet assay. Intra-assay repeatability was greater than inter-assay repeatability for both Comet assays. Comet assay dimension measures and percentage tail DNA were the most repeatable for both Comet assays. Among sperm DNA quality assays, only SCSA measures and neutral Comet assay Ghosts (% Ghosts), head diameter and area, and comet area were different between greater and lesser sperm quality groups (P<0.05). The SCSA measures were inversely correlated with neutral Comet head measures (diameter, area, and intensity) and positively with percentage Ghosts (P<0.05). The % Ghosts and COMP-αt were correlated with some measures of sperm morphology and sperm motility. The neutral Comet assay was more appropriate for sperm evaluation than the alkaline Comet assay for distinguishing among groups with different sperm quality.

  16. No evidence for sperm priming responses under varying sperm competition risk or intensity in guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2009-07-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should tailor their investment in ejaculates according to the number of rival males competing to fertilize a female’s eggs. Research spanning several taxa supports this prediction by showing that males are often sensitive to the level of sperm competition and adjust their investment in sperm numbers accordingly. More recent work has revealed that males may also tailor the quality of sperm according to the number of males competing for fertilization. Here I test for both effects in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in an experiment that simultaneously evaluates the risk and intensity models of sperm competition. The experiment determined whether male guppies adjust the number (stripped ejaculate size) and quality (sperm velocity and viability) of sperm that are primed over a 3-day period according to experimental changes in the perceived level of sperm competition. A total of 136 focal males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm and assayed for these sperm traits before being allocated at random to one of four treatments simulating different levels of sperm competition risk and intensity. During the 3-day treatment phase, focal males had visual and olfactory access to a sexually receptive (initially virgin) female maintained with different numbers of stimulus males to simulate variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Following this, males were assayed again for the sperm traits. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant change in any of the measured variables among treatments, although qualitatively the patterns for sperm velocity and viability did conform to expectation. The lack of any trend for the number of sperm primed was unequivocal and future work examining the effects of sperm competition on sperm production should focus on whether males differentially allocate sperm numbers among matings that differ in the level of sperm competition.

  17. Boar sperm thawing practices: the number of straws does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, I; Torner, E; Yeste, M; Bonet, S

    2012-04-15

    The number of straws thawed has been largely neglected in reports of boar sperm cryopreservation. Whereas previous studies confirm the effect of sperm concentration on function and survival of thawed boar spermatozoa, it is still unknown whether, for a same concentration, total number of sperm in the thawing solution affects its mechanics. The present trial sought to define good boar sperm thawing practices by checking if a minimal number of straws as well as the percentage of air volume in the thawing tube should be stated or not to decrease variability from one trial to another. In a first assay, three tubes with different numbers of thawed straws were compared in terms of motility and membrane integrity: control (C, four straws), T1.1 (two straws), and T1.2 (one straw). In a second parallel assay, the sperm motility was evaluated when one straw was thawed in a tube containing 86.67% of air volume (T2.1), and when the tube contained sperm in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) was 1:3 (v:v) and quality parameters were assessed 4 h after thawing. Results showed the number of straws does affect motility parameters but not the membrane integrity, whereas less air volume in the tube nonsignificantly minimizes data deviation among replicates. In conclusion, it is recommended the use of four straws at 1:3 (v:v) to maintain motility records in boar sperm thawing practices as well as to be provided with vials that fit the sperm volume.

  18. EFFECT OF SEASON ON BOAR SPERM MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan LIPENSKÝ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the year–season effect on semen production parameters in the fertile AI boars. The evaluation was especially focused on the morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (MAS incidence. It was microscopically evaluated after making fresh semen smears and staining on microscopic slides. MAS incidence 19.46 % was lower at first half-year than at second half-year 25.00 % (P<0.01. Spermatozoa with distal protoplasmic droplet were furthest participated in total MAS incidence. Its rate was the highest at fourth quarter in comparison with annual period (P<0.001. We found that season has the negative effect on sperm morphology and significantly affects boar sperm quality and subsequently AI dose quality.

  19. Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Talaei-khozani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities.Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility.Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test.Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038. The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6% compare to the control (21.2%; however, it was not significant.Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility.

  20. The reversibility of sperm quality after discontinuing nandrolone decanoate in adult male rats%成年雄性大鼠中断癸酸诺龙后精子质量的可逆性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saied Karbalay-Doust; Ali Noorafshan; Fakhrodin Mesbah Ardekani; Hossien Mirkhani

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the reversibility of the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on sperm parameters after discontinuing the drug. Methods: Three groups of rats received peanut oil (control), low and high doses of ND for 14 weeks, respectively. Each group was divided into subgroups A and B, in which rats were killed 14 and 28 weeks after initiating the injection, respectively. Results: Sperm count and motile sperm fraction were decreased in the subgroups A and B that received low and high doses of ND in comparison with the controls A and B, respectively. The sperm count and motile sperm fraction increased in the subgroups B that received low and high doses of ND in comparison with their corresponding subgroups A. The number of normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in subgroups A receiving low and high doses of ND in comparison with the control subgroup A. However, this parameter was not decreased in subgroups B receiving low and high doses in comparison with the control subgroup B. The normal sperm morphology did not show any significant differences in the subgroups B in comparison with their corresponding subgroups A. Conclusion: The 14-week injection of low and high doses of ND decreases sperm quality and quantity in rats. These parameters were improved after discontinuing ND, but not recovered completely even when they are left untreated for 14 weeks.

  1. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  2. The quality and fertility of sperm collected from European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses refrigerated for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Natalia V; Uteshev, Viktor K; Sirota, Nikolai P; Kuznetsova, Elena A; Kaurova, Svetlana A; Browne, Robert K; Gakhova, Edith N

    2013-01-01

    There is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of amphibians coupled with the loss of genetic variation. The perpetuation of amphibian biodiversity demands a multifaceted approach, including the use of reproduction technologies (RTs), to enable efficient reproduction in captivity and to prevent the loss of genetic variation. Reproduction technologies for the storage of amphibian sperm for days to weeks, when refrigerated at 4°C, or for millennia when cryopreserved have recently undergone rapid development. Sperm from amphibians may be obtained through excision and maceration of testes; however, this is sometimes not possible with rare or endangered species. Alternate methods of obtaining sperm are through hormonal induction, or as spermatozoa from the carcasses of recently dead amphibians. The use of sperm from carcasses of recently dead amphibians is particularly valuable when sampled from genetically important founders in conservation breeding programs, or where catastrophic mortality is occurring in natural population. Sperm harvested over a period of 7 days from the testes of European common frog (Rana temporaria) carcasses stored in a refrigerator were assessed for percentage and progressive motility, cell membrane integrity, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and fertilizing ability. In addition, the survival of resulting embryos to hatch was recorded. Results indicated that some sperm of R. temporaria remain motile and fertile when harvested from frog carcasses refrigerated up to 7 days post-mortem, and resulting embryos can develop to hatch.

  3. Does exposure to computers affect the routine parameters of semen quality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Lian Sun; Wei-Jin Zhou; Jun-Qing Wu; Er-Sheng Gao

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether exposure to computers harms the semen quality of healthy young men. Methods: A total of 178 subjects were recruited from two maternity and children healthcare centers in Shanghai, 91 with a history of exposure to computers (I.e., exposure for 20 h or more per week in the last 2 years) and 87 persons to act as control (no or little exposure to computers). Data on the history of exposure to computers and other characteristics were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire interview. Semen samples were collected by masturbation in the place where the semen samples were analyzed. Results: No differences in the distribution of the semen parameters (semen volume, sperm density, percentage of progressive sperm, sperm viability and percentage of normal form sperm) were found between the exposed group and the control group. Exposure to computers was not found to be a risk factor for inferior semen quality after adjusting for potential confounders, including abstinence days, testicle size, occupation, history of exposure to toxic substances. Conclusion: The present study did not find that healthy men exposed to computers had inferior semen quality.

  4. The important role of protamine in spermatogenesis and quality of sperm: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Akmal

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results of a study in mice confirmed that inhibin B injection caused a reduction in the expression of protamine 2 in cauda epididymis. It has implications in the decrease of motility, concentration, and spermatozoa viability so that it affects the fertilization ability and the number of child production.

  5. Sperm quality improvement after date seed oil in Vitro sup-plementation in spontaneous and induced oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben A.Fatma; Chakroun F.Nozha; Dammak Ines; Attia Hamadi; Hentati Basma; Ammar K.Leila

    2009-01-01

    In vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, possibly owing to antioxidant properties. We tested the anti-oxidant effects of DSO on human sperm motility, sperm viability, reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years; range: 25-45 years) referred to the Histology-Embryology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty of Sfax for semen analysis after 12-24 months of sexual intercourse without conception were selected. After spermiogram, sperm selection by two-interface discontinuous Sill Select gradient was performed, and selected spermatozoa were used in four experimen-tal assays: control; incubation with 100 μm H2O2; incubation with 0.1% DSO; and co-incubation with 0.1% DSO and 100 μm H2O2. Motility and viability were determined using World Health Organization criteria. Acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation were assessed by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum and spec-trophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde, respectively. Results showed that incubation with H2O2 alone led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (57.83%, P<0.05) associated with a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm viability (after 30 rain and 24 h) and percentage of reacted acrosome (P<0.05). Date seed oil im-proved sperm motility after 24 h of incubation (P<0.05) and protected spermatozoa against the deleterious effects of H2O2 on motility, viability, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation. We conclude that supplementation with DSO may have a function in antioxidant protection against male infertility.

  6. Quality of Affectional Bonding, Learned Helplessness, and Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald P.

    John Bowlby's theory of affectional bonding and the reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression were integrated into a multivariate model in order to expand the breadth of current attributional theories of depression. This retrospective study focused upon the quality of parent-child relations, the types of discipline parents employed,…

  7. Sperm Motility in Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  8. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sperm capacitation and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have reported the detrimental effects that bacteriospermia causes on boar sperm quality, but little is known about its effects on IVC. Considering that, the present study sought to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different indicators of capacitation status (sperm viability, membrane lipid disorder, sperm motility kinematics, and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa) after IVC. Flow cytometry and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed that the presence of P aeruginosa in boar sperm samples, mostly at concentrations greater than 10(6) CFU/mL, is associated with a significant (P sperm membrane integrity and sperm with low membrane lipid disorder, and also with a reduction in sperm motility kinetic parameters when compared with results obtained from the control sample, which presented the typical motility pattern of capacitated-like boar spermatozoa. Moreover, Western blot results also showed significant (P boar sperm, being the most relevant. Indeed, after 3 hours of IVC, phosphotyrosine levels of p32 in the control sample were 3.13 ± 0.81, whereas in the tubes with 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/mL were 1.05 ± 0.20 and 0.36 ± 0.07, respectively. Therefore, the present study provides novel data regarding the effects of bacterial contamination on boar sperm, suggesting that the presence of P aeruginosa affects the fertilizing ability of boar sperm by altering its ability to accomplish IVC.

  9. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  10. Effect of the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation, the thawing rate and the post-thaw incubation temperature on the boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Cristina; Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-01-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation (2, 4 and 8h), thawing rate (37 °C for 20s or 70 °C for 8s) and post-thaw incubation temperature (15 °C or 37 °C) on the post-thaw boar sperm quality. These are important time periods in the freezing-thawing process which have been less studied. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions from three healthy boars were collected once a week for five consecutive weeks and were cryopreserved with the lactose-egg yolk extender (LEY). Sperm quality was determined by assessing the motility, the acrosome status, and the sperm plasma membrane integrity at 30, 150 and 240 min of incubation. The results show that with the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation there was not a clear effect until at least 24h of holding time. The thawing rate and the post-thaw incubation temperature, however, had a marked effect on sperm quality. When the samples were thawed at 70 °C for 8s, the sperm viability, motility and some kinetic variables (VCL, VSL, VAP and ALH) were greater than with results observed when the samples were thawed at 37 °C for 20s. In addition after thawing the sperm samples incubated at 15 °C had a sustained sperm quality for longer, up to 4h post-thawing.

  11. Slow oocyte freezing and thawing in couples with no sperm or an insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomazevic Tomaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical results of in vitro fertilization of slowly frozen-thawed oocytes are known to be significantly worse than those obtained by fresh oocytes. Little is known about the factors affecting the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the role of oocyte cryopreservation in the group of patients with no available sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization. Additionally, the effects of the female serum FSH level and sperm quality on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes were evaluated. Methods Oocytes were slowly frozen and thawed in 22 infertile couples with no sperm or insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization (IVF. In 9 couples with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous sperm of bad quality when available (Group 1. In 13 couples with non-ejaculation due to psychological stress on the day of classical IVF or severe azoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous or donated sperm of normal quality (Group 2. Oocytes were thawed in 23 cycles and microinjected by the autologous or donated sperm, when available. The clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection - ICSI (fertilization, blastocyst, and pregnancy rates was compared to the outcome of fresh oocytes of the same group of patients; additionally, the female serum FSH level and the sperm quality were compared. Results In all couples, 70.5% of oocytes survived the freeze-thaw procedure. After ICSI, 61.5% of thawed oocytes were fertilized. Twenty one% of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The pregnancy rates per embryo transfer and freeze-thaw cycle were 33.3% and 17.4%, respectively. All pregnancies ended in the birth of a baby without congenital anomalies. In patients with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia there was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy rates

  12. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  13. The correlation between urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and sperm quality in infertile men and rotating shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariente José A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates a wide range of neuroendocrine functions. However, excessive circulating serotonin levels may induce harmful effects in the male reproductive system. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA, a major serotonin metabolite, correlate with different classical seminal parameters. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from 40 men attending infertility counselling and rotating shift workers by masturbation after 4-5 days of abstinence. Urinary 5- HIIA concentration was quantified by using a commercial ELISA kit. Forward motility was assessed by a computer-aided semen analysis (CASA system. Sperm concentration was determined using the haemocytometer method. Sperm morphology was evaluated after Diff-Quik staining, while sperm vitality was estimated after Eosin-Nigrosin vital staining. Results Our results show that urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from a set of 20 volunteers negatively correlated with sperm concentration, forward motility, morphology normal range and sperm vitality. On the other hand, we checked the relationship between male infertility and urinary 5-HIIA levels in 20 night shift workers. Thus, urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from 10 recently-proven fathers were significantly lower than those found in 10 infertile males. Additionally, samples from recent fathers exhibited higher sperm concentration, as well as better forward motility and normal morphology rate. Conclusions In the light of our findings, we concluded that high serotonin levels, indirectly measured as urinary 5-HIIA levels, appear to play a role as an infertility determinant in male subjects.

  14. Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Phillip G; Simmons, Leigh W.; Roberts, J. Dale

    2003-01-01

    Despite detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, there is a paucity of information on the selective pressures that influence sperm form and function. Theoretical models for both internal and external fertilizers predict that sperm competition could favour the evolution of longer sperm. Empirical tests of the external-fertilization model have been restricted to just one group, the fishes, and these tests have proved equivocal. We investigated how sperm competition affects sperm...

  15. Influence of neurtophil elastase on sperm quality in male infertile patients%男性不育患者精浆中性粒细胞弹性蛋白酶浓度对精子质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧英; 彭明

    2016-01-01

    and C(P0 .05) .(2) There were statistically significant differences in the levels of phosphatase ,citrate and zinc among three groups (P0 .05) .Conclusion The NE level in semen has significant reverse correlation with sperm density ,sperm motility and bi‐ochemical markers (phosphatase ,citrate and zinc) ,implying that semen NE has significantly negative effect on the sperm quality , thus affecting male fertility ability .

  16. Perspectives on cryopreservation, quality control, and artificial insemination of frozen-thawed boar sperm in a national repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is a repository for agricultural germplasm (sperm, eggs, embryos, blood, tissue, DNA) that has been collected, cryopreserved, and cataloged for the purpose of creating a living compilation of genetic resources. The repository is multipurpose and can be u...

  17. Low frequency electromagnetic fields long-term exposure effects on testicular histology, sperm quality and testosterone levels of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminollah Bahaodini; Maryam Owjfard; Amin Tamadon; Seyedeh Marzieh Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to low frequency EMF on the testicular function and structure.Methods:Fourteen adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into sham and experimental groups. Experimental group was exposed to 1 mT, 50 Hz EMF, continuously for 85 days in a solenoid. Sham group was kept under conditions same as experimental group, without EMF. At the end of the exposure period, weight and size of testes, sperm evaluation (sperm counts, motility and viability), histological testicular sections and serum total testosterone were determined.Results:Long-term exposure to low frequency EMF significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and increased number of seminiferous tubules per unit area of testes. In addition, low frequency EMF significantly reduced sperm motility and testosterone levels. However, it had no effect on the weight and size of testes, sperm concentration, and viability. Conclusion:Prolonged exposure to 50 Hz EMF has an adverse effect on male fertility.

  18. The effect of presence of facultative bacteria species on semen and sperm quality of men seeking fertility care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Enwuru

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Although bacterial presence in semen reduced mean sperm concentration and viability, thereby contributed to oligozoospermia and by extension the chances of siring a child, however, factors other than bacterial presence may contribute more. Improved interpretative approaches of semen analyses are highlighted.

  19. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Valera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like or normal (control sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  20. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Silvana; Guadagni, Veronica; Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Campbell, Tavis; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like) or normal (control) sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  1. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    Osmolality, the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, and Mg2+ in the seminal plasma of yamú Brycon amazonicus were evaluated during one reproductive season. Semen quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and ...

  2. The Vital Components of Restaurant Quality that Affect Guest Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Gagić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the trend of dining in restaurants has become quite prominent in Serbia. Frequent restaurant visits are not only the reflection of satisfying hedonistic needs, but also the result of increasing number of single-person households as well as adjustment to the European business hours.In an increasingly competitive environment, restaurants must be focused on guests using marketing concepts that identify their needs thus leading to their satisfaction and increased retention.Service quality is fundamental component which produce higher levels of guest satisfaction, which in turn lead to higher sales revenue.The main purpose of this study was to examine the quality dimensions that affect guest satisfaction in restaurant industry. Food and beverage quality, the quality of service delivery, physical environment and price fairness are analyzed as a key components of restaurant experience. The results could be helpful tool for restaurant managers to invest their resources more efficiently, making changes to crucial quality attributes that elicit the guests’ satisfaction level. A management approach focused on guest satisfaction can improve restaurant business performance.

  3. Could using the zona pellucida bound sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI)enhance the outcome of ICSI?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Yi Liu

    2011-01-01

    @@ In the recent literature, several interesting articles have been published using the zona pellucdia(ZP)-bound sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI)to enhance embryo quality, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates.1-3

  4. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.

  5. Co-administration of ginseng and ciprofloxacin ameliorates epididymo-orchitis induced alterations in sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis following infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, A; Zeighami, H; Rostami, A; Kazemi, M; Eyni, H; Shokri, S

    2017-04-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) may be a beneficial adjuvant along with ciprofloxacin to ameliorate devastating effects of epididymo-orchitis (EO) on male fertility. This study intends to assay the effects of KRG and ciprofloxacin on sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in EO rats. We divided 54 adult rats into nine groups (n = 6 rats per group): control (CO), sham-operated (SH), EO (E); ciprofloxacin (C), EO-ciprofloxacin (EC), KRG (G), EO-KRG (EG), ciprofloxacin-KRG (CG) and EO-ciprofloxacin-KRG (ECG). We administered ciprofloxacin and KRG 48 hr after the Escherichia coli (E. coli) injection for 10 days. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed after one sperm cycle (14 days) following the last treatment with ciprofloxacin and KRG. Total and progressive motility of E, C and EC groups decreased. However, motility is improved in CG and ECG in comparison with these groups. The E group induced negative changes in the architecture of testes tissue and dramatic increase in apoptosis indices. Interestingly, co-administration of ciprofloxacin and KRG has dramatically improved Miller's and Johnsen's scores and decreased the apoptosis indices of animals in the ECG group. Combined treatment of ciprofloxacin and KRG may improve the quality of spermatozoa and attenuated apoptosis indices in the ECG group.

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odacı, E; Hancı, H; Yuluğ, E; Türedi, S; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Y; Kaya, H; Çolakoğlu, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure in utero to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymis. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 - 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared. We found a higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls. Immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure also were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of NEMFG testis. Nuclear changes that indicated apoptosis were identified in TUNEL stained sections and large numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in most of the seminiferous tubule epithelium in the NEMFG. Sixty-day-old rat testes exposed to 900 MHz EMF exhibited altered sperm quality and biochemical characteristics.

  7. Etiology and Evaluation of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human sperm chromatin anomalies adversely affect reproductive outcomesand infertile men possess substantially amount of sperm with chromatin anomalies than fertilemen.Routine semen analysis evaluates parameters such as sperm motility and morphology, but doesnot examine the nuclear DNA integrity of spermatozoa. It has been suggested that altered nuclearchromatin structure or damaged DNA in spermatozoa could modify the special cellular functionsof human spermatozoa, and thereby affect the fertility potential. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI bypass the barriers to fertilization for such a sperm, then the effect of chromatin anomalies onthe development remains a concern. Therefore, it is essential to develop and use accurate diagnostictests, which may provide better prognostic capabilities than the standard sperm assessments. Thisreview discusses our current understanding of the structure and organization of sperm DNA,the different procedures for assessment of sperm chromatin anomalies including comet assay,Chromomycin A3 (CMA3, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, acridine orange test (AOT,terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, aniline blue and sperm chromatindispersion (SCD test and the impact of chromatin anomalies on reproductive outcome.

  8. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible period of time; (3) software should enable grouping of individual sperm based on one or more attributes so outputs reflect subpopulations or clusters of similar sperm with unique

  9. Effect of 655 nm laser different powers on dog sperm motility parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Baqués, M. I.; Rigau, T.; Rivera, M. M.; Rodríguez-Gil, J. E.; Rigau, J.

    2006-04-01

    Introduction: One of the most appreciated features of the sperm is its motility, which depends on a big energy consumption despite differences among species. Laser acts direct or indirectly on mitochondria increasing ATP production. Material and method: By means of a Computer Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA) we have studied the effects of a 655 nm continuous wave diode laser irradiation at different power outputs with a dose of 3.3418 J on sperm motility. After an eosine-nigrosine stain to establish its quality, the second fraction of fresh beagle dog sperm was divided into 5 groups, 1 control and four to be irradiated respectively with an average output power of 6.84 mW, 15.43 mW, 33.05 mW and 49.66 mW. At times 0 and 45 minutes from irradiation pictures were taken and analysed with the Sperm class Analyzer SCA2002 programme. The motility parameters of 4987 spermatozoa studied were: curvilinear velocity (VCL), progressive velocity (VSL), straightness (STR), wobble (WOB), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALHmed), beat cross frequency (BCF) and the total motility (MT). At time 15 minutes after irradiation a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) was done. Results: Several motility parameters that affect the overall motile sperm subpopulation structure have been changed by different output powers of a 655 nm diode laser irradiation, and prevents the decrease of the sperm motility properties along time.

  10. Prohibitin involvement in the generation of mitochondrial superoxide at complex I in human sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Ran‐Ran; Chen, Guo‐Wu; Shi, Hui‐Juan; O, Wai‐Sum; Martin‐DeLeon, Patricia A.; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prohibitin (PHB), a major mitochondrial membrane protein, has been shown earlier in our laboratoryto regulate sperm motility via an alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in infertile men with poor sperm quality. To test if PHB expression is associated with sperm mitochondrial superoxide (mROS) levels, here we examined sperm mROS levels, high MMP and lipid peroxidation in infertile men with poor sperm motility (asthenospermia, A) and/or low sperm concentrations (oligoas...

  11. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Adriano F P; Maria, Fernanda S; Mendes, Camilla M; Hamilton, Thais R S; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Dreyer, Thiago R; da Silva, Herculano M; Nichi, Marcilio; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Visintin, José A; Assumpção, Mayra E O A

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization rates and subsequent embryo development rely on sperm factors related to semen quality and viability. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is based on emission of electromagnetic waves of a laser optical system that interact with cells and tissues resulting in biological effects. This interaction is mediated by photoacceptors that absorb the electromagnetic energy. Effects are dependent of irradiation parameters, target cell type, and species. In sperm, PBMT improves several features like motility and viability, affecting sperm aerobic metabolism and energy production. The aim of this study was to investigate, under same conditions, how different output powers (5, 7.5, and 10 mW) and time of irradiation (5 and 10 min) of laser (He-Ne laser, 633 nm) may affect frozen/thawed bovine sperm functions. Results showed significant effects depending on power while using 10 min of irradiation on motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. However, no effect was observed using 5 min of irradiation, regardless of power applied. In conclusion, PBMT is effective to modulate bovine sperm function. The effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between power applied and duration of irradiation, showing that these two parameters simultaneously influence sperm function. In this context, when using the same fluency and energy with different combinations of power and time of exposure, we observed distinct effects, revealing that biological effects should be also based on simple parameters rather than only composite parameters such as fluency, irradiance and energy. Laser irradiation of frozen/thawed bovine semen led to an increase on mitochondrial function and motility parameters that could potentially improve fertility rates.

  12. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  13. The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, I; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Perez-Patiño, C; Alkmin, D V; Ceron, J J; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Roca, J

    2015-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) is a hydrolytic enzyme present in body fluids, capable of protecting cells against oxidative stress. The hypothesis was hereby to test that PON-1, present in seminal plasma (SP), acts protecting boar spermatozoa when showing a reasonable high activity in the ejaculate. SP-PON-1 activity differed (p boars (from 0.10 to 0.29 IU/mL). Intra-boar variability was also observed (p boars. SP-PON-1 activity differed among ejaculate portions, showing the spermatozoa-peak portion of spermatozoa-rich ejaculate fraction the highest levels (0.35 ± 0.03 IU/mL, ranging from 0.12 to 0.69) and the post-sperm ejaculate fraction the lowest levels (0.12 ± 0.01 IU/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 0.21). SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with rapid and progressive movement (p boars with highest farrowing rates. In conclusion, SP-PON-1 activity differed among boars and ejaculate fractions/portions. SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with sperm quality and functionality of liquid-stored semen samples and it evidenced a positive association with in vivo fertility.

  14. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number...... affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants....

  15. Control of sperm concentration is necessary for standardization of sperm cryopreservation in aquatic species: evidence from sperm agglutination in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-02-01

    A lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms is one of the main reasons for inconsistency observed among various studies. In particular, there have been few attempts to standardize sperm concentration during procedural optimization. This study was intended to call attention to sperm concentration standardization through research of sperm agglutination in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Sperm agglutination after thawing is a relatively frequent phenomenon observed for various aquatic species, especially when sub-optimal cryopreservation protocols are used; however, no systematic attempts have been made to explain this phenomenon. The present study evaluated various factors affecting sperm agglutination of thawed samples from diploid and tetraploid Pacific oysters, and is the first detailed report addressing the sperm agglutination phenomenon of thawed samples from any aquatic organism. Agglutination of oyster sperm was classified into six levels with a scale ranging from 0 (homogenous suspension) to 5 (well-developed "noodles"). It was found that agglutination in thawed samples was mainly due to the lack of sufficient cryoprotectant for a specific sperm concentration. Interestingly, high levels of agglutination did not necessarily lead to low fertilization. On the contrary, some sperm cells appeared to gain protection from the formation of peripheral agglutination within 0.5-ml French straws. The exact mechanism of sperm agglutination remains unclear. However, morphological examination of cross sections of the noodles (agglutination level 5) indicated at least two forms of agglutination (formed with and without cryoprotectant) which could be used as a tool to understand the cryopreservation process within the micro-environment of the straw. Furthermore, the fact that the level of sperm agglutination was directly determined by sperm concentration, in addition to the type of cryoprotectant, cryoprotectant concentration, and cooling and

  16. Easy sperm processing technique allowing exclusive accumulation and later usage of DNA-strandbreak-free spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Moser, M; Mayer, R B; Arzt, W; Tews, G

    2011-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is increased in poor-quality semen samples and correlates with failed fertilization, impaired preimplantation development and reduced pregnancy outcome. Common sperm preparation techniques may reduce the percentage of strandbreak-positive spermatozoa, but, to date, there is no reliable approach to exclusively accumulate strandbreak-free spermatozoa. To analyse the efficiency of special sperm selection chambers (Zech-selectors made of glass or polyethylene) in terms of strandbreak reduction, 39 subfertile men were recruited and three probes (native, density gradient and Zech-selector) were used to check for strand breaks using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. The mean percentage of affected spermatozoa in the ejaculate was 15.8 ± 7.8% (range 5.0–42.1%). Density gradient did not significantly improve the quality of spermatozoa selected(14.2 ± 7.0%). However, glass chambers completely removed 90% spermatozoa showing strand breaks and polyethylene chambers removed 76%. Both types of Zech-selectors were equivalent in their efficiency, significantly reduced DNA damage (P sperm preparation technique concentrating spermatozoa unaffected in terms of DNA damage. The special chambers most probably select for sperm motility and/or maturity.

  17. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  18. Cooling and freezing of sperm from captive, free-living and endangered squirrel monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karol G; Santos, Regiane R; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Lima, Julianne S; Sampaio, Wlaísa V; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2016-06-01

    Germoplasm banking is an important tool for the preservation of genetic material from Neotropical primates in captivity, and from free living species, especially the endangered ones like Saimiri vanzolinii (Black-headed squirrel monkey), a primate with a low incidence area (870 km(2) of floodplains) in the southern part of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Brazil. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to develop a sperm cryopreservation protocol comparing sperm cooling in presence (T1) and absence (T2) of egg yolk, and to test freezing protocols to preserve semen from captive (Saimiri collinsi), and free-living (Saimiri vanzolinii, Saimiri cassiquiarensis and Saimiri macrodon) New World primates. Cooling preserved sperm of S. collinsi in all evaluated microscopic parameters, except for sperm motility. No differences were observed among the treatments, indicating that semen of this species can be cooled without egg yolk. Freezing did not affect sperm quality of S. collinsi, except plasma membrane integrity that was negatively affected. Generally, a good maintenance rate was observed between cooling and thawing of semen for the four species, showing the positive translational application of protocols from S. collinsi to the free-living species. Developed freezing protocol proved to be useful for sperm cryopreservation of S. collinsi and in field conditions.

  19. Posthumous events affect rated quality and happiness of lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Diener and colleagues (2001 illustrated that individuals rely heavily on endings to evaluate the quality of a life. Two studies investigated the potential for posthumous events to affect rated life quality, calling into question the intuitive ``ending'' of a life at death. Undergraduates read a series of short life narratives to assess the consequences of posthumous reversals of fortune on judgments of the goodness and happiness of the life. In a 2x2 within-subjects design, lives positive and negative in valence were displayed twice: once from birth to death and once each life was followed by a posthumous event of opposite valence. Results demonstrated that posthumous reversals of fortune shift judgments of the goodness and happiness of the life in the direction of the valence of the posthumous event. These effects were not related to an individual's religiosity or the degree to which the life made an engaging story. We suggest that the posthumous happy effect may be a case of a more general process, which we call retroactive re-evaluation.

  20. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems.

  1. Season effect on genitalia and epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Guerra, Camino; Kaabi, Mohammed; Garcia-Macias, Vanesa; de Paz, Paulino; Alvarez, M; Herraez, Paz; Anel, Luis

    2005-04-15

    Seasonality deeply affects the physiology and behavior of many species, and must be taken into account when biological resource banks (BRBs) are established. We have studied the effect of seasonality on many reproductive parameters of free-ranging Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois, living in Spain. Testicles from hunted animals were collected and sent to our laboratory at different times during the year. We recorded the weight and volume of testis, the weight of the epididymis and its separate parts (caput, corpus, and cauda), the weight of the sperm sample collected from the cauda epididymis, and several sperm parameters (sperm concentration, spermatozoa recovered, motility, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status, and viability). We studied the data according to several periods, defined accordingly to each species. For red deer, we defined rut (mid-September to mid-October), post-rut (mid-October to mid-December), and non-breeding season (February). For roe deer, they were pre-rut (June), rut (July), post-rut (first fortnight of August), and non-breeding season (September). For chamois: non-breeding season (June to mid-September) and breeding season (October-November). The rut/breeding season yielded significantly higher numbers for almost all parameters. However, in the case of red deer, sperm quality was higher in the post-rut. For roe deer, testicular weight was similar in the pre-rut and in the rut, and sperm quality did not differ significantly between these two periods, although we noticed higher values in the rut. In the case of chamois, sperm quality did not differ significantly from the breeding season, but data distribution suggested that in the non-breeding season there are less males with sperm of good quality. On the whole, we find these results of interest for BRB planning. The best season to collect sperm in this species would be the breeding season. However, post-rut in red deer, pre-rut in roe deer, and non-breeding season in

  2. Effects of Cadmium on Rat Sperm Motility Evaluated With Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study effects of cadmium on rat sperm motility evaluated with computer assisted sperm analysis. Methods  Different doses of cadmium chloride (0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg BW) were administrated ip to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Control animals received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed with their testes removed. A part of one testis was used for testicular sperm head counts and daily sperm production observation. The motility of spermatozoa obtained from cauda epididymides using the “diffusion”method was measured by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). Results  The sperm head counts and daily sperm production decreased significantly in the high dose group. The motility of spermatozoa in the middle dose group was reduced significantly. No motile sperm was found in the high dose group. The results suggest that germinal epithelium was impaired irreversibly in a short time to produce toxic effects on spermatogenesis at high cadmium doses. Conclusion  Cadmium may reduce sperm motility at a dose far below the dose affecting sperm production at this time point. The motility of sperm is an early and sensitive endpoint for the assessment of cadmium toxicity on male reproduction.

  3. Superoxide dismutase affects the viability of thawed European mouflon (Ovis g. musimon) semen and the heterologous fertilization using both IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Sergio; Rosati, Irma; Bogliolo, Luisa; Leoni, Giovanni; Naitana, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on viability and acrosome integrity of European mouflon spermatozoa after cryopreservation and on the fertilization rates of sheep oocytes after i.v.f. or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (i.c.s.i.). Frozen semen was thawed and washed with synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with 0.6% bovine serum albumin. After centrifugation, the spermatozoa pellet was split into two culture systems: (i) without SOD; and (ii) in the presence of 1500 IU mL(-1) SOD. Sperm viability and acrosome integrity were evaluated simultaneously, immediately after thawing and after 3, 6 and 9 h of culture (5% CO2, 39 degrees C, 90% humidity), by incubating sperm with propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Pisum sativum agglutinin. At the same time, sperm were assessed for motility using a standard scoring system (independent operators' observation of sperm) that graded degree of motility (i.e. 1 = immotile to 10 = maximum motility, as observed at the moment of thawing). For i.v.f., frozen-thawed semen derived from the two culture systems was placed in culture together with in vitro-matured sheep oocytes. For i.c.s.i., semen derived from the same culture systems as that for i.v.f. was used, and incubated for 1 h under standard conditions. The results showed a marked difference (P mouflon spermatozoa.

  4. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.

  5. 饮酒对男性不育患者精液质量及精子DNA完整性的影响分析%The analysis of alcohol influence the male infertility patients' semen quality and sperm DNA integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Discuss the influence of alcohol on male infertility patients' semen quality and sperm DNA integrity.Methods:Select 73 male infertility patients who long term drinking (greater than 10 years) as alcohol group,and 112 Non drinking healthy male as contrast group.Detect two groups' semen and sperm DNA integrity.Results:The sperm density,motility and percentage of A -class sperm motility of alcohol group were significantly lower than that Non drinking group P < 0.05).Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) also increased significantly (P < 0.05).The two groups showed significant difference.Conclusion:Long-term drinking influence semen quality and sperm's DNA integrity.%目的 探讨饮酒对男性不育患者精液质量及精子DNA完整性的影响.方法 选择73例长期饮酒(酒龄大于10年)的男性不育患者为饮酒组,对照组为112例非饮酒的健康正常男性,对其进行精液常规及精子DNA完整性检测.结果 饮酒组的精子密度、活率和A级精子活力百分率明显低于对照组(P<0.05),精子DNA断裂指数(DFI)明显增高(P<0.05),两组差别有显著性意义.结论 长期饮酒会对男性精液质量产生不良影响及损伤男性精子DNA的完整性.

  6. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  7. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  8. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Jalil; Mardi Mamaghani, Azar; Hosseinifar, Hani; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Dadkhah, Farid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group). Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02) in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5) in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39) was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13) after three month of treatment (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009). There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men. PMID:27679829

  9. HDAC6 deacetylates alpha tubulin in sperm and modulates sperm motility in Holtzman rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Sweta; Shetty, Omshree; Gaonkar, Reshma; Balasinor, Nafisa; Khole, Vrinda; Parte, Priyanka

    2015-02-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an alpha (α)-tubulin deacetylase and its over-expression has been demonstrated to promote chemotactic cell movement. Motility in sperm is driven by the flagella, the cytoskeletal structure comprising the microtubules, which are heterodimers of α- and β-tubulins. We have hypothesized that HDAC6, by virtue of being an α-tubulin deacetylase, might modulate sperm motility. However, the presence of HDAC6 on sperm has hitherto not been reported. In this study, we have demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of HDAC6 transcript and protein in the testicular and caudal sperm of rat. We have observed a significantly overlapping expression of HDAC6 with acetyl α-tubulin (Ac α-tubulin) in the mid-piece and principal piece of sperm flagella, and the co-precipitation of α-tubulin and Ac α-tubulin together with HDAC6 and vice versa in sperm lysates. This indicates that HDAC6 interacts with α-tubulin. The HDAC6 activity of sperm, sperm motility and status of Ac α-tubulin investigated in the presence of HDAC inhibitors Trichostatin A, Tubastatin A and sodium butyrate demonstrate that HDAC6 in sperm is catalytically active and that inhibitors of HDAC6 increase acetylation and restrict sperm motility. Thus, we show that (1) active HDAC6 enzyme is present in sperm, (2) HDAC6 in sperm is able to deacetylate α-tubulin, (3) inhibition of HDAC6 results in increased Ac α-tubulin expression and (4) HDAC6 inhibition affects sperm motility. This evidence suggests that HDAC6 is involved in modulating sperm movement.

  10. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...... a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... may itself kill sperm, which is likely to confound many common experimental designs in addition to producing artificially low estimates of sperm viability. I further suggest that sperm number should be routinely measured in sperm viability studies, as it may be an important but overlooked source...

  11. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies.

  12. Acrosin activity is a good predictor of boar sperm freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether acrosin activity could predict boar sperm freezability. For this purpose, we characterized the changes in sperm quality and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure of sperm samples from 30 Pietrain boars by analyzing four critical steps: step 1 (extended sperm at 15 °C), step 2 (cooled sperm at 5 °C), step 3 (30 minutes postthaw), and step 4 (240 minutes postthaw). Freezability ejaculate groups were set on the basis of sperm motility and membrane integrity after freeze-thawing. Results obtained highlighted the low predictive value in terms of freezability of sperm motility and kinematics and sperm membrane integrity, as no differences between good and poor freezability ejaculates were seen before cryopreservation. Significant differences (P sperm kinetic parameters, and after thawing for sperm motility and membrane integrity. In contrast, acrosin activity appeared as an indicator of boar sperm freezability because the differences (P sperm kinematics, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium content, acrosome integrity, and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure were indicative of a significant damage in spermatozoa during the cooling step in both ejaculate groups. In conclusion, the main finding of our study is that acrosin activity can be used as a reliable predictor of boar sperm freezability because it differs significantly between good and poor freezability ejaculates yet before freeze-thawing procedures took place, i.e., in the refrigeration step at 15 °C.

  13. The effects of addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the quality of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelousi, M A Sheikholeslami; Arshami, J; Naserian, A A; Abavisani, A

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the characteristics of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed semen. For this purpose, oil containing different levels of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids were added to semen extender. To emulsify the oil in semen extender, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as a suitable solvent and the solution was finally sonicated. Five proven Holstein bulls were randomly selected and their ejaculates were collected using an artificial vagina. Groups were designed as control, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4. The control group contained only the basic extender (Tris-citrate buffer, egg yolk and glycerol) without any additives. In treatment 1, only 5% PEG was added to the diluent; while in treatments 2, 3 and 4 different concentrations of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%) in combination with PEG were added to the basic extender. After dilution, the semen samples were packaged into 0.5 ml straws, a process that was followed by cooling the semen straws. Motility, viability and morphology of semen samples were evaluated after 24 and 48 h of storage in refrigerator (5 °C) or after one month of storage in the liquid nitrogen. Immotility was increased and all the other parameters including motility, viability and morphology were significantly decreased in all the groups compared with fresh samples during cold storage and freezing-thawing. Our results demonstrated the following: 1) PEG has significant detrimental effects, especially on the sperm motility; 2) addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids could not improve the sperm motility in chilled storage condition and after freezing-thawing; and 3) omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acidscould not also attenuate the other deleterious effects of PEG. In conclusion, our findings reveal that addition of these fatty acids to the semen extender does not enhance the resistance of the bovine sperm membrane to cooling and freezing-thawing and that further studies are required to find

  14. The effects of addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the quality of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sheikholeslami Kandelousi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the characteristics of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed semen. For this purpose, oil containing different levels of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids were added to semen extender. To emulsify the oil in semen extender, polyethylene glycol (PEG was added as a suitable solvent and the solution was finally sonicated. Five proven Holstein bulls were randomly selected and their ejaculates were collected using an artificial vagina. Groups were designed as control, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4. The control group contained only the basic extender (Tris-citrate buffer, egg yolk and glycerol without any additives. In treatment 1, only 5% PEG was added to the diluent; while in treatments 2, 3 and 4 different concentrations of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% in combination with PEG were added to the basic extender. After dilution, the semen samples were packaged into 0.5 ml straws, a process that was followed by cooling the semen straws. Motility, viability and morphology of semen samples were evaluated after 24 and 48 h of storage in refrigerator (5 ˚C or after one month of storage in the liquid nitrogen. Immotility was increased and all the other parameters including motility, viability and morphology were significantly decreased in all the groups compared with fresh samples during cold storage and freezing-thawing. Our results demonstrated the following: 1 PEG has significant detrimental effects, especially on the sperm motility; 2 addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids could not improve the sperm motility in chilled storage condition and after freezing-thawing; and 3 omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acidscould not also attenuate the other deleterious effects of PEG. In conclusion, our findings reveal that addition of these fatty acids to the semen extender does not enhance the resistance of the bovine sperm membrane to cooling and freezing-thawing and that further studies are required

  15. Evaluation of human sperm chromatin status after selection using a modified Diff-Quik stain indicates embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, R. S.; A.F. Silva; Lourenço, B.; Almeida-Santos, T; Sousa, A. P.; Ramalho-Santos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm chromatin/DNA damage can be measured by a variety of assays. However, it has been reported that these tests may lose prognostic value in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles when assessed in post-prepared samples, possibly due to the normalizing effect promoted by sperm preparation procedures. We have recently implemented a modified version of the Diff-Quik staining assay that allows for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin status in native samples, together with st...

  16. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process.

  17. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase by acetamide affects sperm motility and fertilization success of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, B; Glogowski, J; Cejko, B I; Kujawa, R; Szczepkowski, M; Kuźmiński, H; Dobosz, S; Kowalski, R K

    2014-03-15

    β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (β-NAGase) is an enzyme found in the sperm acrosome of numerous animal species including fish. Fish spermatozoa differ in their morphology including acrosome or acrosomeless aquasperm in chondrostean (e.g., sturgeon) and teleostean (e.g., rainbow trout). It has been shown that β-NAGase exists with high activity in both eggs and sperm of these species. The present study shows the potency of β-NAGase in fertilization. In rainbow trout, increase in sperm motility parameters (VAP and MOT) were observed in the presence of acetamide, an inhibitor for β-NAGase. In contrast, sperm motility parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, MOT, and PRG) were reduced on the Siberian sturgeon in the presence of acetamide. The inhibition of the activity of β-NAGase in rainbow trout spermatozoa was led to a reduction in the number of fertilized eggs from 79% to 40%, whereas in sturgeon no change was observed in fertilization. Moreover, inhibition of β-NAGase in both spermatozoa and eggs of trout and sturgeon resulted in significant decrease in fertilization rate from 79% to 1% in rainbow trout and from 84% to 12% in Siberian sturgeon. Our research proves that β-NAGase can play a significant role in the fertilization process in teleosteans.

  18. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques.

  19. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technology treatment category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Qian-jin; Ni Wu-hua; Huang Xue-feng; Ye Bi-lu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF)and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Methods: A total of 242 cycles (154 IVF and 88 ICSI) from 235 couples were included.Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and routine semen analysis were performed on the retrieval day.The rates of fertilization,embryo cleavage,good quality embryos,implantation and clinical pregnancy were measured.Results: Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in ICSI group was significantly higher than that in IVF group (P<0.01).The rates of fertilization,implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI were significantly higher than those in IVF with DFI≥24% (P<0.05).When DFI exceeded 24%,the OR for clinical pregnancy was 3.85 (95%CI 1.40-10.59) comparing ICSI with IVF,and the OR for clinical pregnancy increased to 4.61 (95% CI 1.09-19.57) after inclusion of sperm concentration,progressively motile sperm percentage and female age as covariates.Conclusions: High DNA fragmentation might affect the outcome of ICSI and IVF.When DFI exceeds 24%,ICSI should be chosen instead of IVF.

  20. Decay of sperm obtained from epididymes of wild ruminants depending on postmortem time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pastor, F; Guerra, C; Kaabi, M; Diaz, A R; Anel, E; Herraez, P; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out a study on the effect of postmortem time (PT) in some characteristics of epididymal sperm salvaged from hunted Iberian red deer and roe deer. Testis were collected, identified, refrigerated down to 5 degrees C, and sent to our laboratory by the wardens of the hunting reserves. This way, samples were delivered at different times postmortem. Sperm were extracted from the cauda epididymis by means of cuts. Analyzed parameters were: osmolality, pH, motility-both subjectively and with CASA, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status and viability (assessed with propidium iodide). Osmolality and pH rose with prolonged postmortem time, possibly due to tissue decomposition. Most sperm quality parameters negatively correlated with PT. Besides, when comparing PT classes (groups of 24 h for red deer and 30 h for roe deer), we could appreciate that motility was more affected by PT than other quality variables. Progressive motility was especially impaired. We also classified the samples in high, medium and low quality for each PT group (considering progressive motility, intact acrosomes and reactivity to the HOS test), and it was clear that after 2 days the number of high quality samples was testimonial, and after several days, we almost found only low quality samples. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer and roe deer undergo a decrease of quality with PT, but it could stay acceptable within many hours postmortem. There are implications for wildlife conservation programs, as epididymal sperm is a good source of germplasm. If valuable animals die and it is not possible to process their sperm immediately, it may still be possible to obtain viable spermatozoa many hours later.

  1. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  2. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2

  3. Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber E El-Desoky

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis on mercury (II chloride (HgCl(2-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i control, ii HgCl(2, iii S. platensis and iv combination of HgCl(2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl(2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c., substantially decreased (P<0.01 the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx, oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA, and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl(2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01 increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl(2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw lowered the extent of the observed HgCl(2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl(2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl(2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective

  4. Comparative study on efficacy of three sperm-separation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanXU; Ren-KangLU; LingCHEN; Yan-LuanZHENG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of real-time sperm separation technique (Wang's tube method) and other two conventional methods in isolating high-quality sperm preparation, and to compare the spouse pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination (IUI) with sperm preparations isolated by these methods. Methods: The effectiveness of the real-time sperm separation technique, the conventional swim-up and the Percoll discontinuous density gradient methods in isolating sperm preparations from 60 infertile patients (20 with apparently normal semen and 40, abnormal semen contaminated with microorganisms and other impurities) was evaluated and compared. The microorganisms to bere moved included bacteria, virus, Chlamydia trachomaticum, Ureaplsama urealyticum, etc. The spouse pregnancy rates in IUI with sperm preparations isolated by these three techniques from 80 oligoasthenoteratospermic patients werealso compared. Results: The quality (including the percentages of normal form, normal-chromatin and motilesperm, and the grade of motility) of sperm obtained by the real-time sperm separation technique was much higher ( P<0.01 ) as compared with those by the other two methods. The Wang's tube method was also more effective in removing microorganisms and other impurities. The method provided a higher IUI pregnancy rate than the other two sperm separation techniques ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The real-time sperm separation technique is the most effective method so far available in isolating high-quality sperm samples to be used in assisted reproduction.

  5. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  6. Quality of boar spermatozoa from the sperm-peak portion of the ejaculate after simplified freezing in MiniFlatpacks compared to the remaining spermatozoa of the sperm-rich fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, A P; Wallgren, M; Hossain, M S; Johannisson, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2011-04-15

    Boar sperm viability post-thaw differs depending on the ejaculate fraction used, with spermatozoa present in the first 10 mL of the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) (portion 1, P1, sperm-peak portion) displaying the best cryosurvival in vitro compared with that of spermatozoa from the rest of the ejaculate (portion 2 of the SRF plus the post-spermatic fraction), even when using simplified freezing routines. This viability apparently relates to the specific profile of seminal plasma in P1 (i.e., glycoprotein and bicarbonate concentrations, and pH). However, spermatozoa from P1 have not been compared with spermatozoa from the rest of the SRF (SRF-P1, usually 30-40 mL of the SRF), which is routinely used for freezing. We compared P1 with SRF-P1 in terms of sperm kinematics (using the QualiSperm™ system), while membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC PNA/PI), and sperm membrane stability (Annexin-V) were explored using flow cytometry. As well, total protein concentration and the proteomics of the seminal plasma (SP) of both portions of the SRF were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), mass fingerprinting (MALDI-TOF), and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) on selected peptides. The SRF portions were collected weekly from four mature boars (4-5 replicates per boar, sperm concentration: P1, 1.86 ± 0.20; SRF-P1, 1.25 ± 0.14 × 10(9) spz/mL) and processed using a quick freezing method in MiniFlatPacks. Post-thaw sperm motility reached 50%, without differences between SRF portions, but with clear inter-boar variation. Neither plasma membrane nor acrosome integrity differed (ns) between fractions. These results indicate that there are no differences in cryosurvival after quick freezing of boar spermatozoa derived from either of the two SRF portions. While P1 and SRF-P1 clearly differed in relative total protein contents, as expected, they displayed very similar protein profiles as assessed using 2DE and mass

  7. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility.

  8. Navy Shipbuilding: Opportunities Exist to Improve Practices Affecting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Organization for Standardization’s ISO 9001 (quality), 14001 (environmental), and 18001 (occupational health and safety) series of management systems...10In particular, ISO 9001 certification is... ISO 9000 quality management standards. Page 52 GAO-14-122 Navy Shipbuilding commercial shipbuilders we visited did not report having

  9. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ASPECTS AFFECTING MEDICAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Peeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The student is the main subject in the education process. The goal of the study is to examine the relative weight of the components of learning process in the students’ evaluation assessment for quality of higher medical education. Direct individual inquiry with rank answers for 541 medical students was completed. Logistic regression analysis was done to create predictive models and derive relationships between quality of education factors and its dependents: assessment of quality and students' progress. Tolerance and respectfulness (OR = 13.1, high general culture (OR = 18.4, clearand accessiblecontemporaryteaching (OR = 9.2, engagement of the audience (OR = 3.4, are the teacher characteristics in the model. Application ofnew technologiesinlearning (OR = 4.2,discussion (OR = 5.9, patients observations and live contact (OR = 5.6 are educational methods determine the qualityof education. Accordinginterns quality of education isdetermined mainly by clinical facilities, quality lectures,solving clinical cases, and practical work. 

  10. Sperm DNA Integrity Assessment: A New Tool in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bungum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 15% of all couples. Although male infertility factors with reduced semen quality are contributing to about half of all involuntary childlessness, the value of standard semen parameters in prediction of fertility in vivo and choice of proper method for assisted reproduction is limited. In the search for better markers of male fertility, during the last 10 years, assessment of sperm DNA integrity has emerged as a strong new biomarker of semen quality that may have the potential to discriminate between infertile and fertile men. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI as assessed by the flow cytometric Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA can be used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. The biological background for abnormal DFI is not completely known, but clinical data show that DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy in natural way or by insemination, but not in vitro. Already when the DFI is above 20%, the chance of natural pregnancy may be reduced, despite other sperm parameters being normal. Thus this method may explain a significant proportion of cases of unexplained infertility and can be beneficial in counselling involuntary childless couples need of in vitro fertilisation.

  11. Evaluation of the expression of sperm proteins in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men using monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Capkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infertility affects estimated 15% of all couples. Male infertility is the primary or contributory cause in 60% of these cases. Consequently, the application of assisted reproduction is increasing. These methods could benefit from an extended evaluation of sperm quality. For this reason, we analyzed sperm proteins from 30 men with normal spermiograms and 30 men with asthenozoospermia. Ejaculates of both groups were tested by flow cytometry (FCM and fluorescence with a set of well-characterized anti-human sperm Hs-monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, which were generated in our laboratory. No statistically significant differences were found between normospermics and asthenospermics in the expression of the sperm surface protein clusterin, evaluated with Hs-3 MoAb, and semenogelin, evaluated with Hs-9 MoAb. However, FCM revealed quantitative differences in the acrosomal proteins between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men, namely, in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, evaluated with Hs-8 MoAb, valosin-containing protein, evaluated with Hs-14 MoAb, and ATP synthase (cAMP-dependent protein kinase II, PRKAR2A, evaluated with MoAb Hs-36. Asthenozoospermic men displayed a highly reduced expression of intra-acrosomal proteins, with a likely decrease in sperm quality, and thus a negative impact on successful reproduction. Asthenozoospermia seems to be a complex disorder involving intra-acrosomal proteins.

  12. Detrimental effects of an autosomal selfish genetic element on sperm competitiveness in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Andreas; Lindholm, Anna K

    2015-07-22

    Female multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread across many animal taxa and indirect genetic benefits are a major evolutionary force favouring polyandry. An incentive for polyandry arises when multiple mating leads to sperm competition that disadvantages sperm from genetically inferior mates. A reduction in genetic quality is associated with costly selfish genetic elements (SGEs), and studies in invertebrates have shown that males bearing sex ratio distorting SGEs are worse sperm competitors than wild-type males.We used a vertebrate model species to test whether females can avoid an autosomal SGE, the t haplotype, through polyandry. The t haplotype inhouse mice exhibits strong drive in t heterozygous males by affecting spermatogenesis and is associated with homozygous in utero lethality. We used controlled matings to test the effect of the t haplotype on sperm competitiveness. Regardless of mating order, t heterozygous males sired only 11% of zygotes when competing against wild-type males, suggesting a very strong effect of the t haplotype on sperm quality. We provide, to our knowledge,the first substantial evidence that polyandry ameliorates the harmful effects of an autosomal SGE arising through genetic incompatibility. We discuss potential mechanisms in our study species and the broader implications for the benefits of polyandry.

  13. How quality affects the bottom line?: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Texeira-Quirós

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving quality is one of the tools that companies have to improve or maintain their market position. However, despite the large number of papers published, a clear conclusion of the impact of ISO9000 standards on business results has yet to be reached, given there are many conflicting opinions. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the literature on some of the many published research papers, seeking some way to analyse the existing relationship between the implementation of systems of quality management, ISO9000 certification, quality costs, results, and their effect on company performance.

  14. Effects of cryopreservation on sperm viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage of bovine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, H; Malama, E; Heppelmann, M; Calisici, O; Leiding, C; Kastelic, J P; Bollwein, H

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to examine if there are relationships between alterations in sperm viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis, and DNA integrity induced by cryopreservation of bovine sperm. Four ejaculates were collected from each of six bulls. Each ejaculate was diluted and divided into two aliquots; one was incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C, and the other frozen, thawed, and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Analyses of quality of sperm were performed after 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours of incubation. Progressive motile sperm was determined with computer assisted sperm analysis. Percentages of plasma membrane- and acrosome-intact sperm, sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm showing a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI), and their reactive oxygen species content were assessed with dichlorofluorescein-diacetate, dihydrorhodamine, diaminofluorescein diacetate, and mitochondrial superoxide indicator using flow cytometry. Although all other sperm parameters showed alterations (P  0.05, 0.91 ± 0.23) in nonfrozen sperm. Cryopreservation induced changes of all sperm parameters (P synthesis of H2O2 showed a similar exponential rise (P synthesis of H2O2 but not to sperm viability and synthesis of other reactive oxygen species.

  15. Sperm release pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called seminiferous tubules, which are the sites of sperm production. The structure on top of the seminiferous tubules in the testes is the epididymis. The sperm migrate from of the seminiferous tubules to the ...

  16. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  17. Semen analysis and sperm function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel R Franken; Sergio Oehninger

    2012-01-01

    Despite controversy regarding the clinical value of semen analysis,male fertility investigation still relies on a standardized analysis of the semen parameters.This is especially true for infertility clinics in both developing and developed countries.Other optional tests or sophisticated technologies have not been widely applied.The current review addresses important changes in the analysis of semen as described in the new World Health Organization (WHO) manual for semen analysis.The most important change in the manual is the use of evidence-based publications as references to determine cutoff values for normality.Apart from the above mentioned changes,the initial evaluation and handling methods remain,in most instances,the same as in previous editions.Furthermore,the review evaluates the importance of quality control in andrology with emphasis on the evaluation of sperm morphology.WHO sperm morphology training programmes for Sub-Saharan countries were initiated at Tygerberg Hospital in 1995.1he external quality control programme has ensured that the majority of participants have maintained their morphological reading skills acquired during initial training.This review reports on current sperm functional tests,such as the induced acrosome reaction,and sperm-zona pellucida binding assays,as well as the impact of sperm qualitv in terms of DNA integritv,and the relationship of sperm function tests to sperm morphologv.

  18. Malnutrition affects quality of life in gastroenterology patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kristina Norman; Henriette Kirchner; Herbert Lochs; Matthias Pirlich

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between malnutrition and quality of life in patients with benign gastrointestinal disease.METHODS: Two hundred patients (104 wellnourished and 96 malnourished) were assessed according to the Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Quality of life was determined with the validated Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF 36). Muscle function was assessed by hand grip strength and peak flow.RESULTS: Body mass index, body cell mass, arm muscle area and hand grip strength were significantly lower in the malnourished patients. Quality of life was generally lower when compared to norm values. Seven out of eight quality of life scales (excluding bodily pain) were significantly reduced in the malnourished patients. Comparing patients with liver cirrhosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), patients with IBD experienced significantly lower values in the perception of bodily pain, social functioning and mental health. Malnourished liver cirrhotics suffered reductions in more scales (six out of eight) than malnourished IBD patients did (four out of eight).CONCLUSION: Quality of life is generally low in benign gastrointestinal disease and is further reduced in patients who are classified as malnourished. It appears that liver cirrhosis patients experience a higher quality of life than IBD patients do, but the impact of malnutrition seems to be greater in liver cirrhosis than in IBD.

  19. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  20. Female sperm use and storage between fertilization events drive sperm competition and male ejaculate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2014-12-01

    Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affect male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and paternity. In our model, sperm use (a single parameter under female control) is the main determinant of sperm competition, which alters the effect of female promiscuity on male success and, ultimately, male reproductive allocation. Our theory reproduces the general pattern predicted by existing theory that increased sperm competition favors increased allocation to ejaculates. However, our model predicts a negative correlation between male ejaculate allocation and female promiscuity, challenging the generality of a prevailing expectation of sperm competition theory. Early models assumed that the energetic costs of precopulatory competition and the level of sperm competition are both determined by female promiscuity, which leads to an assumed covariation between these two processes. By modeling precopulatory costs and sperm competition independently, our theoretical framework allows us to examine how male allocation should respond independently to variation in sperm competition and energetic trade-offs in mating systems that have been overlooked in the past.

  1. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  2. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sperm must attach to the outside of the egg. Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg. ...

  3. 不育男性Y染色体长度异常的精液质量%Effect of abnormality Y chromosome and sperm quality on the result of insisted reproductive techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟; 秦雯; 莫定敢; 陈美佳; 吕福通; 覃爱平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of abnormality Y chromosome and sperm quality on the clinical result of insisted reproductive technique (ART). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the effect of ab-normality Y chromosome and sperm quality on embryo quality/result of pregnancy of patients undergoing ART. In-fertile men with normality Y chromosome (n=436) and with abnormality Y chromosome (n =146) from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010 were enrolled in this study. The infertile men were divided into four groups: the normality Y chromo-some plus teratozoospermia group , the normality Y chromosome plus normal sperm quality group , the abnormality Y chromosome plus teratozoospermia group, the abnormality Y chromosome plus normal sperm quality group. Embryo quality and the results of clinic pregnancy outcome were analyzed among the four groups. Results Fertilization rate of the four groups was 73.4%, 69.0%, 70.9% and 68%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in thecleavage rate, optimal embryo rate and pregnancy outcome among the four groups. Conclusions Both abnormality Y chromosome length and teratozoospermia may be affect the fertility rate of the infertile men undergoing IVF/ICSI.%目的:了解在辅助生殖技术(insisted reproductive techniques,ART)中 Y 染色体长度异常患者的精液质量情况,并按不同精液质量分组,讨论其胚胎质量、临床妊娠结局及意义。方法:通过回顾性分析2010年1月1日至2010年12月31日在中心进行辅助生殖助孕的患者共2739周期,染色体检查682例,其中染色体正常436(63.93%),合并畸形精子症196例,染色体长度异常共146例(Y =22,139例;Y =18,7例),占5.33%,合并畸形精子症73例。将患者分为染色体长度正常组和染色体长度异常组,再分精子形态正常组、精子形态异常组2个亚组,共4组,即染色体长度正常且精子形态正常组(组1),染色体长度正

  4. Sperm preparation for ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate

  5. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  6. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  7. Have sperm counts deteriorated over the past 20 years in healthy, young Japanese men? Results from the Sapporo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Kayama, F; Tatsuki, T J; Tsukamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Changes in semen quality of healthy men is a controversial issue throughout the world. It is suspected that many chemical endocrine disrupters may affect the quality of semen. Although exposure to them may be extensive in Japan, no evidence of changes in semen quality has been reported. In this study, changes in semen volume and sperm counts were analyzed over 20 years in the Sapporo area of Japan. Semen volume and sperm counts were measured in 254 and 457 normal, healthy volunteers who lived in the Sapporo area in 1975-1980 and 1998, respectively. Posters and handbills were used to recruit participants in both studies. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after 3 days or more of abstinence. There was no change in semen volume between 1975-1980 and 1998. Mean sperm counts were 70.9 +/- 47.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1975-1980 and 79.6 +/- 49.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1998. Sperm counts did not decline over about 20 years. No significant correlation between age and sperm counts was recognized in either study. The rates of subjects with oligozoospermia and azoospermia were the same in both studies. In the 1975-1980 study, 34 of 254 (13.4%) participants had a child, and in the 1998 study, 51 of 457 (11.2%) participants had a child. Mean sperm count was significantly (P Sapporo area of Japan over 20 years. However, selection bias in the recruitment of volunteers and the issue of variable abstinence might have affected the results of these studies. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies should be performed in several different regions to extrapolate our results on sperm counts to healthy, young Japanese men in general. Key words: Fertility, endocrine disruptors, seminalysis.

  8. Sperm immobilization by dental focus microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E

    1982-01-01

    Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.

  9. Ranking factors affecting the quality of banking services using analytic network process

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Pourmohammad; Mostafa Zandieh; Hasan Farsijani

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify the priority of factors affecting the quality of banking services in Bank Saderat Iran for better allocation of resources to enhance the quality of its banking services. The study develops a fuzzy method to handle uncertainty associated with the data and using analytical network process (ANP) ranks different factors influencing on service quality. The results have indicated that the quality of e-services (ESQ) is the most important factor followed by the quality o...

  10. Protective effect of esterified glucomannan on aflatoxin-induced changes in testicular function, sperm quality, and seminal plasma biochemistry in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Dönmez, Hasan Hüseyin; Dönmez, Nurcan; Sur, Emrah; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Coyan, Kenan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aflatoxin (AF) on spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters in rams, and the protective efficiency of esterified glucomannan (EG) co-administered with AF. Thirty-two Merino rams (12-14 months old) were used. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/d of total AF. The EG group received commercial feed plus 2 g/d of EG. The AF + EG group was given commercial feed plus 250 μg/d of total AF and 2 g/d of EG. There were treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction effects on sperm motility, abnormal spermatozoa, damaged acrosome, and dead spermatozoa (P glutathione (GSH) levels were determined to have significantly decreased in the AF group in comparison to the control, it was observed that, in the group co-administered with AF and EG, particularly after week 7, the GSH levels, which had decreased owing to AF, were largely ameliorated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AF adversely affected spermatologic, biochemical, and testis parameters, and the combined administration of EG with AF reversibly eliminated these adverse effects in rams.

  11. Subjective quality of life in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Matanov; D. Giacco; M. Bogic; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; N. Morina; J. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; S. Priebe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjecti

  12. Cigarette smoking affects sperm plasma membrane integrity%流式细胞术检测吸烟对精子质膜完整性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫巍; 李娜; 吴秋月; 夏欣一; 崔英霞; 黄宇烽; 姚勤

    2012-01-01

    To detect sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI) of cigarette smoking infertile males using SYBR-14/ PI fluorescent staining and flow cytometry and investigate its clinical significance. Methods: We collected semen samples from 132 cigarette smoking infertile men and 70 normal fertile controls, the former divided into a heavy-smoker group ( > 20 cigarettes a day, n = 68) and a light-smoker group ( ≤20 cigarettes a day, n = 64). We performed computer-assisted semen analysis of the semen samples , and determined sperm PMI by flow cytometry after rinsing with PBS and staining by SYBR-14/PI, the sperm with normal PMI indicated as the percentage of those emitting green fluorescence ( SYBR-14 + /PI- %) , dead sperm as the percentage of those emitting red (SYBR-14 - /PI+ ) , and moribund sperm as the percentage of those emitting both green and red (SYBR-14 + /PI + ). Results: Both the heavy- and light-smoker groups showed significant differences in SYBR-14 -/PI +% and SYBR-14+/PI - % from the normal controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SYBR-14 +/PI- % was remarkably lower, while SYBR-14-/PI+ % markedly higher in the heavy-smoker than in the light-smoker group (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between SYBR-14+ /PI-'% and sperm motility (r = 0.938, P = 0.000). Conclusion: SYBR-14/PI fluorescent staining and flow cytometry analysis could quickly and exactly detect sperm PMI. Cigarette smoking reduces sperm PMI and consequently sperm motility, which might be an important factor of male infertility.%目的:应用荧光染料SYBR-14/PI双色标记法进行流式细胞术检测不育患者精子质膜完整性,分析吸烟对精子质膜完整性的影响并探讨其临床意义. 方法:收集202例男性精液标本,其中132例为本院就诊男性不育患者,分为大烟量组(n=68)与小烟量组(n=64),正常生育男性为正常对照组(n=70).通过计算机辅助精液分析系统进行精液常规分析.精液标本经PBS洗涤处理后用荧光染料SYBR-14/碘

  13. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract.Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  14. Inhibitors of zinc-dependent metalloproteases hinder sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we report for the first time on a possible contribution of metalloproteases in sperm passage through the cumulus matrix in pigs. The presence of 20 μM 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PHEN), inhibitor of zinc-dependent metalloproteases, strongly inhibited the degree of sperm penetration in cumulus-intact (CI), but not in cumulus-free (CF), porcine oocytes during IVF. The inhibitory effect of 1,10-PHEN was due to the chelation of metal ions as a non-chelating analog (1,7-PHEN) did not affect IVF rates. Furthermore, incubation with 1,10-PHEN did not affect sperm binding to the zona pellucida nor sperm motility, membrane integrity, or acrosomal status. These findings led to the assumption that 1,10-PHEN interacts with a sperm- or cumulus-derived metalloprotease. Metalloproteases are key players in physiological processes involving degradation or remodeling of extracellular matrix. In vivo, their proteolytic activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP1-TIMP4). We tested the effect of TIMP3 on fertilization parameters after porcine IVF. Similar to 1,10-PHEN, TIMP3 inhibited total fertilization rate of CI but not CF oocytes and did not influence sperm quality parameters. Although the inhibitory effect was stronger in CI oocytes, TIMP3 also reduced the degree of sperm penetration in CF oocytes, suggesting the involvement of a metalloprotease in a subsequent step during fertilization. In conclusion, our results indicate the involvement of TIMP3-sensitive, zinc-dependent metalloprotease activity in sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus in pigs. The results should provide the basis for further biochemical research toward the localization and identification of the metalloprotease involved.

  15. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Fen Zheng; Xiao-Bao Chen; Lei-Wen Zhao; Min-Zhi Gao; Jie Peng; Xian-Qin Qu; Hui-Juan Shi; Xing-Liang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment ...

  16. Effects of selenium-enriched probiotics on sperm quality of stock boars%富硒益生菌对种公猪精液品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏惠龙; 李儒曙; 贺湘仁; 陈锦珍; 韩卓宙; 刘宇; 张健騑

    2009-01-01

    在成年长白种公猪的饲料中,以0.3 mg/kg(以硒浓度计算)添加富硒益生菌,研究了富硒益牛菌对种公猪精液品质的影响.结果显示,试验组种公猪精液中的精子活率、顶体完整率、还原型谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的活性均比对照组高,但精液中的精子畸形率比对照组低,说明富硒益生菌能明显改善种公猪的精液品质.%Selenium-enriched probiotics was added into Changbai stock boars' feedstuff according to 0.3 mg/kg in order to investigate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on sperm quality in stock boats. The results showed that the sperm motility rate, acrosome integrity rate and GSH-Px active in trial group were better than the control group, while the teratospermia rate in trial group was lower than that in the control group. So we can conclude that selenium-enriched probioties supplementation could significantly enhance sperm quality in stock boars.

  17. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (pboar sperm.

  18. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renato; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Razuk, Milena; Barela, José Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm) wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa). Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision. PMID:26939058

  19. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  20. Not all sperm are equal: functional mitochondria characterize a subpopulation of human sperm with better fertilization potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sousa

    Full Text Available Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality.

  1. Not all sperm are equal: functional mitochondria characterize a subpopulation of human sperm with better fertilization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Amaral, Alexandra; Baptista, Marta; Tavares, Renata; Caballero Campo, Pedro; Caballero Peregrín, Pedro; Freitas, Albertina; Paiva, Artur; Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2011-03-23

    Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality.

  2. Sperm storage and transport following natural mating and artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P

    1993-05-01

    Recent observations in turkey and chicken hens show that sperm storage in both species is a highly inefficient process. After artificial insemination (AI), less than 1% of spermatozoa inseminated are selected for transport to and enter the sperm storage tubules (SST). It has been shown that the sperm selection process is orchestrated within the vagina and not at the level of the SST. At least two mechanisms are involved in the selection of spermatozoa fit for sperm storage, one being mechanical (motility) and the other biochemical in nature (sperm-vaginal mucosa interactions). Furthermore, it was also observed that the sperm storage efficiency in the chicken is dependent upon the logarithm of the number of spermatozoa inseminated. From a practical standpoint, inseminations performed frequently with a moderate number of spermatozoa should be more efficient than inseminations performed with higher doses at longer intervals. Maximal filling of the SST of hens in egg production requires only 1 day for the chicken and 2 days for the turkey. By contrast, the release of sperm from the SST is about seven times faster in the chicken than the turkey hen. The efficiency of oviducal sperm storage is related to a number of factors including age of the hen, stage of the ovulatory cycle when inseminated, and, in the turkey, if the hen was inseminated before or after the onset of egg production. Two different categories should be considered among factors that affect sperm survival in vivo. 1) Factors affecting sperm storage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsopavijitr Pornsawan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1 age (2 seasonality (3 and circulating testosterone (SrTest, triiodothyronine (SrT3 and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4, as well as seminal (4 testosterone (SpTest, zinc (SpZn and protein (SpTP on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls (age range, 10-to 72-years by manual stimulation between July 2004 and June 2005. Serum samples obtained monthly were assessed for SrTest, SrT3, SrT4, and seminal plasma samples were evaluated for, SpTest, SpZn and SpTP. Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years. Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years (P Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species.

  4. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Fertilization Rate Does Not-Depend on the Proportion of Round-headed Sperm, Small acrosomal Sperm, or Morphologically Normal Sperm in Patients with Partial Globozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ying Jiang; Ling-Yun Yang; Xiao-Mei Tong; Hai-Yan Zhu; Ya-Mei Xue; Wen-Zhi Xu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Generally,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be the preferable method to treat partial globozoospermia,but whether there exist some correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm or morphologically normal sperm remains open.This study was to explore the correlation between ICSI fertilization rate and the sperm morphology in patients with partial globozoospermia.Methods:Thirty-four patients diagnosed with partial globozoospermia accepted the following assisted fertilization treatments-2 cases accepted in-vitro fertilization (IvF) alone,26 cases accepted ICSI alone,and 6 accepted split IVF/ICSI.Detailed morphological characteristics were described using Diff-Quik rapid staining.Sixty cases accepting IVF or ICSI treatment in our reproductive center were considered as the control group after being matched by relevant criteria.Fertilization rate,embryo quality,embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were calculated.Results:Besides very high proportion of round-headed sperm,partial globozoospermia also showed very high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm and very low proportion of morphologically normal sperm.Fertilization rate of IVF (IVF alone plus split IVF) was very low in partial globozoospermia (25.4% ± 17.4%),but ICSI (ICSI alone plus split ICSI) achieved satisfying fertilization rate compared with the control group (66.2% ± 22.5% vs.68.8% ± 29.4%,P > 0.05).In patients with partial globozoospermia,there were no correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm,small-acrosomal sperm,or morphologically normal sperm.Conclusions:There was high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm in partial globozoospermia.For patients with partial globozoospermia,ICSI is more preferable than IVF.ICSI fertilization rate does not depend on the proportion of round-headed sperm,small-acrosomal sperm,or morphologically normal sperm.

  5. Cryorecovery of Mouse Sperm by Different IVF Methods Using MBCD and GSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Wen; Glass, Olivia C; Zarrabi, Jasmin; Baker, Lisa N.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent

    2016-01-01

    Different protocols incorporating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have been reported to improve IVF recovery of cryopreserved mouse sperm on a C57BL/6 (J and N) genetic background. However, it is not clear which IVF protocol is most appropriate when using the various methods to cryorecover sperm with different sperm quality and sample volumes. Therefore, in the present study we correlated sperm motility with fertilization rate and compared the efficiency of different IVF methods using various sperm samples so as to establish general guidelines for mouse sperm cryorecovery by IVF. High linear correlation between sperm fertilization rate and progressive motility was found, R2 was 0.9623 and 0.9993 for pre-freezing and post-thaw progressive motility, respectively. High amounts of cryoprotective agent (CPA) were observed to impair both sperm capacitation and fertilization. Moreover, the presence of a large number of immotile sperm in the sperm-oocyte co-incubation drop was found to reduce IVF success which could be partially reversed by supplementation using monothioglycerol (MTG) during centrifugation. It was concluded that the efficiency of IVF using cryorecovered mouse sperm in media containing MBCD and GSH can be predicted from sperm progressive motility. High concentrations of CPA and immotile sperm should be mitigated prior to IVF. The optimum IVF method should be selected based on sperm sample volume and sperm parameters. PMID:27413624

  6. MiRNA-320 in the human follicular fluid is associated with embryo quality in vivo and affects mouse embryonic development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruizhi; Sang, Qing; Zhu, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Miao; Xu, Yan; Shi, Huijuan; Xu, Yao; Qu, Ronggui; Chai, Renjie; Shao, Ruijin; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Sun, Xiaoxi; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-03

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated the existence of miRNAs in human follicular fluid. In the current study, we have sought to identify miRNAs that might affect oocyte/embryo quality in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection and to investigate their roles in in vitro fertilization outcomes in mouse oocytes. 53 samples were classified as Group 1 (high quality) if the day-3 embryos had seven and more cells or as Group 2 (low quality) if the embryos had six and fewer cells. TaqMan Human microRNAs cards and qRT-PCR were performed to verify differently expressed miRNAs. The function of the corresponding miRNA was investigated in mouse oocytes by injecting them with miRNA-inhibitor oligonucleotides. We found that hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-197 had significantly higher expression levels in the Group 1 follicular fluids than in Group 2 (p = 0.0073 and p = 0.008, respectively). Knockdown of mmu-miR-320 in mouse oocytes strongly decreased the proportions of MII oocytes that developed into two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.0069, respectively). Wnt signaling pathway components had abnormal expression level in miR-320 inhibitor-injected oocytes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNAs in human follicular fluid are indicative of and can influence embryo quality.

  7. Human semen as an early, sensitive biomarker of highly polluted living environment in healthy men: A pilot biomonitoring study on trace elements in blood and semen and their relationship with sperm quality and RedOx status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Lorenzetti, Stefano; Mantovani, Alberto; Notari, Tiziana; Cocca, Ennio; Cerullo, Stefano; Di Stasio, Michele; Cerino, Pellegrino; Montano, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The Campania region in Italy is facing an environmental crisis due to the illegal disposal of toxic waste. Herein, a pilot study (EcoFoodFertility initiative) was conducted to investigate the use of human semen as an early biomarker of pollution on 110 healthy males living in various areas of Campania with either high or low environmental impact. The semen from the "high impact" group showed higher zinc, copper, chromium and reduced iron levels, as well as reduced sperm motility and higher sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). Redox biomarkers (total antioxidant capacity, TAC, and glutathione, GSH) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in semen were lower in the "high impact" group. The percentage of immotile spermatozoa showed a significant inverse correlation with TAC and GSH. Overall, several semen parameters (reduced sperm quality and antioxidant defenses, altered chemical element pattern), which were associated with residence in a high polluted environment, could be used in a further larger scale study, as early biomarkers of environmental pollution.

  8. Sperm DNA fragmentation and its role in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosálvez, Jaime; Holt, William V; Johnston, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Until about 20 years ago, sperm assessment in the laboratory was focused on motility, morphology and acrosomal integrity. Then came the gradual realisation that, because the main objective of a spermatozoon is to deliver an intact genetic payload of DNA to the egg, being able to check DNA quality of spermatozoa would be equally important, if not more so. Research over the last two decades has therefore led to the development of several techniques for reliably detecting DNA strand breaks, and the more recent focus has been directed towards understanding the fertility implications of DNA damage. It is now clear that evolutionary history has played an important role in determining the stability of sperm DNA under stressful conditions, and that the nature of the DNA-protein interactions also influence the extent to which fertility is affected by both technical procedures involved in sperm preservation and the basic biology of the species concerned. Here we present an overview of the principles involved in DNA assessment and also provide some cases studies that illustrate the influences of species diversity.

  9. Sensory Hypersensitivity Predicts Reduced Sleeping Quality in Patients With Major Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Walker, Muffy; Rihmer, Zoltan; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the sensory profile (expressed as hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity) of patients with major affective disorders and its relative contribution to the prediction of sleep quality while considering affective temperaments and depression, which may impact sleep quality. We recruited 176 participants (mean age, 47.3 y), of whom 56.8% had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 43.2% a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Reduced sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. Sensory hypersensitivity, assessed using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, significantly distinguished between poor and good sleepers. Sleep quality was mainly predicted by the Beck Depression Inventory-II total score and anxious temperament. Sensory hypersensitivity contributed to this prediction mainly with regard to sleep efficiency and related daytime dysfunction.

  10. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  11. Study of Quality Detection and Evaluation on Sperm of Mollusc Ⅴ:Detection of Sperm Mitochondrial Activity of Atrina pectinata by Using Fluorescent Dye%贝类精子质量检测与评价方法的研究Ⅴ:栉江珧精子线粒体活性的荧光检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娇; 王梅芳; 余祥勇

    2011-01-01

    Two fluorescent dyes, Rhodaminel23 (Rhl23) and Propidium iodide (PI), were used to detect the mitochondrial activity of the spermatozoa of Atrina pectinata, and the testing effect of different staining time and dye concentration were also compared, and the mitochondrial activity of sperm after cryopreservation (frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h) was detected. The result showed that the most effective staining appeared when the concentration of Rhodaminel23 and Propidium iodide were 10 μg/mL, and the optimum reaction time was 10 min. The activity of mitochondria sperm emitted green fluorescence, and dead sperm emitted red fluorescence, and sperm with damaged plasmalemma and undamaged mitochondria sent out red-green fluorescence. Therefore, Rh123-PI double staining was feasible. Frozen sperm's mitochondrial activity and plasma membrane integrity'was 61.8%, 56.8%, respectively, and was lower than fresh sperm (95.3%, 93.5%). The result indicated that the freezing-thawing process damaged sperm structure and Rh123-PI double staining could detect the quality of the spermatozoa of Atrina pectinata.%采用罗丹明123(Rh123)和碘化丙啶(PI)两种荧光染料对栉江珧(Atrina pectinata)精子线粒体活性进行检测,比较不同染液浓度和染色时间的检测效果,并用该方法检测和比较超低温冷冻保存对线粒体活性的影响.结果显示:Rh123和PI染色的最适染液浓度均为10μg/mL,染色时间控制在10min之内;染色后具有线粒体活性的精子发出绿色荧光,死精子发出红色荧光,质膜受损但线粒体还未受损的精子发出红绿色荧光,表明Rh123和PI双荧光染色检测栉江珧精子线粒体活性是可行的;精液经冷冻后,线粒体活性为61.9%、质膜完整率56.8%,显著低于新鲜精液组(95.3%、93.5%),表明冷冻对精子结构会造成不同程度的损伤,Rh123和PI双荧光染色法可用来检测栉江珧精子质量.

  12. Ranking factors affecting the quality of banking services using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Pourmohammad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the priority of factors affecting the quality of banking services in Bank Saderat Iran for better allocation of resources to enhance the quality of its banking services. The study develops a fuzzy method to handle uncertainty associated with the data and using analytical network process (ANP ranks different factors influencing on service quality. The results have indicated that the quality of e-services (ESQ is the most important factor followed by the quality of banking services agility (ASQ, the service system quality (SSQ, and the behavioral service qualities (BSQ. Moreover, the employees’ competence and skills, the reliability of the electronic system and the reliability of the service system, an impeccability banking system integrity and accountability instruments are among other effective factors influencing on the quality of banking services.

  13. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  14. Matrine Inhibits Mouse Sperm Function by Reducing Sperm [Ca2+]i and Phospho-ERK1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrine is a bioactive alkaloid that has a variety of pharmacological effects and is widely used in Chinese medicine. However, its effects on male reproduction are not well known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro toxicity of matrine on mature mouse sperm. Methods: Mouse cauda epididymal sperm were exposed to matrine (10-200 µM in vitro. The viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and fertilization ability of the mouse sperm were examined. Furthermore, the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i, calcium (Catsper and potassium (Ksper currents, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2 of the sperm were analyzed. Results: After exposure to 100 µM or more of matrine, mouse cauda epididymal sperm exhibited a significant reduction in total motility, progressive motility, linear velocity and acrosome reaction rate induced by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. As a result, the fertilization ability of mouse sperm was remarkably decreased by matrine. Our data further demonstrated that matrine significantly reduced sperm [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]i-related p-ERK1/2; however, both the CatSper and KSper currents, which are thought to interactively regulate Ca2+ influx in sperm, were not affected by matrine. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that matrine inhibits mouse sperm function by reducing sperm [Ca2+]i and suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2.

  15. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  16. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; psperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  17. Effects of hepatitis B virus infection on human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Huang; Tian-Hua Huang; Huan-Ying Qiu; Xiao-Wu Fang; Tian-Gang Zhuang; Hong-Xi Liu; Yong-Hua Wang; Li-Zhi Deng; Jie-Wen Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the level of sperm chromosome aberrations in male patients with hepatitis B, and to directly detect whether there are HBV DNA integrations in sperm chromosomes of hepatitis B patients.METHODS: Sperm chromosomes of 14 tested subjects (5healthy controls, 9 patients with HBV infection, including 1with acute hepatitis B, 2 with chronic active hepatitis B, 4with chronic persistent hepatitis B, 2 chronic HBsAg carriers with no clinical symptoms) were prepared using interspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free golden hamster ova and human spermatozoa, and the frequencies of aberration spermatozoa were compared between subjects of HBV infection and controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBV DNA probe to detect the specific HBV DNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.RESULTS: The total frequency of sperm chromosome aberrations in HBV infection group (14.8%, 33/223) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%,5/116). Moreover, the sperm chromosomes in HBV infection patients commonly presented stickiness, clumping, failure to staining, etc, which would affect the analysis of sperm chromosomes. Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBV DNA were seen in sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitis. In 9 (9/42) sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots, one presented 5 obvious FISH spots, others presented 2 to 4signals. There was significant difference of fluorescence intensity among the signal spots. The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes was random.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can bring about mutagenic effects on sperm chromosomes. Integrations of viral DNA into sperm chromosomes which are multisites and nonspecific, can further increase the instability of sperm chromosomes. This study suggested that HBV infection can create extensively hereditary effects by alteration genetic constituent and

  18. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  19. The 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Is Involved in the Augmentation of Antioxidant Defenses in Cryopreserved Chicken Sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET] or inhibitor (Compound C [CC] and then cryopreserved. AMPKα phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Glutathione Reductase (GR, increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm as well as AR (+ 100%. MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation

  20. Differences in the Ovine HSP90AA1 Gene Expression Rates Caused by Two Linked Polymorphisms at Its Promoter Affect Rams Sperm DNA Fragmentation under Environmental Heat Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen; Pérez-Guzmán, M. Dolores; Garde, J. Julián; García-Álvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge H.; Serrano, M. Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) is one of the best-studied exogenous cellular stresses. Almost all tissues, cell types, metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions are affected in greater or lesser extent by HS. However, there are some especially thermo sensible cellular types such as the mammalian male germ cells. The present study examined the role of three INDELs in conjunction with the -660G/C polymorphism located at the HSP90AA1 promoter region over the gene expression rate under HS. Specially, the -668insC INDEL, which is very close to the -660G/C transversion, is a good candidate to be implied in the transcriptional regulation of the gene by itself or in a cooperative way with this SNP. Animals carrying the genotype II-668 showed higher transcription rates than those with ID-668 (FC = 3.07) and DD-668 (FC = 3.40) genotypes for samples collected under HS. A linkage between gene expression and sperm DNA fragmentation was also found. When HS conditions were present along or in some stages of the spermatogenesis, alternative genotypes of the -668insC and -660G/C mutations are involved in the effect of HS over sperm DNA fragmentation. Thus, unfavorable genotypes in terms of gene expression induction (ID-668GC-660 and DD-668GG-660) do not produce enough mRNA (stored as messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) and Hsp90α protein to cope with future thermal stress which might occur in posterior stages when transcriptional activity is reduced and cell types and molecular processes are more sensible to heat (spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids protamination). This would result in the impairment of DNA packaging and the consequent commitment of the events occurring shortly after fertilization and during embryonic development. In the short-term, the assessment of the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation sensitivity and ram’s fertility will be of interest to a better understanding of the mechanisms of response to HS and its consequences on animal production and

  1. Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Acetamiprid (ACE and imidacloprid (IMI are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (PIMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.

  2. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

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    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  3. Development of Quality Management Systems: How Have Disruptive Technological Innovations in Quality Management Affected Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Hellman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.

  4. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  5. Factors affecting health-related quality of life in patients after femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavičienė, Rasa; Smailys, Alfredas; Macijauskienė, Jūratė; Hommel, Ami

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life in patients with femoral neck fracture is an issue frequently discussed in the literature. There is ongoing research on identifying factors that have an impact on quality of life in this particular group of patients. A great variety of factors affecting quality of life and lack of information on their importance encouraged us to perform a systematic literature review analyzing quality of life of patients who sustained femoral neck fracture. The search was performed in the PubMed and Medline databases according to the selected key words. In our systematic review, we included clinical and clinical randomized trials investigating patients with femoral neck fracture and their quality of life. Our analysis showed that treatment of femoral neck fracture with hip replacement was superior to osteosynthesis with regard to patients' quality of life. The data regarding the impact of different rehabilitation programs on quality of life were controversial; a few reports showed that special rehabilitation programs were associated with better health-related quality life. However, other studies did not report any differences in patients' quality of life when different rehabilitation programs were applied. Patient's nutrition may be an important factor affecting the quality of life in patients with femoral neck fractures; however, data supporting this fact are insufficient.

  6. A comparison of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic effects on sperm competitiveness and female remating in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D K; Friberg, U; Arnqvist, G

    2007-11-01

    It is widely assumed that male sperm competitiveness evolves adaptively. However, recent studies have found a cytoplasmic genetic component to phenotypic variation in some sperm traits presumed important in sperm competition. As cytoplasmic genes are maternally transmitted, they cannot respond to selection on sperm and this constraint may affect the scope in which sperm competitiveness can evolve adaptively. We examined nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic contributions to sperm competitiveness, using populations of Callosobruchus maculatus carrying orthogonal combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic lineages. Our design also enabled us to examine genetic contributions to female remating. We found that sperm competitiveness and remating are primarily encoded by nuclear genes. In particular, a male's sperm competitiveness phenotype was contingent on an interaction between the competing male genotypes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic effects were detected on remating but not sperm competitiveness, suggesting that cytoplasmic genes do not generally play a profound evolutionary role in sperm competition.

  7. Improved risk assessment by screening sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, S; Urwyler, H

    2001-02-28

    The question of whether a 4 or 9 week premating treatment period is more suitable in studies for effects on fertility and early embryonic development, and the extent to which the screening of sperm parameters may contribute to the detection of effects, has been under discussion since the ICH guideline changed in 1994/1995. This study presents a comparison between 4 and 9 weeks treatment with known male reproductive toxicants with regard to sperm motility, count, morphology, abnormal movements and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Mating outcome was examined after 4 weeks treatment. Three compounds with different targets and mechanisms of action were chosen: two testicular toxicants, Pyridoxine and Adriamycin and the epididymal toxicant, alpha-Chlorohydrine. Sperm motility was reduced in males treated with Pyridoxine (markedly) and alpha-Chlorohydrine (slightly) after 4 weeks treatment and in males treated with Adriamycin after 9 weeks treatment. With Pyridoxine and Adriamycin, sperm count was significantly increased after 4 weeks. Histopathological examination after 4 weeks showed characteristic changes leading to marked testicular tubular atrophy at 8/9 weeks, which was confirmed by a significantly reduced sperm count at 8/9 weeks. With alpha-Chlorohydrine, sperm count was not affected and the results of the histopathological examination were equivocal. Changes in sperm morphology were observed after 4/9 weeks of treatment with Pyridoxine. Mating outcome after 4 weeks was markedly affected with both Pyridoxine and alpha-Chlorohydrine, but no effect was observed with Adriamycin. The results of this study indicate that the two testicular toxicants would have been detected as male reproductive toxicants in a 4-week general toxicity study with routine testicular histopathology and examination of sperm parameters, without the need for mating trials. For the epididymal toxicant, alpha-Chlorohydrine, there was slightly reduced sperm motility after 4 weeks

  8. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  9. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Guzmán, B; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; Marchetti, F; Hernández-Ochoa, I; Solís-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2009-07-15

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  10. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  11. 高温季节糖萜素对种公猪精液质量的影响%Effect of saccharicterpenin on the quality of boar sperm in high temperature season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚晓红; 胡锦平; 徐如海; 路伏增; 戴丽荷; 姜红进

    2012-01-01

    研究了浙江高温季节(7~9月)时,种公猪饲料中添加400 g·t-1糖萜素对其精液质量的影响,结果表明,在高温炎热季节里,4头种公猪饲料中添加糖萜素可以提高采精量、精子密度与活力,降低精液pH,但差异不显著(P>0.05),并显著提高睾酮含量(P<0.05),对种公猪的精液质量有一定的促进作用.%This study was conducted to study the effect of saccharicterpenin on the quality of boar sperm in high temperature season (from July to September, 2011) in Zhejiang province, adding 400 g·t-1 saccharicterpenin in a diet of boar. The result indicated that there was an increase in semen volume, density, motility and pH value, but no significant difference (P > 0. 05 ). Meanwhile, there was significant increase ( P < 0. 05 ) in testosterone level. In summary, saccharicterpenin can increase the quality of boar sperm in high temperature season.

  12. 不良生活习惯对男性精液质量的影响%An affect of bad habits on the quality of semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 宗晓涵; 赵玉华; 罗瑞丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relevance between semen quality and bad habits.Methods The clinical data of 262 cases of male infertility patients in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2014 were selected and retrospectively analyzed, divided into 5 groups according to the bad habits, a stay up group with 62 cases, drinking group with 46 cases, a smoking group with 50 cases, a sauna group 54 cases, a comprehensive group (more than 2 kinds of bad habits) with 50 patients, 50 cases without staying up late, drinking, smoking were selected as the control group. The sperm concentration and sperm morphology were compared between the study group and the control group. Results Sperm concentration in drinking group, sauna group and stay up group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); the forward moved ability of sperm in control group was significantly higher than that in stay up group and smoking group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); sperm morphology of the control group was significantly better than that in drinking group, smoking group, sauna group and comprehensive group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Bad habits will determine the level of semen quality, sperm concentration for men, as well as the ability to affect the forward movement of sperm morphology is very large, so that men should pay full attention to their habits, to correct bad habits, in order to improve semen quality.%目的:探究男性精液质量与不良生活习惯的相关性。方法选取我院2011年9月~2014年9月期间收治的262例男性不育患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,按不良生活习惯的类型将其分为5类:熬夜组62例,饮酒组46例,抽烟组50例,桑拿组54例,综合组(至少含以上2种不良生活习惯)50例,另选50例无熬夜、饮酒、抽烟以及桑拿的志愿者作为对照组。对比分析各

  13. Efficacy of sperm mobility assessment in commercial flocks and the relationships of sperm mobility and insemination dose with fertility in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L M; Kirby, J D; Froman, D P; Sonstegard, T S; Harry, D E; Darden, J R; Marini, P J; Walker, R M; Rhoads, M L; Donoghue, A M

    2000-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate: 1) the efficacy of the Sperm Mobility Test on commercial turkey farms, and 2) the influence of sperm mobility phenotype on fertility when insemination parameters are varied. In research flocks, differences in sperm mobility among toms are predictive of fertility. We wanted to test the efficacy of this sire selection test in practical, real-world situations, evaluating its usefulness in terms of assessing large numbers of toms, different strains of turkeys, and variable management practices. Utilizing field study results, controlled studies were then conducted to improve test parameters. For the field trials, semen from each of 405 breeder toms (11 strains or lines) was evaluated either in duplicate (n = 285) or in triplicate (n = 120). Sperm mobility was normally distributed among all toms tested, except for one strain. Because the sperm mobility indices for toms evaluated in these field trials were higher than those observed in research flocks, the Sperm Mobility Test was modified to increase the separation between high and low sperm mobility phenotypes by increasing the concentration of Accudenz. To determine the effects of sperm mobility and insemination dose on sustained fertility through time, hens from a research flock were inseminated twice before the onset of lay with sperm from toms classified as high-, average-, or low-mobility in concentrations of 25 to 400 million sperm per artificial insemination dose, and egg fertility was evaluated over a 5-wk period. Toms with the high-mobility sperm phenotype maintained higher fertility (P insemination doses compared with toms with low-mobility sperm. Toms with high-mobility sperm sired equal numbers of poults in a sperm competition study in which numbers favored low-mobility toms by 3:1. These results demonstrate that the Sperm Mobility Test can be used for on-farm evaluation of semen quality of toms in commercial flocks and that sperm mobility influences fertility and sire fitness.

  14. The North Atlantic Oscillation affects the quality of Cava (Spanish sparkling wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Raimundo; Báez, José Carlos

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the possible effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the quality of Spanish Cava. We found a significant negative relationship between the mean NAO for the months of March through August of each year between 1970 and 2008 and the probability of obtaining a top quality Cava. The NAO is associated with temperature and rainfall variations in the Cava region, which affect vine physiological processes during grape maturity. The probability of obtaining a top quality Cava was highest when the mean value of the NAO was negative, which causes the mean temperature in the Cava area to decrease, with positive consequences on Cava quality. Although the overall discrimination capacity and explanatory power of the model were low, 80% of clearly favorable years were classified correctly as corresponding to top quality Cava, and 70% of clearly unfavorable years were classified correctly as non top quality Cava.

  15. The Canonical Correlation Analysis on Semen Quality and Serum Heavy Metals in Chinese Young Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qing WU; Jiang ZHU; Zhan-hai FU; Yin-mei DU; Cui-ling LIANG; Er-sheng GAO; Jian-guo TAO; Qiu-ying YANG; Xiao XU; Wen-juan CAI; Jian GUO; Feng TANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between serum heavy metal and semen quality in normal Chinese young menMethods This study was designed as a multi-center cross-sectional investigation. The subjects consisted of 562 male vomunteers who had undergone premarital physical examination in maternal and children health centers in 7 provinces in China.Results Results from Spearman rank correlation analysis (partial variable: region) show that serum lead and cadmium are negatively related to percentage of morphological normal sperm, but canonical correlation between semen quality and serum heavy metal are not significant. Canonical correlation analysis among the subjects from Guizhou shows cadmium is harmful to sperm morphology. In Henan, furthermore, results show lead and cadmium could negatively affect sperm viability and morphology.Conclusion Among all study subjects, canonical correlation between semen quality and serum heavy metal were not significant; however, results in some region showed serum cadmium and lead might be harmful to sperm quality.

  16. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Rohollah; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation. Accordingly, eight adult cloned Bakhtiari bucks were divided randomly into four groups. Bucks were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate. The concentrate was enriched with flax seed oil, 30 gr/kg body weight/day (OIL), Vitamin E (VIT), 3 gr/kg body weight/day, or combined flax seed oil and the vitamin E (OIL-VIT). The concentrate with no supplements was considered as control group (CONT). Both flax seed oil and Vitamin E supplements were added to the total diet. The bucks were fed with their corresponding diets for a total of 9 weeks while sperm collection was carried out within 10-14 weeks. Ejaculates were diluted with Andromed(®) and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were evaluated following freezing/thawing. According to the results of our study, dietary supplementation with flax seed oil, or/and Vitamin E can improve sperm motility, vitality and number of sperm with intact plasma membrane following freezing-thawing. But the degree of improvement in these parameters was significantly higher when Flax seed oil and vitamin E were co-supplemented.

  17. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  18. The affecting of perceived product quality and perceived risk on perceived product value

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnik Korda, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Perceived value is an extremely important concept in marketing and many authors have dealt with it in the recent years. There are numerous factors affecting perceived product value and we focused on three: perceived product price, perceived product quality and perceived risk. In this paper we present two of them: perceived product quality and perceived risk. Perceived product value is the difference between value in use and price. Value in use is a mix of benefits, which a customer is likely ...

  19. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  20. Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2008-01-01

    in life, although they may live and produce fertilized eggs for several decades. The mating biology and life history of these ants therefore suggests that the major function of seminal fluid is to maximize sperm viability during copulation, sperm transfer, and initial sperm storage. We tested......The seminal fluid that accompanies sperm in ejaculates has been shown or suggested to affect sperm competition and paternity success of insects by preventing female remating, inducing oviposition, and forming mating plugs. In Atta leafcutter ants, queens have multiple mates but never remate later...... this hypothesis by comparing the viability of testis sperm and ejaculated sperm (mixed with seminal fluid) and found a significant positive effect of seminal fluid on sperm viability. We further quantified this positive effect by adding accessory gland secretion (a major component of seminal fluid) in a dilution...

  1. The effect of antioxidant selenium nanoparticles on the parameters of young and old mice sperm using the techniques of artificial intelligence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Yaghmouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It seems that investigating the Parameters related to sperm be useful to assess the impactof age onsemen quality.Factors such asdrug dosage, how to get and duration ofmedication use andevenphysiological conditions(sex andage of the animal alsoaffects onthe outcome. Usingthe wrongdoseor inappropriately duration of treatment, causing adverse effects on the antioxidants. The main goal of this study is Using artificial neural network techniques answer this main question that whether Selenium nanoparticles Such account of spermatozoon, percentage of stimulation, sperm viability percentage are effective on mouse sperm parameters or not ? Research method: in this study , In order to predictthenumber ofspermatozoain mice , Mousesperm viabilityand Stimulationpercentage ofMouse , Some of the important propertiessuch as mouse age and The amount of silicananoparticles presence were used As inputs to the neural network Findings. By calculating theparameters such as Matchingcoefficient, the square root oferror, etc., the accuracy and validity of results was evaluated. ANNmodeloptimizedstructure wascalculatedfor predicting the count of spermatozoon, percentage of stimulation, sperm viability percentage withformat2: 7: 1, 6: 2: 1and2: 7: 1respectively. Conclusion: The results of neural network techniques showed that antioxidant selenium nanoparticles affects the parameters of mouse sperm such as count of spermatozoon, percentage of stimulation, sperm viability percentage .

  2. Sleep quality and some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Yavuz Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100

  3. Measuring Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Clinical Outcomes of Medically Assisted Reproduction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissen, Maartje; Wely, Madelon van; Scholten, Irma; Mansell, Steven; Bruin, Jan Peter de; Mol, Ben Willem; Braat, Didi; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation has been associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality, pregnancy rates and increased miscarriage rates. Various methods exist to test sperm DNA fragmentation such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of measuring sperm DNA fragmentation in predicting chance of ongoing pregnancy with IVF or ICSI. Out of 658 unique studies, 30 had extractable data and were thus included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the sperm DNA fragmentation tests had a reasonable to good sensitivity. A wide variety of other factors may also affect the IVF/ICSI outcome, reflected by limited to very low specificity. The constructed hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve indicated a fair discriminatory capacity of the TUNEL assay (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.74) and Comet assay (AUC of 0.73; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.97). The SCSA and the SCD test had poor predictive capacity. Importantly, for the TUNEL assay, SCD test and Comet assay, meta-regression showed no differences in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. For the SCSA meta-regression indicated the predictive values for IVF and ICSI were different. The present review suggests that current sperm DNA fragmentation tests have limited capacity to predict the chance of pregnancy in the context of MAR. Furthermore, sperm DNA fragmentation tests have little or no difference in predictive value between IVF and ICSI. At this moment, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of sperm DNA fragmentation tests in couples undergoing MAR both for the prediction of pregnancy and for the choice of treatment. Given the significant limitations of the evidence and the

  4. Chemotactic Maneuverability of Sperm

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid mechanics video, we explore the kinematics of chemotaxing sperm cells (sea urchin, \\textit{Arbacia punctulata}) swimming in a chemoattractant gradient. We demonstrate that the complex swimming trajectories resulting in chemotactic behavior (`turn-and-run' motility) are comprised of several distinct flagellar maneuvers. These motility patterns likely play an important role optimizing chemotaxic motility and navigation, when the sperm cells are subjected external fluid flows.

  5. Seminal plasma proteins interacting with sperm surface revert capacitation indicators in frozen-thawed ram sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Alba; Fernández-Alegre, Estela; Cano, Adriana; Hozbor, Federico; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Cesari, Andreína

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of interacting seminal plasma proteins (iSPP) obtained by AV or EE on frozen-thawed ram sperm in order to test the hypothesis whether this fraction could be sufficient to emulate the effect of complete seminal plasma (SP). Additionally, we evaluated whether these proteins have a differential effect between spermatozoa from high and low fertility rams and between breeding and non-breeding seasons. We assessed sperm motility, quality parameters (intracellular reactive oxygen species, membrane fluidity, plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial activity) and capacitation status. The main findings from this work were: i) iSPP had no effect on sperm motility, whereas SP (AV or EE) addition produced the highest values of total motility (74.13±2.99 and 72.27±2.99 for AV and EE, respectively) and progressive motility (64.97±2.64 and 63.73±2.64 for AV and EE, respectively); ii) iSPP had no effect on sperm quality parameters (p>0.05), but whole SP improved all parameters evaluated. Moreover, SP collected by AV yielded significantly higher viability (44.60±2.87) and sperm with stable plasma membrane (44.56±2.49) comparing with the addition of SP collected by EE (35.80±2.47 and 36.67±1.71, respectively); iii) iSPP and SP collected by EE, but not by AV, reverted molecular signals of capacitation as protein tyrosine phosphorylation caused by freezing temperatures; iv) there were no effects of fertility or season in sperm quality parameters evaluated. This study demonstrated that, although the iSPP have a clear decapacitating effect, including the ability to revert cryo-capacitation indicators, they are not sufficient to emulate the effects of complete SP regarding sperm functional parameters.

  6. 精子质量与短时受精后受精结局关系的研究%The relationship between the sperm quality and fertilization outcome after short-time insemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海彬; 殷宝莉; 张翠莲; 李杭生; 夏松; 张天; 贾楠; 杨锦建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the sperm quality to fertilization outcomes after short-time insemination.Methods A total of 558 cycles of short-time insemination in the Reproductive Medical Center of Henan Provincial People's Hospital during January 2009 to June 2010 excluding patients aged > 38 years and M Ⅱ oocyte number < 3 were analyzed retrospectively.According to whether undergo rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection( Re-ICSI),all cycles were divided into in vitro fertilization (IVF)group (472 cycles) and rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Re-ICSI) group (86 cycles).Both IVFgroup and Re-ICSI group were subdivided into primary infertility and secondary infertility according to previous history of pregnancy.269 primary infertility cycles and 203 secondary infertility cycles were characterized in IVF group; and 64 primary infertility cycles and 22 secondary infertility cycles were characterized in Re-ICSI group.x2 test was applied for comparison of embryo plant rate,clinical pregnancy rate,early miscarriage rate between IVF and Re-ICSI groups,while Fisher test was used for comparison of live birth rate.and Mann-Whitney U test was utilized for comparison of duration of infertility,forward moving sperm counts,abnormal sperm rate,sperm acrosin activity between IVF and Re-ICSI groups.Results The embryo plant rate,clinical pregnancy rate,early miscarriage rate,live birth rate of IVF group were:29.4%,44.9%,13.4%,37.0% respectively; the above indicators in Re-ICSI group were:25.7%,34.6%,10.7%,29.6% respectively,the differences of the indicators between the two groups had no statistical sigmficance (x2 =0.869,2.963,0.010,P =0.351,0.085,0.922,0.098).Median of duration of infertility,forward moving sperm counts,abnormal sperm rate,sperm acrosin activity of primary infertility cycles in IVF group were:4.00(3.00 -6.00) years,58.37(33.64 - 102.27) × 106,81.09% (79.41% -88.69% ),76.30 (48.50 - 92.46 ) μIU/106 sperm

  7. Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Erbacci, Alex; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them.

  8. Factors affecting computed tomography image quality for assessment of mechanical aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating mechanical valves with computed tomography (CT) can be problematic because artifacts from the metallic components of valves can hamper image quality. The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting the image quality of cardiac CT to improve assessment of mechanical aortic valves. A total of 144 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves (ten different types) and who underwent cardiac CT were included. Using a four-point grading system, the image quality of the CT scans was assessed for visibility of the valve leaflets and the subvalvular regions. Data regarding the type of mechanical valve, tube voltage, average heart rate (HR), and HR variability during CT scanning were compared between the non-diagnostic (overall image quality score ≤2) and diagnostic (overall image quality score >2) image quality groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of non-diagnostic image quality. The percentage of valve types that incorporated a cobalt-chrome component (two types in total) and HR variability were significantly higher in the non-diagnostic image group than in the diagnostic group (P  0.05). Valve type was the only independent predictor of non-diagnostic quality. The CT image quality for patients with mechanical aortic valves differed significantly depending on the type of mechanical valve used and on the degree of HR variability.

  9. 朱砂对雄性大鼠精子质量影响的研究%Effect of cinnabar on sperm quality of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾祖曦; 刘炯; 谷颖敏; 姜昕; 吴文斌; 米金霞; 汤家铭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of cinnabar on the sperm motility and related movement parameters of male rats. Methods The male rats of reproductive toxicity section I were randomized into four groups; negative control group (0.5% CMC-Na) , small close cinnabar group (100 (xg/g) , medium dose group (300 μg/g) , large dose group (1 000 μg/g) and positive group (tripterygium glycosides 10 μg/g) , corresponding interventions were given in each group with the course of 6 weeks. After administration, the epididymis of each rat was taken to prepare sperm suspensions, then transfer 10 ui of rat sperm suspensions to sperm counting chambers to examine the quantity, vitality, motility of sperm by computer assisted sperm analysis ( CASA). Histo-pathological examination of testes and epididymis was done by HE staining. Results Compared with negative control group, the living rate, vitality, effective quantity and density of sperm in three cinnabar groups were decreases, with significant differences in living rate, vitality and density of sperm between negative control group and medium dose group, and with significant difference in effective quantity of sperm between negative control group and small dose group (P 0.05). Conclusion Cinnabar has negative effect on vitality, living rate, density and motility of rats sperm, and the results prompt that long term administration of cinnabar may had some harmful effect on male fertility.%目的 观察朱砂灌胃给药对雄性大鼠精子活力及相关运动参数的影响.方法 利用生殖毒性Ⅰ段雄性大鼠,按体质量随机分为阴性对照组(0.5% CMC-Na)、朱砂低剂量组(100μg∥g)、朱砂中剂量组(300 μg/g)、朱砂高剂量组(1 000ug/g)、阳性对照组(雷公藤多苷10 μg/g),分别给予相应的干预措施,共6周.给药结束后,取大鼠一侧附睾制备精子悬液,吸取10μl精子悬液至大鼠专用精子计数池,用计算机辅助精子分析系统(CASA)进行精子数量、活

  10. 猪精子微胶囊的制备及其对精子质量的影响%Preparation of Boar Sperm Microcapsule and Its Effect on Sperm Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 马志远; 孙天宇; 王国鑫; 李聪慧; 魏国生; 李井春

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨猪精子微胶囊制作参数,优化猪精子微胶囊制作工艺,提高微胶囊及微胶囊化保存的猪精液质量.将猪精液进行稀释变成1×108个/mL,利用海藻酸钠和钡离子反应制成猪精子微胶囊,检测海藻酸钠和钡离子不同反应时间对胶囊的参数及猪精子质量的影响,以确定最优的微胶囊反应时间的参数.结果表明:5、20、60 min反应时间组之间在胶囊强度分别为23.5、35.5、66.0 g/个,壁厚分别为557.5、1 009.0、1 156.5μm,重量分别为80.0、112.0、135.0 mg以及缓释率(24 h时分别为9.40×104、6.00×104、4.50×104)sperm/个胶囊,以上指标存在显著差异(P<0.05).其中5 min反应组的强度最差;而60 min反应组缓释率最低,不利于精子的释放.此外,20 min和5 min反应时间组在微胶囊化保存后猪精子的活力显著高于60 min反应组,而在精子畸形率上都明显低于60 min反应时间组(P<0.05).综上可见,钡离子-海藻酸钠微胶囊反应时间在20 min时达到最佳,微胶囊保存猪精子质量最好.

  11. Sperm protamine levels as indicators of fertilising potential in sexually mature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, M; Padwal, V; Choudhari, J; Balasinor, N; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2008-02-01

    We have earlier reported that administration of cyproterone acetate, fluphenazine decanoate, tamoxifen citrate, oestradiol valerate to adult male rats, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, respectively, partially suppressed/reduced availability of one or more reproductive hormones viz. LH, FSH, testosterone and reduced their siring ability. The reduction in epididymal sperm counts was not considerable after treatment with these drugs, but conventional methods of assessment of spermatozoa quality viz. sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD) assay, monobromobimane (mBBr) uptake, had shown quantifiable changes in caput sperm chromatin compaction and reduced the testicular levels of protamine 1. The present follow-up study attempts to quantify changes in caudal sperm chromatin which has undergone compaction in the epididymis, in the altered hormonal microenvironment of rats treated with cyproterone acetate, tamoxifen citrate, fluphenazine decanoate, oestradiol valerate, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight respectively given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, with a view to correlating these changes to reduction in their fertilising potential. During the androgen-dependent transit of spermatozoa from caput to cauda epididymis, thiol group oxidation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protamine occurs in maturing sperms concomitant with development of fertilising ability. The results indicate that conventional methods viz. SCSA, NCD, mBBr uptake fail to detect changes induced by hormone deficits in sperm chromatin condensation, as a result of maturation during transit from caput to cauda epididymis. Absence of protamine 1 in epididymal sperm was observed in either testosterone or FSH deficient rats that correlated with reduced fertilising potential. The study suggests that changes in LH/T or FSH affect a hitherto unknown common molecular

  12. The use of gelatine in long-term storage (up to 48 hr) at 5°C preserves the pre-freezing and post-thawing quality of brown bear sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Urueña, E; Anel-López, L; Borragan, S; Ortega Ferrusola, C; Manrique, P; de Paz, P; Anel, L; Alvarez, M

    2016-10-01

    Sedimentation of spermatozoa occurs during long-term liquid storage and this may produce deleterious changes. Our aim was to apply gelatine supplementation during long-term pre-freezing storage of bear sperm, applying final dilution and 6% glycerol at room temperature and cool in straws. We tested four models of sperm storage using a 1:1 dilution in TTF-ULE-Bear extender (TesT-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol 6%): (i) second 1:1 dilution at room temperature (RT), cooling at 5°C in a tube and final dilution (100 × 10(6)  sperm ml(-1) ) (Standard); (ii) final dilution at RT and cooling in a tube (FD-Tube); (iii) final dilution at RT and cooling in 0.25 ml plastic straw (FD-Straw); and (iv) final dilution at RT in extender supplemented with 1.5% gelatine (Gelatine) and cooling in a 0.25 ml plastic straw. A Standard sample was stored at 5°C for 1 hr (Control); the rest of the samples (Standard, FD-Tube, FD-Straw, Gelatine) were stored for 24 or 48 hrs before freezing (100 × 10(6)  sperm ml(-1) , glycerol 6%). The quality of the samples was assessed for motility by CASA, and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide-PI-; VIAB), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC/PI; iACR) and apoptotic status (YO-PRO-1/PI; YOPRO-) by flow cytometry. At pre-freezing, after 48 hr, Gelatine showed significantly higher viability (for VIAB and YOPRO-) and progressiveness (PM, LIN and STR). At 48 hr, Gelatine showed similar YOPRO-, iACR, LIN, STR and ALH respect to Control. At both 24 and 48 h post-thawing, Gelatine sample had similar scores for YOPRO-, iACR, LIN, STR, WOB and VIAB (only 24 hr) when compared with Control, and lower for TM, PM, rapidPM, VAP and ALH. No differences were found among others experimental groups with respect to Control. In conclusion, gelatine could be a suitable alternative to preserve the viability and progressive motility of brown bear ejaculates during long-term pre-freezing storage at 5°C.

  13. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  14. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  15. Insulin therapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients: does it affect quality of life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauw, W.J.C. de; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Gerwen, W.H.E.M. van; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Weel, C. van

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strict glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients is recommended in a number of treatment protocols. However, although better glycaemic control prevents or postpones chronic diabetic complications, it remains uncertain how this affects quality of life in the short and long term. AIM:

  16. The effect of adjuvant vitamin C after varicocele surgery on sperm quality and quantity in infertile men: a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility and spontaneous pregnancy rate after varicocelectomy is only about 30%. The most important seminal antioxidant is vitamin C but recent studies about the effects of vitamin C on spermatogenesis are controversial; therefore, we decided to evaluate its role after varicocelectomy. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 115 men with infertility and clinical varicocele with abnormal semen analyses were recruited. After surgery, the intervention group received vitamin C (250 mg bid and the control group received placebo for three months. Mean sperm count, motility, and morphology index of two semen analyses (before and after surgery were compared between the two groups. Univariate general linear model and stepwise linear regression were used in analysis. The mean age (±SD of participants was 27.6±5.3 years. Vitamin C group had statistically significant better normal motility (20.8 vs. 12.6, P=0.041 and morphology (23.2 vs. 10.5, P<0.001 than placebo group. Considering the values prior to surgery as covariate, vitamin C was not effective on sperm count (P=0.091; but it improved sperm motility (P=0.016 and morphology (P<0.001 even after excluding the confounding effect of age (P=0.044 and P=0.001, respectively. Vitamin C was also an independent factor in predicting motility and normal morphology after surgery. Ascorbic acid can play a role as adjuvant treatment after varicocelectomy in infertile men.

  17. Tracking and controlling everything that affects quality is the key to a quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Carl; Wray, Bruce; Winslow, Ford; Vilicich, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Every laboratory has a need to track and control the variables that drive the quality of the results. However, each laboratory is unique and what one organization deems to be a critical process to track and control will likely differ from other organizations. Furthermore, there is more than just the end product or result that needs to be tracked and controlled. All of the intermediate products and resources play a significant role in producing the final product and each of these needs to be included in the LIMS. At a high level, this article will present ideas and opinions on the following topics in relation to implementing a LIMS process tracking and control system in a laboratory: The difference between tracking and controlling processes; What to track and control in the lab; The "product" of the laboratory; Preventing mistakes in a laboratory; Comprehensive software platform options; The value of seeing a system as opposed to imagining it; The use of barcodes in the laboratory; and an assessment on using the Risk Based Approach in deciding what to include in the tracking system.

  18. Sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation are independent of malondialdheyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Jalel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is clinical evidence to show that sperm DNA damage could be a marker of sperm quality and extensive data exist on the relationship between DNA damage and male fertility status. Detecting such damage in sperm could provide new elements besides semen parameters in diagnosing male infertility. We aimed to assess sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation and to study the association between these two markers, routine semen parameters and malondialdehyde formation. Methods Semen samples from 55 men attending the Histology-Embryology Laboratory of Sfax Faculty of Medicine, Tunisia, for semen investigations were analysed for sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation using flow cytometry. The Sperm was also assessed spectrophotometrically for malondialdehyde formation. Results Within the studied group, 21 patients were nonasthenozoospermic (sperm motility ≥ 50% and 34 patients were considered asthenozoospermic (sperm motility Conclusions Our results support the evidence that oxidative stress plays a key role in inducing DNA damage; but nuclear alterations and malondialdehyde don't seem to be synchronous.

  19. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  1. ICSI中不同来源精子对卵母细胞受精、胚胎质量及发育潜能的影响%Effect of spermatozoa from different sources on normal fertilization of oocytes and embryo quality and development in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢多; 邱卓琳; 罗琛; 褚庆军; 全松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of spermatozoa from different sources on normal fertilization of oocytes, embryo quality and embryo developmental potential in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted among 197 patients undergoing ICSI cycles in our center. The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the sources of semen, namely ejaculated spermatozoa group (n=102), percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) group (n=68), and testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) group (n=27). The ejaculated spermatozoa group was further classified into oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n=67) and cryptozoospermia (n=35) subgroups. The normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared among the groups; the rate of high-quality blastocyst formation in in-vitro culture of non-top quality embryos was also observed. Results The patients with PESA showed significantly higher normal fertilization rate (75.6%) than those in oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (64.8%), cryptozoospermia (62.1%), and TESA (61.6%) groups (P0.05). The rate of high-quality blastocyst formation in the in-vitro culture of non-top quality embryos was also comparable among the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Although spermatozoa obtained with by PESA is associated with a higher normal fertilization rate, the sources of spermatozoa do not significantly affect the embryonic quality and developmental potential in ICSI cycles.%目的:研究卵胞浆内单精子注射技术(ICSI)中不同来源精子对卵母细胞受精、胚胎质量及发育潜能的影响。方法回顾性分析我中心因单纯男性因素行ICSI助孕治疗的197例患者的临床资料,按不同精子来源分为射精组(n=102)、PESA组(n=68)、TESA组(n=27)3组,其中将射精组又分为严重少弱畸精子症组(n=67)和隐匿精子症组(n=35)。比较4组间受精率、优质胚胎

  2. Internal quality control of sperm concentrations in semen analysis: Establishment of a method%精液分析中精子浓度室内质量控制方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高选; 刘晓丹; 赵丽娟; 卢少明; 郑大伟; 马金龙

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立一种可行的精子浓度检测的室内质控方法.方法:设定20×106和80×106两种浓度的冷冻精液作为高、低值室内质控品(IQC),QC-BEADSTM质控珠(以下简称质控珠)作为对照.采用双盲法,4名技术员分别通过计算机辅助精液分析(CASA)对上述假定的室内质控品及质控珠进行精子浓度的测定,绘制出各自的质控图( Xbar图和Sbar图),连续检测1个月,计算出相应的高、低浓度值批内及批间变异系数(CV%),并进行比较.结果:①假定室内质控品高、低值批内变异系数分别CV3.5%,CV2.4%;批间分别为CV10.2%、CV9.6%.质控珠高、低值批内分别为CV5.1%,CV7.1%,批间分别CV7.1%,CV8.2%.两组高、低值的批内变异均<10%,批间变异均<15%,符合(Levey-Jennings)L-J质量控制原则,均能达到室内质控目的.②两组间高、低值的批内变异系数及批间变异系数无显著性差异(P>0.05),提示假定质控品可代替质控珠行实验室内部质量控制.结论:我们建立的精子浓度测定的室内质控方法是简单、易行、可靠.%Objective: To establish a method for internal quality control (IQC) of sperm concentration test in the laboratory. Methods: We set the concentrations of frozen semen at 20 x 106 and 80 x 106 as low and high concentrations of putative IQC products, with QC-BEADSTM quality control beads (QCBs) as the control. Using the double-blind method, four technicians determined the sperm concentrations of the IQC products and QCBs by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and drew a quality control chart (Xbar chart and Sbar chart) for each product. Through a month of continuous detection, we calculated and compared the intra- and inter-batch coefficients of variation (CV% ) of the quality control products of high and low concentrations. Results: The intra-batch coefficients of variation of the assumed IQC products of high and low concentrations were CV3.5% and CV2.4% , and

  3. Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2008-01-01

    The seminal fluid that accompanies sperm in ejaculates has been shown or suggested to affect sperm competition and paternity success of insects by preventing female remating, inducing oviposition, and forming mating plugs. In Atta leafcutter ants, queens have multiple mates but never remate later...... in life, although they may live and produce fertilized eggs for several decades. The mating biology and life history of these ants therefore suggests that the major function of seminal fluid is to maximize sperm viability during copulation, sperm transfer, and initial sperm storage. We tested...

  4. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

  5. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  6. Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Piña-Guzmán, Belem [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-UPIBI, D.F. (Mexico); Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M.J.; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet, E-mail: mquintan@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5 mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4 days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45 days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis–vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43–57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75 mg/kg/day/4 days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. - Highlights: • Methamidophos alters sperm cell function at different stages of spermatogenesis. • Testicular stages of spermatogenesis are more sensitive to

  7. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time...

  8. Sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step of fertilization is the sperm-egg interaction that allows the two gametes to fuse and create the zygote. In the mouse, CD9 on the egg and IZUMO1 on the sperm stand out as critical players, as Cd9(-/-) and Izumo1(-/-) mice are healthy but infertile or severely subfertile due to defective sperm-egg interaction. Moreover, work on several nonmammalian organisms has identified some of the most intriguing candidates implicated in sperm-egg interaction. Understanding of gamete membrane interactions is advancing through characterization of in vivo and in vitro fertilization phenotypes, including insights from less robust phenotypes that highlight potential supporting (albeit not absolutely essential) players. An emerging theme is that there are varied roles for gamete molecules that participate in sperm-egg interactions. Such roles include not only functioning as fusogens, or as adhesion molecules for the opposite gamete, but also functioning through interactions in cis with other proteins to regulate membrane order and functionality.

  9. Do increased levels of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin affects pregnancy outcome in long agonist protocol in fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of elevated levels of serum progesterone (P 4 and estradiol (E 2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and their cut-off value on in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes is still not clear. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the association between serum P 4 , E 2 and progesterone/estradiol ratio (P 4 /E 2 on pregnancy outcome in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles with long agonist protocol. Setting and Design: Retrospective, single center, cohort study. Materials and Methods: A review of complete data of 544 women undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (539 cycles with long agonist protocol from January 2012 to February 2014 was done. Data were stratified into Three groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved: low (≤4 oocytes obtained, intermediate (5-19 oocytes obtained, and high ovarian response (≥20 oocytes obtained. Statistical Analysis: Fishers exact test/Chi-square was carried for comparing categorical data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value for P 4 and P 4 /E 2 detrimental for pregnancy. Results: A negative association was observed between pregnancy rate (PR and serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 levels with no effect on fertilization and cleavage rate. The overall cut-off value of serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 ratio detrimental for pregnancy was found to be 1.075 and ≥0.35, respectively. Different P 4 threshold according to the ovarian responders were calculated, 1.075 for intermediate and 1.275 for high responders. Serum E 2 levels were not found to be significantly associated with PR. Conclusion: Serum P 4 levels and P 4 /E 2 ratio are a significant predictor for pregnancy outcome without affecting cleavage and fertilization rate while serum estradiol levels do not seem to affect PR.

  10. Semen quality in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Gunnar; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonde, Jens Peter; research team, INUENDO

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify semen quality in the Greenlandic population. Study design. A cross-sectional study including recently proven fertile men from four regions including nine municipalities and one settlement in Greenland. Methods. The samples were analysed for sperm cell concentrations and motility using standard methods. Results. In total 201 semen samples were collected. The median sperm cell concentration of fertile men in Greenland was 53 x106 sperm cells/ml, with a median sperm cell ...

  11. Sorting of Sperm by Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, James; Marcos, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have proven that the percentage of morphologically normal sperm is a significant factor in determining the success of assisted reproduction. The velocity of sperm in a microchannel with shear flow subjected to an external field will be explored theoretically. The difference in response between morphologically normal and abnormal sperm will be computed from a statistical approach, to study the feasibility and effectiveness of sorting by an external field to remove abnormal sperm. The full name of this author is Marcos.

  12. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Hardin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability.

  13. Changes in the structures of motile sperm subpopulations in dog spermatozoa after both cryopreservation and centrifugation on PureSperm(®) gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Alcaráz, L; Duarte, N; Portero, J M; Acha, D; Hidalgo, M

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if discrete motile sperm subpopulations exist and their incidence in fresh dog ejaculates, (2) evaluate the effects of cryopreservation on the distribution of spermatozoa within the different subpopulations, and (3) determine the effect of the discontinuous PureSperm(®) gradient on the sperm subpopulation structure of frozen-thawed dog spermatozoa. Semen from 5 dogs were collected and cryopreserved following a standard protocol. After thawing, semen samples were selected by centrifugation on PureSperm(®). Sperm motility (assessed by computerized-assisted semen analysis, CASA) was assessed before freezing, just after thawing and after preparation on the PureSperm(®) gradients. Cryopreservation had a significant (Psperm suspensions with improved motility (Psperm subpopulation structure was perfectly maintained after freezing and thawing. The selected sperm samples was enrich in Subpopulation 4, reaching a proportion of 31.9% of the present spermatozoa, in contrast with the unselected sperm samples, where this sperm subpopulation accounted for 24.9% of the total. From these results, we concluded that four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations were present either in fresh semen, in unselected sperm samples or in selected preparations from dogs. The discontinuous PureSperm(®) gradient is a simple method to improve the quality of canine frozen-thawed semen samples, since Subpopulation 4 (high-speed and progressive spermatozoa) was more frequently observed after preparation on the gradient. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the general motile sperm structure present in dog remains constant despite the effect caused by either cryopreservation or separation on PureSperm(®) gradient.

  14. Prognosis for sperm fertilizability: analysis of different variables in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Check, M L; Katsoff, D

    2002-01-01

    An overview of various sperm tests is presented. The standard semen analysis obtained by most clinicians evaluating infertility usually consists of sperm concentration, percent motility, quality of motility, and sperm morphology. Unfortunately, unless the motile density is extremely low, the count and motility are not good prognosticators of fertility potential. Values above the norm for normal fertile couples unfortunately cannot reliably predict normal fertility potential. It is important to find sperm tests that are easy to perform, are relatively inexpensive, and provide an accurate prognosis. Strict morphology was hoped to be such a tool with initial optimism that it was far superior to standard morphology. Unfortunately, this test also failed to be the ideal inexpensive prognostic test after further evaluation. One test that is inexpensive and highly correlates with fertilizability is the presence of antisperm antibodies since their presence frequently does not alter count, motility, or morphology. This test should be performed as part of the routine semen analysis. Other tests highly correlate with the achievement of pregnancy and are simple and inexpensive to perform, but, interestingly, do not correlate with fertilizability. These include the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and the sperm stress test. Abnormalities in these tests imply a different abnormality of sperm that leads to conception failure and that is the transfer of a toxic factor from the sperm to oocyte to embryo that prevents the embryo from implanting. Certainly, the simple, inexpensive HOST should be performed routinely. Other tests of sperm function, e.g., sperm penetration assay, sperm zona pellucida binding assay, and acrosome reaction, have their definite place in the evaluation of the infertile male. However, because they are expensive and difficulty to perform they lend themselves to certain specific circumstances but not to routine testing.

  15. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  16. Towards microfluidic sperm refinement : impedance-based analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, de B.; Dekker, S.; Boer, de H.L.; Bomer, J.G.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.; Segerink, L.I.

    2016-01-01

    The use of high quality semen for artificial insemination in the livestock industry is essential for successful outcome. Insemination using semen with a high number of sperm cells containing morphological defects has a negative impact on fertilization outcome. Therefore, semen with a high number of

  17. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan.

  18. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

      To determine the effect of straw size and thawing temperature on cryopreserved sperm quality of yamú (Brycon amazonicus), ovulation and spermiation were induced in sexually mature broodstock using Carp Pituitary Extract. Sperm quality was evaluated by motility, activation time and fertility. Sp...

  19. Effects of Chinese Herb Feed Additives on Sperm Quality and Reproductive Hormone of Boars%中草药复方制剂对公猪精液品质和生殖激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严迪华; 常争艳; 李锐; 肖湘; 陈志军; 李文平

    2012-01-01

    为了研究中草药复方制剂对公猪精液品质和生殖激素的影响,对27头精液品质相近的成年大约克种公猪饲喂不同剂量的中草药复方制剂,测定精液指标和血清生殖激素水平。结果表明:与对照组相比,2%低剂量组(试验Ⅰ组)的采精量、采精持续时间、精子密度,血清中促卵泡刺激素(FSH)、促黄体生成素(LH)和睾酮(T)含量差异显著(P〈0.05);与对照组相比,3%高剂量组(试验Ⅱ组)的采精持续时间、精子活力和血液中LH、T含量显著提高,采精量和血液中FSH含量差异极显著(P〈0.01);高、低剂量组的精子畸形率与对照组相比均有所降低。说明日粮中添加一定剂量中草药复方制剂可显著提高种公猪的精液品质,促进生殖激素的分泌。%In order to research the effects of Chinese herb feed additives on the sperm quality and repro- ductive hormone of boars, 27 Large White boars with similar quality of semen were fed different dose of Chinese herb feed additives and their semen index and level of reproductive hormone in serum were evalu- ated. The experiment results showed that compared with control group, the length of semen, collection time, fresh semen volume, sperm density, and the content of FSH, LH and T in the serum of pigs in the 2% low dose group were improved significantly ( P 〈 0.05), the serum of pigs in the 3 % high dose group had significant difference compared with the control group; fresh semen volume and the content of FSH in the serum of pigs in the high dose group had very significant difference compared with the control group( P 〈 0.01 ). And abnormal sperm rate of pigs in low dose group and high dose group compared with the control group were reduced. In conclution, Chinese herb feed additives was very important for boars to keep a good sperm quality.

  20. Factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Üstündag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.

  1. Challenges Affecting the Quality Service of the Tour Guide in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Heba Magdy

    2016-01-01

    The research spots the light on the challenges that face the Egyptian tour guide and could affect on his service quality. Several studies were previously done on these challenges in other countries; however, this study is considered the first to be done in Egypt. The researcher depended on interviews with members of the Egyptian tour-guiding Syndicate, travel agencies, and numbers of Tour-guides. Through these interviews certain challenges are detected: the poor payment, the role conflict bet...

  2. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Phungamngoen Chanthima; Asawajinda Tippunsa; Santad Rujira; Sawedboworn Wanticha

    2016-01-01

    Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range ...

  3. Does quality affect maize prices in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kadjo, Didier; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Alexander, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses household survey data from Benin to evaluate how grain quality affects maize prices in rural markets of sub-Saharan Africa. Stated preference methods reveal that a 10% increase in insect damage results in a 9% maize price discount. However, revealed preference results from farmers involved in past market transactions indicate that this discount is only 3 %. Evidence also suggests that this discount is larger in periods of maize abundance than in the lean periods when maize is ...

  4. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time...... as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires...... into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travellers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation in practice, and thus been part of developing a Danish industry of sperm banking. The presentation is based on a multi...

  5. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  6. [Readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect the quality of their summaries of a scientific article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuri; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect how they read texts. A previous study showed two types of readers' beliefs; one is a "transmission belief' which emphasizes the importance of understanding an author's intended meaning, while the other is a "transaction belief' which emphasizes the importance of reader-generated meaning. We expect that these beliefs also affect summarization, where readers need to effectively elicit important information from the text and reconstruct it. The present study examined how readers' beliefs were related to the quality of summaries they made for a scientific article. We used the followings as indicators of the quality of the summaries: how information from a scientific article was elicited and reconstructed, and to what extent the summaries were comprehensible. The results suggest that the stronger the transmission belief of a reader was, the less effectively the reader elicited and reconstructed information and the less comprehensible the summary was. Although it cannot reveal the relationships between the transaction belief and the quality of summaries, the present study suggests that readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect summarization.

  7. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  8. Effects of alcohol drinking on male sperm quality:a Meta analysis%饮酒对精液质量影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 曹博玲; 王海燕; 石修权

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨饮酒对男性精液质量具体指标的影响.方法:应用Meta分析方法对检索到的有关饮酒与男性精液质量的研究进行结果的综合定量分析.结果:共纳入6项研究对象为男性不育患者的对照研究,涉及精液的精子密度(sperm density,SD)、a+b级精子活力(sperm energy a+b,SEa+b)、精子畸形率(rate of teratospermia,RT)3个方面,经Meta分析,其合并效应值分别为均数差(mean difference,MD)MDsD=-1.81,95%可信区间(confidence interval,CI)=-4.68~1.06;MDSEA+b=-8.39,95%CI=-19.22~2.43,饮酒组与未饮酒组的SD与SEa+b差异无统计学意义;MDRT=7.20,95%CI=1.62~12.78,饮酒组与未饮酒组的RT差异有统计学意义(Z=2.53,P=0.01).结论:饮酒是男性不育的危险因素,其主要危害是增高RT.

  9. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

  10. Modification of spermatozoa quality in mature small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; de St Jorre, T Jorre; Al Mohsen, F A; Malecki, I A

    2011-01-01

    This review is based largely, but not entirely, on the assumption that gamete quality is directly linked to sperm output and thus testicular mass, an approach made necessary by the absence of a large body of data on factors that affect gamete quality in ruminants. On the other hand, there is a change in the efficiency of sperm production per gram of testicular tissue when the testis is growing or shrinking, a clear indicator of changes in the rates of cell loss during the process of spermatogenesis, probably through apoptosis. We therefore postulate that the spermatozoa that do survive when the testis is shrinking are of a lower quality than those that are produced when the testis is growing and the rate of sperm survival is increasing. In adult small ruminants in particular, testicular mass and sperm production are highly labile and can be manipulated by management of photoperiod (melatonin), nutrition, genetics and behaviour ('mating pressure'). Importantly, these factors do not act independently of each other - rather, the outcomes in terms of sperm production are dictated by interactions. It therefore seems likely that spermatozoa quality will be affected by these same factors, but definitive answers await detailed studies.

  11. p,p′-DDE activates CatSper and compromises human sperm function at environmentally relevant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Renata S.; Mansell, Steven; Barratt, Christopher L. R.; Wilson, Stuart M.; Publicover, Stephen J.; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the environmental endocrine disruptor p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) able to induce non-genomic changes in human sperm and consequently affect functional sperm parameters? SUMMARY ANSWER p,p′-DDE promoted Ca2+ flux into human sperm by activating CatSper channels even at doses found in human reproductive fluids, ultimately compromising sperm parameters important for fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY p,p′-DDE may promote non-genomic actions and interact di...

  12. Effects of Carnitine on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Males with Idiopathic Asthenospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Studies confirm that a number of nutritional and environmental factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and cause male infertility. Carnitine is an important factor for sperm motility. Carnitine deficiency decreases sperm motility and may cause male infertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of carnitine on sperm parameters in infertile males with idiopathic asthenospermia. Materials & Methods: This study is a before and after clinical trial performed on 40 asthenospermia men who were treated with 750 mg per/day carnitine in Fatemieh infertility research center in years 2006-2007. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS10 and paired T-test Results: The results showed a significant increase in sperm concentration, morphology, sperm total motility and rapid progressive motility after treatment by carnitine (p<0.05. Conclusion: Carnitine supplementation has a significant effect on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic asthenospermia.

  13. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H(2)O(2), 12.5 nM ZnCL(2), 0.001% H(2)O(2) + 12.5 nM ZnCL(2) or 0.9% NaCl(2) (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H(2)O(2), compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H(2)O(2) and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H(2)O(2) alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide.

  14. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesook Roh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  15. Microfluidic single sperm analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, de Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic technology has been occasionally used for in vitro analysis and separation of cells. The small dimensions of microfluidic chips are very suitable to study cells on the single cell level rather than in whole populations. Also sperm cells have been studied and manipulated using microfluid

  16. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Sanches

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%, five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C –min, nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  17. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  18. Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Maria J; Bilde, Trine; Uhl, Gabriele

    2013-12-07

    Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males if the gift signals male quality. We tested this hypothesis in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by quantifying the number of sperm stored in response to copulation with males with or without a nuptial gift, while experimentally controlling copulation duration. We further assessed the effect of gift presence and copulation duration on egg-hatching success in matings with uninterrupted copulations with gift-giving males. We show that females mated to gift-giving males stored more sperm and experienced 17% higher egg-hatching success, compared with those mated to no-gift males, despite matched copulation durations. Uninterrupted copulations resulted in both increased sperm storage and egg-hatching success. Our study confirms the prediction that the nuptial gift as a male signal is under positive sexual selection by females through cryptic sperm storage. In addition, the gift facilitates longer copulations and increased sperm transfer providing two different types of advantage to gift-giving in males.

  19. Experimental evidence that high levels of inbreeding depress sperm competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, S R K; Lindholm, A K; Evans, J P; Brooks, R C

    2009-06-01

    The effects of inbreeding on sperm quantity and quality are among the most dramatic examples of inbreeding depression. The extent to which inbreeding depression results in decreased fertilization success of a male's sperm, however, remains largely unknown. This task is made more difficult by the fact that other factors, such as cryptic female choice, male sperm allocation and mating order, can also drive patterns of paternity. Here, we use artificial insemination to eliminate these extraneous sources of variation and to measure the effects of inbreeding on the competitiveness of a male's sperm. We simultaneously inseminated female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) with equal amounts of sperm from an outbred (f = 0) male and either a highly (f = 0.59) or a moderately inbred (f = 0.25) male. Highly inbred males sired significantly fewer offspring than outbred males, but share of paternity did not differ between moderately inbred and outbred males. These findings therefore confirm that severe inbreeding can impair the competitiveness of sperm, but suggest that in the focal population inbreeding at order of a brother-sister mating does not reduce a male's sperm competitiveness.

  20. Effects of Environment Factors on Initiation of Sperm Motility in Sea Cucumber Apostichopusjaponicus (Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; SHAO Mingyu; BAO Zhenmin; HU Jingjie; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCI solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1 The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCI and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCI, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax,. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NsC1 solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCI solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  1. No inbreeding depression in sperm storage ability or offspring viability in Drosophila melanogaster females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Honkola, Outi; Manier, Mollie K; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M; Collins, William F; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Mating between relatives usually decreases genetic quality of progeny as deleterious recessive alleles are expressed in inbred individuals. Inbreeding degrades sperm traits but its effects on sperm storage and fate within females are currently unknown. We quantified the relationship between the degrees of inbreeding relevant to natural populations (f=0, 0.25 and 0.50) and the number of sperm inseminated and stored, sperm swimming speed, long-term sperm viability while in storage, pattern of sperm precedence, mating latency, and offspring viability of female Drosophila melanogaster. The use of transgenic flies that have either red or green fluorescent sperm heads allowed us to distinguish two ejaculates in the female reproductive tract and facilitated quantification of sperm storage and use traits. We found no inbreeding depression in either long- or short-term sperm storage ability. The most inbred females exhibited significantly longer mating latency, which could be explained by males preferring to mate with outbred females. On the other hand, as no evidence for cryptic male choice in the form of ejaculate tailoring of sperm number was found, the most inbred females might just be less eager to mate. We also found no evidence that the degree of maternal inbreeding influenced offspring viability. Comparison with a contemporaneous study of male inbreeding consequences for ejaculate quality suggests that inbreeding depression is more severe in males than in females in our study population.

  2. Effect of Astaxanthin on Human Sperm Capacitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bordin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR. Astaxanthin (Asta, a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC. Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC. Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells.

  3. An Experience Sampling Study of Expressing Affect, Daily Affective Well-Being, Relationship Quality and Perceived Performance

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have directly examined the processes through which workers use job resources, such as job control and social support, to regulate affect. We focused on affective expression, which is a specific form of affect regulation. We investigated the extent to which workers used both job control and social support to express affect. Thirty-nine call centre workers provided data up to four times a day over five consecutive working days (number of observations = 272). Executing job control to...

  4. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  5. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results. PMID:19087292

  6. Effect of dietary restriction on sperm characteristic and oxidative status on testicular tissue in young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydilek, N; Varisli, O; Kocyigit, A; Taskin, A; Kaya, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on oxidative status and sperm parameters in rats exposed to long-term heat stress. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2.5 month, were divided into four groups of 10 with respect to feeding and temperature regimen (room temperature (22 °C)-ad libitum, room temperature-dietary restriction (40%), high temperature (38 °C)-ad libitum, high temperature-dietary restriction). At the end of the 9th week, some oxidants (lipid hydroperoxide, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index) and antioxidants (total antioxidant status, sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities) were measured in the testis tissue. The concentration, motility, volume, abnormal sperm count, acrosome and membrane integrity of epididymal spermatozoon and intratesticular testosterone levels were evaluated. High temperature did not change oxidative and antioxidative parameters except for sulfhydryl groups and ceruloplasmin, yet it impaired all sperm values. Neither sperm values nor oxidative status apart from sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin and arylesterase was affected by dietary restriction in the testis tissue. These results suggest that long-term heat stress does not have a significant effect on testicular oxidative status, while the spermatozoa are sensitive to heat stress in young rats. Dietary restriction failed to improve the sperm quality and oxidative status except some individual antioxidant parameters; conversely, it decreased intratesticular testosterone level in the young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

  7. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  8. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05. Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009, high self-reported health (p < 0.002, and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04 had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health.

  9. Factors affecting the quality of sound recording for speech and voice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Morgan, Angela T

    2009-01-01

    The importance and utility of objective evidence-based measurement of the voice is well documented. Therefore, greater consideration needs to be given to the factors that influence the quality of voice and speech recordings. This manuscript aims to bring together the many features that affect acoustically acquired voice and speech. Specifically, the paper considers the practical requirements of individual speech acquisition configurations through examining issues relating to hardware, software and microphone selection, the impact of environmental noise, analogue to digital conversion and file format as well as the acoustic measures resulting from varying levels of signal integrity. The type of recording environment required by a user is often dictated by a variety of clinical and experimental needs, including: the acoustic measures being investigated; portability of equipment; an individual's budget; and the expertise of the user. As the quality of recorded signals is influenced by many factors, awareness of these issues is essential. This paper aims to highlight the importance of these methodological considerations to those previously uninitiated with voice and speech acoustics. With current technology, the highest quality recording would be made using a stand-alone hard disc recorder, an independent mixer to attenuate the incoming signal, and insulated wiring combined with a high quality microphone in an anechoic chamber or sound treated room.

  10. Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

    2012-12-01

    Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for.

  11. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  12. Quality of life domains affected in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, J G; Harris, S R; Klassen, A F

    2013-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is largely unknown, but evidence suggests that multiple QOL domains are affected by the disorder. While DCD is primarily considered a motor disorder, multiple studies have reported psychological and social concerns in children with this condition. Our primary aim was to present the current state of the evidence regarding the physical, psychological, and social QOL domains that can be affected in children with DCD. Systematic review of articles from seven databases through November 2010 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, CDSR, DARE) was conducted. Search terms included developmental coordination disorder, dyspraxia, quality of life, life satisfaction, well-being, activities of daily living, and participation. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Studies meeting the following criteria were selected: (1) sample comprised solely of individuals with coordination difficulties consistent with DCD; (2) outcome measures related to physical, psychological, or socials domains of QOL; and (3) articles published in English. Data were extracted by one author and verified by a second. Outcomes were categorized according to physical, psychological and social domains of QOL and study quality was rated by case definitions of DCD based on diagnostic criteria as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 4th edition. Forty-one articles were included. Most studies reported significantly poorer results in physical, psychological and social functioning in children with DCD compared with peers. Despite the impact of DCD on multiple domains, only one study used a QOL measure as an outcome. Although DCD impacts several QOL domains, the QOL of children with this disorder remains largely unknown. The next critical step is for clinicians and researchers to use QOL measures to gather information on how DCD may affect the QOL of children with this disorder.

  13. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  14. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters.

  15. Challenges Affecting the Quality Service of the Tour Guide in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Magdy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research spots the light on the challenges that face the Egyptian tour guide and could affect on his service quality. Several studies were previously done on these challenges in other countries; however, this study is considered the first to be done in Egypt. The researcher depended on interviews with members of the Egyptian tour-guiding Syndicate, travel agencies, and numbers of Tour-guides. Through these interviews certain challenges are detected: the poor payment, the role conflict between the tour leader and the tour-guide, the foreign labour, feeling not appreciated from the government, renewing the licence, creation of other tour-guiding jobs.

  16. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  17. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael L Eisenberg; Lata Murthy; Kathleen Hwang; Dolores J Lamb; Larry I Lipshultz

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations.While men bear the sex-determining chromosome,the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio.We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm.We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded.Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Ychromosomes/total chromosomes).Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters.A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH.For the entire cohort,the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%.Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02).After multivariable adjustment,a higher sperm concentration,total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01).As a man's sperm production declines,so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm.Thus,a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.

  18. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier delBarco-Trillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid. Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  19. Sperm swimming velocity predicts competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available Sperm competition is expected to favour the evolution of traits that influence the performance of sperm when they compete to fertilize a female's eggs. While there is considerable evidence that selection favours increases in sperm numbers, much less is known about how sperm quality contributes towards competitive fertilization success. Here, we determine whether variation in sperm quality influences competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, a highly promiscuous livebearing fish. We use artificial insemination as a method of controlled sperm delivery and show that sperm swimming velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization success when ejaculates from two males compete to fertilize a female's eggs. By contrast, we found no evidence that sperm length had any effect on siring success. We also found no evidence that pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits were phenotypically integrated in this species, suggesting that the previous observation that reproductive skew favours males with high mating rates is unlikely to be due to any direct association between sperm quality and male sexual ornamentation.

  20. Correlation between sperm quality and trace elements in infertile patients%不育症患者精液微量元素与精液质量之间的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑利平; 朱旭; 覃坚; 马南花; 罗开玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between semen trace elements and quality in infertile patients. Methods Zinc,I-ron, copper, calcium, magnesium, cadmium in seminal plasma and semen quality were detected for 103 healthy controls (control group) and 500 infertile patients(infertile group). The correlation between seminal level of trace elements and the parameters of semen routine test were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Seminal level of zinc in infertile group were significantly lower than control group,but levels of copper and cadmium were higher(P0. 05). Zinc level was positively correlated with sperm motility and density in infertile group(P0.05).不育组精浆钙、镁、铁含量与精液pH值呈负相关(P<0.05),锌含量与精子活率、精子密度呈正相关(P<0.05),镉含量与精子密度、精子活率、活跃精子密度呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 不育症患者精浆中微量元素含量与精液参数存在密切的相关性.

  1. Proteins involved in motility and sperm-egg interaction evolve more rapidly in mouse spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicens, Alberto; Lüke, Lena; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic studies of spermatozoa have identified a large catalog of integral sperm proteins. Rapid evolution of these proteins may underlie adaptive changes of sperm traits involved in different events leading to fertilization, although the selective forces underlying such rapid evolution are not well understood. A variety of selective forces may differentially affect several steps ending in fertilization, thus resulting in a compartmentalized adaptation of sperm proteins. Here we analyzed the evolution of genes associated to various events in the sperm's life, from sperm formation to sperm-egg interaction. Evolutionary analyses were performed on gene sequences from 17 mouse strains whose genomes have been sequenced. Four of these are derived from wild Mus musculus, M. domesticus, M. castaneus and M. spretus. We found a higher proportion of genes exhibiting a signature of positive selection among those related to sperm motility and sperm-egg interaction. Furthermore, sperm proteins involved in sperm-egg interaction exhibited accelerated evolution in comparison to those involved in other events. Thus, we identified a large set of candidate proteins for future comparative analyses of genotype-phenotype associations in spermatozoa of species subjected to different sexual selection pressures. Adaptive evolution of proteins involved in motility could be driven by sperm competition, since this selective force is known to increase the proportion of motile sperm and their swimming velocity. On the other hand, sperm proteins involved in gamete interaction could be coevolving with their egg partners through episodes of sexual selection or sexual conflict resulting in species-specific sperm-egg interactions and barriers preventing interspecies fertilization.

  2. Decline of semen quality and increase of leukocytes with cigarette smoking in infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Hong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous researches about the effect of smoking on semen quality are contradictory, and the mechanism behind the harmful effect of smoking on semen quality still remains unclear until today. Objective: The objectives of this study are evaluation of the relationship between smoking and fertility, investigation of the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and detection of presence of leukocytes within the semen of idiopathic infertile men from Northeastern China. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1512 infertile patients who visited affiliated hospitals of Jilin University from 2007-2010 were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned into one non-smoking and one smoking group which was divided into mild, moderate and heavy subgroups. Sperm parameters (including leukocytes and sperm morphology analysis were performed using standard techniques. Results: Compared with non-smokers, smokers had a significant decrease in semen volumes (p=0.006, rapid progressive motility (p=0.002 and sperm viability (p=0.019; moreover, smokers had a significant increase in the levels of immotile sperms (p=0.005 and semen leukocytes (p=0.002; pH and sperm concentration were not statistically significant (p=0.789 and p=0.297 respectively. Sperm motion parameters were all lower in the smokers except for beat-cross frequency (Hz (BCF. Further, the percentage of normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in smokers (p=0.003, the sperm morphology was worse with increasing degree of smoking. Conclusion: These findings suggest that smoking leads to a significant decline in semen quality and higher levels of leukocytes, thus smoking may affects the fertilization efficiency.

  3. Morphology, Structure of Dimorphic Sperm, and Reproduction in the Hermaphroditic Commensal Bivalve Pseudopythina tsurumaru (Galeommatoidea: Kellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse; Takahashi, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma......Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma...

  4. Turbulence of swarming sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.

  5. Ecological soil quality affected by land use and management on semi-arid Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Moraetis, D.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Hemerik, L.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-03-01

    Land use and soil management practice can have strong effects on soil quality, defined in terms of soil fertility, carbon sequestration and conservation of biodiversity. In this study, we investigate whether ecological soil quality parameters are adequate to assess soil quality under harsh conditions, and are able to reflect different land uses and intensities of soil management practices. We selected three sites as main representatives for the dominant types of land use in the region: an intensively cultivated olive orchard (annually tilled), an extensively used olive orchard (not tilled) and a heavily grazed pasture site in the Koiliaris catchment (Crete/Greece). Soil quality was analysed using an ecosystem approach, studying soil biological properties such as soil organism biomass and activity, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods, in connection to abiotic soil parameters, including soil organic matter contents, and soil aggregate stability. The intensively cultivated olive orchard had a much lower aggregate water stability than the extensive olive orchard and the pasture. Contents of soil organic C and N were higher in the extensively used olive orchard than in the intensively cultivated orchard, with intermediate concentrations in the pasture. This was mainly caused by the highest input of organic matter, combined with the lowest organic matter decomposition rate. Soil organism biomasses in all sites were relatively low compared to values reported from less harsh systems, while microarthropod richness was highest in the pasture compared to both the intensive and extensive olive orchards. From the present results we conclude that microarthropod taxonomic richness is a very useful indicator for ecological soil quality, because it is not only able to separate harsh sites from other systems, but it is also sensitive enough to show differences between land management practices under harsh conditions. Microbial biomass and especially microarthropod

  6. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  7. 金匮肾气丸对腺嘌呤致不育大鼠精子质量与肾脏功能的影响%Effect of Jinkui Shenqi Pill on Sperm Quality and Renal Function in Rats Adenine-induced Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 刘华剑; 南亚昀; 刘镘利; 王南丁; 陈艳秋; 王宗仁; 马静

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of Jinkui Shenqi Pill on sperm quality and renal function in rats with adenine-induced infertility. Method: Thirty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into Jinkui Shenqi Pill group, model group and control group. Sperm qualities of experimental rats were detected by automatic sperm quality analyzer, and contents of testosterone(T), estradiol( E2 ), luteinizing hormone(LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Contents of BUN and Scr were ested by automatic biochemical analyzer. Renal tissue was observed by optical microscope. Testis was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Result: Jinkui Shenqi Pill could significantly improve symptoms of Shen-yang deficiency in adenineinduced infertility rats, and it could improve the sperm quality, including sperm density, sperm motility and sperm activity. It could increase content of T obviously, lower contents of E2, LH and FSH, lower contents of BUN and Scr. And it can better the damaged kidney tissue in model rats. Conclusion: Jinkui Shenqi pill can improve sperm quality significantly and improve function of kidney. And the mechanism of improving sperm quality may be related to the increase in content of T by stimulating the interstitial cells and lowering level of E2.%目的:观察金匮肾气丸对腺嘌呤致雄性不育大鼠精子质量及肾功能的影响.方法:30只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分为空白组、模型组、金匮肾气丸组.应用自动精子质量分析仪检测实验大鼠的精子质量(精子密度、活率及活动度);应用放射免疫法测定血清睾酮(T)、雌二醇(E2)、促黄体激素(LH)和促卵泡激素(FSH)含量;自动生化分析仪分析血清尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Scr)含量;HE染色、光镜观察肾脏组织变化,透射电镜观察实验大鼠睾丸中精子鞭毛密度.结果:金匮肾气丸能明显增加大鼠精子密度、活率及活动度,提高大鼠血清T含量,降低E2,LH,FSH含

  8. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  9. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-11

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  10. Oocyte quality in mice is affected by a mycotoxin-contaminated diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Bo; Zheng, Wei-Jiang; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and aflatoxin (AF), are commonly found in many food commodities and may impair the growth and reproductive efficiency of animals and humans. We investigated the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on mouse oocyte quality. Maize contaminated with DON (3.875 mg/kg), ZEN (1,897 μg/kg), and AF (806 μg/kg) was incorporated into a mouse diet at three different levels (0, 15, and 30% w/w). After 4 weeks, ovarian and germinal vesicle oocyte indices decreased in mycotoxin-fed mice. Oocytes from these mice exhibited low developmental competence with reduced germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body extrusion rates. Embryo developmental competence also showed a similar pattern, and the majority of embryos could not develop to the morula stage. Actin expression was also reduced in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the actin nucleation factors profilin-1 and mDia1. Moreover, a large percentage of oocytes derived from mice that were fed a mycotoxin-contaminated diet exhibited aberrant spindle morphology, a loss of the cortical granule-free domain, and abnormal mitochondrial distributions, which further supported the decreased oocyte quality. Thus, our results demonstrate that mycotoxins are toxic to the mouse reproductive system by affecting oocyte quality.

  11. Factors Affecting the Quality and Quantity of Sleep in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbance is common in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery and has been recognized for more than 30 years. New literature suggests the importance of sleep and rest for restoration, protection and promotion of function and wellbeing of these patients. Because of the importance of the role of nurses in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, this study was conducted to determine possible effective factors on sleep quality and sleep quantity of patients after CABG. Methods: This longitudinal, descriptive and correlational study was conducted on 91 patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashad City in 2005-2006. Subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected by interview in three stages: 24 hours before surgery, as well as 6 weeks and 10 weeks after surgery. Subjective sleep quality was measured with PSQI and sleep quantity was measured with sleep log. The first two interviews were done at the hospital clinic and the last via telephone. Data was analyzed in SPSS using student T test, Pearson correlation coefficient and General Linear Model. Results: According to Univariable analysis, variables such as age (p=0.03, aorta clamp time (p=0.003, mechanical ventilation time (p=0.01, staying time in hospital (p=0.04 can affect sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. Previous history of sleep disorder (p=0.005, diabetes (p=0.02, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and ACEI drugs after surgery (p=0.01 can affect sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: Sleep disorder history (p=0.01, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and sleep quantity 6 weeks after surgery (p=0.01 have been the most effective factors on sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery, whereas quality of life 10 weeks after surgery (p=0.04 has been the most effective factor on sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. There is therefore a necessity for presenting approaches in order to

  12. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

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    Kuehnel Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness.

  13. Mecobalamin promotes mouse sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, S; Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Tajima, T; Kaneko, S; Mohri, H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Mecobalamin (alpha-(5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl)-Co-methyl-cobamide: Me-B 12) on sperm production in the oligozoospermic mice experimentally induced by the treatment with adriamycin (0.3 mg/kg, three times a week for 5 weeks) was evaluated quantitatively by means of equilibrium sedimentation in Percoll. After centrifugation, the distribution profile of the sperm showed two peaks, i.e. the first peak near the bottom consisting of mature sperm with good motility and the second peak containing immature and/or immotile sperm. By oral administration of Me B 12 (1.0 mg/kg/day) to the oligozoospermic mice for 10 weeks, the sperm count, sperm motility, motile sperm count, diameter of seminiferous tubules and the percentage of good motile sperm with higher apparent density were increased as compared with those of the control. These results suggest that Me-B 12 enhanced the testicular function, resulting in an increased output of mature sperm.

  14. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  15. Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Santiago-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition may be an important evolutionary force affecting many reproductive traits, including sperm morphometrics. Environmental factors such as pollutants, pesticides, and climate change may affect different sperm traits, and thus reproduction, in sensitive bird species. Many sperm-handling processes used in assisted reproductive techniques may also affect the size of sperm cells. The accurately measured dimensions of sperm cell structures (especially the head can thus be used as indicators of environmental influences, in improving our understanding of reproductive and evolutionary strategies, and for optimizing assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., sperm cryopreservation for use with birds. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph provides an accurate and reliable method for assessing sperm morphometry, reducing the problem of subjectivity associated with human visual assessment. Computerized systems have been standardized for use with semen from different mammalian species. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. The present review discusses these points and describes the sperm morphometric characteristics of several wild and domestic bird species.

  16. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  17. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  18. Interactions between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants affect human semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, L J S; Lundberg, P J; Spanò, M;

    2014-01-01

    variants significantly modified the association between serum levels of both p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and inhibin B levels, sperm chromatin integrity, and seminal zinc levels. In the total cohort, interactions between AHRR variants and serum levels of CB-153 were associated with sperm chromatin integrity...

  19. Evaluation of factors affecting the diet quality of patients with orthodontic malocclusion

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    Nehir Canıgür Bavbek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess factors which may contribute to the diet quality of adolescents with orthodontic malocclusion. MATERIALS and METHOD: Demographic and dietary data of 46 girls and 30 boys (mean age 11.4 ± 1.4 years, with good oral and systemic health were obtained. Data were evaluated in relation to skeletal growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, overbite, number of posterior functional tooth units (PFTU and parental education level. Dietary intake was measured by using 24-hour dietary recall method, and diet quality was assessed by using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated by using the Nutrition Information System (BeBiS program. Intergroup comparisons were performed by using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Maternal education level affected the total HEI (p = 0.002, total fruit (p = 0.007, whole fruit (p = 0.018 and refined grains (p = 0.044 scores. Skeletal growth patterns, malocclusions, overjet and overbite did not alter the diet quality. Overbite was positively correlated with energy (r = 0.297, p = 0.009, carbohydrate (r = 0.238, p = 0.039 and protein (r = 0.305, p = 0.007 intake. Overjet was positively correlated with greens and beans scores (r = 0.238, p = 0.038. PFTU was positively correlated with the body mass index (r = 0.327, p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: From a clinical perspective, malocclusion may not have a significant impact on the nutritional habits of adolescents. Maternal educational level, however, was found to be the main determinant for the diet quality during adolescence.

  20. Power quality affects teacher wellbeing and student behavior in three Minnesota Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havas, Magda [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: mhavas@trentu.ca; Olstad, Angela [Melrose-Mindoro Elementary School, N181 State Road 108, Melrose WI, USA 54642 (United States)], E-mail: olstad@mel-min.k12.wi.us

    2008-09-01

    Background: Poor power quality (dirty electricity) is ubiquitous especially in schools with fluorescent lights and computers. Previous studies have shown a relationship between power quality and student behavior/teacher health. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of power line filters to reduce dirty electricity in a school environment and to document changes in health and behavior among teachers and students. Method: We installed Graham Stetzer filters and dummy filters and measured power quality in three Minnesota Schools. Teachers completed a daily questionnaire regarding their health and the behavior of their students for an 8-week period. Teachers were unaware of which filters were installed at any one time (single blind study). Results: Dirty electricity was reduced by more than 90% in the three schools and during this period teacher health improved as did student behavior in the middle/elementary schools. Headaches, general weakness, dry eyes/mouth, facial flushing, asthma, skin irritations, overall mood including depression and anxiety improved significantly among staff. Of the 44 teachers who participated 64% were better, 30% were worse, and 6% did not change. Behavior of high school students did not improve but elementary/middle school students were more active in class; more responsive, more focused; had fewer health complaints; and had a better overall learning experience. Conclusions: Dirty electricity in schools may be adversely affecting wellbeing of teachers and behavior of their students, especially younger students in middle and elementary school. Power line filters improve power quality and may also protect those who are sensitive to this energy. Work on electric and magnetic field metrics with and without Stetzer filters urgently needs to be carried out to determine just what characteristics of the dirty electricity may be interacting with the people.

  1. BMI in relation to sperm count : an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermondade, N.; Faure, C.; Fezeu, L.; Shayeb, A. G.; Bonde, J. P.; Jensen, T. K.; Van Wely, M.; Cao, J.; Martini, A. C.; Eskandar, M.; Chavarro, J. E.; Koloszar, S.; Twigt, J. M.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Borges, E.; Lotti, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.; Zorn, B.; Polotsky, A. J.; La Vignera, S.; Eskenazi, B.; Tremellen, K.; Magnusdottir, E. V.; Fejes, I.; Hercberg, S.; Levy, R.; Czernichow, S.

    2013-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis

  2. Patients' perspectives on how idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis affects the quality of their lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould Michael K

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a debilitating lung disease with a survival of only three to five years from the time of diagnosis. Due to a paucity of studies, large gaps remain in our understanding of how IPF affects the quality of patients' lives. In only one other study did investigators ask patients directly for their perspectives on this topic. Further, currently there is no disease-specific instrument to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with IPF. A carefully constructed measurement instrument, sensitive to underlying change, is needed for use in clinical trials and longitudinal studies of patients with IPF. Before developing such an instrument, researchers must improve their understanding of the relevant effects of IPF on patients' lives. On a broader scale, to provide the best care for people with IPF, clinicians must appreciate – from patients' perspectives – how this disease affects various aspects of their lives. Methods We used focus groups and individual in-depth interviews with 20 IPF patients to collect their perspectives on how IPF affects their lives (with a focus on the quality of their lives. We then analyzed these perspectives and organized them into a conceptual framework for describing HRQL in patients with IPF. Next, we examined how well certain existing measurement instruments – which have been administered to IPF patients in prior studies – covered the domains and topics our patients identified. Results In our framework, we identified 12 primary domains: symptoms, IPF therapy, sleep, exhaustion, forethought, employment and finances, dependence, family, sexual relations, social participation, mental and spiritual well-being, mortality. Each domain is composed of several topics, which describe how IPF affects patients' lives. When we compared the content of our conceptual framework with the existing instruments, we found the coverage of the existing instruments to

  3. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  4. Age and Comorbidities Affect Quality of Life in Patients With Osteoarthrtitis and Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cuadros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial, disabling and degenerative disease that worsens with age and affects patient’s health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Objectives The current study aimed to assess if age and comorbidities have an influence on knee OA and knee replacement outcome before and after the surgery. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was conducted on a sample of 125 patients with knee osteoarthritis and designed to assess total knee arthroplasty (TKA outcomes before and after the surgery. One orthopedic surgeon performed all surgeries with the same type of joint prosthesis from 2008 to 2012. The HRQOL was assessed by the short form (36 health survey (SF-36 questionnaire. Results It was observed that knee osteoarthritis significantly affects all the dimensions of HRQOL before the surgery included in the SF-36 questionnaire and a clinical improvement observed after the intervention with total knee arthroplasty. Age influenced bodily pain (P = 0.012 and vitality (P = 0.002 in knee osteoarthritis (before the intervention, and on physical (P = 0.040 and mental health components (P = 0.002, after total knee arthroplasty. Previous arthroplasties and comorbidities had no effect on knee OA. However, previous total knee/hip arthroplasty were associated with the improvement in physical functioning (P = 0.021 after the TKA; comorbidities influenced the dimension of mental health (MH (P = 0.036 after the surgery. Conclusions Total knee arthroplasty is justified according to the perception of clinical improvement and the improvement in the dimensions of HRQOL reported by the patients. Age affects knee osteoarthritis and TKA outcomes. Comorbidities have no influence on knee OA, but affect mental health after the intervention.

  5. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection.

  6. Cryptic female choice via sperm dumping favours male copulatory courtship in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, A V; Eberhard, W G

    2010-02-01

    Males of many animals perform 'copulatory courtship' during copulation, but the possible reproductive significance of this behaviour has seldom been investigated. In some animals, including the spider Physocyclus globosus (Pholcidae), the female discards sperm during or immediately following some copulations. In this study, we determined which of several variables associated with copulation correlated with paternity success in P. globosus when two males mate with a single female. Then, by determining which of these variables also correlated with sperm dumping, we inferred which variables may affect paternity via the mechanism of sperm dumping. Male abdomen vibration (a copulatory courtship behaviour) and male genitalic squeezing both correlated with both paternity and sperm dumping; so, these traits may be favoured by biased sperm dumping. Biased sperm dumping may also be the mechanism by which possible cryptic female choice favours another male trait that was the subject of a previous study, responsiveness to female stridulation.

  7. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS.

  8. Mental health affects the quality of life and recovery after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa Renee; Paulson, Daniel; Eshelman, Anne; Bugenski, Mary; Brown, Kimberly A; Moonka, Dilip; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    There has been little research examining the effects of mental health before liver transplantation on quality of life (QOL) and recovery after transplantation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine how pretransplant depression and anxiety affect mental health, QOL, and recovery after transplantation. Eighty-two transplant recipients provided data when they were listed for transplantation and 6 months after transplantation. Pretransplant anxiety predicted posttransplant anxiety (P Mental Health, as well as the Mental Health Composite Score (P Health, Vitality, and Social Functioning, as well as the Physical Composite Score (P recovery 6 months after transplantation (P recovery (P = 0.09). These findings highlight the importance of evaluating transplant candidates both before and after transplantation for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Once patients with these symptoms are identified, they can be referred for treatment, which may lead to better posttransplant outcomes for mental health, QOL, and recovery.

  9. Sperm recovery and IVF after testicular sperm extraction (TESE: effect of male diagnosis and use of off-site surgical centers on sperm recovery and IVF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Omurtag

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine whether testicular sperm extractions and pregnancy outcomes are influenced by male and female infertility diagnoses, location of surgical center and time to cryopreservation. PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty men undergoing testicular sperm extraction and 76 couples undergoing 123 in vitro fertilization cycles with testicular sperm. OUTCOME MEASURES: Successful sperm recovery defined as 1-2 sperm/0.5 mL by diagnosis including obstructive azoospermia (n = 60, non-obstructive azoospermia (n = 39, cancer (n = 14, paralysis (n = 7 and other (n = 10. Obstructive azoospermia was analyzed as congenital absence of the vas deferens (n = 22, vasectomy or failed vasectomy reversal (n = 37 and "other"(n = 1. Sperm recovery was also evaluated by surgical site including infertility clinic (n = 54, hospital operating room (n = 67 and physician's office (n = 11. Treatment cycles were evaluated for number of oocytes, fertilization, embryo quality, implantation rate and clinical/ongoing pregnancies as related to male diagnosis, female diagnosis, and use of fresh or cryopreserved testicular sperm. RESULTS: Testicular sperm recovery from azoospermic males with all diagnoses was high (70 to 100% except non-obstructive azoospermia (31% and was not influenced by distance from surgical center to laboratory. Following in vitro fertilization, rate of fertilization was significantly lower with non-obstructive azoospermia (43%, p = <0.0001 compared to other male diagnoses (66%, p = <0.0001, 59% p = 0.015. No differences were noted in clinical pregnancy rate by male diagnosis; however, the delivery rate per cycle was significantly higher with obstructive azoospermia (38% p = 0.0371 compared