Clinical study of the factors affecting radioulnar deviation of the wrist joint
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Kanavaros Panagiotis
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The radioulnar carpal joint is critical for hand and wrist function. Radioulnar deviation indicates distal radioulnar joint flexibility and reflects the structure and function of the carpal bones, ulna, radius and ligaments. The present study examined whether radioulnar deviation is affected by gender, manual labor, playing a musical instrument, playing sport, handedness, previous fracture or prior inflammation. The study used clinical findings based on anatomical landmarks Methods The ulnar, radial and total deviations for both left and right hands were measured in 300 subjects (157 men and 143 women of mean age 21.7 years. Measurements were made with the forearm in a fixed pronated position using a novel specially designed goniometer. The gender of each subject was recorded, and information on playing of sport, playing a musical instrument, manual labor, handedness, and history of fracture or inflammation was sought. Data were analyzed using a multifactor ANOVA test. Results No statistically significant difference (p-value > 0.05 was found between those comparing groups except the total deviation of athletes' left hand versus the total deviation of non athletes' left hand (p-value 0.041 Conclusions This study was based on clinical findings using anatomical landmarks. We found that manual workers and athletes showed greater left hand flexibility. This suggests that activities that place chronic stress on the radiocarpal joint can independently affect radioulnar deviation.
Distal radioulnar joint injuries.
Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran
2012-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140
Distal radioulnar joint injuries
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Binu P Thomas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.
Congenital radioulnar synostosis – case report
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Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a rare malformation of the upper limb, with functional limitations of the limb. A 10-year-old child with pain and restricted mobility of the elbow joint was admitted to the hospital. Plain film radiography and CT examination was performed. Radiological examinations showed a congenital radioulnar synostosis. The child underwent surgical treatment – derotational osteotomy. Diagnostic imaging including computed tomography with three-dimentional (3D) reconstructions, preceding surgery enables planning of the surgical treatment
The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis
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Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
2010-01-15
Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies
The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies can occur in the same patient. Furthermore
Surgical outcome of delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis
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Garg Gaurav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Presentation of proximal radioulnar synostosis varies from cosmetic concerns with no functional limitations to significant pronation deformity which hampers activities of daily living. Surgical management must be considered based on the position of the forearm and functional limitations. We describe the surgical technique, results, and complications of excision of the radial head along with the proximal radius up to the distal extent of the synostosis site and securing the osteotomized radial shaft with a tensor fascia lata graft. Materials and methods: Four patients having six affected elbows with delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis with dislocated radial head managed surgically were included in the study. There were three males and one female with an average age of 20.25 years (ranging from 16 to 25 years. Preoperatively wrists were locked in the mean pronation position of 51.6° (ranging from 30° to 70°. The indications for surgery were limitation in activities of daily living and an obvious cosmetic deformity. Results: All patients were satisfied with the surgery and showed significant improvement in functional status. Mean active supination was 15° (ranging from 5 to 32° with passive supination was a mean of 24.8° (ranging from 11° to 44°. Similarly, mean active pronation was 58.5° (ranging from 50° to 71° with further passive correction up to a mean of 64.16° (ranging from 57° to 87° at last follow up. Conclusions: This procedure is simple, cost effective, and a reasonable option for treatment of proximal radioulnar synostosis with a dislocated radial head in adult patients. The operation does not require any specialized team or implants, and can be performed in a moderately equipped hospital.
Simultaneous dislocation of radiocapitellar and distal radioulnar joint.
Nishi, Tomio; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Tani, Takayuki; Aonuma, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained. PMID:24194995
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
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Tomio Nishi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained.
Idiopathic synovial chondromatosis in two unusual sites: Inferior radioulnar joint and ischial bursa
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Synovial chondromatosis is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by multiple calcific bodies in the vicinity of the affected joint. It is most commonly seen in the knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder. We describe three cases of synovial chondromatosis in two extremely uncommon sites, the inferior radioulnar joint and the ischial bursa, and review the literature on the subject. The characteristic radiographic appearance, even if in an uncommon location, should prompt the radiologist to suggest the correct diagnosis preoperatively. (orig.)
Locked volar distal radioulnar joint dislocation
Bouri, Fadi; Fuad, Mazhar; Elsayed Abdolenour, Ayman
2016-01-01
Introduction Volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint is a rare injury which is commonly missed in the emergency departments. A thorough review of literature showed very few reported cases and the cause for irreducibility varied in different cases, Lack of suspicion and improper X-ray can delay the diagnosis. Case presentation Our article discusses a case 40 year old construction worker, who presented to the Emergency with work-related injury, complaining of left wrist pain, deformity and inability to rotate his forearm. X-rays revealed a volar dislocation of distal ulna which was reducible after manipulation under General Anesthesia (GA). The joint was stable after the reduction. Discussion Isolated dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint can be either volar or dorsal, although dorsal dislocation is more common. The distal radioulnar articulation plays an important role in the rotational movement of the forearm. It allows pronation and supination which are essential for the function of the upper limb. Pronator Quadratus muscle spasm is an important blockade to reduction and was preventing reduction in this case. Methods The work has been reported in line with the CARE criteria [9]. Conclusion Volar locked dislocation of Distal Radio ulnar joint is a rare injury. High degree of clinical suspicion and proper X-ray is required for prompt detection. The importance of this case is to raise the awareness among physicians in treating these kind of injuries by careful assessment of the patient and radiographs, and to consider pronator quadratus as an important cause for the blockade to reduction. PMID:27016647
Criteria for diagnosing distal radioulnar joint subluxation by computed tomography
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Nakamura, Ryogo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Horii, Emiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Imaeda, Toshihiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Nakao, Etsuhiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan)
1996-10-01
Bilateral wrist computed tomography (CT) was performed in 30 patients with suspected unilateral distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) subluxation to evaluate dynamic DRUJ CT scanning with a straight elbow. Five CT criteria for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation were examined. Maximum active supination and pronation on a conventional scanning table yielded satisfactory rotation (mean{+-}SD, 119 {+-}29 ) at the DRUJ, thus permitting a dynamic diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. The radioulnar line method and the congruity method frequently yielded false positive results compared with bilateral diagnosis and were unreliable. Modifications of these two methods achieved sensitivity and specificity comparable to the epicenter method. We recommend the modified radioulnar line method for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation using unilateral CT because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of technique. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
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Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects
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Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.
Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.
Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles. (orig.)
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
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Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months. Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to minister the disabilities of the armshoulder and hand (DASH, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE, and visual analogue scale (VAS, and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median followup time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months. Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Smith, Gary
2015-01-01
Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec
Clinical and X-ray investigations on congenital radio-ulnar synostosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Out of 13 patients with cogenital radio-ulnar synostosis, 10 could be subjected to clinical and X-ray examination and chromosome analysis. In all the family histories the radio-ulnar synostosis was an isolated event. In no case was definite heredity of the same malformation confirmed. In most cases the radio-ulnar synostosis was an isolated malformation. 7 patients were of female, 6 of male sex. In 5 cases the synostosis was bi-lateral, in 8 cases it was unilateral without preference of either side of the body. In 2 out of 10 patients subjected to chromosome analysis gonosomal aneuploidy was found. More often than hitherto supposed, radio-ulnar synostosis seems to be associated with lower forms of polysomia of the x-chromosomes. 15 out of 18 synostoses belonged to type II, 3 to type I. The different types represent merely differring degrees of manifestation of the same deformity occurring bilaterally in one person. All patients with radio-ulnar synostosis exhibited a high degree of functional tolerance to the malformation. The development in child age and the educational and professional record were hardly impaired. (orig./MG)
Chronic desmitis and enthesiophytosis of the radio-ulnar interosseous ligament in a dog.
Deffontaines, Jean-Baptiste; Lussier, Bertrand; Bolliger, Christian; Bédard, Agathe; Doré, Monique; Blevins, William E
2016-05-01
A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was presented for chronic right forelimb lameness associated with a painful swelling at the lateral aspect of the proximal ulna. Proximal ulnar ostectomy and stabilization resulted in a good clinical outcome. The proposed diagnosis is chronic desmitis and enthesiophytosis of the radio-ulnar interosseous ligament. PMID:27152034
Understanding stability of the distal radioulnar joint through an understanding of its anatomy.
Hagert, Elisabet; Hagert, Carl-Göran
2010-11-01
The authors describe the anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and delineate the importance of viewing this joint as part of the whole forearm. The osseous congruity and ligamentous integrity is of essence for the stability of the DRUJ, according to the principles of tensegrity. The neuromuscular control and possible proprioceptive function of the DRUJ are also outlined. PMID:20951895
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is observational prospective study type series of cases that shows the experience of the group of surgery of hand of the Central Military Hospital between January of 1998 and Julio the 2003. 65 patients were included like surgery of salvage of the articulation radioulnar distal in different traumatic and degenerative pathologies, comparing the results with those published in the world literature. According to the modified functional scale of May this procedure showed excellent and good results in 90% of the patients. They recovered the lost function and improved the function of the distal radioulnar joint, returning to their activities of the daily life. This technique is recommended as a sure and efficient procedure, because the patients present a remarkable improvement in its quality of life and they can return to its labor activity, these results correlated with the results of the published literature
Congenital radioulnar synostosis: A report of 11 cases and review of literature
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Farzan M
2002-06-01
Full Text Available During the last 10 years, we have had 11 cases of radioulnar (RU synostosis, a very rare congenital amomaly of the upper extremity. Only 3 of them required surgical intervention. So we evaluated these three cases of proximal radioulnar synostosis corrected by proximal derotational osteotomy. The indication for surgery was severe pronation deformity that caused functional problem. Mean age at the time of surgery was 4.5 years (3-6 years and mean postoperative follow up was 3.5 years(1-5 years. Forearm position after surgery was 15 supination. Anesthetic and functional results in all patients were good. In only one patient it was complicated by impending compartment syndrome that was treated by conservative measures. We recommend derotational osteotomay for correcting RU synostosis in earlier age.
Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation
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Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.)
Objective Outcomes Following Semi-Constrained Total Distal Radioulnar Joint Arthroplasty
Bizimungu, Remy S.; Dodds, Seth D.
2013-01-01
A dysfunctional distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) can significantly compromise an individual's forearm rotation, grip, and weight bearing at the hand and wrist. This retrospective study reports surgeon- and therapist-collected objective wrist function and subjective pain scores of 10 patients who received the Scheker total DRUJ prosthesis. A review of these patients' medical records was performed to collect preoperative measurements of wrist range of motion (ROM), grip strength, and pain scores ...
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
Tomio Nishi; Noriyuki Suzuki; Takayuki Tani; Hiroshi Aonuma
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal si...
Marquardt, Tamara L; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Li, Zong-Ming
2016-07-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the carpal arch and median nerve during the application of radiounlarly directed compressive force across the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Radioulnar compressive forces of 10 N and 20 N were applied at the distal level of the carpal tunnel in 10 female patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. Immediately prior to force application and after 3 min of application, ultrasound images of the distal carpal tunnel were obtained. It was found that applying force across the wrist decreased the carpal arch width (p 1234-1240, 2016. PMID:26662276
Ulnar sided wrist pain and distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis; is surgical arthroplasty enough?
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Ronit Wollstein
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ arthritis is a common cause of ulnar wrist pain in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Modified arthroplasty for the DRUJ is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of isolated DRUJ osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure and the incidence of related ulnar wrist pathology as well as the incidence of subsequent ulnar wrist surgeries. All patients having modified arthroplasty for the DRUJ between 1994-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements included range of motion, grip strength, and subjective status. Data regarding other wrist surgeries was recorded. There were 29 patients, 23 of which had a follow-up of over 8 weeks (average 16 months (SD=24. Fourteen patients had no to minimal pain, 6 had pain with heavier activities (2 severe, and 2 reported constant pain at the surgical site. Of the 4 more painful patients, three had additional surgery after the DRUJ arthroplasty. In all 96% of the patients had another procedure involving the ulnar- wrist complex either prior to surgery, at the time of surgery or following surgery for modified arthroplasty. We suggest that pathology involving the ulnar-wrist complex is often a syndrome consisting of multiple related diagnoses including but not limited to arthritis of the DRUJ. Multiple procedures may be needed, or a more aggressive approach such as ulnar head replacement may be indicated so that pathology at both the distal radioulnar and ulnocarpal joints is addressed concomitantly.
Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Jae Won; Choy, Won Sik
2016-04-01
In cases of chronic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability without DRUJ arthritis, reconstruction of the mechanical integrity of the radioulnar ligaments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex has been considered an ideal surgical treatment. However, reconstructive methods have several disadvantages.We evaluated volar stabilization of the DRUJ for chronic instability using the pronator quadratus (PQ) to determine whether it provided (1) proper stability, (2) restored wrist function, (3) was relatively convenient, and (4) was associated with a low complication rate. Altogether, 21 patients with chronic DRUJ instability (12 men, 9 women) with a mean age of 34 years (range, 17-65 years) were enrolled in the study. The diagnostic criteria were as follows: 3 months after the injury, greater than 8 mm of palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius, there was a lack of clear end point resistance compared with the contralateral side, and nonstressed computed tomographic scans provided supporting evidence. Follow-up was at least 12 months (range, 12-38 months). Palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius was decreased significantly from 10 to 4 mm (P = 0.028) and epicenter was increased significantly at the last follow-up [P = 0.015/0.026 (70 degrees of supination/neutral, respectively)]. Wrist range of motion was not significantly different, but grip strength had increased from 72% to 91%. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand and patient-rated wrist evaluation were also decreased compared with preoperative measurements [34.4 to 12.5/42.7 to 14.7 (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand/patient-rated wrist evaluation, respectively)]. Pronator quadratus advancement volar stabilization provided proper stability, restored wrist function, was relatively convenient, and was associated with few complications. Our experience indicates that it is an acceptable, effective treatment option to reverse DRUJ instability in patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela
This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm...... survival? The analysis is based on a matched employer-employee dataset and covers about 17,500 startups in manufacturing and services. We adopt a new procedure to estimate individual benchmarks for the quantity and quality of initial human resources, acknowledging correlations between hiring decisions......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...
Niihori, Tetsuya; Ouchi-Uchiyama, Meri; Sasahara, Yoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Irie, Masahiro; Sato, Atsushi; Saito-Nanjo, Yuka; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Kure, Shigeo; Matsubara, Yoichi; Imaizumi, Masue; Aoki, Yoko
2015-12-01
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by thrombocytopenia and congenital fusion of the radius and ulna. A heterozygous HOXA11 mutation has been identified in two unrelated families as a cause of RUSAT. However, HOXA11 mutations are absent in a number of individuals with RUSAT, which suggests that other genetic loci contribute to RUSAT. In the current study, we performed whole exome sequencing in an individual with RUSAT and her healthy parents and identified a de novo missense mutation in MECOM, encoding EVI1, in the individual with RUSAT. Subsequent analysis of MECOM in two other individuals with RUSAT revealed two additional missense mutations. These three mutations were clustered within the 8(th) zinc finger motif of the C-terminal zinc finger domain of EVI1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and qPCR assays of the regions harboring the ETS-like motif that is known as an EVI1 binding site showed a reduction in immunoprecipitated DNA for two EVI1 mutants compared with wild-type EVI1. Furthermore, reporter assays showed that MECOM mutations led to alterations in both AP-1- and TGF-β-mediated transcriptional responses. These functional assays suggest that transcriptional dysregulation by mutant EVI1 could be associated with the development of RUSAT. We report missense mutations in MECOM resulting in a Mendelian disorder that provide compelling evidence for the critical role of EVI1 in normal hematopoiesis and in the development of forelimbs and fingers in humans. PMID:26581901
Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong
2016-01-01
Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286
A Process Deviation Analysis Framework
Depaire, Benoit; Swinnen, Jo; Jans, Mieke; Vanhoof, Koen
2013-01-01
Process deviation analysis is becoming increasingly important for companies. This paper presents a framework which structures the field of process deviation analysis and identies new research opportunities. Application of the framework starts from managerial questions which relate to specific deviation categories and methodological steps. Finally a general outline to detect high-level process deviations is formulated.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.;
2011-01-01
the 10 hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The...... overlap of automated segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and...... overlap concordance index and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0...
A robust standard deviation control chart
Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse disturbances, that is, outliers spread over the subgroups, or localized disturbances, which affect an entire subgroup. In this article, we compare various robust standard deviation estimators and propos...
创伤性桡尺远侧关节背侧半脱位的治疗%Treatment of traumatic dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李岩峰; 蔡培华; 陆叶; 詹玉林; 范存义
2015-01-01
Objective To explore a treatment protocol for acute and chronic traumatic dorsal subluxation of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and report the preliminary clinical results.Methods From August 2010 to June 2014, 28 patients with traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation and without fractures were included in our standardized treatment protocol.First, a course of conservative treatment was applied to immobilize the affected limb at forearm supination and 90°elbow flexion with an above elbow plaster for 6 weeks after manual reduction of the DRUJ.Patients with no symptom relief in 2 months after plaster removal were regarded as non-responsive and were subject to surgical reinforcement of dorsal radioulnar ligament.The flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was split in the middle.The radial half was transversely divided 5 to 7 cm proximal to the pisiform bone, tunneled through the ulnar head in a volar-ulnar oblique to dorsal-radial direction, and then fixed over dorsal-ulnar side of the radius with 2 anchors.The extremity was then immobilized in an above elbow plaster with forearm in supination position for 4 weeks, followed by a short arm cast for another 4 weeks.Results The average follow-up time for all 28 patients was 2.5 years (range, 7 months to 4.2 years).A functional evaluation was performed with modified Mayo wrist scoring system.The effective rate of conservative treatment was 85.7％ for the 14 cases with less than 3 week post-injury interval and 28.6％ for the 14 cases with longer than 3 week post-injury interval.The effective rate of 12 cases that underwent surgical treatment was 83.3％.Conclusion Early diagnosis and early treatment for traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation is very important.Conservative treatment is less effective in cases of subluxation older than 3 weeks.For cases non-responsive to conservative treatment, surgical reinforcement of the dorsal superficial fibers of the radioulnar hgament with a tendon slip from flexor carpi ulnaris is a rehable solution
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Large deviations on Markov towers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a sufficient condition to hold a full large deviation principle for Markov tower maps induced from return time functions. As an application of this result we show the large deviation principle of level 2 for some class of smooth dynamical systems with nonuniform hyperbolicity
Hess, Florian; Farshad, Mazda; Sutter, Reto; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas
2012-11-01
We performed this study to investigate whether discrepancy of bilateral dorsovolar shift of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is decisive for the diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Although several cadaver studies have quantified the amount of physiological dorsovolar shift, so far, there is no reliable method of quantification of DRUJ mobility in daily practice. The aim was to describe a novel sonographic method of quantifying DRUJ instability and evaluate its reliability and validity. In this study, 40 healthy volunteers and 17 patients with complete rupture of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) underwent sonographic quantification of the grade of instability of their DRUJ bilaterally. Dorsovolar ulnar head translation relative to the distal radius was quantified by means of ultrasonography performed in a transversal plane through the ulnar head and Lister tubercle. Measurements were done while actively pressing the volar surface of the hand onto a brick 30 degrees pronated, and after lifting the hand. A quotient Q of the radioulnar distance (distance between the dorsal radius surface and the ulnar head) between the unloaded and loaded wrist was calculated for differentiation of a normal and unstable DRUJ. The Q ratio of the 17 patients with unilateral TFCC lesion was significantly different between the pathologic side and the contralateral wrist (1.19 vs. 0.54, p 0.8 was found to be a reasonable cut-off for pathologic laxity of the DRUJ with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 81%. A quotient Q > 0.8 determines instability of the DRUJ reliably. This was a level II diagnostic study. PMID:24179720
Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki
2014-02-01
Background As the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) anchors the distal radius to the ulna via the radioulnar ligament (RUL), a severely displaced distal fragment of the radius may be associated with a foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess, radiographically and arthroscopically, the relationship between displacement of the radius, the ulnar styloid, and avulsion of the RUL resulting in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine wrists of 29 patients with intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures/malunion who underwent reduction or a corrective osteotomy of the displaced/malunited fracture, and/or wrist arthroscopy, were assessed radiographically and arthroscopically. Radial translation, radial inclination, radial shortening, volar or dorsal tilt, and the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture with more than 4 mm of displacement were measured from the initial films. Radiocarpal arthroscopy was used to assess peripheral lesions of the TFCC, while DRUJ arthroscopy was used to assess the foveal attachment. The relationship between displacement of the distal radius or the ulnar styloid fracture and the TFCC injury, including avulsion of the RUL, was recorded. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased radial translation, decreased radial inclination, increased radial shortening, and an ulnar styloid fragment radially displaced by more than 4 mm were significant predictors of RUL avulsion at the fovea. Volar or dorsal tilt of the radius and ulnar variance did not correlate with RUL avulsion or TFCC injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that radial translation was an independent risk factor of foveal avulsion of the RUL. Conclusions Increased radial translation and radial shortening and decreased radial inclination of the distal fragment can be associated with a foveal avulsion of the RUL. Radial translation can be an independent risk
Chen, Yi-Xin; Zheng, Xin; Shi, Hong-fei; Wangyang, Yu-fan; Yuan, Han; Xie, Xiao-xiao; Li, Dong-ya; Wang, Chang-jun; Qiu, Xu-sheng
2013-01-01
Background The ulnar styloid is an important supportive structure for the triangular fibrocartilage complex. However, it remains inconclusive whether or not a fractured ulnar styloid should be fixed in an unstable distal radius fracture (DRF) with a stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an untreated ulnar styloid fracture on the outcome of unstable DRF treated with transarticular external fixation when the DRUJ is stable. Methods 106 pat...
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
Johnson, R K; Shrewsbury, M M
1976-11-01
Based upon the findings of dissections of 15 forearms and clinical observations in patients with disturbed architecture of the distal radioulnar joint, the pronator quadratus was found to be composed of two heads. A superficial head originated from the ulna and passed transversely to its insertion into the radius. It averaged 5.1 cm. in length, 4.5 cm. in width, 0.2 cm. in thickness, with a cross-sectional area of 0.95 cm.2 and a contractile volume of 2.6 cm.3. The deep head ran obliquely from a more proximal origin on the ulna to a distal insertion on the radius, with an average length of 4.0 cm., average width of 3.2 cm., and a thickness of 0.4 cm. Its average cross-sectional area was 1.64 cm.2 and its contractile volume 2.5 cm.3. A group of fibers occasionally was noted deep to both heads, running at right angles to them and paralleling the direction of the fibers of the interosseous membrane. The superficial head initiates pronation while the deep head coapts the joint surfaces and stabilizes the joint. PMID:1018088
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-10-20
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R
2005-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
Clinical efficacy of myofascial flap in the treatment of radioulnar synostosis%肌筋膜瓣对前臂骨连接的疗效观察
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周钢; 邱勋永; 马心赤; 王快胜; 王和驹
2013-01-01
目的 探讨创伤后尺桡骨骨连接的防治方法.方法 对2006 年4 月至2012 年4 月21 例创伤后尺桡骨间骨连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔以预防骨连接复发.结果 21 例患者术前平均旋前和旋后角度为14°和5°,术后为65°和70°,经过6~17 个月(平均11 个月)的随访,旋转范围从术前的15°改善至130°,未出现骨性连接复发,所有患者治疗效果满意.结论 骨性连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔能够有效地防治创伤性骨连接.%Objective To discuss our experience in treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis. Methods Twenty-one patients with posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis were treated with synostosis resection and interposition of forearm myofascial flap from 2006 to 2012. Results The mean preoperative pronation and postoperative pronation was 14° and 65° before treatment, 5° and 70° after treatment. The patients were followed up for 6—17 months, 11 months in average. The average arc of rotation improved from 15° to 130°. No case of recurrence was found. Conclusion Synostosis resection and interposition with forearm myofascial flap is an effective technique for the treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis.
Biomechanical analysis of the stability of the distal radioulnar joint%桡尺远侧关节稳定结构的生物力学分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄继锋; 钟世镇
2001-01-01
目的从生物力学的角度分析桡尺远侧关节（distal radioulnar joint，DRUJ）稳定结构在前臂活动中的稳定作用及损伤后的临床体征。方法用自制的实验架固定8侧新鲜上肢标本。分级切除桡尺远侧关节的主要稳定结构，进行生物力学测量分析。结果三角纤维软骨复合体（triangular fibrocartilage complex，TFCC）水平部分前半段切除后，DRUJ于旋后位时不稳定；水平部分后半段切除后，DRUJ于旋前位时不隐定；TFCC水平部及远侧骨间膜全部切除后，DRUJ于各个位置均不稳定。结论 DRUJ的稳定性主要依靠TFCC水平部分和远侧骨间膜的维持。背侧桡尺韧带在前臂旋前位时，维持DRUJ的稳定作用较掌侧桡尺韧带大；相反，在旋后位时掌侧桡尺韧带比背侧桡尺韧带更为重要。%Objective To assess the stabilization structures of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) from biomechanical point of view, and evaluate their role in stability of the joint and in forearm movement. Methods 8 fresh cadaver upper extremities were fixed in a custom-made jig which holds the limb rigidly and yet allows forearm rotation. The major stabilization structures of DRUJ were resected step by step, and biomechenical assessment was done. Results After resection of anterior half segment in the horizontal part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), DRUJ was unstable in supination position. After resection of posterior half segment in the horizontal part of TFCC, DRUJ was unstable in pronation. After resection of entire horizontal part of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane, DRUJ was unstable in every position. Conclusions Stability of DRUJ relies mainly on the horizontal portion of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane. The dorsal radioulnar ligament (DRUL) was more important than the palmer radioulnar ligament (PRUL) in maintaining DRUJ stability in full pronation, while the PRUL was more important
Deviations in human gut microbiota
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...... microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish...... potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70% of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, Michio; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei; Minamikawa, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Shin; Morimoto, Tadanobu; Yakura, Hisayoshi; Iida, Hirosuke
1988-01-01
We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. (author)
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance.
HISA Shoichi
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.
Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas
2016-03-01
During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF NEGATIVELY DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Li; Wan Chenggao; Feng Yanqin
2011-01-01
In this article, we obtain the large deviations and moderate deviations for negatively dependent (ND) and non-identically distributed random variables defined on (-∞, +∞). The results show that for some non-identical random variables, precise large deviations and moderate deviations remain insensitive to negative dependence structure.
One-deviation principle in coalition formation
Hannu Vartiainen
2008-01-01
We study coalitional one-deviation principle in a framework a la Chwe (1994). The principle requires that an active coalition or any of its subcoalition will not benefit from a single deviation to a strategy that specifies, for each history of coalitional moves, an active coalition and its move. A strategy meeting the one-deviation property is characterized. Moreover, it is shown to exist. Finally, the results are compared to the existing theories of coalitional games.
Moderate Deviations for Mean Field Particle Models
Del Moral, Pierre; Wu, Liming
2012-01-01
This article is concerned with moderate deviation principles of a general class of mean eld type interacting particle models. We discuss functional moderate deviations of the occupation measures for both the strong -topology on the space of fi nite and bounded measures as well as for the corresponding stochastic processes on some class of functions equipped with the uniform topology. Our approach is based on an original semigroup analysis combined with stochastic perturbation techniques and projective limit large deviation methods.
Introducing the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme values. The paper then proposes the use of an easy to comprehend effect size based on the mean difference between treatment groups, divided by the mean...
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
Deviation of Register in English Talk Shows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺静
2016-01-01
Halliday's register theory and G. Leech's deviation of register are the general knowledge of the topic in the academic field. This paper focuses on connection between deviation of register and humorous effects in English talk shows. The significance of this paper is to put this theory in broader use and to help English learners better understand western humor and talk shows.
Gao, Fuqing; Yan, Jun
2008-01-01
We establish a functional large deviation principle and a functional moderate deviation principle for Markov-modulated risk models with reinsurance by constructing an exponential martingale approach. Lundberg's estimate of the ruin time is also presented.
DEVIATIONS -OHJELMISTO LAATUPOIKKEAMIEN KÄSITTELYYN
Hilama, Sakari
2009-01-01
Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Documenta Oy:n toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 -alustaa hyödyntävä ohjelmistotuote nimeltä Deviations. Deviations -ohjelmiston tarkoituksena on tarjota organisaatiolle mukautuva työväline esimerkiksi palautteen tai laatupoikkeamien hallintaan ja prosessoituun käsittelyyn. Deviations -ohjelmisto toteutettiin niin, että ohjelmisto mukautuu organisaation olemassa oleviin prosesseihin. Tämä vaatimus huomioitiin oh...
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
Sport and Social Deviations - a Prognostic Attitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kosiewicz Jerzy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The author focuses his attention first of all on social deviations which play a negative role in highly competitive sport. He tries to define - from the viewpoint of philosophy - how they will influence its future form.
Geodesics deviation equation approach to chaos
Dobrowolski, Tomasz; Szczesny, Jerzy
1999-01-01
Geodesics deviation equation (GDE) is itroduced. In "adiabatic" approximation exact solution of the GDE if found. Perturbation theory in general case is formulated. Geometrical criterion of local instability which may lead to chaos is formulated.
Logarithmic potential theory and large deviation
Bloom, T.; Levenberg, N.; Wielonsky, F.
2014-01-01
We derive a general large deviation principle for a canonical sequence of probability measures, having its origins in random matrix theory, on unbounded sets $K$ of ${\\bf C}$ with weakly admissible external fields $Q$ and very general measures $\
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
On the mean-standard deviation frontier
Eneas A. Caldiño
1996-01-01
This paper presents a characterization of the mean standard deviation frontier (MSF) in terms of pricing and averaging securities and explores the geometry of these securities relative to the geometry of the MSF. A summary of already known results is presented along with proof of new results. A measure of the distance between two mean standard deviation frontiers is presented here. This measure is related to asset pricing models which imply that security prices can be represented by a stochas...
Kinematic Deviations In Children With Cerebral Palsy
Sangeux, Morgan; ARMAND, Stéphane
2015-01-01
In gait analysis, a large portion of the work consists in finding the underlying causes of the abnormal movement observed during walking. The patient’s kinematics of walking is compared to that of typically developed children and the deviations are further analysed. Over the years, clinicians have observed multiple-joints kinematics deviations that were frequent in children with cerebral palsy and devised gait patterns in order to group patients and support management algorithms. However, the...
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Touchette, Hugo [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: h.touchette@qmul.ac.uk
2009-07-15
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe
Giblin, John T; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer's sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.
2009-01-01
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increa...
Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil
important for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible...... deviant behaviour, explore why the deviations in question occur, find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters' and (mainly) professional users' behaviour in the...... the prevailing norms. Depending on the character of the deviant behaviour, the potency of the norms in question, extratextual sociocultural factors such as the interpreter's status in society, and many other factors, a broad range of sanctions is conceivable. However, we do not expect to find an...
Spectral deviations for the damped wave equation
Anantharaman, Nalini
2009-01-01
We prove a Weyl-type fractal upper bound for the spectrum of the damped wave equation, on a negatively curved compact manifold. It is known that most of the eigenvalues have an imaginary part close to the average of the damping function. We count the number of eigenvalues in a given horizontal strip deviating from this typical behaviour; the exponent that appears naturally is the `entropy' that gives the deviation rate from the Birkhoff ergodic theorem for the geodesic flow. A Weyl-type lower...
Leys, Christophe; Ley, Christophe; Klein, Olivier; Bernard, Philippe; Licata, Laurent
2013-01-01
A survey revealed that researchers still seem to encounter difficulties to cope with outliers. Detecting outliers by determining an interval spanning over the mean plus/minus three standard deviations remains a common practice. However, since both the mean and the standard deviation are particularly sensitive to outliers, this method is problematic. We highlight the disadvantages of this method and present the median absolute deviation, an alternative and more robust measure of dispersion tha...
Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)
From Stein Identities to Moderate Deviations
Chen, Louis H Y; Shao, Qi-Man
2009-01-01
Stein's method is applied to obtain a Cram\\'er type moderate deviation result for dependent random variables whose dependence is defined in terms of a Stein identity. The result is optimal when applied to the combinatorial central limit theorem, the binary expansion of a random integer, the anti-voter model on a complete graph, and the Curie-Weiss model.
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...
Measuring the deviation from the Rutherford formula
Kuraev, E. A.; Shatnev, M.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.
2009-01-01
Modern experiments with heavy ion-leptons collisions open the possibility to measure the deviation of cross section of small angles electron(positron)-ion elastic scattering from the Rutherford formula due to multiple virtual photons exchange. The charge asymmetry and the polarization of the scattered leptons are calculated and numerical predictions are given. A generalization to elastic proton-nucleus scattering is discussed.
MODERATE DEVIATIONS AND LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR A TEST OF SYMMETRY BASED ON KERNEL DENSITY ESTIMATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Xiaoxia; Gao Fuqing
2008-01-01
Let fn be a non-parametric kernel density estimator based on a kernel function K. And a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables taking values in R. The goal of this article is to prove moderate deviations and large deviations for the statistic sup x∈R|fn(x) - fn(-X)|.
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
Large deviations for Markov processes with resetting.
Meylahn, Janusz M; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Touchette, Hugo
2015-12-01
Markov processes restarted or reset at random times to a fixed state or region in space have been actively studied recently in connection with random searches, foraging, and population dynamics. Here we study the large deviations of time-additive functions or observables of Markov processes with resetting. By deriving a renewal formula linking generating functions with and without resetting, we are able to obtain the rate function of such observables, characterizing the likelihood of their fluctuations in the long-time limit. We consider as an illustration the large deviations of the area of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with resetting. Other applications involving diffusions, random walks, and jump processes with resetting or catastrophes are discussed. PMID:26764673
What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation
Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem
2010-01-01
The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Serrà
Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
van Groningen, Jorg Melcher; Schuurman, Arnold H.
2011-01-01
Distal radial fractures are a common type of fracture. In the case of intra-articular fractures, they often result in post-traumatic arthrosis. The objective of this study is to describe a novel alternative to the established salvage techniques for the treatment of post-traumatic arthrosis of the radio-carpal and distal radio-ulnar joints (DRUJ). Six patients with radio-carpal and DRUJ arthrosis were treated with a combined radius, scaphoid, and lunate (RSL) arthrodesis and as a Herbert ulnar...
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR m-NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Yijun; Ming Ruixing; Yang Wenquan
2007-01-01
M-negatively associated random variables, which generalizes the classical one of negatively associated random variables and includes m-dependent sequences as its particular case, are introduced and studied. Large deviation principles and moderate deviation upper bounds for stationary m-negatively associated random variables are proved.Kolmogorov-type and Marcinkiewicz-type strong laws of large numbers as well as the three series theorem for m-negatively associated random variables are also given.
Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.
Fischer, R. E.
1972-01-01
The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.
Standard deviation of the longest common subsequence
Lember, Jüri; Matzinger, Heinrich
2009-01-01
Let Ln be the length of the longest common subsequence of two independent i.i.d. sequences of Bernoulli variables of length n. We prove that the order of the standard deviation of Ln is $\\sqrt{n}$ , provided the parameter of the Bernoulli variables is small enough. This validates Waterman’s conjecture in this situation [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 344 (1994) 383–390]. The order conjectured by Chvatal and Sankoff [J. Appl. Probab. 12 (1975) 306–315], however, is different.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhamoorthy
2014-10-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic isolated distal radioulnar joint instability is a relatively rare entity. Several methods of reconstruction were available to stabilize the joint and each method has some advantage over others. We proposed to assess the functional outcome following reconstruction of chronic dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using extra articular reconstruction by Fulkerson – Watson method. AIM: To assess the functional outcome following reconstruction for chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using Fulkerson –Watson method. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in five patients over three years from 2010 to 2013 with chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability who were treated by Fulkerson-Watson method of reconstruction. All patients underwent MRI evaluation before surgery to assess ligament pathology and for adequacy of sigmoid notch. Arthroscopy performed in all patients. Functional outcomes were assessed using VAS score, quick-DASH score and Mayo wrist score at every 6 months follow-up. Radiological assessment done using plain x-rays at each follow up. RESULTS: Three patients required Arthroscopic debridement for TFCC. All five patients had achieved stability at distal radio ulnar joint after surgery and remained so till their last follow up. One patient had persistent pain near ulnar styloid. The average loss of motion for pronation was 10 degrees and supination was 3 degrees in reference to the normal side. All except one patient achieved ulnar grip strength of >90 % compared to normal side. The mean pre and postoperative VAS score, quick-DASH score, Mayo wrist score were 76.6 and 17.2, 37.3 and 11.3, 45 and 77 respectively. CONCLUSION: Though extra articular reconstruction for DRUJ by Fulkerson-Watson method is non-anatomical, the procedure is simple than intra articular reconstruction and gives similar functional outcome like intra articular reconstructions as shown by our results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buck, Florian M., E-mail: florian.buck@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Nico, Marcelo A.C., E-mail: nico.marcelo@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Gheno, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.gheno@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Trudell, Debra J., E-mail: debtrudell@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Resnick, Donald, E-mail: dresnick@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)
2011-02-15
Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13{sup o}. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13{sup o} sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13o. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13o sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
A method for detecting alignment deviation on a thread-measuring instrument
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alignment deviation is an important factor affecting measurement accuracy in screw thread measurement. It needs to be detected and controlled to ensure the accuracy of relative thread parameters. The influence on pitch diameter caused by the alignment deviations of workpiece and probe is analyzed in this paper. In order to detect and control the alignment deviation, a vision detection method for the probe tip points is proposed, which integrates the detection of corners and edges and the prediction of motion. Then the X-axial rotation deviation is calculated by tracking the tip points both up and down. The result of tests demonstrates that the detection accuracy of the X-axial rotation deviation is 0.0654° with the background changing during the probe movement. The repeatability of the test procedure is ±0.16%, which proves the detection method is adequately qualified for application. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İhsan Çaça
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.
Theory of Deviation and Its Application in College English Teaching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Yanqiu
2008-01-01
Deviation is an important concept in stylistics.Besides Shklovskij and Mukarovsky,who made a theoreti cal generalization of deviational phenomena,Leech is the one who studies deviation systematically and catego rizes it into groups.To apply the theory of deviation to College English teaching is an effective way to culti rate students' interest in and aesthetic ability of English texts.
Syntactic Deviations in the Novel The Sound and the Fury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pooria Alirezazadeh
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This article looks at William Faulkner’s work The Sound and the Fury. The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for linguistic deviations proposed by Leech (1969 has been chosen. Most prior researches on linguistic deviations especially syntactic deviations focused on poetic text and classic prose. The present study was designed to address syntactic deviations in modern prose, and it highlights the role of syntactic deviations in modernist literature and psychological novel.
Treatment of Congenital Upper Radio-Ulnar Joint Synosteosis by Rotional Osteotomy%旋转截骨治疗先天性上桡尺关节连接
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖增明; 庞立; 容兑熙
1995-01-01
对8例11个肢体先天性上桡尺关节连接畸形进行了桡尺骨旋转截骨和旋前肌松解术,获得满意的疗效.对手术适应证、手术方法进行了讨论,认为此手术方法尤其适用于严重前臂旋前畸形的病例.%Eight cases(male 7,femaleil)of congenital upper radio-ulnar joint synosteosis were treated from 1982 to 1991.Of them,5 were unilateral and 3 bilateral.Eight extremities were on the left side and 3 on the right side.The diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination.The pronation of the forearm was 50～105 degrees.All of them underwent radio-ulnar rotational osteostomy and pronator relaxation with satisfactory results.The indication and procedures are discussed.The authors consider that this method would be useful for cases in severe forearm pronation deformity.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SOME DEPENDENT SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Shuhe; Wang Xuejun
2008-01-01
Let (Xi) be a martingale difference sequence and Sn=n∑i=1 Xi. Suppose (Xi) is bounded in Lp. In the case p2, Lesigne and Volny (Stochastic Process. Appl. 96 (2001) 143) obtained the estimation μ(Sn n) < cn-p/2, Yulin Li (Statist. Probab.Lett. 62 (2003) 317) generalized the result to the case when p ∈(1, 2) and obtained μ(Sn n) < cn1-P, these are optimal in a certain sense. In this article, the authors study the large deviation of Sn for some dependent sequences and obtain the same order optimal upper bounds for μ(Sn n) as those for martingale difference sequence.
Spotting deviations from R^2 inflation
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Alvaro; Odintsov, Sergei D; Saez-Gomez, Diego
2016-01-01
We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)
Syntactic Deviations in the Novel The Sound and the Fury
Pooria Alirezazadeh; Mohammad Reza Talebinezhad
2014-01-01
This article looks at William Faulkner’s work The Sound and the Fury. The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for linguistic deviations proposed by Leech (1969) has been chosen. Most prior researches on linguistic deviations especially syntactic deviations focused on poetic text...
Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia
2014-09-01
Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.
Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems
Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2016-02-01
The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.
Lipschitz deviation and embeddings of global attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt and Kaloshin (1999 Nonlinearity 12 1263–75) proved that it is possible to embed a compact subset X of a Hilbert space with upper box-counting dimension d N for any N > 2k + 1, using a linear map L whose inverse is Hölder continuous with exponent α N, dH(L(X)) ≥ min(N, dH(X)/(1 + τ(X)/2)). They also conjectured that 'many of the attractors associated with the evolution equations of mathematical physics have thickness exponent zero'. In this paper we introduce a variant of the thickness exponent, the Lipschitz deviation dev(X): we show that in both of the above results this can be used in place of the thickness exponent, and—appealing to results from the theory of approximate inertial manifolds—we prove that dev(X) = 0 for the attractors of a wide class of semilinear parabolic equations, thus providing a partial answer to the conjecture of Ott, Hunt and Kaloshin. In particular, dev(X) = 0 for the attractor of the 2D Navier–Stokes equations with forcing f in L2, while current results only guarantee that τ(X) = 0, when f in C∞
Effect of tool centreline deviation on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded DH36 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • FSW of DH36 was tolerant to a centreline defect induced by tool deviation. • High strength welds up to 2.5 mm centreline tool deviation with ductile PM fracture. • Critical tolerance to centreline tool deviation at 4 mm with ductile weld metal fracture. • Brittle fracture above 4 mm deviation led to significant reduction in yield strength. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of steel has gone through recent tool and optimisation developments allowing the process to be considered as a technically superior alternative to fusion welding. This study expanded the scientific foundation of friction stir welding of DH36 steel to analyse the effect on weld quality when the rotating tool increasingly deviates away from the weld centreline. A centreline defect was deliberately but gradually introduced along the length of the weld seam. The tolerance to tool deviation towards both the advancing side and the retreating side of the weld was measured in terms of the transverse yield strength. Three discrete fracture modes were observed in transverse tensile specimen. Up to a tool deviation of 2.5 mm, ductile fracture in the parent material was observed and there was not a significant reduction in the yield strength of the weldment. The critical tool deviation occurred at 4 mm, where transverse tensile specimens fractured in a high strength ductile mode in the weld metal. Brittle behaviour in specimens above the 4 mm tolerance level resulted in a significant decrease in the transverse yield strength. Fracture within the weld metal was directed along the boundary between the heat-affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone, attributable to an abrupt change in the grain size and complexity of the two weld zones at this boundary. Friction stir welding of DH36 was found to be a tolerant joining process to the centreline deviation of the rotating tool
The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.
Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D
2015-01-01
Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129
ROBSCALE: RATS module to compute robust alternative to standard deviation
Eric Blankmeyer
1999-01-01
robscale.src computes a robust alternative to the standard deviation as a measure of scale (dispersion). The standard deviation is easily distorted by outliers and may therefore be quite misleading. robscale.src computes the Qn statistic of Rousseeuuw and Croux, which is very robust and also has good efficiency (relative to the standard deviation) when the data are in fact uncontaminated Gaussian random variables. (P. J. Rousseeuw and C. Croux, "Alternatives to the median absolute deviation,"...
48 CFR 2901.403 - Individual deviations from the FAR.
2010-10-01
... the FAR. 2901.403 Section 2901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.403 Individual deviations from the FAR. (a) The Senior Procurement Executive is authorized to approve deviations from...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a...
Large deviations for Glauber dynamics of continuous gas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the large deviation principles of the Glauber-type dynamics of finite or infinite volume continuous particle systems.We prove that the level-2 empirical process satisfies the large deviation principles in the weak convergence topology,while it does not satisfy the large deviation principles in the T-topology.
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall... that the deviation is temporary, the Corporation may grant a temporary waiver pending compliance...
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan
Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho
2016-07-01
Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.
The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.
Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren
2016-05-01
Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. PMID:27131201
Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lippold Carsten
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept. The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years. After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40; 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2. The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years. Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test. Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study. This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cit...
Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems
Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; G. de Polavieja, Gonzalo
2009-01-01
Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allo...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...
Effect of rounding on expected value and standard deviation
Cedilnik, Anton; Košmelj, Katarina
2014-01-01
We prove that the rounded expected value of the rounded random variable differs from the expected value of the original random variable by less then 2, where is the distance between two neighbouring rounded numbers. The same conclusion holds for standard deviation. Hence, in practice the influence of rounding to expected value and standard deviation is almost negligible.
Data Sets Having Integer Means and Standard Deviations.
Dudek, Frank J.
1981-01-01
Reviews the recent suggestion (by McGown and Spencer) that construction of tests for introductory statistics is facilitated if data sets have means and standard deviations that are integers. Maintains that it is fairly easy to devise data sets with integer means and standard deviations for larger samples. Explains advantages and describes…
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379
Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear. (paper)
Compensation method for the alignment angle error in pitch deviation measurement
Liu, Yongsheng; Fang, Suping; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryohei
2016-05-01
When measuring the tooth flank of an involute helical gear by gear measuring center (GMC), the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error and manufacturing error of the GMC, will affect the measurement accuracy of pitch deviation of the gear tooth flank. Based on the model of the involute helical gear and the tooth flank measurement theory, a method is proposed to compensate the alignment angle error that is included in the measurement results of pitch deviation, without changing the initial measurement method of the GMC. Simulation experiments are done to verify the compensation method and the results show that after compensation, the alignment angle error of the gear axis included in measurement results of pitch deviation declines significantly, more than 90% of the alignment angle errors are compensated, and the residual alignment angle errors in pitch deviation measurement results are less than 0.1 μm. It shows that the proposed method can improve the measurement accuracy of the GMC when measuring the pitch deviation of involute helical gear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilton Mazzer
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 10 casos de desarranjo da articulação radio-ulnal distal tratados pela técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji. Os desarranjos eram resultantes de trauma (7, degeneração (2 e doença congênita (1 e as principais queixas pré-operatórias eram a dor, limitação da prono-supinação e deformidade. A idade média dos pacientes na época da operação era de 37,8 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínico-funcional e radiografica com um seguimento pós-operatório médio de 28,3 meses, particular atenção tendo sido dada a uma incidência radiográfica anteroposterior sob esforço de preensão manual. Todos os pacientes obtiveram melhora de suas queixas e o resultado final foi considerado satisfatório (excelente e bom em 8, e insatisfatório (regular 2. A artrodese da articulação radio-ulnal consolidou em 9 casos, independentemente do tipo de fixação empregado. O exame radiográfico sob esforço mostrou que todos os pacientes apresentavam deslocamento radial da ulna, mas isso aparentemente não interferiu com a função. Concluiu-se que a técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji é eficiente para o tratamento dos desarranjos da articulação radio-ulnal distal, pois ela não implica em perda funcional importante.A retrospective study of 10 cases of derrangement of the distal radioulnar joint treated with the technique of Sauvé-Kapandji was carried out. Derrangements resulted from trauma (7, degeneration (2 and congenital disease (1 and the main preoperative complaints were pain, limitation of pronation and supination and deformity. The patients' average age by the time of the operation was 37.8 years (range: 19 - 68 years. All were submitted to clinical, functional and radiographic evaluation at 28.3 months after the operation on average, particular attention being paid to an anteroposterior X-ray view with the hand in a moderate hand grip effort. All patients improved from their complaints and the final
Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Derrida
2005-05-01
For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.
Large deviations for two scale chemical kinetic processes
Li, Tiejun
2015-01-01
We formulate the large deviations for a class of two scale chemical kinetic processes motivated from biological applications. The result is successfully applied to treat a genetic switching model with positive feedbacks. The corresponding Hamiltonian is convex with respect to the momentum variable as a by-product of the large deviation theory. This property ensures its superiority in the rare event simulations compared with the result obtained by formal WKB asymptotics. The result is of general interest to understand the large deviations for multiscale problems.
A Note on a Normal Distribution with Varying Standard Deviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahabaleshwara Holla
1965-01-01
Full Text Available A normal distribution with varying standard deviation has been considered in this note. Statistical properties of the distribution and the estimation of the parameters involved therein are also discussed.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T
2014-01-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.
Quenched moderate deviations principle for random walk in random environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We derive a quenched moderate deviations principle for the one-dimensional nearest random walk in random environment,where the environment is assumed to be stationary and ergodic.The approach is based on hitting time decomposition.
A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma
Yan, Bokai
2016-03-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
Robust estimation of standard deviation using ordered samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A robust estimate for the standard deviation of a normal distribution is developed. We choose the contaminated normal distribution as our outlier model and demonstrate the method with two examples representing data from international interlaboratory experiments
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion
Itto, Yuichi
2016-01-01
The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.
Large Deviations: An Introduction to 2007 Abel Prize
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Ramasubramanian
2008-05-01
2007 Abel prize has been awarded to S R S Varadhan for creating a unified theory of large deviations. We attempt to give a flavour of this branch of probability theory, highlighting the role of Varadhan.
Analysis of principle deviation of subpixel Zernike moments operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In original Zernike moments subpixel edge operator, ideal step edge model is chosen for calculating four parameters of a pixel point, and therefore principle deviation is caused by edge model. In order to discuss the effect of principle deviation on edge location, sampled edge model is chosen for calculating edge parameters, principle deviation of edge translation l is derived based on Zernike moments edge detection theory, and modified formula of l is given for Zernike moments operator with masks of 5×5 size. Both theory analysis and testing result demonstrate that principle deviation is zero when edge translation l is limited in central pixel of a sampled window. In another case, the modification of l should be considered, which results in edge location accuracy of non-subpixel level for this subpixel edge operator.
Deviations from the critical state model observed in niobium
Gijsbertse, E.A.; Klundert, van de, L.J.M.
1980-01-01
The values of the critical current density of niobium slabs, measured with the help of trapezoidal ac magnetic fields are not in agreement with the critical state model. Extensions of this model are suggested to explain the observed deviation.
Large deviation theory to model systems under an external feedback
Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Aldo
2016-01-01
In this paper we address the problem of systems under an external feedback. This is performed using a large deviation approach and rate distortion from information theory. In particular we define a lower boundary for the maximum entropy reduction that can be obtained using a feedback apparatus with a well defined accuracy in terms of measurement of the state of the system. The large deviation approach allows also to define a new set of potentials, including information, which similarly to mor...
An Upper Bound of Large Deviations for Capacities
Xiaomin Cao
2014-01-01
Up to now, most of the academic researches about the large deviation and risk theory are under the framework of the classical linear expectations. But motivated by problems of model uncertainties in statistics, measures of risk, and superhedging in finance, sublinear expectations are extensively studied. In this paper, we obtain a type of large deviation principle under the sublinear expectation. This result is a new expression of the Gärtner-Ellis theorem under the sublinear expectations whi...
Large Deviation Theory for a Homogenized and "Corrected" Elliptic ODE
Bal, Guillaume; Ghanem, Roger; Langmore, Ian
2010-01-01
We study a one-dimensional elliptic problem with highly oscillatory random diffusion coefficient. We derive a homogenized solution and a so-called Gaussian corrector. We also prove a "pointwise" large deviation principle (LDP) for the full solution and approximate this LDP with a more tractable form. These results allow one to access the limits of Gaussian correctors. In general, the corrector does not capture the large deviation behavior. Applications to uncertainty quantification are consid...
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
The possible advantages of the mean absolute deviation 'effect' size.
Gorard, S.
2013-01-01
A range of ‘effect’ sizes already exists, for presenting a relatively easy to interpret estimate of a difference or change between two sets of observations. All are based on use of the standard deviation of the observations, involving squaring and then square-rooting, which makes results hard to interpret, hard to teach and may distort extreme scores. An effect size based on the simpler mean absolute deviation overcomes these issues to some extent, while being at least as efficient and...
Defection of Traditional Standard Deviation Scaling of Capital Asset Returns
Vladimír Gazda; Karel Koøený; Tomáš Výrost
2004-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the adequacy of scaling, a method frequently used in estimation of standard deviation of stock returns. Scaling is based on the assumption that standard deviation is proportional to the square root of the length of the time interval of the sample (for example daily, monthly or annual data). We analyze the cases when this assumption is justified, and emphasize possible weaknesses of this procedure. As an example, we test the assumptions of scaling on three market ...
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.
2005-01-01
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric count...
Moderate deviations for the determinant of Wigner matrices
Döring, Hanna; Eichelsbacher, Peter
2013-01-01
We establish a moderate deviations principle (MDP) for the log-determinant $\\log | \\det (M_n) |$ of a Wigner matrix $M_n$ matching four moments with either the GUE or GOE ensemble. Further we establish Cram\\'er--type moderate deviations and Berry-Esseen bounds for the log-determinant for the GUE and GOE ensembles as well as for non-symmetric and non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices (Ginibre ensembles), respectively.
de Morais, Jose Fausto
2012-01-01
Meta-analysis involves combining summary information for related but independent studies. It uses different relationship to combine position measure as well as dispersion measures. The objective of this study is to discuss a relationship among the standard deviation of a data set and the standard deviation and mean of two part of this set. The problem was proposed in a systematic review with meta-analysis that combined two studies with missing data.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories
Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.
1974-11-01
Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.
Follicle and endocrine dynamics during experimental follicle deviation in mares.
Ginther, O J; Meira, C; Beg, M A; Bergfelt, D R
2002-09-01
Deviation during a follicular wave in mares begins when the largest follicle (F1) reaches a mean diameter of 22.5 mm and is characterized by continued growth of F1 to become the dominant follicle and regression of F2 to become the largest subordinate follicle. In the present study, F1 was ablated at the expected beginning of deviation (Hour 0) to provide a reference point for characterizing the intrafollicular changes preceding experimental deviation between F2 and F3. Diameters and concentrations of follicular fluid factors in F2 and F3 were determined in F1-ablated mares at Hours 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 (n = 8 mares/group). Circulating FSH concentrations were greater (P 0.1) to the diameter of F1 and FSH concentration at Hour 0, respectively. A differential change between F2 and F3 was not detected in follicular fluid concentrations of estradiol, inhibin-A, and activin-A by the beginning of experimental deviation. However, estradiol was higher in F2 at Hours 0 and 12 and inhibin-A was higher in F2 throughout the experiment, and both factors could have been involved in experimental deviation. Free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased (P < 0.05) in F2 beginning at Hour 12 and was higher (P < 0.05) in F2 than in F3 by the beginning of experimental deviation. Temporally, this result indicated that intrafollicular IGF-1 was involved in conversion of F2 from a destined subordinate follicle to a dominant follicle. PMID:12193395
Large Deviations for Multiscale Diffusions via Weak Convergence Methods
Dupuis, Paul
2010-01-01
We study the large deviations principle for locally periodic stochastic differential equations with small noise and fast oscillating coefficients. There are three possible regimes depending on how fast the intensity of the noise goes to zero relative to the homogenization parameter. We use weak convergence methods which provide convenient representations for the action functional for all three regimes. Along the way we study weak limits of related controlled SDEs with fast oscillating coefficients and derive, in some cases, a control that nearly achieves the large deviations lower bound at the prelimit level. This control is useful for designing efficient importance sampling schemes for multiscale diffusions driven by small noise.
A large deviation principle for join the shortest queue
Puhalskii, Anatolii A.; Vladimirov, Alexander A.
2005-01-01
We consider a join-the-shortest-queue model which is as follows. There are $K$ single FIFO servers and $M$ arrival processes. The customers from a given arrival process can be served only by servers from a certain subset of all servers. The actual destination is the server with the smallest weighted queue length. The arrival processes are assumed to obey a large deviation principle while the service is exponential. A large deviation principle is established for the queue-length process. The a...
Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators
Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2014-05-01
We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.
Estimation of Transition Probabilities Using Median Absolute Deviations
Kim, C. S.; Schaible, Glenn D.
1988-01-01
The probability-constrained minimum absolute deviations (MAD) estimator appears to be superior to the probability-constrained quadratic programming estimator in estimating transition probabilities with limited aggregate time series data Futhermore, one can reduce the number of columns in the probability-constrained MAD simplex tableau by adopting the median property
Generalized deviation equations and entanglement first law for Rotating BTZ
Ghosh, Avirup
2016-01-01
The change in Holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for small fluctuations about pure AdS is given by a perturbative expansion of the area functional in terms of the change in the bulk metric and the embedded extremal surface. However it is known that change in the embedding appear at second order or higher. In this paper we show that these changes in the embedding can be systematically calculated in the 2+1 dimensional case by accounting for the deviation of the spacelike geodesics between a spacetime and perturbations over it. Here we consider rotating BTZ as perturbation over $AdS_3$ and study deviations of spacelike geodesics in them. We argue that these deviations arise naturally as solutions of a "generalized geodesic deviation equation". Using this we perturbatively calculate the changes in HEE upto second order, for rotating BTZ. This expression matches with the small system size expansion of the change in HEE obtained by HRT (Hubeny, Rangamani and Takayanagi) proposal for rotating BTZ. We also give ...
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
49 CFR 110.120 - Deviation from this part.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviation from this part. 110.120 Section 110.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING...
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers.
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation. PMID:26799046
Large systematic deviations in the haptic perception of parallelity
Kappers, A.M.L.
1999-01-01
Recently, Kappers and Koenderink (1999 Perception 28 781-795) showed that what subjects haptically perceive as parallel often deviates greatly from what is actually physically parallel. In their experiment, subjects had to rotate a test bar in such a way that it felt as though it was parallel to a r
Strongly Cohen-Macaulay ideals of small second analytic deviation
Corso, Alberto; Polini, Claudia
2002-01-01
We characterize the strongly Cohen-Macaulay ideals of second analytic deviation one in terms of depth properties of the powers of the ideal in the `standard range.' This provides an explanation of the behaviour of certain ideals that have appeared in the literature.
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating
Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.
The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.
Developmental aspects of the deviated nose -a verwoerd study-
Grewal, DS; Irani, Dinaz K
1999-01-01
In childhood functional, infectious, aesthetic and social problems can result from a deviated septum and nose, further research on the anatomic development, the mechanism of growth, and the process of wound healing is needed to develop surgical techniques that not only correct the present problem but also ensure the further normal growth of the septum and nose.
Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motesaddi Zarandi M
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.
Exact Moderate and Large Deviations for Linear Processes
Peligrada, Magda; Zhong, Yunda; Wu, Wei Biao
2011-01-01
Large and moderate deviation probabilities play an important role in many applied areas, such as insurance and risk analysis. This paper studies the exact moderate and large deviation asymptotics in non-logarithmic form for linear processes with independent innovations. The linear processes we analyze are general and therefore they include the long memory case. We give an asymptotic representation for probability of the tail of the normalized sums and specify the zones in which it can be approximated either by a standard normal distribution or by the marginal distribution of the innovation process. The results are then applied to regression estimates, moving averages, fractionally integrated processes, linear processes with regularly varying exponents and functions of linear processes. We also consider the computation of value at risk and expected shortfall, fundamental quantities in risk theory and finance.
The deformation-stability fundamental length and deviations from c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fundamental length (or time) is conjectured in many contexts. The “stability of physical theories principle” provides an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. 1/c and ℏ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and Poisson algebras. The stability principle applied to the Poincaré–Heisenberg algebra, yields two deformation parameters defining two length (or time) scales. One of the scales is probably related to Planck's length but the other might be much larger. This is used as working hypothesis to compute deviations from c in speed measurements of massless particles. -- Highlights: ► Fundamental length as one of the deformation parameters of the Poincaré–Heisenberg algebra. ► Conjecture that one of the deformation parameters is much larger than Planck's length. ► Deviations from c in speed measurements of massless wave packets.
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-02-01
's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in “The Eightieth Stag e” . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as “han, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...” are of this type of abnormality . Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. ”Sowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (champion’’are Words that show Akhavan’s attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in “The Eightieth Stage” poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In general, Poet’s notice to the different deviations is one of his techniques and the key
Endogenous agenda formation processes with the one-deviation property
Vartiainen, Hannu
2014-01-01
We study collective choice via an endogenous agenda setting process. At each stage, a status quo is implemented unless it is replaced by a majority (winning coalition) with a new status quo outcome. The process continues until the prevailing status quo is no longer challenged. We impose a one-time deviation restriction on the feasible policy processes, reflecting farsightedness of voters. The key feature of the solution is history dependence. The existence of the solution is proven by iterati...
Large deviations of inverse processes with nonlinear scalings
Duffield, N. G.; Whitt, W.
1998-01-01
We show, under regularity conditions, that a nonnegative nondecreasing real-valued stochastic process satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) with nonlinear scaling if and only if its inverse process does. We also determine how the associated scaling and rate functions must be related. A key condition for the LDP equivalence is for the composition of two of the scaling functions to be regularly varying with nonnegative index. We apply the LDP equivalence to develop equiv...
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution
Trends and Deviations in Federal, State and Local Finance
Jeffrey S. Zax
1986-01-01
This paper contains a descriptive analysis o+ real per capita annual revenues, expenditures, deficits, debt levels and capital expenditures for federal, state and local government finance in the United States for the rears 1952-83. It summarizes each time series as a deterministic trend and an ARIM characterization of the deviations around trend. These summaries demonstrate that civilian capital outlays are falling at an accelerating pace in ail levels of government; federal government expend...
Detection of Deviations in Mobile Applications Network Behavior
Chekina, L.; Mimran, D.; Rokach, L.; Elovici, Y.; Shapira, B.
2012-01-01
In this paper a novel system for detecting meaningful deviations in a mobile application's network behavior is proposed. The main goal of the proposed system is to protect mobile device users and cellular infrastructure companies from malicious applications. The new system is capable of: (1) identifying malicious attacks or masquerading applications installed on a mobile device, and (2) identifying republishing of popular applications injected with a malicious code. The detection is performed...
New Rotary Engine Designs by Deviation Function Method
Warren, Sarah
2012-01-01
Conventional rotary engine designs are based on an epitrochoidal housing bore that is found by the path of the point at the rotor profile's apex. To seal the engine, the rotor apexes are replaced by spring-loaded apex seals that slide along the housing bore during rotation. The conventional designs are limited to the point-based epitrochoid housing profiles and cannot incorporate the profile of the apex seal. This dissertation presents the complete theory and algorithm of the deviation functi...
Diagram of measurement series elements deviation from local linear approximations
Lande, D. V.; Snarskii, A. A.
2009-01-01
Method for detection and visualization of trends, periodicities, local peculiarities in measurement series (dL-method) based on DFA technology (Detrended fluctuation analysis) is proposed. The essence of the method lies in reflecting the values of absolute deviation of measurement accumulation series points from the respective values of linear approximation. It is shown that dL-method in some cases allows better determination of local peculiarities than wavelet-analysis. Easy-to-realize appro...
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
DEVIATIONS OF STRUCTURE BETWEEN BULK AND FIBER GLASSES
Stockhorst, H.; Brückner, R.
1982-01-01
Fibers from a silicate and a metaphosphate glass, produced by the nozzle drawing process are investigated with respect to their structural properties compared with bulk glass. The drawing parameters - nozzle temperature, mass flow and drawing speed - are varied in a wide range. The following properties are investigated : fiber density, thermal expansion-contraction-behaviour and optical birefringence. All these properties show characteristic deviations from the bulk glass values depending str...
Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach
Budini, Adrian A.
2011-01-01
The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic non-stationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here, we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, i.e., with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated to the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after ap...
Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de, B.; Zanten, van, M.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...
Deviation of Yukawa Coupling in Gauge-Higgs Unification
Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito
2015-01-01
We study the deviation of yukawa coupling in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario from the Standard Model one. Taking into account the brane mass terms necessary for generating the flavor mixing and removing the exotic massless fermions, we derive an analytic formula determining the KK mass spectrum and yukawa coupling. Applying the obtained results to the tau and bottom yukawa couplings, we numerically calculate the ratio of the yukawa couplings in the gauge-Higgs unification and in the Stan...
Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de, B.; Zanten, van, M.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...
Are there deviations from Newton's law of gravitation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A survey is given about the search for experimental references of deviations from Newton's law of gravitation postulating an universal equivalence between inertial and heavy mass. Classical and modern experiments, geophysical measurements, measurements on elementary particles as well as theoretical models and astronomical observations are reported and the accuracy is estimated. Specially the results of the Eoetvoes experiment giving the impulse for such a search are discussed
Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions via large deviations: computable examples
2012-01-01
We give new and explicitly computable examples of Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions of mean-field type, using the large deviation approach introduced in [4]. These examples include Brownian motion with small variance and related diffusion processes, such as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, as well as birth and death processes. We show for a large class of initial measures and diffusive dynamics both short-time conservation of Gibbsianness and dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions.
Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures
Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne
2016-01-01
AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814
Deviation from Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alday-Maldacena conjecture is stated in this paper that the area AΠ of the minimal surface in AdS5 space with a boundary Π, located in Euclidean space at infinity of AdS5, coincides with a double integral DΠ along Π, the Abelian Wilson average in an auxiliary dual model. This comes from Alday and Maldacena's original proposal and the BDS conjecture on the extrapolation of the MHV amplitudes. The boundary Π is a polygon formed by momenta of n external light-like particles in N=4 SYM theory, and in a certain n=∞ limit it can be substituted by an arbitrary smooth curve (wavy circle). The Alday-Maldacena conjecture is known to be violated for n>5, when it fails to be supported by the peculiar global dual conformal invariance, however, the structure of deviations remains obscure. The case of wavy lines can appear more convenient for analysis of these deviations due to the systematic method developed in [H. Itoyama, A. Mironov, A. Morozov, Anomaly in n=∞ Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle, JHEP 0807 (2008) 024, (arXiv:0803.1547)] for (perturbative) evaluation of minimal areas, which is not yet available in the presence of angles at finite n. We correct a mistake in that paper and explicitly evaluate the h2h-bar2 terms, where the first deviation from the Alday-Maldacena duality arises for the wavy circle.
Deviation of Biochemical Variables in Dairy Cows with Reproductive Disorders - Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jožica Ježek
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of biochemical profiles of cows from farms with reproductive disorders. The results of blood examinations collected from 205 dairy cows, which originated from 72 Slovenian farms, were analysed. In blood samples total serum protein (TSP, albumin (Alb, urea, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (iP, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorine (Cl and betacarotene concentration were measured. Data were compared with normal reference values for cattle. The results were evaluated regarding the normal values for cattle. The descriptive statistics and percentage of cows deviating from normal values for investigated variables were calculated. The mean values of investigated variables were inside reference intervals for cattle. The results of biochemical examination show deviation from reference interval in 52.3% of cows for TSP, 70.8% for urea, 39.8% for iP, 27.5% for Na, 36.2% for K, 1.1% for Cl, 37.6% for beta carotene and 6.8% for Ca. The results of biochemical investigations revealed the greatest deviations in concentrations of TSP, urea, Na, K and carotene which can be affected by different factors (nutrition, health status, stage of lactation and season. Taking into account all of these factors may be blood biochemistry a useful tool also in identifying deficiencies in the diet.
Zhang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Qi, Yafei; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team
2015-06-01
Laboratory-scaled oblique water entry experiments for the trajectory stability in the water column have been performed with four different nosed-projectiles at a range of velocities from 20m /s to 250 m /s . The slender projectiles are designed with flat, ogival, hemi-sperical, truncated-ogival noses to make comparisons on the trajectory deviation when they are launched at vertical and oblique impact angles (0°~25°). Two high-speed cameras that are positioned orthogonal to each other and normal to the column are employed to capture the entire process of projectiles' penetration. From the experimental results, the sequential images in two planes are presented to compare the trajectory deviation of different impact tests and the 3D trajectory models are extracted based on the location recorded by cameras. Considering the effect influenced by the impact velocities and noses of projectiles, it merited concluded that trajectory deviation is affected from most by impact angle, and least by impact velocities. Additionally, ogival projectiles tend to be more sensitive to oblique angle and experienced the largest attitude changing. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088).
Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacques Luauté
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.
Weaver, B. P.; Hilbe, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Plesko, C. S.; Riggs, J. D.
2015-05-01
Many crater analysts will search for deviations of observed crater population data from model crater populations and treat those deviations as a modification event - usually resurfacing. We will discuss how to assign confidences for these deviations.
Frequency deviations and generation scheduling in the nordic system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhongwei; Samuelsson, Olaf; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo
2011-01-01
High penetration of variable generation such as wind power increases the demands on frequency control. The same applies to island operation and in particular if this involves variable generation, which is planned at the Danish island Bornholm. While it is obvious that the frequency control need to...... the frequency deviations and hourly scheduled generation. A simple model is given to reproduce these deterministic frequency variations. Simulations indicate that smaller system size as is typical for island operation does not necessarily increase these frequency variations provided load, generation...
Deviations in Tribimaximal Mixing From Sterile Neutrino Sector
Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero $U_{e3}$ element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and atmospheric mixing $\\theta_{23}$ different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.
Crystallographic evidence for deviating C3b structure?
Janssen, B.J.C.; Read, R.J.; Brunger, A. T.; Gros, P
2007-01-01
Activation of C3 into C3b is a critical step in the complement immune response against pathogenic, immunogenic and apoptotic particles. Ajees et al.1 report a crystal structure of C3b, which deviates from the one reported by Janssen et al.2 and Wiesmann et al.3. Analysis of the data deposited by Ajees et al.1 reveals features that are inconsistent with known physical properties of macromolecular structures and their diffraction data. Therefore, Ajees et al. do not provide substantial evidence...
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Q. Zhang; H.Y. Zhao; Y.H. Zhang; L.H. Li; X.A. Zhang
2004-01-01
Fatigue crack growth behaviors in electron beam weldments of a nickel-base superalloy are studied. The objective of this paper is to discuss effects of the inhomogeneity of mechanical performance on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate and crack path deviation (CPD). The base metal served in a turbine disk of aerospace engine was selected to fabricate bead-on-plate weldments by using electron beam welding. Some wedge-type opening loading specimens, notched in three different zone of weld metal, HAZ and base metal, were employed and performed fatigue crack growth tests at 650℃. The results show that the fatigue crack growth of electron beam welded joints is instable due to the influence of mechanical heterogeneities. Owing to the crack deviation at the weld metal and hcat-affected-zone (HAZ), the effective growth driving force at the tip of fatigue crack was reduced with the reduction of the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) which finally causes fatigue crack rate decrease. Fatigue crack was strongly affected by size and the symmetrical characteristics of the plastic zone at the crack tip, which means that the integrity of the welded structure containing the fatigue crack mainly depended on the toughness of the low strength zone.
The Time Deviation in Packet-Based Synchronization.
Weiss, M A; Shenoi, Kishan
2016-04-01
The telecommunications industry has used the time deviation (TDEV) very effectively for specifying network equipment clock performance as well as the performance of timing signals generated by Central Office equipment such as primary reference clocks and building integrated timing supplies (BITS) and synchronization supply units (SSUs). We discuss here the development of TDEV, and the variations of TDEV motivated by the advent of packet-switching and the steady transformation of the telecom network from circuit-switched-based to packet-switched-based. We illustrate these with simulation of the performance of the precise time protocol (PTP) across a packet-switched network. We then apply published methods to automatically determine noise types, and use these to predict time dispersion from a master clock for a slave clock using these PTP packets to stay synchronized. The result shows how TDEV and the other deviations provide an extensive array of tools for telecom networks, as well as for general time and frequency applications. PMID:26529756
Large deviations for random walk in a random environment
Yilmaz, Atilla
2008-01-01
In this work, we study the large deviation properties of random walk in a random environment on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ with $d\\geq1$. We start with the quenched case, take the point of view of the particle, and prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the pair empirical measure of the environment Markov chain. By an appropriate contraction, we deduce the quenched LDP for the mean velocity of the particle and obtain a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_q$. We propose an Ansatz for the minimizer of this formula. This Ansatz is easily verified when $d=1$. In his 2003 paper, Varadhan proves the averaged LDP for the mean velocity and gives a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_a$. Under the non-nestling assumption (resp. Kalikow's condition), we show that $I_a$ is strictly convex and analytic on a non-empty open set $\\mathcal{A}$, and that the true velocity $\\xi_o$ is an element (resp. in the closure) of $\\mathcal{A}$. We then identify the minimizer of Varadhan's variati...
Absorbed dose evaluation by SISCODES code, kerma and fluence deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiotherapy is a common treatment of cancer. Radiotherapy exposes the patient to a radiation field, producing ionization, and absorbed dose. A precise dose calculation and the ability to execute the irradiation on the patient are necessary in order to avoid serious injuries on the surrounding health tissue, thus, the maximum acceptable absorbed dose error from the prescribed and applied is about 5%. The doses on radiotherapy are usually calculated by superimposition experimental dose profile, namely PDP, which is experimentally measured in a water simulator. Moreover, the radiation interaction with human body tissues depends on the chemical composition and the tissue density, which means the anthropomorphism and anthropometric of the human being. This paper evaluates the deviation of calculated value of kerma, induced by human body heterogeneities. To do this job two thorax voxel models created on SISCODES (one filled with various tissues other filled with water) were applied. The result of simulations permits two different comparisons. One is the ratio between tissues kermas and water kerma. Another is the ratio between human phantom fluence, where exists radiation scatter and reflection, and water phantom fluence. The reconstructed pictures of studied regions showing the calculated ratios, and graphs of the ratios versus energy of each tissue are shown. The dose ratio deviations obtained are, in some situations, larger than the acceptable 5% point out serious miscalculation of doses for some spatial regions on the human body. (author)
Some Deviations Associated With Vector Perturbation Diffraction Theory
Stover, John C.; Hourmand, Bahrarr
1985-01-01
Last year at this conference our lab presented some data which strongly supports the use of the vector perturbation relationship between light scattered from smooth surfaces and the surface power spectral density (PSD). Last year's data showed that a consistent answer was obtained for the PSD for measurements taken with S and P polarization, with incident angles up to 45', for positive and negative sweeps, and for one and two dimensional samples. If in fact the theoretical relationship is correct then this must be the case, as the PSD is determined by a combination of surface topography and the scattering situation (geometry, polarization, wavelength, etc.). It appears, however that for large scatter angles (>700) and for large angles of incidence (>60 °) there is some deviation in the calculated PSD. In addition, the high angle scatter region is an area where a scatterometer with a semicircular detector sweep loses the one-to-one relationship between detector position and surface spatial frequency. Or, in other words, light diffracted to high scatter angles from single spatial frequencies appears over a small band on the observation semicircle instead of a diffraction limited point. Fata supporting these two deviations is presented. Although they are not regarded as serious violations of the vector perturbation theory they do impose a limit on the useful range over which the PSD may be calculated.
Maximum acceptable forces for repetitive ulnar deviation of the wrist.
Snook, S H; Vaillancourt, D R; Ciriello, V M; Webster, B S
1997-07-01
The purpose of this experiment was to quantify maximum acceptable forces for ulnar deviation motions of the wrist at various repetition rates. Subjects grasped a handle with a power grip and moved it through a 1.40 rad (80 degrees) ulnar deviation wrist motion (similar to a knife cutting task). A psychophysical methodology was used in which the subject adjusted the resistance on the handle and the experiment manipulated or controlled all other variables. Two series of experiments were conducted. Thirteen subjects completed the first series, which investigated repetition rates of 15 and 20 motions per minute. Eleven subjects completed the second series, which investigated 15, 20, and 25 motions per minute. Subjects performed for 7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks in the first series and 5 weeks in the second series. The subjects were instructed to work as if they were on an incentive basis, getting paid for the amount of work they performed. Symptoms were recorded by the subjects during the last 5 minutes of each hour. The results are presented and compared with maximum acceptable forces for wrist flexion and extension. PMID:9208467
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen
2009-01-01
In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.
Distributed Detection over Noisy Networks: Large Deviations Analysis
Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, Joao
2011-01-01
We study the large deviations performance of consensus+innovations distributed detection over noisy networks, where sensors at a time step k cooperate with immediate neighbors (consensus) and assimilate their new observations (innovation.) We show that, even under noisy communication, \\emph{all sensors} can achieve exponential decay e^{-k C_{\\mathrm{dis}}} of the detection error probability, even when certain (or most) sensors cannot detect the event of interest in isolation. We achieve this by designing a single time scale stochastic approximation type distributed detector with the optimal weight sequence {\\alpha_k}, by which sensors weigh their neighbors' messages. The optimal design of {\\alpha_k} balances the opposing effects of communication noise and information flow from neighbors: larger, slowly decaying \\alpha_k improves information flow but injects more communication noise. Further, we quantify the best achievable C_{\\mathrm{dis}} as a function of the sensing signal and noise, communication noise, an...
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm
Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles continuity via large deviations
Duarte, Pedro
2016-01-01
The aim of this monograph is to present a general method of proving continuity of Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles. The method uses an inductive procedure based on a general, geometric version of the Avalanche Principle. The main assumption required by this method is the availability of appropriate large deviation type estimates for quantities related to the iterates of the base and fiber dynamics associated with the linear cocycle. We establish such estimates for various models of random and quasi-periodic cocycles. Our method has its origins in a paper of M. Goldstein and W. Schlag. Our present work expands upon their approach in both depth and breadth. We conclude this monograph with a list of related open problems, some of which may be treated using a similar approach.
Large deviations of heat flow in harmonic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider heat transport across a harmonic chain connected at its two ends to white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. In the steady state of this system the heat Q flowing from one reservoir into the system in a finite time τ has a distribution P(Q, τ). We study the large time form of the corresponding moment generating function (e−λQ) ∼ g(λ)eτμ(λ). Exact formal expressions, in terms of phonon Green's functions, are obtained for both μ(λ) and also the lowest order correction g(λ). We point out that, in general, a knowledge of both μ(λ) and g(λ) is required for finding the large deviation function associated with P(Q, τ). The function μ(λ) is known to be the largest eigenvector of an appropriate Fokker–Planck type operator and our method also gives the corresponding eigenvector exactly
Large deviations from the thermodynamic limit in globally coupled maps
Hamm, A
1999-01-01
Systems of a large number N of globally coupled maps have become popular as a relatively simple prototype of high-dimensional dynamics, showing many interesting and typical phenomena like synchronisation, cluster formation and multistability, and having potential applications in systems like Josephson junction arrays or in biophysical models. There exists a wealth of numerical investigations of globally coupled maps. While much progress has been made in the explanation of the macroscopic behaviour of such systems in the limit of infinite N, there is still need for a sound theory about the asymptotic behaviour of finite-N systems as N approaches infinity. This article introduces a method by which it is possible to obtain asymptotic estimates for long-term deviations from the thermodynamic limit behaviour. This method is based upon the concept of quasipotentials, originally developed by Freidlin, Wentzell, and others for describing the influence of small random perturbations on the long-term behaviour of dynami...
The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene
Chan, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jia-Wei; Chen, Hung-Pin; Wei, Hung-Sen; Li, Meng-Chi; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng
2014-10-01
An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately.
Generalized deviation equation and determination of the curvature in General Relativity
Puetzfeld, Dirk; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2015-01-01
We derive a generalized deviation equation -- analogous to the well-known geodesic deviation equation -- for test bodies in General Relativity. Our result encompasses and generalizes previous extensions of the standard geodesic deviation equation. We show how the standard as well as a generalized deviation equation can be used to measure the curvature of spacetime by means of a set of test bodies. In particular, we provide exact solutions for the curvature by using the standard deviation equa...
Properties of Planet-induced Deviations in the Astrometric Microlensing Centroid Shift Trajectory
Han, Cheongho; Lee, Chunguk
2001-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the properties of the planet-induced deviations in the trajectory of the microlensed source star centroid motion (astrometric curve) and the correlations between the astrometric and photometric deviations. For this, we construct vector field maps of excess centroid shifts. Fromthe investigation of the maps, we find that the astrometric deviation is closely correlated with the photometric one. The astrometric deviation increases as the photometric deviation increa...
Armer, Jane M.; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W.; Zagar, Eris A.; Homan, Sherri; Bob R. Stewart
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clot...
Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10−160. We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)
A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Least Absolute Deviation Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinbo Li
2004-09-01
Full Text Available Least absolute deviation (LAD regression is an important tool used in numerous applications throughout science and engineering, mainly due to the intrinsic robust characteristics of LAD. In this paper, we show that the optimization needed to solve the LAD regression problem can be viewed as a sequence of maximum likelihood estimates (MLE of location. The derived algorithm reduces to an iterative procedure where a simple coordinate transformation is applied during each iteration to direct the optimization procedure along edge lines of the cost surface, followed by an MLE of location which is executed by a weighted median operation. Requiring weighted medians only, the new algorithm can be easily modularized for hardware implementation, as opposed to most of the other existing LAD methods which require complicated operations such as matrix entry manipulations. One exception is Wesolowsky's direct descent algorithm, which among the top algorithms is also based on weighted median operations. Simulation shows that the new algorithm is superior in speed to Wesolowsky's algorithm, which is simple in structure as well. The new algorithm provides a better tradeoff solution between convergence speed and implementation complexity.
Optimal aggregation of noisy observations: A large deviations approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sensing and data aggregation tasks in distributed systems should not be considered as separate issues. The quality of collective estimation involves a fundamental tradeoff between sensing quality, which can be increased by increasing the number of sensors, and aggregation quality under a given capacity of the network, which decreases if the number of sensors is too large. In this paper, we examine a system level strategy for optimal aggregation of data from an ensemble of independent sensors. In particular, we consider large scale aggregation from very many sensors, in which case the network capacity diverges to infinity. Then, by applying the large deviations techniques, we conclude the following significant result: larger scale aggregation always outperforms smaller scale aggregation at higher noise levels, while below a critical value of noise, there exist moderate scale aggregation levels at which optimal estimation is realized. At a critical value of noise, there is an abrupt change in the behavior of a parameter characterizing the aggregation strategy, similar to a phase transition in statistical physics.
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deirdre Kindregan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Assessment of fluctuating asymmetry on the basis of standard deviation
Zorina Anastasia
2013-01-01
The practical application of newly introduced indicator and integrated index of fluctuating asymmetry, based on standard deviation, is discussed. The calculating mechanism of proposed assessment is discussed in detail.Обсуждается вопрос по практическому применению недавно введенного показателя и интегрального индекса флуктуирующей асимметрии на основе нормированного отклонения. Подробно рассматривается механизм вычисления предложенной оценки....
Constraints on deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity
Bellini, Emilio; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2015-01-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Bac...
Hussain, K M; Gould, L; Pomerantsev, E V; Angirekula, M; Bharathan, T
1995-07-01
To assess the clinical, coronary arteriographic, and hemodynamic differences between the unstable angina patients manifesting ST segment depression and those showing ST segment elevation as well as those demonstrating chest pain only without ST segment deviation during pacing, low-dose digital subtraction ventriculography was performed in 33 patients before and after abrupt cessation of atrial pacing during selective coronary arteriography. Transient ST segment depression during pacing was observed in 17 patients (52%), whereas 6 patients (18%) showed ST segment elevation; however, 10 patients (30%) did not manifest any ST segment deviation in spite of typical chest pain. Hypertension and a history of myocardial infarction were observed in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of patients with ST segment depression than in those with ST elevation. Patients who manifested ST segment depression during pacing had a higher incidence of triple-vessel disease (65 vs 17%; P < .05) as compared with the patients with ST segment elevation. Indirect evidence of intracoronary thrombi (complicated lesion, abrupt occlusion, and intraluminal filling defect) was noticed in a higher frequency (P < 0.05) in the group of patients with ST elevation during pacing. In patients with ST segment depression, no significant changes of global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters were observed. However, the length of the LV severe hypokinetic region was increased significantly (6.2 +/- 3.1 vs 23.5 +/- 6.2%; P < 0.005) during pacing in this group of patients. The shortening of the affected segments of the left ventricle was decreased significantly (52.3 +/- 3.6 vs 38.3 +/- 4.9%; P < 0.05) in these patients during pacing. In the group of patients with ST segment elevation during pacing, decrease in ejection fraction was associated with significant (P < 0.01) increase in midwall equatorial diastolic stress as compared with the patients with pacing-induced ST segment depression as
Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry
Wanas, M I
2004-01-01
A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contents of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, the proportion of their free and bound forms, as well as the activity of GABA, aspartate, and alanine aminotransferases were analyzed in cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain stem of rats during the first 48 hours after irradiation. The analyzed alterations refer to an inhibition of the GABA shunt in brain and to a change of neuromediators between free and bound forms for the free ones. In all parts alterations of the same kind were found, only peculiar deviations in the GABA system were seen in the cerebellum one hour after irradiation, which were characterized by decrease of GABA T activity and increase of GABA level. Application of a complex of vitamins and coferments (ATP, thiamine pyrophosphate, lipoate, calcium pantothenate, nicotinamide, flavine adenindinucleotide, and pyridoxalphosphate), affecting as stimulator of bioenergetics in brain, normalized the level of neutromediatory amino acids. (author)
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC LIMIT OF A GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The authors consider the moderate deviations of hydrodynamic limit for Ginzburg-Landau models. The moderate deviation principle of hydrodynamic limit for a specific Ginzburg-Landau model is obtained and an explicit formula of the rate function is derived.
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration are proved for 3≤d≤6, which fills in the gap between central limit theorem(CLT)and large deviation principle(LDP).
Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.
Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example
On the asymptotic distribution of the mean absolute deviation about the mean
Segers, Johan
2014-01-01
The mean absolute deviation about the mean is an alternative to the standard deviation for measuring dispersion in a sample or in a population. For stationary, ergodic time series with a finite first moment, an asymptotic expansion for the sample mean absolute deviation is proposed. The expansion yields the asymptotic distribution of the sample mean absolute deviation under a wide range of settings, allowing for serial dependence or an infinite second moment. Key words: central limit theorem;...
On the asymptotic distribution of the mean absolute deviation about the mean
Segers, Johan
2014-01-01
The mean absolute deviation about the mean is an alternative to the standard deviation for measuring dispersion in a sample or in a population. For stationary, ergodic time series with a finite first moment, an asymptotic expansion for the sample mean absolute deviation is proposed. The expansion yields the asymptotic distribution of the sample mean absolute deviation under a wide range of settings, allowing for serial dependence or an infinite second moment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section 400.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
2010-01-01
... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...
Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation
Gorard, Stephen
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…
Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N≥0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x2, y2, and x1-y1 in the domain x1>N, y1>N, and only on x1, y1, and x2-y2 in the domain x2>N, y2>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s→∞, |x|→∞, and n→∞. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|→∞, |y|→∞. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general form without using any special properties of the specific applications mentioned above. It turns out that such an analysis is quite
On the applicability of the geodesic deviation equation in General Relativity
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2016-01-01
Within the theory of General Relativity we study the solution and range of applicability of the standard geodesic deviation equation in highly symmetric spacetimes. The deviation equation is used to model satellite orbit constellations around the earth. In particular, we reconsider the deviation equation in Newtonian gravity and then determine relativistic effects within the theory of General Relativity. The deviation of nearby orbits, as constructed from exact solutions of the underlying geodesic equation, is compared to the solution of the geodesic deviation equation to assess the accuracy of the latter. Furthermore, we comment on the so-called Shirokov effect in Schwarzschild spacetime.
Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
2010-08-15
To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)
Trade Finance Affects Trade Dynamics
ARESPA CASTELLÓ, Marta; Gruber, Diego
2016-01-01
Existent literature is by no means conclusive on the effects of trade finance on trade and the economy. We propose a suitable framework to explore the linkages between international trade and finance based on an international real business cycle model where firms require external finance to import and can be financially constrained. We find that credit shocks do affect the dynamic properties of the economy and they have the potential to cause significant deviations in trade and economic perfo...
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
The standard deviation effect (or why one should sit first base playing blackjack)
Garcia, E. Munoz; Marco, R. Perez
2000-01-01
For a balanced cardcounting system we study the random variable of the true count after a number of cards are removed from the remaining deck and we prove a close formula for its standard deviation. As expected, the formula shows that the standard deviation increases with the number of cards removed. This creates a "standard deviation effect" with a two fold consequence: longer long run and presumably larger fluctuations of the bankroll, but a small gain in playing accuracy for the player sit...
Precision analysis for standard deviation measurements of single fluorescent molecule images
DeSantis, Michael C.; DeCenzo, Shawn H.; Li, Je-Luen; Y. M. Wang
2009-01-01
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera. We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image whic...
DeSantis, Michael C.; DeCenzo, Shawn H.; Li, Je-Luen; Y. M. Wang
2010-01-01
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system’s spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera. We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image whic...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li
2009-01-01
A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.
Bilateral symmetry of the mastoid processes in jaw deformity cases with mandibular deviation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We used three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) to investigate differences in the amount of mandibular deviation and the position of the mastoid processes at the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in subjects who had jaw deformities with mandibular deviation. We measured the distance from the Frankfort horizontal (FH), frontal and sagittal median planes to the mastoid processes. We also measured mandibular deviation as the distance from the sagittal median plane to Me (Me deviation distance), the angle of the FH plane to Ag line (vertical mandibular deviation angle), as well as the angle of the sagittal median plane to Ag line (axial mandibular deviation angle). We calculated the ratios of the vertical, anteroposterior and lateral distances from each plane to the bilateral mastoid processes. Significant correlation was found between the Me deviation distance and the ratio of the vertical distance to the bilateral mastoid processes. Significant correlation was also found between the axial mandibular deviation angle and the ratio of the vertical distance to the bilateral mastoid processes. Our results suggest that in patients with jaw deformities there is a correlation between deviation of the mandible from the body axis and the position of the mastoid processes. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asaranti Kar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTD are a group of serious birth defects occurring due to defective closure of neural tube during embryonic development. It comprises of anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. We conducted this prospective fetal autopsy series to study the rate and distribution of NTD, analyze the reproductive factors and risk factors, note any associated anomalies and evaluate the organ weights and their deviation from normal. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study done over a period of 6 years from August, 2007 to July, 2013. All cases of NTDs delivered as abortion, still born and live born were included. The reproductive and risk factors like age, parity, multiple births, previous miscarriage, obesity, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and use of folic acid during pregnancy were collected.Autopsy was performed according to Virchow′s technique. Detail external and internal examination were carried out to detect any associated anomalies. Gross and microscopic examination of organs were done. Results: Out of 210 cases of fetal and perinatal autopsy done, 72 (34.28% had NTD constituting 49 cases of anencephaly, 16 spina bifida and 7 cases of encephalocele. The mothers in these cases predominantly were within 25-29 years (P = 0.02 and primy (P = 0.01. Female sex was more commonly affected than males (M:F = 25:47, P = 0.0005 There was no history of folate use in majority of cases. Organ weight deviations were >2 standard deviation low in most of the cases. Most common associated anomalies were adrenal hypoplasia and thymic hyperplasia. Conclusion: The authors have made an attempt to study NTD cases in respect to maternal reproductive and risk factors and their association with NTD along with the organ weight deviation and associated anomalies. This so far in our knowledge is an innovative study which was not found in literature even after extensive search.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Zvetkov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The principles and methods of computer-aided measuring system using instruments of inertial navigation are presented. This allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment taking into account dynamics deviation of angle error. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measurement of azimuthal angle error.
G. A. Zvetkov; M. A. Egorov
2015-01-01
The principles and methods of computer-aided measuring system using instruments of inertial navigation are presented. This allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment taking into account dynamics deviation of angle error. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measurement of azimuthal angle error.
Exchange rate uncertainty and deviations from purchasing power parity: Evidence from the G7 area
Arghyrou, Michael G.; Gregoriou, Andros; Pourpourides, Panayiotis M.
2009-01-01
Arghyrou, Gregoriou and Pourpourides (2009) argue that exchange rate uncertainty causes deviations from the law of one price. We test this hypothesis on aggregate data from the G7-area. We find that exchange rate uncertainty explains to a significant degree deviations from Purchasing Power Parity.
Exchange rate uncertainty and deviations from Purchasing Power Parity: Evidence from the G7 area
Arghyrou, Michael G.; Gregoriou, Andros; Pourpourides, Panayiotis M.
2009-01-01
Arghyrou, Gregoriou and Pourpourides (2009) argue that exchange rate uncertainty causes deviations from the law of one price. We test this hypothesis on aggregate data from the G7-area. We find that exchange rate uncertainty explains to a significant degree deviations from Purchasing Power Parity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Wen JIANG; Li Ming WU
2005-01-01
All known results on large deviations of occupation measures of Markov processes are based on the assumption of (essential) irreducibility. In this paper we establish the weak* large deviation principle of occupation measures for any countable Markov chain with arbitrary initial measures. The new rate function that we obtain is not convex and depends on the initial measure, contrary to the (essentially) irreducible case.
The single server queue and the storage model: Large deviations and fixed points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moez Draief
2006-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the coupling of a single server queue and a storage model defined as a queue/store model. We establish that if the input variables, arrivals at the queue and store, satisfy large deviations principles and are linked through an exponential tilting, then the output variables (departures from each system satisfy large deviations principles with the same rate function.
Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI
1991-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
An Upper Bound on Standard Deviation as a Function of Range
Petocz, Peter
2005-01-01
This article disproves a conjecture that the ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the range of a set of data decreases as the number of data points increases. It also provides an alternative and more general approach for examining the standard deviation as a function of the range.
Moderate Deviations for M-estimators in Linear Models with φ-mixing Errors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun FAN
2012-01-01
In this paper,the moderate deviations for the M-estimators of regression parameter in a linear model are obtained when the errors form a strictly stationary φ-mixing sequence.The results are applied to study many different types of M-estimators such as Huber's estimator,Lp-regression estimator,least squares estimator and least absolute deviation estimator.
Large Deviations for Parameter Estimators of Some Time Inhomogeneous Diffusion Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shou Jiang ZHAO; Fu Qing GAO
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to study large deviations for estimator and score function of some time inhomogeneous diffusion process.Large deviation in the non-steepness case with explicit rate functions is obtained by using parameter-dependent change of measure.
7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.
2010-01-01
...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS...
Deformation behavior of A6063 tube with initial thickness deviation in free hydraulic bulging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Lian-fa; GUO Cheng; DENG Yang
2006-01-01
Experiment on seamless tubes of aluminum alloy A6063 with initial thickness deviation of 0-20% was conducted through a free hydraulic bulging with tube ends free. The influence of initial thickness deviation on the cross-section profile, thickness distribution, maximum internal pressure and maximum radial expansion was investigated. FEM simulation was also performed in order to examine and help explaining the experimental results. The results indicate that the internal pressure and maximum internal pressure appear to be little influenced by the initial thickness deviation, and that the cross-section profile of the bulged tube changes diversely and can not be a perfect circle. The results also suggest that the increase in initial thickness deviation may lead to a remarkable decrease in maximum radial expansion, and a rapid increase in thickness deviation and the center eccentricity of the inner and outer profiles.
Bongiorno, C; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Miccichè, S
2016-01-01
Understanding the relation between planned and realized flight trajectories and the determinants of flight deviations is of great importance in air traffic management. In this paper we perform an in depth investigation of the statistical properties of planned and realized air traffic on the German airspace during a 28 day periods, corresponding to an AIRAC cycle. We find that realized trajectories are on average shorter than planned ones and this effect is stronger during night-time than daytime. Flights are more frequently deviated close to the departure airport and at a relatively large angle to destination. Moreover, the probability of a deviation is higher in low traffic phases. All these evidences indicate that deviations are mostly used by controllers to give directs to flights when traffic conditions allow it. Finally we introduce a new metric, termed difork, which is able to characterize navigation points according to the likelihood that a deviation occurs there. Difork allows to identify in a statist...
Benkler, Erik; Sterr, Uwe
2015-01-01
The power spectral density in Fourier frequency domain, and the different variants of the Allan deviation (ADEV) in dependence on the averaging time are well established tools to analyse the fluctuation properties and frequency instability of an oscillatory signal. It is often supposed that the statistical uncertainty of a measured average frequency is given by the ADEV at a well considered averaging time. However, this approach requires further mathematical justification and refinement, which has already been done regarding the original ADEV for certain noise types. Here we provide the necessary background to use the modified Allan deviation (modADEV) and other two-sample deviations to determine the uncertainty of weighted frequency averages. The type of two-sample deviation used to determine the uncertainty depends on the method used for determination of the average. We find that the modADEV, which is connected with $\\Lambda$-weighted averaging, and the two sample deviation associated to a linear phase regr...
The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-02-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:15692343
The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches
Analysis of some fuel characteristics deviations and their influence over WWER-440 fuel cycle design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of some deviations in WWER-440 fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics upon fuel core design. A large number of different fresh fuel assemblies with enrichment of 3.5 t % are examined related to the enrichment, mass of initial metal Uranium and assembly shroud thickness. Infinite multiplication factor (Kinf) in fuel assembly has been calculated by HELIOS spectral code for basic assembly and for different FA with deviation of a single parameter. The effects from single parameter deviation (enrichment) and from two parameter deviations (enrichment and wall thickness) on the neutron-physics characteristics of the core are estimated for different fuel assemblies. Relatively week burnup dependence on Kinf is observed as result of deviation in the enrichment of the fuel and in the wall thickness of the assembly. An assessment of a FA single and two parameter deviations effects on design fuel cycle duration and relative power peaking factor is also considers in the paper. As a final conclusion can be settled that the maximum relative shortness of fuel cycle can be observed in the case of two FA parameters deviations
Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.
Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo
2016-01-01
Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. PMID:26436712
A contribution to large deviations for heavy-tailed random sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU; Chun
2001-01-01
［1］ Nagaev, A. V., Integral limit theorems for large deviations when Cramer's condition is not fulfilled I, II, Theory Prob. Appl., 1969, 14: 51-64, 193-208.［2］ Nagaev, A. V., Limit theorems for large deviations where Cramer's conditions are violated (In Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser., Fiz-Mat Nauk., 1969, 7: 17.［3］ Heyde, C. C., A contribution to the theory of large deviations for sums of independent random variables, Z. Wahrscheinlichkeitsth, 1967, 7: 303.［4］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities for sums of random variables which are not attracted to the normal law, Ann. Math. Statist., 1967, 38: 1575.［5］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities in the case of attraction to a nonnormal stable law, Sanky, 1968, 30: 253.［6］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations for sums of independent random variables, in Sixth Prague Conf. on Information Theory, Random Processes and Statistical Decision Functions, Prague: Academic, 1973, 657674.［7］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations of sums of independent random variables, Ann. Prob., 1979, 7: 745.［8］ Embrechts, P., Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1997.［9］ Cline, D. B. H., Hsing, T., Large deviation probabilities for sums and maxima of random variables with heavy or subexponential tails, Preprint, Texas A&M University, 1991.［10］ Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Large deviations of heavy-tailed random sums with applications to insurance and finance, J. Appl. Prob., 1997, 34: 293.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne
2014-01-01
Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...
Chen, Guanglong; Geng, Xiaotao; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Yiming; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili; Kim, Dong Eon
2013-03-01
This work aims to understand the cluster size deviation from the prediction by an existing scaling law for conical nozzles. The dimensions of cluster jet at different heights above a nozzle along the direction of gas flow are measured. This study indicates that the dimension of cluster jet is underestimated in the existing scaling law and this under-estimation leads to the over-estimation of the equivalent diameter of conical nozzle. Thus the underestimation of the dimension of cluster jet may be one of possible factors responsible for the cluster size deviation (the degree of the deviation depends on details of cluster jet).
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films
Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao
2013-08-01
The deviations of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.
Level 1 quenched large deviation principle for random walk in dynamic random environment
Drewitz, David Campos Alexander
2011-01-01
Consider a random walk on a continuous time-dependent random environment on the hiper-cubic lattice. Recently, Rassoul-Agha, Seppalainen and Yilmaz proved a general large deviation principle under mild ergodicity assumptions on the random environment for such a random walk, establishing first a level 2 and 3 large deviation principle. Here we present an alternative short proof of the level 1 large deviations under mild ergodicity assumptions on the environment, which provides the existence and convexity of the rate function, in the continuous time case. Our methods are based on the use of sub-additive ergodic theorem as presented by Varadhan in 2003.
A large deviations approach to limit theory for heavy-tailed time series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Wintenberger, Olivier
2016-01-01
In this paper we propagate a large deviations approach for proving limit theory for (generally) multivariate time series with heavy tails. We make this notion precise by introducing regularly varying time series. We provide general large deviation results for functionals acting on a sample path and...... vanishing in some neighborhood of the origin. We study a variety of such functionals, including large deviations of random walks, their suprema, the ruin functional, and further derive weak limit theory for maxima, point processes, cluster functionals and the tail empirical process. One of the main results...
Analysis of Road Base Uniformity via the Deviation of Modulus of Asphalt Mixtures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHI Yufeng; ZHANG Xiaoning
2007-01-01
The modulus deviation of base material calculated from the data of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to evaluate the uniformity of road base so as to reflect the construction quality. Four parameters,the repeatability standard deviation of the data in the same driveway, the reproducibility standard deviation of the data in the different driveway, the consistency statistics value of the data in the different driveway, and the consistency statistics value of the data in the same driveway, were introduced for the construction uniformity analysis. The experimental result shows that the materials modulus calculated from FWD has a highly correlative relationship with the uniformity of road base.
The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jahangir Vajed Samiei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2–34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1 to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2 to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn, dark respiration (R, autotrophic capability (Pn/R, and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Samson, Kristine
, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...
A kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation of a gear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inspection of a gear's pitch deviation is one of the most important tests on gears. The specifications of gears are usually assessed using gear measuring instruments or coordinate measuring machines. The National Metrology Institute of Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt proposed the closure technique for measuring gear pitch deviation, which can eliminate the systematic errors in pitch measurement, and can also be used for calibrating pitch standards. The reference to a closure technique—a kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation—is introduced, of which the measurement process is relatively simple, and systematic errors can also be eliminated. Two gears’ pitch deviations were measured by adopting the closure technique and multi-step method, respectively. The result shows that the multi-step method can also be used for highly accurate measurements of pitch deviation. (paper)
Large deviations for Hilbert space valued Wiener processes: a sequence space approach
Andresen, Andreas; Imkeller, Peter; Perkowski, Nicolas
2012-01-01
Ciesielski's isomorphism between the space of alpha-H\\"older continuous functions and the space of bounded sequences is used to give an alternative proof of the large deviation principle for Wiener processes with values in Hilbert space.
AUTOMATED METERING SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL-ANGULAR DEVIATIONS
G. A. Zvetkov
2015-01-01
Automatic metering system using devices and instruments for inertial navigation has been elaborated. The system allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measuring of the azimuth angle error.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO; Fuqing
2006-01-01
We first give a functional moderate deviation principle for random processes with stationary and independent increments under the Ledoux's condition.Then we apply the result to laws of the iterated logarithm.
41 CFR 102-33.10 - May we request approval to deviate from these rules?
2010-07-01
...,” revised May 22, 1992. You should consult with GSA's Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA) before you request a deviation. Also, you should fax a copy of your letter of request to MTA at 202-501-6742 at...
40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November... § 60.2215, for any pollutant or parameter that deviated from the emission limitations or...
40 CFR 62.14740 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... include in the deviation report? In each report required under § 62.14735, for any pollutant or...
40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter...
Fang, Shizan; Zhang, Tusheng
2003-01-01
We study a class of stochastic differential equations with non-Lipschitzian coefficients.A unique strong solution is obtained and a large deviation principle of Freidln-Wentzell type has been established.
40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2958 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report... incidents (other than downtime associated with zero, span, and other routine calibration checks)....
Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Driven by a Poisson Random Measure
Budhiraja, Amarjit; Dupuis, Paul
2012-01-01
Stochastic partial differential equations driven by Poisson random measures (PRM) have been proposed as models for many different physical systems, where they are viewed as a refinement of a corresponding noiseless partial differential equations (PDE). A systematic framework for the study of probabilities of deviations of the stochastic PDE from the deterministic PDE is through the theory of large deviations. The goal of this work is to develop the large deviation theory for small Poisson noise perturbations of a general class of deterministic infinite dimensional models. Although the analogous questions for finite dimensional systems have been well studied, there are currently no general results in the infinite dimensional setting. This is in part due to the fact that in this setting solutions may have little spatial regularity, and thus classical approximation methods for large deviation analysis become intractable. The approach taken here, which is based on a variational representation for nonnegative func...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion BULAC
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Due to technical deviations, in the elements of the 4R spatial spherical mechanism appear efforts thatadditionally loads the mechanism, efforts that can be determined with the calculation algorithm that will bepresented in this paper
Sarah D. Alison-Youel
2008-01-01
Liquefied gas reaction turbines are subject to the hydraulic affinity laws. Particularly for liquefied hydrocarbon gas-driven turbines, deviations from the affinity laws are encountered. In the case of reaction turbines, where the geometry is fixed, the affinity law relationships between flow, head, and rotational speed are relevant. Field experience confirms that the affinity law relationships are adequate, but that the predictions made also tend to deviate from real turbine performance. Par...
Cost Contingency as the Standard Deviation of the Cost Estimate for Cost Engineering
Geoffrey Rothwell
2004-01-01
Traditional cost contingency estimation relies heavily on expert judgment based on various cost-engineering standards. This paper compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contingencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Institute. It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingencies equal to the standard deviation of the cost estimate. It suggests how this standard deviation can be derive...
Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result
Jacques Luauté; Sophie Jacquin-Courtois; Jacinta O'Shea; Laure Christophe; Gilles Rode; Dominique Boisson; Yves Rossetti
2012-01-01
Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purpos...
Model for crystallization kinetics: Deviations from Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics
Castro, Mario; Domínguez-Adame Acosta, Francisco; Sánchez, A; Rodriguez, T.
1999-01-01
We propose a simple and versatile model to understand the deviations from the well-known Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics theory found in metal recrystallization and amorphous semiconductor crystallization. We analyze the kinetics of the transformation and the grain-size distribution of the product material, finding a good overall agreement between our model and available experimental data. The information so obtained could help to relate the mentioned experimental deviations due to pr...
Large deviations for multidimensional state-dependent shot-noise processes
Budhiraja, Amarjit; Nyquist, Pierre
2015-01-01
Shot-noise processes are used in applied probability to model a variety of physical systems in, for example, teletraffic theory, insurance and risk theory, and in the engineering sciences. In this paper we prove a large deviation principle for the sample-paths of a general class of multidimensional state-dependent Poisson shot-noise processes. The result covers previously known large deviation results for one-dimensional state-independent shot-noise processes with light tail...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviation of geometric parameter from its design value of flat panel detector computed tomography (CT) would result in image quality degradation. A structural deviation calibration and parameters obtaining algorithm based on projections was developed to improve the accuracy. The algorithm uses a simple calibration phantom and serial projections to adjust the system structure and analytically estimate the geometric CT parameters. Calculations demonstrate that the algorithm is very accurate with the error less than 0.5%, and experiments show high quality images. (authors)
Finite-time deviations from exponential decay in the Weisskopf-Wigner model of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the first time to the authors' knowledge, a mathematically rigorous method is used for treating finite-time deviations from the exponential decay in the case of spontaneous Lyman-α transition in a two-level hydrogenic atom. In the so-called Weisskopf-Wigner model (where the rotating-wave approximation is implied), finite-time deviations with a rigorous validity range, based on accurate error estimations, are derived. (orig.)
Large deviations in physics the legacy of the law of large numbers
Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide
2014-01-01
This book reviews the basic ideas of the Law of Large Numbers with its consequences to the deterministic world and the issue of ergodicity. Applications of Large Deviations and their outcomes to Physics are surveyed. The book covers topics encompassing ergodicity and its breaking and the modern applications of Large deviations to equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, disordered and chaotic systems, and turbulence.
Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan
2010-01-01
textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...
Standard deviation of the intersection point for two statistically uncertain curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of estimating the standard deviation of the intersection point of two curves characterized by some statistical uncertainties is presented. The method is based on a computer simulation of deviations of the curves. An example of application of the method to estimate the accuracy of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section measurement is described. Computer program in FORTRAN language is enclosed. (author)
A new procedure for monitoring the range and standard deviation of a quality characteristic
Kiani, Mehdi; Panaretos, John; Psarakis, Stelios
2008-01-01
The Shewhart and the Bonferroni-adjustment R and S chart are usually applied to monitor the range and the standard deviation of a quality characteristic. These charts are used to recognize the process variability of a quality characteristic. The control limits of these charts are constructed on the assumption that the population follows approximately the normal distribution with the standard deviation parameter known or unknown. In this article, we establish two new charts based approximately...
Timothy J. Fullman; Erin L. Bunting
2014-01-01
Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI) applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for asse...
Sobrino, Celia; Sánchez-Delgado, Sergio; García-Hernando, Néstor; Vega, Mercedes
2008-01-01
This work describes the behaviour of the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds for group B particles in the bubbling regime. An empirical–theoretical function, which depends on the gas velocity, is proposed for predicting the pressure signal fluctuations, and the corresponding values of are calculated. The differences in the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations obtained for absolute or differential sensors are analyzed and compared to experimental values corresp...
Pastor, Dominique; Socheleau, Franc¸ois-Xavier; Aïssa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil
2009-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of estimating the noise standard deviation in different signal processing applications. The presented estimator derives from recent results in robust statistics based on sparsity hypotheses. More specifically, these theoretical results make the link between a standard problem in robust statistics (the estimation of the noise standard deviation in presence of outliers) and sparsity hypotheses. The estimator derived from these theoretical results can be applied t...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salovaara-Moring, Inka
Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Moreva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in
Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Identification of characteristic model-observation deviations for coupled data assimilation
Geppert, Gernot; Ament, Felix
2016-04-01
Exchange fluxes of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere lead to the propagation of errors from one model component to the other. Data assimilation can correct such errors in two ways, either by correcting the observed state directly or by changing the state that caused the exchange fluxes. The land surface, for example, strongly determines the temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. The assimilation of boundary layer temperature can then correct the model's temperature directly. Or the assimilation of boundary layer temperature can act on the model's land surface state. A coupled data assimilation system should exploit these links and enable the second type of correction across model components. Data assimilation relies on instantaneous deviations between model forecasts and observations. Such instantaneous deviations are often hard to relate to errors in specific model components. Therefore, model verification builds on more sophisticated statistics such as long-term biases, gradients, phase shifts, or conditional differences that yield characteristic differences between model forecasts and observations. Compared to the instantaneous deviations in data assimilation, the characteristic deviations in model verification are more closely linked to errors in specific model components. Consequently, such characteristic deviations can potentially be used for data assimilation across model components where instantaneous deviations are not sufficiently informative. As a first step towards data assimilation with characteristic deviations (here named fingerprints), we use ensembles of simulations with the Icosahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) model to identify applicable statistics of observable variables. We run ICON in a large eddy simulation configuration on a small, limited domain and systematically perturb soil and land-surface parameters and states to produce the ensembles. Subsequently, we test statistics of boundary layer observables to
Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M
2013-01-01
Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587
Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4721), in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time. We introduce a general approximation for the finite-time efficiency distribution, P(η), based on large deviation statistics of work and heat, that remains very accurate even when P(η) deviates significantly from its large deviation form. (fast track communication)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoegl, A.
1996-07-01
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird untersucht, wie aus rechtlicher Sicht Messabweichungen bei Strahlenschutzmessungen zu beruecksichtigen sind, wenn Messergebnisse mit Grenzwerten des Atomrechts oder Gueterverkehrsrechts verglichen werden. Hierzu wird eine Fallunterscheidung vorgeschlagen, die von den jeweiligen Rechtsfolgen eine Messung ausgeht. In Kommentaren zum Atomrecht konnten keine Hinweise fuer die rechtliche Bewertung von Messabweichungen bei Strahlenschutzmessungen gefunden werden. Die in Rechtskommentaren zur Zivil- und Strafprozessordnung enthaltenen Beispiele der Fehlerberuecksichtigung bei Messungen zur Geschwindigkeitsueberwachung und Blutalkoholbestimmung sowie ein Kommentar zum Ozongesetz wurden auf Analogien zu Strahlenschutzmessungen untersucht. Gerichtliche Grundsatzentscheidungen aus dem Bereich der Kerntechnik werden im Hinblick auf Anforderungen bei Messabweichungen ausgewertet. Im letzten Abschnitt sind die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beitz Eric
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $\\Lambda$CDM $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity
Ganiou, M G; Houndjo, M J S; Tossa, J
2016-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation has been investigated in the framework of $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity, where $T$ denotes the torsion and $\\mathcal{T}$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The FRW metric is assumed and the geodesic deviation equation has been established following the General Relativity approach in the first hand and secondly, by a direct method using the modified Friedmann equations. Via fundamental observers and null vector fields with FRW background, we have generalized the Raychaudhuri equation and the Mattig relation in $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity. Furthermore, we have numerically solved the geodesic deviation equation for null vector fields by considering a particular form of $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ which induces interesting results susceptible to be tested with observational data.
Analysis of Deviations in an Agent and Ontology-Based Dialogue Management System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Algorithms of detecting dialogue deviations from a dialogue topic in an agent and ontology-based dialogue management system(AODMS) are proposed. In AODMS, agents and ontologies are introduced to represent domain knowledge. And general algorithms that model dialogue phenomena in different domains can be realized in that complex relationships between knowledge in different domains can be described by ontologies. An evaluation of the dialogue management system with deviation-judging algorithms on 736 utterances shows that the AODMS is able to talk about the given topic consistently and answer 86.6% of the utterances, while only 72.1% of the utterances can be responded correctly without deviation-judging module.
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
Li, Tiejun; Lin, Feng
2016-04-01
Motivated by the study of rare events for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, in this paper we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction systems. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals for the considered two-scale processes based upon the second quantization path integral technique. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two timescales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by the path integral. We find that the three regimes possess the same deterministic mean-field limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit for chemical reactions. We also discuss its implication on the single-molecule Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes.
Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys
Murphy, S. T.
2010-08-03
Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.
Definition of resulting angle of the deviation after the passage of neutrons through the crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper is dedicated to the consideration of passage of neutrons in the crystal. The expression for intensity distribution is obtained by the method of the multiple scattering theories. The received results are applied to calculation angle of the deviation of neutrons by nucleus of the crystal. Here is shown that at the large angle of deviation, the intensity of distribution decreases with reduction of angle much more slowly than till Gaussian law. The received expression for the angle of the dviation allows defining of the impulse of the neutron
Relative entropy: Free energy associated with equilibrium fluctuations and nonequilibrium deviations
Qian, Hong
2001-04-01
Using a one-dimensional macromolecule in aqueous solution as an illustration, we demonstrate that the relative entropy from information theory, ∑kpk ln(pk/p*k), has a natural role in the energetics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium conformational fluctuations of the single molecule. It is identified as the free energy difference associated with a fluctuating density in equilibrium, and is associated with the distribution deviate from the equilibrium in nonequilibrium relaxation. This result can be generalized to any other isothermal macromolecular system using the mathematical theories of large deviations and Markov processes, and at the same time provides the well-known mathematical results with interesting physical interpretations.
THE STRUCTURE AND PRECISE MODERATE DEVIATIONS OF RANDOM VARIABLES WITH DOMINATEDLY VARYING TAILS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuebao; YANG Yang
2005-01-01
This paper shows the structure of the random variables with dominatedly varying tails and that of the associated random variables,and obtains some results on these r.v.s' precise moderate deviations with random centralizing constants,which extend the boundary γλ(t) of large deviations to γ(λ(t))1/s,where γ＞0,1＜s＜2,λ(t) is the expectation of the random index N(t),t＞O.
Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters
Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2011-01-01
This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the factors for the control limits. The Phase II performance of the design schemes is assessed when the Phase I data are uncontaminated and normally distributed as well as when the Phase I data are con...
Correcting Multi-focus Images via Simple Standard Deviation for Image Fusion
Jassim, Firas A.
2013-01-01
Image fusion is one of the recent trends in image registration which is an essential field of image processing. The basic principle of this paper is to fuse multi-focus images using simple statistical standard deviation. Firstly, the simple standard deviation for the k-by-k window inside each of the multi-focus images was computed. The contribution in this paper came from the idea that the focused part inside an image had high details rather than the unfocused part. Hence, the dispersion betw...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten
2014-01-01
A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i...... demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....
The Standard Deviation of Life-Length, Retirement Incentives, and Optimal Pension Design
Aronsson, Thomas; Blomquist, Sören
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider how the retirement age as well as a tax financed pension system ought to respond to a change in the standard deviation of the length of life. In a first best framework, where a benevolent government exercises perfect control over the individuals' labor supply and retirement-decisions, the results show that a decrease in the standard deviation of life-length leads to an increase in the optimal retirement age and vice versa, if the preferences for 'the number of years...
Trandel Gregory A; Maxcy Joel G
2011-01-01
One measure of sports league competitive balance uses a ratio: the standard deviation of team winning percentages is divided by the so-called ideal standard deviation, which assumes a game between evenly-skilled teams is equally likely to be won by either team. In fact, a team is more likely to win when playing at home than when playing on the road. The extent of this advantage differs across sports leagues. Home advantage reduces the variability of season-long team records. Ignoring home adv...
Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008
Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.
2006-01-01
The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.
Fixed pattern deviations in Si pixel detectors measured using the Medipix 1 readout chip
Tlustos, L; Davidson, D; Heijne, Erik H M; Mikulec, B
2003-01-01
Dopant fluctuations and other defects in silicon wafers can lead to systematic errors in several parameters in particle or single-photon detection. In imaging applications non-uniformities in sensors or readout give rise to fixed pattern image noise and degradation of achievable spatial resolution for a given flux. High granularity pixel detectors offer the possibility to investigate local properties of the detector material on a microscopic scale. In this paper, we study fixed pattern detection fluctuations and detector inhomogeneities using the Medipix 1 readout chip. Low-frequency fixed pattern signal deviations due to dopant inhomogeneities can be separated from high-frequency deviations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sampa Ray (Bhattacharya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.
Control of the multiclass G/G/1 queue in the moderate deviation regime
Atar, Rami
2012-01-01
A multi-class single-server system with general service time distributions is studied in a moderate deviation heavy traffic regime. In the scaling limit, an optimal control problem associated with the model is shown to be governed by a differential game, that can be explicitly solved. While the characterization of the limit by a differential game is akin to results at the large deviation scale, the analysis of the problem is closely related to the much studied area of control in heavy traffic at the diffusion scale.
Rosenbluth, Jeffrey M
2008-01-01
We take the point of view of the particle in a multidimensional nearest neighbor random walk in random environment (RWRE). We prove a quenched large deviation principle and derive a variational formula for the quenched rate function. Most of the previous results in this area rely on the subadditive ergodic theorem. We employ a different technique which is based on a minimax theorem. Large deviation principles for RWRE have been proven for i.i.d. nestling environments subject to a moment condition and for ergodic uniformly elliptic environments. We assume only that the environment is ergodic and the transition probabilities satisfy a moment condition.
How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?
Truong, Khiet Phuong
2009-01-01
The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati
Grosch, Jan-Hendrik; Sieben, Michaela; Lattermann, Clemens; Kauffmann, Kira; Büchs, Jochen; Spieß, Antje C
2016-03-01
Microtiter plates (MTP) and automatized techniques are increasingly applied in the field of biotechnology. However, the susceptibility of MTPs to edge effects such as thermal gradients can lead to high variation of measured enzyme activities. In an effort to enhance experimental reliability, to quantify, and to minimize instrument-caused deviations in enzyme kinetics between two MTP-readers, we comprehensively quantified temperature distribution in 96-well MTPs. We demonstrated the robust application of the absorbance dye cresol red as easily applicable temperature indicator in cuvettes and MTPs and determined its accuracy to ±0.16°C. We then quantified temperature distributions in 96-well MTPs revealing temperature deviations over single MTP of up to 2.2°C and different patterns in two commercial devices (BioTek Synergy 4 and Synergy Mx). The obtained liquid temperature was shown to be substantially controlled by evaporation. The temperature-induced enzyme activity variation within MTPs amounted to about 20 %. Activity deviations between MTPs and to those in cuvettes were determined to 40 % due to deviations from the set temperature in MTPs. In conclusion, we propose a better control of experimental conditions in MTPs or alternative experimental systems for reliable determination of kinetic parameters for bioprocess development. PMID:26709721
Deviations of the distributions of seismic energies from the Gutenberg-Richter law
Pisarenko, V; Rodkin, M
2003-01-01
A new non-parametric statistic is introduced for the characterization of deviations from power laws. It is tested on the distribution of seismic energies given by the Gutenberg-Richter law. Based on the two first statistical log-moments, it evaluates quantitatively the deviations of the distribution of scalar seismic moments from a power-like (Pareto) law. This statistic is close to zero for the Pareto law with arbitrary power index, and deviates from zero for any non-Pareto distribution. A version of this statistic for discrete distribution of quantified magnitudes is also given. A methodology based on this statistics consisting in scanning the lower threshold for earthquake energies provides an explicit visualization of deviations from the Pareto law, surpassing in sensitivity the standard Hill estimator or other known techniques. This new statistical technique has been applied to shallow earthquakes (h < 70 km) both in subduction zones and in mid-ocean ridge zones (using the Harvard catalog of seismic m...
Electrocardiographic precordial ST-segment deviations and the risk of cardiovascular death
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Pietersen, Adrian;
2014-01-01
computerized analysis of ECGs from 285 194 persons, we evaluated the association between precordial ST-segment deviations and the risk of CVD. All data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from Danish registries. After a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, there were 6679 cardiovascular...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pradeep Kumar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to prove the existence of piecewise continuous mild solutions to impulsive functional differential equation with iterated deviating arguments in a Banach space. The results are obtained by using the theory of analytic semigroups and fixed point theorems.
Solutions to quasi-linear differential equations with iterated deviating arguments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajib Haloi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to quasi-linear differential equations with iterated deviating arguments, complex Banach space. The results are obtained by using the semigroup theory for parabolic equations and fixed point theorems. The main results are illustrated by an example.
Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status
Carlson, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…
AUTOMATED METERING SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL-ANGULAR DEVIATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Zvetkov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Automatic metering system using devices and instruments for inertial navigation has been elaborated. The system allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measuring of the azimuth angle error.
Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott form
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.Friedberg; T.D.Lee
2010-01-01
We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott(HPS)form.These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector.The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary(thus maximally T-violating)and to have a strength in energy scale no greater(but perhaps smaller)than the muon mass.As we shall show,it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tan lepton deviate by no more than O((mμ/mτ)2)≈3.5 × 10-3 from their HPS values.Assuming that(mμ/mτ)2 can be neglected,we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters θ12,θ23,θ31,and δ of the mapping matrix.These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix.We also show that the e and μ parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters a and β; any deviation of order mμ/mτ can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters.
Analysis on the deviation of feeder pipe ultrasonic thickness-measuring data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is an analysis on the large deviation of feeder ultrasonic thickness-measuring data in Qinshan NPP III, through which the influence of the inner surface of thin wall carbon steel pipe on ultrasonic thickness measurement accuracy is verified and a principle for selection of a thickness measuring probe for thin wall carbon steel pipe with rough inner surface is introduced. (author)
The weekly measurement deviations of indoor radon concentration from the annual arithmetic mean
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The difference between weekly measurements and the annual arithmetic mean of radon concentration CRn,Indoor was studied in the Czech Republic. The deviations were analysed for 1537 weekly measurements which were consecutively obtained in 29 rooms over a period of 1 year and the annual arithmetic mean was calculated for each particular room. The relationship of the deviations to three meteorological parameters (i.e. outside temperature, atmospheric pressure, and weekly rainfall) and to the sequential number of a calendar week was studied. The effect of atmospheric pressure and weekly rainfall was not significant. The deviation between a weekly measurement and the annual arithmetic mean depended significantly on outside weekly average temperatures. If the average outside weekly temperature was below 10 deg. C, the radon concentration was systematically higher than that of the annual arithmetic mean. The deviation variability was lower up to a temperature of 10 deg. C. If the weekly average outdoor temperature was higher than 10 deg. C, the uncertainty of a weekly measurement of radon concentration was also higher. (author)
MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.
Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Head with Micro and Macro Shape Deviations of the Contact Areas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Hlavoň, Pavel
Prague : Czech Society of Biomechanics Charles Univerzity in Prague, 2008, s. 1-2. ISBN 978-80-01-04163-5. [Human Biomechanics 2008. Praha (CZ), 29.09.2008-01.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hip joint endoprosthesis * shape deviations Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
MICRO AND MACRO SHAPE DEVIATIONS OF THE CONTACT AREAS OF THE HIP JOINT ENDOPROSTHESIS
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Houfek, Martin; Janíček, P.
Adelaide : University of Adelaide, 2008 - (Denier, J.; Finn, M.; Mattner, T.), s. 1-2 ISBN 978-0-9805142-0-9. [XXII International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Adelaide (AU), 25.08.2008-29.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape deviations * ceramics * hip joint endoprosthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
Martirosyan, Davit
2015-01-01
We prove the Freidlin-Wentzell type large deviations principle for the family of stationary measures of stochastic nonlinear wave (NLW) equation with white noise. We do not assume that the limiting equation possesses a unique equilibrium and do not impose roughness on the noise. This allows to provide the first such result in the PDE setting.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Fanning, D M
2009-02-03
INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Fanning, D M
2012-02-01
INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.
EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTION TO HIGHER ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH DEVIATING ARGUMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper,using the coincidence degree theory of Mawhin,we investigate the existence of periodic solutions to higher order differential equations with deviating argument. Some new results on the existence of periodic solutions to the equations are obtained. In addition,we give an example to illustrate the main results.
Possible deviations from (V-A) charged currents: precise measurement of muon decay parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This short review examines the experimental limits on possible deviations from (V-A) charged weak currents, as would occur at some mass scale, for example, in manifestly left-right-symmetric electro-weak theories. Both present and anticipated limits are considered, emphasizing muon-decay experiments but including other experimental input where convenient
LARGE DEVIATION FOR THE EMPIRICAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT OF TWO GAUSSIAN RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Si
2007-01-01
In this article, the author obtains the large deviation principles for the empirical correlation coefficient of two Gaussian random variables X and Y. Especially, when considering two independent Gaussian random variables X, Y with the means EX, EY(both known), wherein the author gives two kinds of different proofs and gets the same results.
P. Dorian Owen
2009-01-01
The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.
Estimating crop water stress with standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery
A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...
On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution
Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott
2007-01-01
Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…
Large deviations for the Fleming-Viot process with neutral mutation and selection
Dawson, Donald; Feng, Shui
1998-01-01
Large deviation principles are established for the Fleming-Viot processes with neutral mutation and selection, and the corresponding equilibrium measures as the sampling rate goes to 0. All results are first proved for the finite allele model, and then generalized, through the projective limit technique, to the infinite allele model. Explicit expressions are obtained for the rate functions.
Feng, Shui
1994-01-01
A large deviation system is established for the empirical processes of a mean-field interacting particle system with unbounded jump rates under assumptions that are satisfied by many interesting models including the first and the second Schlogl models. The action functional obtained has a form that is very useful for applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere
Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, the reactor mixing angle θ13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing θ13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as VPMNS=Ul†UνPν, where Ul and Uν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and Pν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle θ13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phaseδCP and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode
Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns
Roman, A.A.
2006-01-01
Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate
Shape deviations of the contact areas of the total hip replacement
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Koukal, M.; Florian, Z.
Berlin : Springer, 2011, s. 203-212. ISBN 978-3-642-23243-5. [International Conference Mechatronics 2011 /9./. Varšava (PL), 21.09.2011-24.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hip joint endoprosthesis * shape deviations * wear Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš; Hlavoň, Pavel; Koukal, M.; Houfek, Martin
Vol. XXI Congress. Taipei, Taiwan : Elsevier, 2007 - (Huiskes, R.). S558-S558 ISBN 9789868299016. ISSN 0021-9290. [ISB 2007. 01.07.2007-05.07.2007, Taipei] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape deviation * FEM * hip joint endoprosthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
J* INTEGRAL OF THE SPECIFIC DEVIATOR STRAIN ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋玉川; 王启智
2004-01-01
First the deviator strain energy is introduced, then the problem of plane-crack critical growth was discussed, a path independent line integral J * was defined, furthermore its conservation was proved strictly. As application examples, Mode-I stress intensity factors of cracked beams were obtained with present approach. The results are shown to agree well with those available in the open literature.
A method for searching the possible deviations from exponential decay law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A continuous kinetic function approach is proposed for analyzing the experimental decay curves. In the case of purely exponential behaviour, the values of kinetic function are the same at different ages of the investigated radionuclide. The deviation from main decay curve could be found by comparison of experimental kinetic function values with these obtained in purely exponential case. (author). 12 refs
Modular Multilevel Converter Modelling, Control and Analysis under Grid Frequency Deviations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sztykiel, Michal; Silva, Rodrigo Da; Teodorescu, Remus; Zeni, Lorenzo; Helle, Lars; Kjær, Philip Carne
2012-01-01
A tool for component sizing for MMCs has been developed and tested through simulations in PLECS. The steady-state behaviour under grid frequency deviations - interesting for offshore wind farm connections - has been analysed, providing insights in MMC characteristics and further testing the propo...
Measurement of position deviation and eccentricity for μ-disc-type inductive micro-motor
Lin, Chih-Che; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan
2015-12-01
An innovative capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit to replace traditional gap sensor is designed to measure the motion of the levitated micro-disc embedded in an inductive micro-motor. Twelve equivalent capacitor pairs are constructed to detect the position deviation of the disc. As the position deviation of disc occurs, the capacitances of the corresponding capacitor pairs are altered. In addition, by applying the effects of inertial force and centrifugal force, an innovative non-contact measurement method to quantify the unbalance degree of the micro-disc, i.e., eccentricity, is also proposed. By commercial computer simulations and realistic experiments undertaken, the performance of the proposed capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit has been successfully verified. The mean of output voltage of gap-sensing readout circuit is about 327 mV under the position deviation of the disc being 8 μm. Moreover, the unbalance degree of the disc is approximately proportional to the square of the position deviation of the disc.
Hooghiemstra, R.B.H.
2012-01-01
The comply-or-explain principle is a common feature of corporate governance codes. While prior studies investigated compliance with corporate governance codes as well as the effects of compliance on firm behaviour and performance, explanations for deviations from a corporate governance code remain l
Approaching nanometre accuracy in measurement of the profile deviation of a large plane mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interferometric nanoprofilometer (INP), developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology at the Ilmenau University of Technology, is a precision device for measuring the profile deviations of plane mirrors with a profile length of up to 250 mm at the nanometre scale. As its expanded uncertainty of U(l) = 7.8 nm at a confidence level of p = 95% (k = 2) was mainly influenced by the uncertainty of the straightness standard (3.6 nm) and the uncertainty caused by the signal and demodulation errors of the interferometer signals (1.2 nm), these two sources of uncertainty have been the subject of recent analyses and modifications. To measure the profile deviation of the standard mirror we performed a classic three-flat test using the INP. The three-flat test consists of a combination of measurements between three different test flats. The shape deviations of the three flats can then be determined by applying a least-squares solution of the resulting equation system. The results of this three-flat test showed surprisingly good consistency, enabling us to correct this systematic error in profile deviation measurements and reducing the uncertainty component of the standard mirror to 0.4 nm. Another area of research is the signal and demodulation error arising during the interpretation of the interferometer signals. In the case of the interferometric nanoprofilometer, the special challenge is that the maximum path length differences are too small during the scan of the entire profile deviation over perfectly aligned 250 mm long mirrors for proper interpolation and correction since they do not yet cover even half of an interference fringe. By applying a simple method of weighting to the interferometer data the common ellipse fitting could be performed successfully and the demodulation error was greatly reduced. The remaining uncertainty component is less than 0.5 nm. In summary we were successful in greatly reducing two major systematic errors. The
An alternative approach to the analysis of sucker-rod dynamics in vertical and deviated wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lollback, P.A.; Wang, G.Y.; Rahman, S.S. [The Centre for Petroleum Engineering, School of Applied Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)
1997-05-01
A set of partial differential equations which consider the combined effects of fluid column, sucker-rod string and tubing motion were developed to describe the motion of a sucker-rod pumping system. If the tubing is fixed, only the fluid column and rod motion need be considered; however, when the tubing is free to move, energy in the system is lost and, therefore, pump system efficiency declines, hence, the need to consider these effects in the design of the sucker-rod system. Using finite differences this model was used to evaluate performance of sucker-rod pumps (pumping rate as a function of number of strokes, stroke length, rod length, ratio of plunger to cylinder diameter, etc.) in both vertical and deviated wells. The results indicate that the developed model simply and accurately models the dynamic motion of the sucker-rod string. The examples presented illustrate its general applicability in both vertical and deviated wells
MUSiC - A general search for deviations from Monte Carlo predictions in CMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biallass, Philipp A, E-mail: biallass@cern.c [Physics Institute IIIA, RWTH Aachen, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2009-06-01
A model independent analysis approach in CMS is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving Supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons are used as an input to the search algorithm.
MUSIC -- An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation
CMS Collaboration
We present a model independent analysis approach, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. We outline the importance of systematic uncertainties, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons have been used as an input to the search algorithm. %Several models involving supersymmetry, new heavy gauge bosons and leptoquarks, as well as possible detector ef...
A phase deviation based split-spectrum processing algorithm for ultrasonic flaw detection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhenqing
2002-01-01
The Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique has proved its ability in reduction of interference noise in ultrasonic nondestructive testing for coarse grained materials. However,the results of SSP algorithms are not sufficiently stable since they are sensitive to the filter bank and filter parameters. And the mechanism of the technique to fully explore the signals is not clear. The statistical phase response characteristic of filter outputs for ultrasonic testing is discussed. Thus, a new SSP algorithm based on phase standard deviation is proposed. The performance is examined for both computer simulated and experimental data, and compared to commonly used minimum algorithm. The phase standard deviation algorithm is proved its superior effect and is less sensitive on the number of filters.
Effect of Power Deviation Ratio on the Selection of Sites for a Wind Power Generation System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazi Khurshidi Haque Dia
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most important energy among the renewable energy sources in today’s world. Realizing the importance of renewable energy, this paper focuses on selecting sites to harvest electrical power from wind energy as the demand of electricity is on increase rapidly. In this work, precisely, seven different regions of Bangladesh with high average of yearly wind speed are investigated. The results of the investigations show the relation between Unit Electricity Cost of a typical site with the power deviation ratio of generating power with respect to average load of that site. This relation helps to select a site to set up wind power generation system not only considering high average speed of wind and high average generated power as key-factors but also to consider power deviation ratio of the site in order to justify the system economically
Detection of ST segment deviation episodes in ECG using KLT with an ensemble neural classifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we describe a technique for automatic detection of ST segment deviations that can be used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) using ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Preprocessing is carried out prior to the extraction of the ST segment which involves noise and artifact filtering using a digital bandpass filter, baseline removal and application of a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based technique for detection and delineation of the QRS complex in ECG. Lead-dependent Karhunen–Loève transform (KLT) bases are used for dimensionality reduction of the ST segment data. ST deviation episodes are detected by a classifier ensemble comprising backpropagation neural networks. Results obtained through the use of our proposed method (sensitivity/positive predictive value = 90.75%/89.2%) compare well with those given in the existing research. Hence, the proposed method exhibits the potential to be adopted in the design of a practical ischemia detection system
Detection of ST segment deviation episodes in ECG using KLT with an ensemble neural classifier.
Afsar, Fayyaz A; Arif, M; Yang, J
2008-07-01
In this paper, we describe a technique for automatic detection of ST segment deviations that can be used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) using ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Preprocessing is carried out prior to the extraction of the ST segment which involves noise and artifact filtering using a digital bandpass filter, baseline removal and application of a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based technique for detection and delineation of the QRS complex in ECG. Lead-dependent Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) bases are used for dimensionality reduction of the ST segment data. ST deviation episodes are detected by a classifier ensemble comprising backpropagation neural networks. Results obtained through the use of our proposed method (sensitivity/positive predictive value = 90.75%/89.2%) compare well with those given in the existing research. Hence, the proposed method exhibits the potential to be adopted in the design of a practical ischemia detection system. PMID:18560057
Analysis of laser cutting speed influence on the surface quality and shape deviation of steel parts
Kowalczyk, R.; Zebala, W.
2014-11-01
The results of laser cutting speed influence on the quality of machined surface, defined by the Ra roughness parameter and the shape errors, in case of machining two types of steel: i) P265GH, ii) 1.4307 are presented in the paper. Two CO2 laser cutters with maximum power of the laser beam 4000W and 3200W were used for the investigation. The characteristics of the roughness parameter Ra depending on the laser cutting speed vc are presented. The diagrams of shape deviation of the machined specimens for the greatest and lowest values of the Ra for the both laser cutters are also presented. The deviation values from the theoretical profile of the particular samples, taking into account the type of the cut-out shape profiles (circular, linear) are calculated.
Hand movement deviations in a visual search task with cross modal cuing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hürol Aslan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the cross-modal effects of an auditory organization on a visual search task and to investigate the influence of the level of detail in instructions describing or hinting at the associations between auditory stimuli and the possible locations of a visual target. In addition to measuring the participants reaction times, we paid special attention to tracking the hand movements toward the target. According to the results, the auditory stimuli unassociated with the target locations slightly but significantly- increased the deviation of the hand movement from the path leading to the target location. The increase in the deviation depended on the degree of association between auditory stimuli and target locations, albeit not on the level of detail in the instructions about the task.
MUSiC - A general search for deviations from Monte Carlo predictions in CMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model independent analysis approach in CMS is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving Supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons are used as an input to the search algorithm.
A contribution to large deviations for heavy-tailed random sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In this paper we consider the large deviations for random sums S(t)=∑N(t)i=1Xi, t≥0, where ｛Xn, n≥1｝ are independent, identically distributed and non-negative random variables with a common heavy-tailed distribution function F, and ｛N(t), t≥0｝ is a process of non-negative integer-valued random variables, independent of ｛Xn, n≥1｝. Under the assumption that the tail of F is of Pareto's type (regularly or extended regularly varying), we investigate what reasonable condition can be given on ｛N(t), t≥0｝ under which precise large deviation for S(t) holds. In particular, the condition we obtain is satisfied for renewal counting processes.
Cayon, Laura
2010-01-01
The Standard Inflationary model predicts an isotropic distribution of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature fluctuations. Detection of deviations from statistical isotropy would call for a revision of the physics of the early universe. This paper introduces the variogram as a powerful tool to detect and characterize deviations from statistical isotropy in Cosmic Microwave Background maps. Application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data clearly shows differences between the northern and the southern hemispheres. The sill and range of the northern hemisphere's variogram are lower than those of the southern hemisphere. Moreover the variogram for the northern hemisphere lies outside the 99% c.l. for scales above ten degrees. Differences between the northern and southern hemispheres in the functional dependence of the variogram with the scale can be used as a validation bench mark for proposed anisotropic cosmological models.
Test of nonexponential deviations from decay curve of 52V using continuous kinetic function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work is aimed at a formulation of an experimental approach to search the proposed description of an attempt to test them in case of 52V. Some theoretical description of decay processes are formulated in clarified forms. The continuous kinetic function (CKF) method is used for analysis of experimental data and CKF for purely exponential case is considered as a standard for comparison between theoretical and experimental data. The degree of agreement is defined by the factor of goodness. Typical deviations of oscillation behavior of 52V decay were observed in a wide range of time. The proposed deviation related to interaction between decay products and environment is research. A complex type of decay is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 5 figs
Kamil, Anton A.; Adli Mustafa; Khlipah Ibrahim
2009-01-01
Problem statement: The most important character within optimization problem is the uncertainty of the future returns. Approach: To handle such problems, we utilized probabilistic methods alongside with optimization techniques. We developed single stage and two stage stochastic programming with recourse. The models were developed for risk adverse investors and the objective of the stochastic programming models is to minimize the maximum downside semi deviation. We used the so-called Here-and-N...
Estimation of horizontal stress magnitudes in a reservoir using sonic data from a deviated borehole
Sinha, Bikash K.; Wendt, Anke S.
2013-04-01
Geomechanical analysis of sonic data from a deviated wellbore requires rotation of the formation principal stresses to those referred to the wellbore measurement axes. Sonic data and wellbore stability are influenced by these rotated stresses. Inversion of sonic data for formation stress magnitudes has been performed on a deviated wellbore located in the North Sea. The well azimuth is about 36.5 degrees from the maximum horizontal stress direction and a deviation of 35.2 degrees from the vertical. The logged interval comprised gas/condensate in the upper part, and water in the lower part. Production of the reservoir caused a decrease of pore pressure of up to 13.4 MPa in the gas zone and almost no reduction in the pore pressure in the water zone. The new inversion algorithm estimates the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses using radial profiles of the three shear stiffness moduli in the two axial and cross-sectional planes of a deviated borehole. This algorithm inverts differences in the far-field shear moduli together with the two difference equations obtained from radial profiles of the dipole shear moduli in the two axial planes between near and far radial positions from the borehole surface. Results for estimated horizontal stress magnitudes obtained in the depleted areas of the well showed significant differences from the nearly isotropic stress state before production. Estimates of stress magnitudes after depletion showed a sharp increase in differences among the three principal stresses from 2% before production to a ratio of overburden to minimum horizontal stress in the order of 10% to 20% and maximum to minimum horizontal stresses from 5% to 10%. The redistribution of formation stresses in depleted reservoirs is important for maintaining geomechanical reservoir and wellbore stability and has a considerable impact on reservoir management and subsequent drilling and completion decisions. Acknowledgement Schlumberger gratefully acknowledges the
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.3
Goodwin, Roger L
2014-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.0
Goodwin, Roger L
2014-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.3
Goodwin, Roger L
2015-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 5.0
Goodwin, Roger L
2015-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Geodesic deviation in pp-wave spacetimes of quadratic curvature gravity
Neto, Edgard C. de Rey
2003-01-01
We write the equation of geodesic deviations in the spacetime of $pp$-waves in terms of the Newman-Penrose scalars and apply it to study gravitational waves in quadratic curvature gravity. We show that quadratic curvature gravity $pp$-waves can have a transverse helicity-0 polarization mode and two transverse helicity-2 general relativity-like wave polarizations. A concrete example is given in which we analyze the wave polarizations of an exact impulsive gravitational wave solution to quadrat...
Two quantum analogues of Fisher information from a large deviation viewpoint of quantum estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss two quantum analogues of the Fisher information, the symmetric logarithmic derivative Fisher information and Kubo-Mori-Bogoljubov Fisher information from a large deviation viewpoint of quantum estimation and prove that the former gives the true bound and the latter gives the bound of consistent superefficient estimators. As another comparison, it is shown that the difference between them is characterized by the change of the order of limits. (author)
Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes
Inahama, Yuzuru
2012-01-01
Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is a kind of potential theory in Malliavin calculus.
A Paradoxical Deviation from Lavoisier’s Postulate Using the Classic Newtonian Gravity
Valeriu Dragan
2011-01-01
The conservation of mass and energy concept is unanimously considered to be a law of nature since its postulation in the 18th century by French chemist Antoine Lavoisier. However, the postulate did not take into consideration the 20th century Theory of Relativity. Based on the observation that the gravitational acceleration is independent of the motion mass of the falling object, we derive a paradoxical thought experiment that deviates from Lavoisier’s postulate. We use the mathematical model...
Large deviations viewpoints for a heavy-tailed β-mixing sequence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Yan; HU; Yijun
2005-01-01
Let {Xn; n ≥ 1} be a stationary sequenceof non-negative random variables with heavy tails. Under mixing conditions, we study logarithmic asymptotics for the disp(Sn ＞ nx) ≈ n-αx+1 for appropriate values of x, where α is a specific parameter. The related conjecture proposed by Gantert is investigated. As a by-product, the so-called supremum large deviations principle is also studied.
Ilha, G F; Rovani, M T; Gasperin, B G; Ferreira, R; de Macedo, M P; Neto, O A; Duggavathi, R; Bordignon, V; Gonçalves, Pbd
2016-04-01
The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important marker of ovarian reserve and for predicting the response to superovulatory treatments in several species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether AMH and its receptor (AMHR2) are regulated in bovine granulosa cells during follicular development. In the first experiment, granulosa cells were retrieved from the two largest follicles on days 2 (before), 3 (at the expected time) or 4 (after deviation) of follicular wave. In the second experiment, four doses of FSH (30, 30, 20 and 20 mg) or saline were administered twice a day starting on Day 2 of the first follicular wave of the cycle. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were collected from the two largest follicles 12 h after the last injection of FSH or saline. AMH mRNA abundance was similar in granulosa cells of the two largest follicles (F1 and F2) before deviation (Day 2), but greater in dominant (DF) than subordinate follicles (SF) at the expected time (Day 3) and after (Day 4) deviation (p 0.05), but they tended to be greater in DFs than SFs (p 0.05) between both co-dominant follicles collected from the FSH-treated cows. These findings indicate the followings: AMH mRNA levels decrease in both DFs and SFs during follicular deviation; granulosa cells from heathy follicles express more AMH mRNA compared to subordinate follicles undergoing atresia and FSH stimulates AMH and AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells of co-dominant follicles. PMID:26815645
Medial deviation of the first metatarsal head as a result of flexion forces in hallux valgus.
Sanders, A P; Snijders, C J; van Linge, B
1992-01-01
Several questions with regard to the hallux valgus complex, which includes metatarsus primus varus, give rise to discussion. How do bunions develop? Is disturbed muscle balance at the first metatarsophalangeal joint important in the pathogenesis of the hallux valgus complex? What is the relation between dynamic plantar load distribution and pain in the ball of the foot? What is the cause of recurrences of deformity after surgery? To answer these questions, we started with the biomechanical model of Snijders et al., which states that contraction of flexor muscles of the hallux worsens its valgus angle and causes medial deviation of the first metatarsal head. The present study was designed to validate the model on patients. When pressing the hallux downward, simultaneously the force under the toe and the medial deviation of the first metatarsal head were measured on preoperative patients and on controls (35 subjects in all). We could demonstrate with statistical significance that (1) when the subjects with hallux valgus push the great toe on the ground, the first metatarsal head moved in medial direction; in other words the foot widened. In the controls, as an average, the foot became narrower. (2) The greater the valgus deviation of the hallux, the greater the effect of the toe flexors, and (3) the greater the valgus deviation of the hallux, the less maximal flexion force it can apply. Implications of these findings on conservative and surgical therapy are discussed. The recurrences of deformity after first metatarsal osteotomies are explained by the action of the hallux flexors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1478581
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Van Der Horst
2003-08-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘艳; 胡亦钧
2003-01-01
We prove large deviation results on the partial and random sums Sn = ∑ni=1 Xi, n≥1; S(t) =∑N(t)i=1 Xi, t≥0, where {N(t);t≥0} are non-negative integer-valued random variables and {Xn;n≥1} areindependent non-negative random variables with distribution, Fn, of Xn, independent of {N(t); t≥0}. Specialattention is paid to the distribution of dominated variation.
Deviation of Cup and Propeller Anemometer Calibration Results with Air Density
Santiago Pindado; Alfredo Sanz; Alain Wery
2012-01-01
The effect of air density variations on the calibration constants of several models of anemometers has been analyzed. The analysis was based on a series of calibrations between March 2003 and February 2011. Results indicate a linear behavior of both calibration constants with the air density. The effect of changes in air density on the measured wind speed by an anemometer was also studied. The results suggest that there can be an important deviation of the measured wind speed with changes in ...
Epihyoid bone fracture associated with tongue deviation in an adult dog.
Gómez, Marcelo; Kani, Yukitaka; Mieres, Marcelo; Mansilla, Miguel
2016-09-01
An 8-month-old male Rhodesian ridgeback dog was evaluated for right lingual deviation, mild dysphagia, and inability to retract the tongue. Transverse and three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images revealed a transverse fracture of the left epihyoid bone. After 4 months of conservative management, that included assisted feeding of a semi-liquid diet or small volumes of food and analgesics, the dog recovered. PMID:27587884
Selecting Video Key Frames Based on Relative Entropy and the Extreme Studentized Deviate Test
Yuejun Guo; Qing Xu; Shihua Sun; Xiaoxiao Luo; Mateu Sbert
2016-01-01
This paper studies the relative entropy and its square root as distance measures of neighboring video frames for video key frame extraction. We develop a novel approach handling both common and wavelet video sequences, in which the extreme Studentized deviate test is exploited to identify shot boundaries for segmenting a video sequence into shots. Then, video shots can be divided into different sub-shots, according to whether the video content change is large or not, and key frames are extrac...
Tensile Stress Analyses of the Hip Joint Endoprosthesis Ceramic Head with Real Shape Deviations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Toi, V. V. (ed.); Phuong, T.H.L. (ed.)
NEW YORK : Springer Verlag, 2015. ISBN 978-3-319-11775-1. ISSN 1680-0737. - (IFMBE Proceedings. 46). [International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering /5./. Ho Chi Minh City (VN), 16.06.2014-18.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34632S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : total hip joint endoprosthesis * ceramics head * micro and macro shape deviations Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass
Mixing and large deviations for nonlinear wave equation with white noise
Martirosyan, Davit
2015-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of ergodicity and large deviations for the stochastic nonlinear wave (NLW) equation with smooth white noise in 3D. Under some standard growth and dissipativity assumptions on the nonlinearity, we show that the Markov process associated with the flow of NLW equation has a unique stationary measure that attracts the law of any solution with exponential rate. This result implies, in particular, the strong law of large numbers as well as the central limit theor...
Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors
Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.
2015-08-01
Recently, the reactor mixing angle {θ }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {θ }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}ν {P}ν , where Ul and {U}ν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}ν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {θ }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{δ }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.
Carreras-Mar??n, Anna; Badia-Mir??, Marc
2005-01-01
We have analyzed the spatial accuracy of European foreign trade statistics compared to Latin American. We have also included USA?s data because of the importance of this country in Latin American trade. We have developed a method for mapping discrepancies between exporters and importers, trying to isolate systematic spatial deviations. Although our results don?t allow a unique explanation, they present some interesting clues to the distribution channels in the Latin American Continent as well...
Analyses of surgically induced astigmatism and axis deviation in microcoaxial phacoemulsification.
Özyol, Erhan; Özyol, Pelin
2014-06-01
To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and axis deviation after coaxial microincision superotemporal clear corneal phacoemulsification incision in eyes with differently located steep axis. This prospective, comparative study included four groups of 45 eyes with age-related cataracts; each group underwent 2.2-mm superotemporal clear corneal incision (CCI) cataract surgery. The four groups of patients were divided by location of the steep axis. Groups were matched according to symmetry of the steep axis for both right and left eyes as follows--0°-45° of steep axis for right eyes, and 136°-180° for left eyes (group 1); 46°-90° for right eyes and 91°-135° for left eyes (group 2); 91°-135° for right eyes and 46°-90° for left eyes (group 3); and 136°-180° for right eyes and 0°-45° for left eyes (group 4). Outcome measures included changes in mean total astigmatism, SIA, and axis deviation. Astigmatism was measured by manual keratometry readings before surgery and week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12 postoperatively. SIA was calculated by the vector analysis (Holladay-Cravy-Koch method). The magnitude of mean total astigmatism was lowest in group 3 and highest in group 1 at week 12. SIA was 0.39 diopters (D), 0.22 D, 0.17 D, and 0.28 D in group 1, group 2, group 3, and group 4, respectively. The change in astigmatic axis deviation was highest in group 3 (23.6 ± 16.6) (P < 0.05). Axis deviation and SIA were stable after week 4. Planning of CCI on or near the steep axis can help decrease corneal astigmatism. PMID:24081915
2013-01-01
A novel attitude tracking control scheme is presented for overactuated spacecraft to address the attitude stabilization problem in presence of reaction wheel installation deviation, external disturbance and uncertain mass of moment inertia. An adaptive sliding mode control technique is proposed to track the uncertainty. A Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the compensation control law can guarantee that the desired attitude trajectories are followed in finite-time. The key feature of the prop...
Finite Particle Flow Simulation of Free Jet Deviation by Rotating Pelton Buckets
Vessaz, Christian
2015-01-01
The prediction of hydraulic machines performances is of high interest to manufacturers in today's highly competitive market for new development or refurbishment of hydraulic power plant. An accurate prediction of the machines performances by numerical simulation allows to reduce the time required for the design phase. In order to predict the resulting torque of a Pelton turbine, the physics of the free jet has to be modeled accurately. Indeed, the deviation of the high-speed water jet is the ...
An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.
Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.
1971-01-01
A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.
Deviation from the Standard Uncertainty Principle and the Dark Energy Problem
Jalalzadeh, Shahram; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Nozari, Kourosh
2013-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of a real massless scalar field are studied in the context of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). The dynamical finite vacuum energy is found in spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson- Walker (FRW) spacetime which can be identified as dark energy to explain late time cosmic speed-up. The results show that a tiny deviation from the standard uncertainty principle is necessary on cosmological ground. By using the observational data we have constraint the GUP parameter e...
What to use to express the variability of data: Standard deviation or standard error of mean?
Barde, Mohini P.; Barde, Prajakt J.
2012-01-01
Statistics plays a vital role in biomedical research. It helps present data precisely and draws the meaningful conclusions. While presenting data, one should be aware of using adequate statistical measures. In biomedical journals, Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used interchangeably to express the variability; though they measure different parameters. SEM quantifies uncertainty in estimate of the mean whereas SD indicates dispersion of the data from mean. As reade...
Stress analysis of hip joint with the shape deviations of the contact cone
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš; Krejsa, Jiří
Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.), s. 86-87 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [Human Biomechanics 2006. Hrotovice (CZ), 13.11.2006-16.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Hip joint endoprosthesis * ceramic head * contact cone shape deviations Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, Tomáš; Hlavoň, Pavel; Koukal, M.; Houfek, Martin
2007-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2007), S558-S558. ISSN 0021-9290. [ISB 2007. Taipei, 01.07.2007-05.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape deviation * hip joint endoprosthesis * contact areas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2007
Kunzinger, Michael; Steinbauer, Roland
1998-01-01
The geodesic as well as the geodesic deviation equation for impulsive gravitational waves involve highly singular products of distributions $(\\theta\\de$, $\\theta^2\\de$, $\\de^2$). A solution concept for these equations based on embedding the distributional metric into the Colombeau algebra of generalized functions is presented. Using a universal regularization procedure we prove existence and uniqueness results and calculate the distributional limits of these solutions explicitly. The obtained...
Importance of borehole deviation surveys for monitoring of hydraulic fracturing treatments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bulant, P.; Eisner, L.; Pšenčík, Ivan; Le Calvez, J. H.
2007-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 6 (2007), s. 891-899. ISSN 0016-8025 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/0032; EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : hydraulic fracture * borehole deviation * seismic rays Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.731, year: 2007
Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms
2014-01-01
Background Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. Methods We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. Results We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Conclusion Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment. PMID:26491488
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Janíček, Přemysl
Dürnten : Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2014, s. 770-775. ISBN 978-3-03835-102-3. ISSN 1022-6680. - (936). [International Conference on Materials Science and Engineering Technology 2014. Shanghai (CN), 28.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-34632S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hip joint endoprosthesis * ceramic head * shape deviation * cone contact areas Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD
S. A. Moreva; A. V. Silaeva; A. N. Kornetov; Ye. N. Borodina; A. Ye. Yankovskaya; N. I. Pryadukhina; N. E. Golovakha; V. B. Obukhovskaya
2015-01-01
The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy). Total was...
He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei
2010-04-01
Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[
Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p<5; pared T test)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies
Beniwal, Vijay; Kumar, Anil
2016-08-24
Physico-chemical properties of liquid mixtures in general display large deviations from linear behaviour, arising out of complex specific and non-specific intermolecular interactions. The polarity of liquid mixtures displaying large positive and negative deviations can be minimized and linear mixing can be achieved in liquids using a pseudo-solvent methodology. The work described herein is designed to investigate the influence of different physical parameters on the linear pseudo-solvent composition in ionic liquid mixtures. For this purpose, we have determined the deviations from linearity, ΔE values (defined as given by ) for binary mixtures of a variety of ionic liquids, including two molecular solvents, DMSO and formamide. Firstly, the investigations were carried out in three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based aprotic ionic liquids and the roles of anionic structure and hydrogen bond acceptor basicities (β values) of the ionic liquids were determined. The influence of the cationic structure, i.e., the hydrogen bond donor acidity (α values) and non-associative nature of the ionic liquids, was determined using C2-methylated analogs, 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids. The role of the protic nature of ionic liquids was studied in two protic ionic liquids, viz., 1-methylimidazolium formate and 1-methylimidazolium acetate. The effects of the temperature, pseudo-solvent structure and solvatochromic probe structure on the ΔE values were also explored. PMID:27523572
Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)
2013-02-15
In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludwiczak, Bogna, E-mail: bogna.ludwiczak@zumtobelgroup.com [Zumtobel Lighting GmbH, Schweizerstr.30, 6851 Dornbirn (Austria); Jantsch, Wolfgang [Institut für Halbleiter- und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, 4040 Linz (Austria)
2015-02-15
We investigate experimentally the color stability of high power phosphor converted InGaN LEDs under pulse width modulation (PWM) and continuous current reduction (CCR) dimming modes and for varied operation temperatures. Our measurements reveal that the chromaticity coordinate pathways of the warm white and the cold white LED's differ for the same operation conditions. The color deviation- minimizing phenomenon of opposite peak wavelength shifts appears only for a cold white LED under CCR driving mode. This favorable effect does not occur for warm white LEDs. This type of LED exhibits the best color stability under PWM driving mode. The experimental results are consistently explained in terms of the quantum confined Stark effect and temperature induced changes of the LED emission. - Highlights: • Cold and warm white LEDs reacts colorimetrically unlike in different driving modes. • For cold white emission driving conditions are crucial. • Opposite peak wavelength shifts reduces color deviations for cold white emission. • For warm white emission rather phosphor properties determines color deviations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate experimentally the color stability of high power phosphor converted InGaN LEDs under pulse width modulation (PWM) and continuous current reduction (CCR) dimming modes and for varied operation temperatures. Our measurements reveal that the chromaticity coordinate pathways of the warm white and the cold white LED's differ for the same operation conditions. The color deviation- minimizing phenomenon of opposite peak wavelength shifts appears only for a cold white LED under CCR driving mode. This favorable effect does not occur for warm white LEDs. This type of LED exhibits the best color stability under PWM driving mode. The experimental results are consistently explained in terms of the quantum confined Stark effect and temperature induced changes of the LED emission. - Highlights: • Cold and warm white LEDs reacts colorimetrically unlike in different driving modes. • For cold white emission driving conditions are crucial. • Opposite peak wavelength shifts reduces color deviations for cold white emission. • For warm white emission rather phosphor properties determines color deviations
A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation
Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke
2016-01-01
In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by the study of rare events for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, in this paper we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction systems. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals for the considered two-scale processes based upon the second quantization path integral technique. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two timescales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by the path integral. We find that the three regimes possess the same deterministic mean-field limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit for chemical reactions. We also discuss its implication on the single-molecule Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes. (paper)
A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy disks: vertex deviation maps
Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè
2014-01-01
We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the vertex deviation of the velocity ellipsoid. We use test particle simulations including, for the first time, fully self-consistent and high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the analytical predictions of the Tight-Winding Approximation (TWA) model. We see that, independently of the model, when the spiral arms are non-corotant the vertex deviation parameter values are related with the position of density peaks of overdense and underdense regions. We also find that if the spiral arms do not corotate with the disk, the sign of the vertex deviation changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of rotation, in the places where the spiral arms are in between corotation and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when they are inside the corotation radius and outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, l$_v$ changes from negative to positive. We propose that measurements of the ve...
Montemurro, Nicola; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues
2016-07-01
To investigate the neural network underpinning eye movements, a cortical and subcortical intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation (DES) was achieved in six awake patients during surgery for a right frontal low-grade glioma. We assessed the relationship between the occurrence of ocular deviation during both cortical and axonal DES and the anatomic location for each response. The corresponding stimulation sites were reported on a standard brain template for visual analysis and between-subjects comparisons. Our results showed that DES of the cortical frontal eye field (FEF) elicited horizontal (anterior FEF) or upward (posterior FEF) eye movements in 3 patients, supporting the fact that FEF comprises several distinct functional subregions. In addition, subcortical stimulation of the white matter tracts underneath the FEF evoked conjugate contraversive ocular deviation in 3 other patients. Interestingly, this region seems to be a crossroad between the fronto-striatal tract, the frontal aslant tract, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle. No deficits in eye movements were observed following surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting ocular deviation during axonal electrostimulation mapping of the white matter fibers in awake patients. Therefore, our original data issued from DES give new insights into the cortical and subcortical structures involved in the control of eye movements and their strong relationships with other functional pathways. PMID:27067598
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah D. Alison-Youel
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Liquefied gas reaction turbines are subject to the hydraulic affinity laws. Particularly for liquefied hydrocarbon gas-driven turbines, deviations from the affinity laws are encountered. In the case of reaction turbines, where the geometry is fixed, the affinity law relationships between flow, head, and rotational speed are relevant. Field experience confirms that the affinity law relationships are adequate, but that the predictions made also tend to deviate from real turbine performance. Part of the deviations seen may be attributed to the nonideal fluid; however, further examination is warranted. This paper presents an investigation into the affinity law relationships between head, flow, and rotational speed in conjunction with actual turbine performance. The three basic affinity law relationships are combined to form the most general performance equation. This equation subsequently incorporates both the affinity law relationships and the conservation of energy principal. Application of real turbine test data shows that this general performance equation presents a more accurate representation of turbine performance than the affinity law relationships alone.
Armer, Jane M; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W; Zagar, Eris A; Homan, Sherri; Stewart, Bob R
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clothing and carrying out activities of daily living, and impacts self-esteem, self-concept, and quality of life. Lymphedema is associated with self-care deficits (SCD) and negatively impacts self-care agency (SCA) and physiological and psychosocial well-being. Objectives of this report are two-fold: (1) to explore four approaches of assessing and diagnosing breast cancer lymphedema, including self-report of symptoms and the impact of health deviations on SCA; and (2) to propose the development of a clinical research program for lymphedema based on the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). Anthropometric and symptom data from a National-Institutes-of-Health-funded prospective longitudinal study were examined using survival analysis to compare four definitions of lymphedema over 24 months post-breast cancer surgery among 140 of 300 participants (all who had passed the 24-month measurement). The four definitions included differences of 200 ml, 10% volume, and 2 cm circumference between pre-op baseline and/or contralateral limbs, and symptom self-report of limb heaviness and swelling. Symptoms, SCA, and SCD were assessed by interviews using a validated tool. Estimates of lymphedema occurrence varied by definition and time since surgery. The 2 cm girth change provided the highest estimation of lymphedema (82% at 24 months), followed by 200 ml volume change (57% at 24 months). The 10% limb volume change converged with symptom report of heaviness and swelling at 24 months
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Yang; Xuejun Sha; Zhonghua Zhang
2011-01-01
The deviation caused by acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) diffraction in multispectral imaging is analyzed through derivation calculus of the deviation angle. The rotatory polarization of acousto-optic crystal is taken into account in this analysis. The relationships between the polar angle of the incident and the diffracted beams are acquired by using the momentum-matching condition. During the diffraction of the incident beams, far more deviations are induced.%@@ The deviation caused by acousto-optic tunable filter(AOTF) diffraction in multispectral imaging is analyzed through derivation calculus of the deviation angle.The rotatory polarization of acousto-optic crystal is taken into account in this analysis.The relationships between the polar angle of the incident and the diffracted beams are acquired by using the momentum-matching condition.During the diffraction of the incident beams,far more deviations are induced.
Influence of Piston Compressor Crosshead Alignment Deviation%活塞压缩机十字头对中偏差之影响
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙仰波
2012-01-01
十字头中心对中偏差严重影响着压缩机正常运行,使得十字头的受力面不断的上下发生变化,造成活塞杆易产生疲劳,引发事故.%The crosshead center alignment deviation will seriously affect the normal operation of compressor, and it will make the crosshead stress surface constantly changes up and down, resulting in the piston rod easy to produce fatigue and cause accident.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Near-infrared imaging (NIRI) is a neuroimaging technique which enables us to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the human brain. Since the technique is very sensitive, the movement of a subject can cause movement artifacts (MAs), which affect the signal quality and results to a high degree. No general method is yet available to reduce these MAs effectively. The aim was to develop a new MA reduction method. A method based on moving standard deviation and spline interpolation was developed. It enables the semi-automatic detection and reduction of MAs in the data. It was validated using simulated and real NIRI signals. The results show that a significant reduction of MAs and an increase in signal quality are achieved. The effectiveness and usability of the method is demonstrated by the improved detection of evoked hemodynamic responses. The present method can not only be used in the postprocessing of NIRI signals but also for other kinds of data containing artifacts, for example ECG or EEG signals
Khokhlov, A.; Hulot, G.
2016-01-01
Directions recovered from palaeomagnetic samples are usually archived with some quantitative information about their precision, most often in the form of a so-called α95 angle. Such angles are classically co-estimated with the recovered palaeomagnetic direction from a collection of samples providing individual estimates of this direction. In some instances, however, palaeomagnetic directions have to be inferred from a single sample in which case no α95 angle can be recovered in this way. Fortunately, the progressive demagnetization techniques and principal component analysis universally used to recover directional information from single samples provide alternative measures of the error affecting the recovered direction, known as Maximum Angular Deviation (MAD) angles. These have so far only been considered as rough quality indicators. Here, however, we show that directions recovered in this way can be assumed to satisfy a Fisher distribution, and that the corresponding MAD angles can be rescaled into α95 estimates by multiplying it by an appropriate factor, which only depends on the number of demagnetization steps used in the principal component analysis and on whether one relies on a standard or a so-called `anchored' principal component analysis. These coefficients have been tabulated and practical recommendations for taking advantage of them outlined in the final section of the text. They provide simple means for users to produce much needed error bars on declination and inclination time series recovered from sedimentary long sequences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ten healthy volunteers (4 males and 6 females, 21-27 years old mean 25.3) were included in this study. All subjects were imaged in a prone position with the arm over the head. A microscopy coil (47 mm in diameter) was placed on the center of ulna head. Two-dimensional gradient-echo (GRE) images of the wrist were acquired with TR/TE/FA=374-385/11-12/40, 1.5 mm slice thickness, and 50 mm field of view. We used two fixation tools developed for radial-deviated position'' and ''ulnar-deviated position''. Images of the subjects were obtained in three positions; radial-deviated, ulnar-deviated and neutral position. The deformation of the articular disc (length and thickness of the radial and ulnar attachments, and the mid-portion between them) of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) was measured using a personal computer (software Get Curvature Radius) and data analysis was conducted by the One-way Repeated-Measures ANOVA test. P<0.05 was set as the significant difference. All subjects were not injured at TFCC, S-L ligament and L-T ligament. The mean of radial deviation angle was 19.0±3.2 deg, ulnar deviation is 37.1±6.4 deg. The disc length on radial deviation was significantly longer than that on neutral and ulnar-deviated position. The disc at ulnar side on radial-deviated position was significantly thicker than that on neutral and ulnar-deviated position. No significant difference was observed in the size of the center of disk and radial attachment among three positions. On radial deviation of the wrist, the disc of TFCC increased in length and increased in thickness at ulnar side of TFCC, probably because the peripheral part of disc was pulled toward ulnar and peripheral directions. (author)
Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André L.F. Santos
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.
The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight
Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal
2015-01-01
Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...
Duffy, Ken; Lobunets, Olena; Suhov, Yuri
2007-05-01
We propose a model of a loss averse investor who aims to maximize his expected wealth under certain constraints. The constraints are that he avoids, with high probability, incurring an (suitably defined) unacceptable loss. The methodology employed comes from the theory of large deviations. We explore a number of fundamental properties of the model and illustrate its desirable features. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing assets that follow some commonly used financial return processes: Fractional Brownian Motion, Jump Diffusion, Variance Gamma and Truncated Lévy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Loiko
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The experimental setup for thermooptic coefficients dn/dT measurements by a laser beam deviation method for the medium with linear thermal gradient was developed. By means of this approach, the dispersion of the dn/dT values in the optically biaxial potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal KGd(WO42 was investigated in the 0,4–1,06 μm spectral range for light polarized along the principal directions in the crystal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approximate formula enabling to evaluate hydraulic nonuniformity at reactor core inlet is given. The mentioned nonuniformity depends on 13 structural parameters of reactor hydraulic pipeline - from branch pipes up to the header. Dispersion technique for evaluation of the effect of structural parameter deviation on the spread of resulting nonuniformity is applied to the dependence. Coefficients of the effect have been obtained. Calculation has been conducted for the example, the minimal flow rate in reactor channel has been evaluated as 0.65±0.14
Monetary Policy when the NAIRI is unknown: The Fed and the Great Deviation
Ronny Mazzocchi
2013-01-01
The outbreak of the financial crisis of 2007 has generated a lively debate on the real or alleged faults of the Federal Reserve (Fed). Some economists argue that in the period 2002-2005 the U.S. central bank has taken its target interest rate below the level implied by monetary pricinciples that had been followed for the previous 20 years. One can characterize this decision as a deviation from a policy rule such as a Taylor rule. This behavior determined the end of the Great Moderation and ga...
Equations of geodesic deviation and properties of tidal forces in the Kerr metric
Rasulova, A. M.
2016-03-01
In the paper the work of the tidal forces that arise when the relative deviation of the protons on distance of the order of the Compton wavelength near the horizon of Kerr black hole is considered. For ease of calculation the assumption is made that the proton has only a radial component of the velocity. It is shown that the work of the tidal forces at speeds close to the speed of light sharply increases with Lorentz factor and it can obtain very high energy of the Grand Unification order.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Rabelo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a new methodology to stabilize systems with complex dynamics like the supply chain. This method is based on the accumulated deviations from equilibrium (ADE. It is most beneficial for controlling system dynamic models characterized by multiple types of delays, many interacting variables, and feedback processes. We employ the classical version of particle swarm optimization as the optimization approach due to its performance in multidimensional space, stochastic properties, and global reach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method based on ADE using a manufacturing-supply-chain case study.
Deviation of ergodic averages for substitution dynamical systems with eigenvalues of modulus one
Bressaud, Xavier; Hubert, Pascal
2011-01-01
Deviation of ergodic sums is studied for substitution dynamical systems with a matrix that admits eigenvalues of modulus 1. We consider the corresponding eigenfunctions, and in Theorem 1.1 we prove that the limit inferior of the ergodic sums is bounded for every point in the phase space. In Theorem 1.2, we prove existence of limit distributions along certain exponential subsequences of times for substitutions of constant length. Under additional assumptions, we prove that ergodic integrals satisfy the Central Limit Theorem (Theorem 1.3, Theorem 1.9).
Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional
Bonaschi, Giovanni A.; Peletier, Mark A.
2016-07-01
We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits, we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via ` L log L' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.
Simonsz, Huib; Dijk, Laurens
1994-01-01
textabstractAbstract The authors examined vertical vergence in a Is-year-old girl with dissociated vertical deviation, a 60 convergent strabismus, no binocular vision, latent nystagmus, and a minimal left amblyopia. Eye movements were recorded during 4s-periods of (1) both eyes open, alternated with 4speriods of (2a) right eye covered, (2b) left eye covered or (2C) both eyes closed. The patient preferred fixation with the right eye; when this eye was covered, the left eye took over fixation w...
Observation of a diverse deviation from macropore-formation theory in silicon electrochemistry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bao Xiao-Qing; Ge Dao-Han; Jiao Ji-Wei
2008-01-01
Via anodizing patterned and unpatterned samples with a high HF concentration ([HF]), the degree of deviation from pore-formation theory was found to be markedly different. Based on the analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs and current-voltage (Ⅰ - Ⅴ) curves, the variation of physical and chemical parameters of patterned and unpatterned substrates was found to be crucial to the understanding of the observations. Our results indicate that the initial surface morphology of samples can have a considerable influence upon pore formation. The electric-field effect as well as current-burst-model was employed to interpret the underlying mechanism.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF INDEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES WITH DOMINATEDLY VARYING TAILS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kong Fanchao; Zhang Ying
2007-01-01
In this paper the large deviation results for partial and random sums Sn-ESn=n∑i=1Xi-n∑i=1EXi,n≥1;S(t)-ES(t)=N(t)∑i=1Xi-E(N(t)∑i=1Xi),t≥0are proved, where {N(t); t≥ 0} is a counting process of non-negative integer-valued random variables, and {Xn; n ≥ 1} are a sequence of independent non-negative random variables independent of {N(t); t ≥ 0}. These results extend and improve some known conclusions.
Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.
Classification Model with High Deviation for Intrusion Detection on System Call Traces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A new classification model for host intrusion detection based on the unidentified short sequences and RIPPER algorithm is proposed. The concepts of different short sequences on the system call traces are strictly defined on the basis of in-depth analysis of completeness and correctness of pattern databases. Labels of short sequences are predicted by learned RIPPER rule set and the nature of the unidentified short sequences is confirmed by statistical method. Experiment results indicate that the classification model increases clearly the deviation between the attack and the normal traces and improves detection capability against known and unknown attacks.
How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens
Zint, Natali; Hollander, Frank den
2008-01-01
A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens.
Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations
Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo
2015-10-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.
A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values
Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin Yowell Yousif
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional wit...
Confidence Intervals for Half-life Deviations from Purchasing Power Parity
ROSSI, Barbara
2002-01-01
According to the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) theory, real exchange rate fluctuations are mainly caused by transitory shocks. The theory fits well one empirical feature of the data, namely the short-run volatility of real exchange rates, but also implies that shocks should die away in one to two years (the time interval compatible with price and wage stickiness). Existing point estimates of half-life deviations from PPP are in the order of 3 to 5 years, too big to be reconciled with the PPP....
The role of initial state reconstruction in short and long time deviations from exponential decay
Muga, J. G.; Delgado, F.; Del Campo, A.; Garcia-Calderon, G.
2005-01-01
We consider the role of the reconstruction of the initial state in the deviation from exponential decay at short and long times. The long time decay can be attributed to a wave that was, in a classical-like, probabilistic sense, fully outside the initial state or the inner region at intermediate times, i.e., to a completely reconstructed state, whereas the decay during the exponential regime is due instead to a non-reconstructed wave. At short times quantum interference between regenerated an...
Deviation of Cup and Propeller Anemometer Calibration Results with Air Density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Pindado
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The effect of air density variations on the calibration constants of several models of anemometers has been analyzed. The analysis was based on a series of calibrations between March 2003 and February 2011. Results indicate a linear behavior of both calibration constants with the air density. The effect of changes in air density on the measured wind speed by an anemometer was also studied. The results suggest that there can be an important deviation of the measured wind speed with changes in air density from the one at which the anemometer was calibrated, and therefore the need to take this effect into account when calculating wind power estimations.
Analyses of the Shape Deviations of the Contact Cones of the Total Hip Joint Endoprostheses
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuis, Vladimír; Návrat, T.; Vosynek, P.
Singapure : Springer, 2010 - (Lim, C.; Goh, J.), s. 1451-1454 ISBN 978-3-642-14514-8. ISSN 1680-0737. - (IFMBE Proceedings). [World Congress of Biomechanics, WCB 2010 /6./ - In Conjunction with International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME /14./ and Asia Pacific Conference on Biomechanics /5./. Singapore (SG), 01.08.2010-06.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : ceramic head * FEM * shape deviations of contact areas * tensile stress * total hip joint endoprosthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
A list-based algorithm for evaluation of large deviation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As the analog of the free energy for dynamical trajectories, the large deviation function plays a central role in the statistical mechanics of systems far from equilibrium. Here, we identify numerical issues that can arise when the model of interest evolves according to a continuous-time dynamics. This analysis motivates the introduction of an algorithm in which a list of previously visited states is used to resample the distribution of interest. We discuss the convergence properties of our algorithm in detail and demonstrate its application to the single-site zero-range process and the many-site totally asymmetric exclusion process
Erratum: Erratum to: Geodesic deviation equation in f(R) gravity
Guarnizo, Alejandro; Castañeda, Leonardo; Tejeiro, Juan M.
2015-10-01
In the context of metric f( R) gravity, the geodesic deviation equation (GDE) was first studied in Guarnizo et al. (Gen Relativ Gravit 43:2713-2728, 2011), giving a general expression and studying a particular case, the FLRW universe. In the paper (De la Cruz-Dombris et al. Physical Review D 89:064029-2014) a similar analysis was made. However, there is a discrepancy in the expressions for the null vector field case due to an algebraic error in our original paper. Here, we make explicit the contribution of the different operators in the GDE, and we correct our previous results.
Large Deviations, Guerra's and A.S.S. Schemes, and the Parisi Hypothesis
Talagrand, Michel
2007-03-01
We investigate the problem of computing lim_{N to infty}1/aNlog EZ_N^a for any value of a, where Z N is the partition function of the celebrated Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, or of some of its natural generalizations. This is a natural "large deviation" problem. Its study helps to get a fresh look at some of the recent ideas introduced in the area, and raises a number of natural questions. We provide a complete solution for a ≥ 0.
Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.
2016-04-01
There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.
75 FR 25844 - Class Deviation From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside
2010-05-10
... of the Secretary Class Deviation From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside AGENCY... class deviation to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) regarding partial small business set-asides... Clause 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside. DESC intends to use the clause in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first aim of this study was to quantify estimated translational setup deviations of patients treated with a wedged pair of oblique beams for parotid gland and tonsillar tumors, using portal imaging. The second aim was to design an off-line setup verification procedure, to improve the setup accuracy, if necessary. Thirty-one patients were treated with two conformal fields (anterior-oblique and posterior-oblique). The patients were immobilized with a head cast. For the last 10 patients, the rigidity of the cast was improved while, in addition, wax molds with metal markers were placed into the outer ear for image correlation. Portal images were acquired about weekly. Setup deviations were analyzed, using anatomical structures and, when available, metal markers for image matching. The consistency of the deviations was determined by the correlation between deviations in the cranio-caudal direction, as measured from both beams. When the deviations were consistent, the translational setup deviation during a treatment session could be described by a three-dimensional (3D) vector. A setup verification procedure was designed using a computer simulation. The statistics of the 3D setup deviations were used as input. The output consisted of the resulting setup accuracy and workload (i.e., the number of setup corrections and portal images). Using the anatomical structures for image correlation, the deviations in the cranio-caudal direction were not correlated, either for the old or the improved cast. However, by using the metal markers, the deviations were correlated and a 3D analysis could be performed. The standard deviations, averaged over the three directions, were equal to 1.8 and 1.4 mm for the distribution of systematic and random deviations, respectively. Application of a setup verification procedure, with 0.7 corrections on the average per patient, could potentially reduce the percentage of 3D systematic deviations larger than 4 mm from 30 to 2%. It can be concluded
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton A. Kamil
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The most important character within optimization problem is the uncertainty of the future returns. Approach: To handle such problems, we utilized probabilistic methods alongside with optimization techniques. We developed single stage and two stage stochastic programming with recourse. The models were developed for risk adverse investors and the objective of the stochastic programming models is to minimize the maximum downside semi deviation. We used the so-called Here-and-Now approach where the decision-maker makes decision now before observing the actual outcome for the stochastic parameter. Results: We compared the optimal portfolios between the single stage and two stage models with the incorporation of the deviation measure. The models were applied to the optimal selection of stocks listed in Bursa Malaysia and the return of the optimal portfolio was compared between the two stochastic models. Conclusion: The results showed that the two stage model outperforms the single stage model in the optimal and in-sample analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nosratollah Solhjoei
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Aeronautical industrial sector applies currently aluminium alloys in a wide range of its products. Aerospace precision requirements are highly restricted. Thus, dimensional precision is commonly studied in the manufacturing processes of aerospace alloys, such aluminium. As a consequence of this, quality finish of machined aluminium alloys for aeronautical use is deeply analysed, although mainly in terms of dimensional accuracy. Geometrical precision is usually studied from roughness analysis, which only has into account microgeometrical aspects. However, macrogeometrical precision is commonly far of the objectives in some of those analyses. In this work, Parallelism Deviations (PD of dry turned UNS A92024 (Al-Cu and UNS A97050 (Al-Zn samples have been evaluated for different machining conditions (cutting speeds and feeds. A parametric model for the parallelism deviation as a function of those cutting parameters has been established from the mathematical treatment of the results obtained. In parallel, a prediction surface PD (f, v has been constructed from the 3D interpolation of the set of (f, v, PD points. This surface allows determining marginal PD (f and PD (v curves for specific v and f values, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy J. Fullman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.
Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.
Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P
2016-02-01
For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. PMID:25889609
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows
Ladiges, Daniel R.; Sader, John E.
2015-10-01
Oscillatory non-continuum low Mach number gas flows are often generated by nanomechanical devices in ambient conditions. These flows can be simulated using a range of particle based Monte Carlo techniques, which in their original form operate exclusively in the time-domain. Recently, a frequency-domain weight-based Monte Carlo method was proposed [D. R. Ladiges and J. E. Sader, "Frequency-domain Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows," J. Comput. Phys. 284, 351-366 (2015)] that exhibits superior statistical convergence when simulating oscillatory flows. This previous method used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model and contains a "virtual-time" variable to maintain the inherent time-marching nature of existing Monte Carlo algorithms. Here, we propose an alternative frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method that facilitates the use of a wider range of molecular models and more efficient collision/relaxation operators. We demonstrate this method with oscillatory Couette flow and the flow generated by an oscillating sphere, utilizing both the BGK kinetic model and hard sphere particles. We also discuss how oscillatory motion of arbitrary time-dependence can be simulated using computationally efficient parallelization. As in the weight-based method, this deviational frequency-domain Monte Carlo method is shown to offer improved computational speed compared to the equivalent time-domain technique.
Out-of-plane deviation of a mode I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle
Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Ponson, Laurent
2016-07-01
One possible explanation of out-of-plane deviations of cracks loaded in mode I+III was suggested by Gao and Rice in 1986. These authors noted that small in-plane undulations of the crack front, arising from fluctuations of the fracture toughness, should generate a small local mode-II component, causing the crack to depart from planarity. Their analysis is completed here by explicitly calculating the evolution in time of the out-of-plane deviation of a mode-I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle. The calculation is based on (i) first-order formulae for the stress intensity factors of a crack slightly perturbed within and out of its plane; and (ii) a "double" propagation criterion combining a Griffith condition on the local energy-release rate and a Goldstein-Salganik condition on the local stress intensity factor of mode II. It is predicted that the crack must evolve toward a stationary state, wherein the orthogonal distance from the average fracture plane to the perturbed crack front is constant outside the obstacle and varies linearly across it. We hope that this theoretical prediction will encourage comparison with experiments, and propose a fracture test involving propagation of a mode-I+III crack through a 3D-printed specimen containing some designed obstacle. xml:lang="fr"
Lysenko, V. G.; Kupko, V. S.; Makarevich, V. B.
2016-01-01
A trilateral comparison has been performed in the subject field of roundness measurement. The comparison was pilot by VNIIMS, Russia and took place between February 2014 and August 2014. The circulated standards were a roundness transfer standard in the form of a glass hemisphere and a magnification standard often referred to as a 'Flick' standard. Data from the roundness standard were processed using a Gaussian filter and a bandpass up to 50 undulations per revolution to provide a measured value of Roundness Deviation (RONt). For the magnification standard, data were also filtered and the fitted element was the circumscribed circle together with the deviation of the valleys (RONv). The results of comparisons show the correspondence of measurement uncertainties to the declared values and the compared measurement standards are equivalent. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Convex Hulls of Multiple Random Walks: A Large-Deviation Study
Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N
2016-01-01
We study the polygons governing the convex hull of a point set created by the steps of $n$ independent two-dimensional random walkers. Each such walk consists of $T$ discrete time steps, where $x$ and $y$ increments are i.i.d. Gaussian. We analyze area $A$ and perimeter $L$ of the convex hulls. We obtain probability densities for these two quantities over a large range of the support by using a large-deviation approach allowing us to study densities below $10^{-900}$. We find that the densities exhibit a universal scaling behavior as a function of $A/T$ and $L/\\sqrt{T}$, respectively. As in the case of one walker ($n=1$), the densities follow Gaussian distributions for $L$ and $\\sqrt{A}$, respectively. We also obtained the rate functions for the area and perimeter, rescaled with the scaling behavior of their maximum possible values, and found limiting functions for $T \\rightarrow \\infty$, revealing that the densities follow the large-deviation principle. These rate functions can be described by a power law fo...
System for the measurement of the deviation of a laser beam from the vertical direction.
Zeng, Tao; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Hongxin; Hu, Pengcheng; Liu, Yongmeng; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua
2016-04-01
If a used "vertical beam" is not perfectly vertical in a measurement, a cosine error will be introduced into it. To decrease and compensate for this cosine error, a measurement system is proposed to measure the deviation of the laser beam from the vertical direction. The structure of our measurement system is illustrated, and a model for solving for the deviation angle is established. As the distance of the beam spots on the charge-coupled device is the essential parameter for the measurement results, the acquisition process for this distance is explained. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm used in the acquisition process is also tested by experiments. Further, a self-correction module is designed and applied to reduce the error caused by the corner cube reflector in the system. The characteristics of the measurement system such as the resolution, stability, temperature drift, and direction accuracy are analyzed through experiments. The combined uncertainty of the measurement system is calculated to be 11×10-6 rad. PMID:27139674
New identification method for Hammerstein models based on approximate least absolute deviation
Xu, Bao-Chang; Zhang, Ying-Dan
2016-07-01
Disorder and peak noises or large disturbances can deteriorate the identification effects of Hammerstein non-linear models when using the least-square (LS) method. The least absolute deviation technique can be used to resolve this problem; however, its absolute value cannot meet the need of differentiability required by most algorithms. To improve robustness and resolve the non-differentiable problem, an approximate least absolute deviation (ALAD) objective function is established by introducing a deterministic function that exhibits the characteristics of absolute value under certain situations. A new identification method for Hammerstein models based on ALAD is thus developed in this paper. The basic idea of this method is to apply the stochastic approximation theory in the process of deriving the recursive equations. After identifying the parameter matrix of the Hammerstein model via the new algorithm, the product terms in the matrix are separated by calculating the average values. Finally, algorithm convergence is proven by applying the ordinary differential equation method. The proposed algorithm has a better robustness as compared to other LS methods, particularly when abnormal points exist in the measured data. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is easier to apply and converges faster. The simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Deviations between experimental and theoretical results in Ar (e, 3e) double ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coplanar (e, 3e) relative cross sections for double ionization of argon have been measured at an electron impact energy of E0 = 561.4 eV and under equal energy sharing among the two 'ejected' electrons, Eb = Ec = 9 eV. The scattering angle is fixed to θa = 1.5 degrees, corresponding to a momentum transfer K=0.4 au to the target. The experimental results have been compared with calculations in the first Born approximation, which include only first-order processes in the target-projectile interaction. The comparison shows severe deviations between the experimental and theoretical results. These deviations are much larger than the ones previously observed in helium under comparable kinematics. To fill this gap between theory and experiment, a decisive improvement in the theory is needed. This can be achieved by improving the first-order calculations and by including higher-order processes such as the two-step mechanism, or even new mechanisms, for instance the simultaneous ejection of the pair of target electrons. (letter to the editor)
Phase separation in random cluster models I: uniform upper bounds on local deviation
Hammond, Alan
2010-01-01
This is the first in a series of three papers that addresses the behaviour of the droplet that results, in the percolating phase, from conditioning the Fortuin-Kasteleyn random cluster model on the presence of an open dual circuit Gamma_0 encircling the origin and enclosing an area of at least (or exactly) n^2. (By the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation, the model is a close relative of the droplet formed by conditioning the Potts model on an excess of spins of a given type.) We consider local deviation of the droplet boundary, measured in a radial sense by the maximum local roughness, MLR(Gamma_0), this being the maximum distance from a point in the circuit Gamma_0 to the boundary of the circuit's convex hull; and in a longitudinal sense by what we term maximum facet length, MFL(Gamma_0), namely, the length of the longest line segment of which the boundary of the convex hull is formed. The principal conclusion of the series of papers is the following uniform control on local deviation: that there are positive ...
An analysis of anatomic landmark mobility and setup deviations in radiotherapy for lung cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To identify thoracic structures that exhibit little internal motion during irradiation and to determine setup variations in patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional images were generated with an electronic portal-imaging device from the AP fields of 10 patients, during several fractions. To determine the intrafractional mobility of thoracic structures, visible structures were contoured in every image and matched with a reference image by means of a cross-correlation algorithm. Setup variations were determined by comparing portal images with the digitized simulator films using the stable structures as landmarks. Results: Mobility was limited in the lateral direction for the trachea, thoracic wall, paraspinal line, and aortic notch, and in the craniocaudal direction for the clavicle, aortic notch, and thoracic wall. Analysis of patient setup revealed random deviations of 2.0 mm (1 SD) in the lateral direction and 2.8 mm in the craniocaudal direction, while the systematic deviations were 2.5 and 2.0 mm (1 SD) respectively. Conclusions: We have identified thoracic structures that exhibit little internal motion in the frontal plane, and recommend that these structures be used for verifying patient setup during radiotherapy. The daily variation in the setup of lung cancer patients at our center appears to be acceptable
Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. (authors)
A large deviation analysis on the near-equivalence between external and internal reservoirs
Medeiros, João R.; Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.
2016-06-01
Within the spirit of van Kampen's "Langevin approach", we discuss the limits of validity of rephrasing the non-equilibrium problem of a particle subject to an external (work) reservoir-a system where the fluctuation-dissipation relation is not verified-into the simpler case with an internal (heat) reservoir for which the fluctuations and the dissipation arise from the same source. Using a convenient mapping of the thermomechanical parameters we show that, counter-intuitively, such approach is not only valid for steady state time independent quantities, but also for time dependent thermostatistical quantities, namely the injected and dissipated fluxes. We connect this result with the problem of large deviations and conclude that, in this context, we can only distinguish reservoirs by analysing the "fluctuations of accumulated fluctuations". As a by-product, we learn that the best reference approximation to the large deviation functions of a non-Markovian external reservoir system is not the respective internal reservoir limit-as often assumed and suggested by the Langevin approach-but its internal reservoir analogue system obtained from the mapping of the original thermomechanical parameters.
Development of a new oscillation power range monitor algorithm based on period standard deviation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied a new detection algorithm for the oscillation power range monitor (OPRM) system to suppress postulated neutronic/thermal-hydraulic instability events in boiling water reactors (BWRs) before exceeding the fuel cladding integrity limit. The new method evaluates the standard deviation for OPRM oscillatory periods instead of monitoring them directly. Instability is detected when the standard deviation remains lower than a setpoint for a certain elapsed time. This method aims at excluding the impact of the perturbation caused by OPRM noise components for each OPRM cell to the detection performance, utilizing statistics that represent the oscillatory characteristics for the instability criterion. Toshiba's BWR system analysis code TRACT simulated the OPRM signals for an up-rated Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) regional instability event to examine the applicability of the new algorithm to this new reactor. Since there are no plant instability data for ABWR, we estimated noise components based on the available stability test data and superimposed them on the simulated oscillation data. The new algorithm showed that the trip signal could be generated for the simulated regionally instable condition before the fuel cladding safety limit was reached. (author)
Probing deviations from traditional colloid filtration theory by atomic forces microscopy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reno, Marissa Devan
2005-12-01
Colloid transport through saturated media is an integral component of predicting the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants. Developing sound predictive capabilities and establishing effective methodologies for remediation relies heavily on our ability to understand the pertinent physical and chemical mechanisms. Traditionally, colloid transport through saturated media has been described by classical colloid filtration theory (CFT), which predicts an exponential decrease in colloid concentration with travel distance. Furthermore, colloid stability as determined by Derjaguin-Landau-Veney-Overbeek (DLVO) theory predicts permanent attachment of unstable particles in a primary energy minimum. However, recent studies show significant deviations from these traditional theories. Deposition in the secondary energy minimum has been suggested as a mechanism by which observed deviations can occur. This work investigates the existence of the secondary energy minimum as predicted by DLVO theory using direct force measurements obtained by Atomic Forces Microscopy. Interaction energy as a function of separation distance between a colloid and a quartz surface in electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength are obtained. Preliminary force measurements show promise and necessary modifications to the current experimental methodology have been identified. Stringent surface cleaning procedures and the use of high-purity water for all injectant solutions is necessary for the most accurate and precise measurements. Comparisons between direct physical measurements by Atomic Forces Microscopy with theoretical calculations and existing experimental findings will allow the evaluation of the existence or absence of a secondary energy minimum.
The Relativistic Effect of the Deviation between the CMB Temperatures Obtained by the COBE Satellite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS on the COBE satellite, gives different temperatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background. This deviation has a theoretical explanation in the Doppler effect on the dipole (weak component of the radiation, the true microwave background of the Universe that moves at 365 km/sec, if the monopole (strong component of the radiation is due to the Earth. Owing to the Doppler effect, the dipole radiation temperature (determined by the 1st derivative of the monopole is lower than the monopole radiation temperature, with a value equal to the observed deviation. By this theory, the WMAP and PLANCK satellites, targeting the L2 point in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, should be insensitive to the monopole radiation. In contrast to the launched WMAP satellite, the PLANCK satellite will have on board absolute instruments which will not be able to detect the measured temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. That the monopole (strong component of the observed Cosmic Microwave Background is generated by the Earth is given a complete theoretical proof herein.
Vitreous Cavity-Associated Immune Deviation Induced by Retinal S Antigen
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhijie Li; Guanghua Peng; Chen Li
2001-01-01
Purpose: To determine whether the vitreous cavity(VC) supports the induction of deviant immune responses to retinal soluble(S) antigen and to observe the influence of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on the immunologic properties of the VC. Methods: Retinal S antigen was inoculated into the anterior chamber(AC) and the VC in Wistar rats. Seven days after antigen inoculation, the recipient animals were immunized with S antigen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Delayed-type hypersen- sitivity(DTH) was assessed by footpad challenge. To alter systemic immune conditions,IL-1 was administrated by intraperitoneal injection.Results: Antigen-specific DTH did not develop in rats in which S antigen was injected into the AC and the VC. By contrast, when IL-1 administrated systemically, S antigen was injected into the AC and VC elicited strong DTH.Conclusion: The VC supports immune deviation for soluble antigen by acitivity suppressing antigen-Specific DTH. Systemic administration of exogenous IL-1 eliminates the capacity of the VC to support immune deviation to soluble antigen locally injected.
LiDAR-mast deviations in complex terrain and their simulation using CFD
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Tobias Klaas
2015-11-01
Full Text Available LiDARs (Light Detection and Ranging are becoming important tools for wind resource assessments in all kinds of terrain. Compared to mast measurements, mobility and flexibility are their greatest benefits. However, care needs to be taken when setting up a measurement campaign. The influence of complex terrain on the wind leads to inhomogeneous flow. This can cause considerable errors in ground based mono-static LiDAR measurements due to their measurement principle and simplifying assumptions.Within this work, wind measurements from Fraunhofer IWES’s 200 m research mast in complex terrain at “Rödeser Berg” in Kassel, Germany, and a pulsed Doppler LiDAR (Leosphere windcube, located at the mast, are compared. The relative deviation between the measurements of the horizontal wind speed by the LiDAR and the mast (LiDAR-mast deviations varies with wind direction and height. It ranges from about −4 % underestimation to +2.5 % overestimation by the LiDAR - for heights between 120 and 200 m. Two steady-state Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-models and a model based on linearized Navier-Stokes Equations were used to estimate the LiDAR error from a flow simulation. Model results were evaluated depending on model parameterisation such as forest height and density. Given the right parameterisations – especially for the forest model – the CFD-models showed a good performance when compared to the observed LiDAR-mast deviations. These simulations can thus be used to correct the LiDAR error induced by the complex flow.To demonstrate variations of LiDAR errors due to choice of measurement location, one of the models was run to calculate the wind flow in an area of 2×2km2$2\\times2\\,\\text{km}^{2}$ around the 200 m measurement mast. This allows the visualization of the estimated LiDAR errors to characterize measurement locations. Results showed the significant variation of measurement errors due to
Harrison, C. G.
2008-05-01
A method of obtaining a model of how the angular standard deviation of VGPs varies as a function of observation latitude is described. A more stringent selection process is used on the available data from lava flows to determine the angular standard deviation of paleomagnetic Virtual Geomagnetic Poles as a function of latitude over the past 5 Ma. Data were used even if they gave low latitude Virtual Geomagnetic Poles. In other words there was no low latitude cutoff of the data. This resulted in 3579 data being available. The distribution of VGP latitude for any observational latitude band of sites was poorly fit by a Fisher distribution because the VGP data have a long tail towards low latitudes. An excellent distribution is to use a Fisher distribution as well as a distribution that is uniform as a function of latitude. This requires only two parameters to describe it, the Fisher precision parameter, κ, and the proportion of the results that are Fisher distributed, pf. The proportion of results that are uniformly distributed is therefore 1- pf. This method of fitting the complete VGP data set is a little simpler than that proposed by Shibuya et al. (1995) which required three parameters for a complete description of a data set. If the precision parameter of the Fisher distribution is used to determine an angular standard deviation there is a strong latitudinal variation resulting in the ASD rising form about 10° for a set of observations at the equator to 20° for a set of observations at a latitude of about 70°. Although there is considerable scatter of results, this scatter is within the bounds suggested by the errors in determining the ASDs. There is also evidence for considerable amounts of correlation of VGPs from successive lava flows, meaning that the total number of independent results is less than that given above. When this is allowed for, the proportion of uniformly distributed poles for an individual latitude band does not vary significantly and
On the deviation from the sech2 superradiant emission law in a two-level atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The atomic superradiant emission is treated in the single particle mean field approximation. A single particle Hamiltonian, which represents a dressed two-level atom in a radiation field, can be obtained and it is verified that it describes the transient regime of the emission process. While the line shape emission for a bare atom follows the sech2 law, for the dressed atom the line shape deviates appreciably from this law and it is verified that the deviation depends crucially on the ratio of the dynamic frequency shift to the transition frequency. This kind of deviation is observed in experimental results. (Author)
Selecting Video Key Frames Based on Relative Entropy and the Extreme Studentized Deviate Test
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Yuejun Guo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the relative entropy and its square root as distance measures of neighboring video frames for video key frame extraction. We develop a novel approach handling both common and wavelet video sequences, in which the extreme Studentized deviate test is exploited to identify shot boundaries for segmenting a video sequence into shots. Then, video shots can be divided into different sub-shots, according to whether the video content change is large or not, and key frames are extracted from sub-shots. The proposed technique is general, effective and efficient to deal with video sequences of any kind. Our new approach can offer optional additional multiscale summarizations of video data, achieving a balance between having more details and maintaining less redundancy. Extensive experimental results show that the new scheme obtains very encouraging results in video key frame extraction, in terms of both objective evaluation metrics and subjective visual perception.
[A unique Lemierre syndrome case in an elderly woman with deviation of the tongue].
Nakamichi, Seiko; Izumikawa, Koichi; Inoue, Keita; Sakamoto, Noriho; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kohno, Shigeru; Ozono, Yoshiyuki
2014-09-01
We report herein on the case of a 71-year-old woman hospitalized for continued postauricular pain of unknown origin with tongue deviation. In view of the severe inflammatory reaction and multiple nodular shadows of the lungs, the existence of infectious disease was indicated. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck revealed a thrombosis of the right internal jugular vein, osteomyelitis of right temporal-occipital bone and upper cervical spine, and cellulitis of the adjacent soft tissue. Multiple nodular shadows of the lungs were suspected to be the result of a metastatic septic embolism. Hence, she was diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome. Following treatment with long course of antimicrobial therapy including beta-lactams and clindamycin, complete recovery in this patient was achieved. PMID:25672142
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech;
2015-01-01
Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5......–12 years diagnosed with spastic CP. No systematic bias was observed between the sessions and no heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland–Altman plots. For the GDI and GPS, excellent reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.8–0.9 was found, while the GVS was found to have fair...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viktor Shevchuk
2010-10-01
Full Text Available By means of VAR and 2SLS assessments in the article researches the influence of the RER deviations from the equilibrium signification received through the Hodrick-Prescott filter. The author proved that understated RER worsens the GDP dynamics and accelerates the inflation simultaneously restricting the export and import demand. The results obtained testify to the benefit of hryvnia exchange rate growth as a means of dynamic acceleration of the economic growth in the low-inflation environment. It’s appropriate to neutralize possible balance deterioration of the trade balance is with the use of nonprice factors like reduction of the budget deficit and limitation of the money stock offers.
Particle dynamics and deviation effects in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave
Bini, Donato; Haney, Maria; Ortolan, Antonello
2014-01-01
Some strong field effects on test particle motion associated with the propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in the exact theory of general relativity are investigated. Two different profiles of the associated radiation flux are considered in comparison, corresponding to either constant or oscillating electric and magnetic fields with respect to a natural family of observers. These are the most common situations to be experimentally explored, and have a well known counterpart in the flat spacetime limit. The resulting line elements are determined by a single metric function, which turns out to be expressed in terms of standard trigonometric functions in the case of a constant radiation flux, and in terms of special functions in the case of oscillating flux, leading to different features of test particle motion. The world line deviation between both uncharged and charged particles on different spacetime trajectories due to the combined effect of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is studied. The int...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index,agricultural economic index,resources index,and environment index.According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person,comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized deviation and the participation of many people is established.Based on the case studies,agricultural sustainable development status of a certain region is evaluated.Result shows that the evaluation scores of the social index and agricultural economic index are high in this region,but the score of resources index is general and the evaluation result of environment index is not very good.The comprehensive evaluation value of overall sustainable development is 0.665 5;and the evaluation result is "good".
Calculating the angular standard deviation of electron beams using Fermi-Eyges theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowledge of the angular distribution of an electron beam at the applicator face is a necessary parameter in defining a beam when the Hogstrom pencil beam method of dose calculation is used. The angular spread can be found experimentally using penumbra widths measured at various distances from the applicator face. Using knowledge of the geometry and composition of the scattering foils of the linear accelerator, the angular standard deviation was calculated theoretically using Fermi-Eyges theory. The obtained angular spread values agree with experimentally derived values to within experimental error for electron energies from 6 to 21 MeV. The Fermi-Eyges calculation is fast, and can be used as a quick check to validate experimental angular spread values. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The standard definition of the stochastic risk-sensitive linear–quadratic (RS-LQ) control depends on the risk parameter, which is normally left to be set exogenously. We reconsider the classical approach and suggest two alternatives, resolving the spurious freedom naturally. One approach consists in seeking for the minimum of the tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the cost functional at some large fixed value. Another option suggests minimizing the expectation value of the cost functional under a constraint on the value of the PDF tail. Under the assumption of resulting control stability, both problems are reduced to static optimizations over a stationary control matrix. The solutions are illustrated using the examples of scalar and 1D chain (string) systems. The large deviation self-similar asymptotic of the cost functional PDF is analyzed. (paper)
A study of the homogeneity and deviations from stoichiometry in mercuric iodide
Burger, A.; Morgan, S.; He, C.; Silberman, E.; van den Berg, L.; Ortale, C.; Franks, L.; Schieber, M.
1990-01-01
We have been able to determine the deviations from stoichiometry of mercuric iodide (HgI 2) by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mercury excess or iodine deficiency in mercuric iodide can be evaluated from the eutectic melting of α-Hgl 2-Hg 2I 2 at 235 °C, which appears as an additional peak in DSC thermograms. I 2 excess can be found from the existence of the I 2-α-HgI 2 eutectic melting at 103°C. An additional DSC peak appears in some samples around 112°C, that could be explained by the presence of iodine inclusions. Using resonance fluorescence spectroscopy (RFS) we have been able to determine the presence of free I 2 that is released by samples during the heating at 120 °C (crystal growth temperature), thus giving additional support to the above DSC results.
Permanence of a Discrete Model of Mutualism with Infinite Deviating Arguments
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Xuepeng Li
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a discrete model of mutualism with infinite deviating arguments, that is x1(n+1=x1(nexp{r1(n[(K1(n+α1(n∑s=0∞J2(sx2(n−s/(1+∑s=0∞J2(sx2(n−s−x1(n−σ1(n]},x2(n+1=x2(nexp{r2(n[(K2(n+α2(n∑s=0∞J1(sx1(n−s/(1+∑s=0∞J1(sx1(n−s−x2(n−σ2(n]}. By some Lemmas, sufficient conditions are obtained for the permanence of the system.
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Zagoris Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Observation of a diverse deviation from macropore-formation theory in silicon electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Via anodizing patterned and unpatterned samples with a high HF concentration ([HF]), the degree of deviation from pore-formation theory was found to be markedly different. Based on the analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs and current–voltage (I – V) curves, the variation of physical and chemical parameters of patterned and unpatterned substrates was found to be crucial to the understanding of the observations. Our results indicate that the initial surface morphology of samples can have a considerable influence upon pore formation. The electric-field effect as well as current-burst-model was employed to interpret the underlying mechanism. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)