Clinical study of the factors affecting radioulnar deviation of the wrist joint
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Kanavaros Panagiotis
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The radioulnar carpal joint is critical for hand and wrist function. Radioulnar deviation indicates distal radioulnar joint flexibility and reflects the structure and function of the carpal bones, ulna, radius and ligaments. The present study examined whether radioulnar deviation is affected by gender, manual labor, playing a musical instrument, playing sport, handedness, previous fracture or prior inflammation. The study used clinical findings based on anatomical landmarks Methods The ulnar, radial and total deviations for both left and right hands were measured in 300 subjects (157 men and 143 women of mean age 21.7 years. Measurements were made with the forearm in a fixed pronated position using a novel specially designed goniometer. The gender of each subject was recorded, and information on playing of sport, playing a musical instrument, manual labor, handedness, and history of fracture or inflammation was sought. Data were analyzed using a multifactor ANOVA test. Results No statistically significant difference (p-value > 0.05 was found between those comparing groups except the total deviation of athletes' left hand versus the total deviation of non athletes' left hand (p-value 0.041 Conclusions This study was based on clinical findings using anatomical landmarks. We found that manual workers and athletes showed greater left hand flexibility. This suggests that activities that place chronic stress on the radiocarpal joint can independently affect radioulnar deviation.
Foumani, M; Strackee, S D; Jonges, R; Blankevoort, L; Zwinderman, A H; Carelsen, B; Streekstra, G J
2009-12-11
An in-vivo approach to the measurement of three-dimensional motion patterns of carpal bones in the wrist may have future diagnostic applications, particularly for ligament injuries of the wrist. Static methods to measure carpal kinematics in-vivo only provide an approximation of the true kinematics of the carpal bones. This study is aimed at finding the difference between dynamically and statically acquired carpal kinematics. For eight healthy subjects, static and a dynamic measurements of the carpal kinematics were performed for a flexion-extension and a radio-ulnar deviation movement. Dynamic scans were acquired by using a four-dimensional X-ray imaging system during an imposed cyclic motion. To assess static kinematics of the wrists, three-dimensional rotational X-ray scans were acquired during step-wise flexion-extension and radio-ulnar deviation. The helical axis rotations and the rotation components. i.e. flexion-extension, radio-ulnar deviation and pro-supination were the primary parameters. Linear mixed model statistical analysis was used to determine the significance of the difference between the dynamically and statically acquired rotations of the carpal bones. Small and in most cases negligible differences were observed between the dynamic motion and the step-wise static motion of the carpal bones. The conclusion is that in the case of individuals without any pathology of the wrist, carpal kinematics can be studied either dynamically or statically. Further research is required to investigate the dynamic in-vivo carpal kinematics in patients with dynamic wrist problems.
Distal radioulnar joint injuries
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Binu P Thomas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.
Distal radioulnar joint injuries.
Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran
2012-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140
Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?
Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593
Congenital radioulnar synostosis – case report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a rare malformation of the upper limb, with functional limitations of the limb. A 10-year-old child with pain and restricted mobility of the elbow joint was admitted to the hospital. Plain film radiography and CT examination was performed. Radiological examinations showed a congenital radioulnar synostosis. The child underwent surgical treatment – derotational osteotomy. Diagnostic imaging including computed tomography with three-dimentional (3D) reconstructions, preceding surgery enables planning of the surgical treatment
The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis
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Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
2010-01-15
Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies
Surgical outcome of delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis
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Garg Gaurav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Presentation of proximal radioulnar synostosis varies from cosmetic concerns with no functional limitations to significant pronation deformity which hampers activities of daily living. Surgical management must be considered based on the position of the forearm and functional limitations. We describe the surgical technique, results, and complications of excision of the radial head along with the proximal radius up to the distal extent of the synostosis site and securing the osteotomized radial shaft with a tensor fascia lata graft. Materials and methods: Four patients having six affected elbows with delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis with dislocated radial head managed surgically were included in the study. There were three males and one female with an average age of 20.25 years (ranging from 16 to 25 years. Preoperatively wrists were locked in the mean pronation position of 51.6° (ranging from 30° to 70°. The indications for surgery were limitation in activities of daily living and an obvious cosmetic deformity. Results: All patients were satisfied with the surgery and showed significant improvement in functional status. Mean active supination was 15° (ranging from 5 to 32° with passive supination was a mean of 24.8° (ranging from 11° to 44°. Similarly, mean active pronation was 58.5° (ranging from 50° to 71° with further passive correction up to a mean of 64.16° (ranging from 57° to 87° at last follow up. Conclusions: This procedure is simple, cost effective, and a reasonable option for treatment of proximal radioulnar synostosis with a dislocated radial head in adult patients. The operation does not require any specialized team or implants, and can be performed in a moderately equipped hospital.
Simultaneous dislocation of radiocapitellar and distal radioulnar joint.
Nishi, Tomio; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Tani, Takayuki; Aonuma, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained. PMID:24194995
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomio Nishi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal side. Tenderness was prominent at the site of radial head and distal radioulnar joint. Surgical treatment was performed using triceps tendon strip. Good functional recovery was gained.
The distal radioulnar joint. Anatomic and functional considerations.
Kauer, J M
1992-02-01
The distal radioulnar joint is functionally coupled with the proximal radioulnar joint, thus forming a mechanism for the longitudinal rotation of the hand. Distal radioulnar mobility is derived from the geometry of the joint, joint surfaces, and radioulnar connections. There is a structural and functional separation between the distal radioulnar and carpal joints, giving the possibility of pronation and supination in every position of the hand to the forearm. As for the stability of the joints involved, the ulnar articular disk plays an essential role. Being part of both distal radioulnar and carpal joints, the disk has very specific morphologic features that not only are individualized to the function of both joints but also stabilize the joints in their independent movements. Developmental data give the strong impression of an architectural scheme, of which the distal radioulnar joint is only a part. Traumatic lesions at the distal radioulnar joint and disturbances in normal distal radioulnar alignment have to be viewed, therefore, in a wider context. PMID:1735231
Implant arthroplasty for the distal radioulnar joint.
Scheker, Luis R
2008-11-01
The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is a weight-bearing joint; the ulnar head is frequently excised either totally or partially and in some cases is fused because of degenerative, rheumatoid, or posttraumatic arthritis and treated with a "salvage procedure." The result of these procedures is the inability of those patients to lift even minor weight. Articles about these procedures report the ability to pronate and supinate, but they rarely discuss grip strength or lifting capacity. We present an alternative to the salvage procedures that allows full range of motions as well as the ability to grip and lift weights encountered in daily living, such as a gallon of milk. The Aptis total DRUJ replacement prosthesis (Aptis Medical, Louisville, KY), a bipolar self-stabilizing DRUJ endoprosthesis, restores the forearm function. The technique of implantation is presented here.
Criteria for diagnosing distal radioulnar joint subluxation by computed tomography
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Nakamura, Ryogo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Horii, Emiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Imaeda, Toshihiko [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan); Nakao, Etsuhiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Branch Hospital of Nagoya University, School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami, Higashiku, Nagoya 461 (Japan)
1996-10-01
Bilateral wrist computed tomography (CT) was performed in 30 patients with suspected unilateral distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) subluxation to evaluate dynamic DRUJ CT scanning with a straight elbow. Five CT criteria for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation were examined. Maximum active supination and pronation on a conventional scanning table yielded satisfactory rotation (mean{+-}SD, 119 {+-}29 ) at the DRUJ, thus permitting a dynamic diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation. The radioulnar line method and the congruity method frequently yielded false positive results compared with bilateral diagnosis and were unreliable. Modifications of these two methods achieved sensitivity and specificity comparable to the epicenter method. We recommend the modified radioulnar line method for diagnosing dorsovolar subluxation using unilateral CT because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of technique. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Deviations in upper limb function of the less-affected side in congenital hemiparesis
Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.
2006-01-01
In the present study we examined upper-limb function of the less-affected side in young adolescents with congenital hemiparesis (cerebral palsy: CP). Five participants with hemiparetic CP and five control participants performed a cyclical reach-and-grasp task with the less-affected hand towards targ
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
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Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects
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Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.
Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.
Galeazzi fracture with volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.
Kim, Suezie; Ward, James P; Rettig, Michael E
2012-11-01
Galeazzi fracture dislocations are fractures of the distal one-third of the radial diaphysis with traumatic disruption of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). This injury results in subluxation or dislocation of the ulnar head. We present a case of a Galeazzi fracture with a volar dislocation of the DRUJ. Open reduction of the DRUJ with Kirschner wire fixation in pronation was necessary to reduce the joint and maintain anatomic alignment. Repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex was also necessary to maintain stability of the DRUJ.
Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ Implant Arthroplasty
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Amir Reza Kachooei
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months. Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to minister the disabilities of the armshoulder and hand (DASH, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE, and visual analogue scale (VAS, and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median followup time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months. Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation.
Smith, Gary
2015-01-01
Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec
Matched hemiresection interposition arthroplasty of the distal radioulnar joint.
Bain, G I; Pugh, D M; MacDermid, J C; Roth, J H
1995-11-01
Since 1986 the senior author has performed a matched hemiresection with retinacular/capsular interposition for patients with painful disorders of the distal radioulnar joint. A retrospective review of 55 wrists was performed by an independent hand surgeon and hand therapist. Forty-nine of 54 wrists in the surviving patients were clinically and radiographically reviewed with an average follow-up interval of 36 months. Subjective assessment included a visual analog rating of pain improvement and satisfaction with treatment. Objective assessment included examination of range of motion, strength, stability, and standardized functional testing with the Jebsen and Minnesota Rate of Manipulation tests. Thirty-five patients reported pain improvement and 41 patients were satisfied. The range of supination and pronation increased from 54 degrees and 67 degrees, respectively, to 72 degrees and 72 degrees. Functional ability as measured by the Jebsen test was similar to the contralateral wrist. Patients had most difficulty turning large objects. The clinical, objective, functional, and x-ray films results correlated poorly with pain improvement and patient satisfaction. Complications included one infection, one reflex sympathetic dystrophy, one neuroma of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve, and four cases of ulnar-carpal impaction. Pain relief was the primary determinant of patient satisfaction and should be considered the indication for surgery.
A misdiagnosis of traumatic hypersupination of the distal radioulnar joint: a case report.
Asopa, Vipin; Douglas, Robert J; Saies, Andrew D; Church, James S
2013-01-01
Traumatic hypersupination injury of the distal radioulnar joint is a rare injury, and occurs when sufficient supination force is applied to the joint so as to tear the volar radioulnar ligament, resulting in separation of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, and subluxation of the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris. This allows the distal ulna to rotate such that the ulnar styloid comes to lie adjacent to the ulna notch of the radius. Treatment of this injury requires manipulation of the joint, under anaesthesia or sedation. We describe a case where posttraumatic radiological investigation of a patient with an anatomical variation of the wrist when in supination resembled a traumatic hypersupination injury of the distal radioulnar joint. A review of the literature has revealed this to be the first reported case of this type.
A Misdiagnosis of Traumatic Hypersupination of the Distal Radioulnar Joint: A Case Report
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Vipin Asopa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Traumatic hypersupination injury of the distal radioulnar joint is a rare injury, and occurs when sufficient supination force is applied to the joint so as to tear the volar radioulnar ligament, resulting in separation of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, and subluxation of the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris. This allows the distal ulna to rotate such that the ulnar styloid comes to lie adjacent to the ulna notch of the radius. Treatment of this injury requires manipulation of the joint, under anaesthesia or sedation. We describe a case where posttraumatic radiological investigation of a patient with an anatomical variation of the wrist when in supination resembled a traumatic hypersupination injury of the distal radioulnar joint. A review of the literature has revealed this to be the first reported case of this type.
Understanding stability of the distal radioulnar joint through an understanding of its anatomy.
Hagert, Elisabet; Hagert, Carl-Göran
2010-11-01
The authors describe the anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and delineate the importance of viewing this joint as part of the whole forearm. The osseous congruity and ligamentous integrity is of essence for the stability of the DRUJ, according to the principles of tensegrity. The neuromuscular control and possible proprioceptive function of the DRUJ are also outlined. PMID:20951895
Congenital radioulnar synostosis: A report of 11 cases and review of literature
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Farzan M
2002-06-01
Full Text Available During the last 10 years, we have had 11 cases of radioulnar (RU synostosis, a very rare congenital amomaly of the upper extremity. Only 3 of them required surgical intervention. So we evaluated these three cases of proximal radioulnar synostosis corrected by proximal derotational osteotomy. The indication for surgery was severe pronation deformity that caused functional problem. Mean age at the time of surgery was 4.5 years (3-6 years and mean postoperative follow up was 3.5 years(1-5 years. Forearm position after surgery was 15 supination. Anesthetic and functional results in all patients were good. In only one patient it was complicated by impending compartment syndrome that was treated by conservative measures. We recommend derotational osteotomay for correcting RU synostosis in earlier age.
Delayed distal radio-ulnar joint instability after Galeazzi type fracture fixation in a child.
Jettoo, P; de Kiewiet, Gp
2010-10-15
We report a rare case of delayed distal radio-ulnar joint instability with malunion of a Galeazzi-type radius fracture in a 10- year-old boy. He underwent operative intervention with flexible intramedullary nailing of the radius. He had careful clinical and intra-operative evaluation under image intensifier, and regular clinical and radiological assessments subsequently in clinic, and his distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) was stable. He nonetheless developed DRUJ instability with malunion of radial midshaft fracture at 4 months. Corrective osteotomy for forearm fracture malunion is an uncommon procedure in children. He underwent a corrective radial osteotomy at the site of malunion, held with a Pennig external fixator, with reconstruction of the DRUJ subluxation. He made a good recovery with full restoration of wrist and forearm function, which was maintained at 17 months.
An iatrogenic proximal radioulnar synostosis:a case report and review of literature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Varun Kumar Singh; Gauresh Shantaram Vargaonkar
2014-01-01
The most common cause of proximal radioulnar synostosis in adults is traumatic, usually after forearm fractures. Disabling complications are mainly loss of rotatory movements of the forearm. Various surgical procedures have been described in the literature to end up in forearm synostosis as a complication. We here presented a rare case of proximal forearm synostosis following a common but improper surgical technique for an olecranon fracture complicated by implant infection. The synostosis was treated by resection and fascia lata interposition graft.
48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant...
Simultaneous Dislocation of Radiocapitellar and Distal Radioulnar Joint
Tomio Nishi; Noriyuki Suzuki; Takayuki Tani; Hiroshi Aonuma
2013-01-01
A 45-year-old male presented to the emergency room of our institution complaining of severe pain around the left elbow. While playing volleyball, he slipped down with his left arm hit between the floor and his body. He complaind of strong pain from left elbow to hand, and active motion of elbow and wrist joint was impossible. His forearm was held in supinated position. On X-ray examination, radius head was deviated to anterior lateral side, and distal end of radius was dislocated to dorsal si...
Marquardt, Tamara L; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Li, Zong-Ming
2016-07-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the carpal arch and median nerve during the application of radiounlarly directed compressive force across the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Radioulnar compressive forces of 10 N and 20 N were applied at the distal level of the carpal tunnel in 10 female patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. Immediately prior to force application and after 3 min of application, ultrasound images of the distal carpal tunnel were obtained. It was found that applying force across the wrist decreased the carpal arch width (p 1234-1240, 2016. PMID:26662276
Successful treatment of a radioulnar synostosis in a Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippiensis).
Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Nevarez, Javier; Heggem, Brittany; Tully, Thomas N
2012-06-01
A Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippiensis) was presented to the Wildlife Hospital of Louisiana, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, for an inability to fly and was subsequently diagnosed with a minimally displaced, closed, simple, short oblique, diaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the right ulna. A figure-8 bandage was initially applied to the wing to stabilize the fracture. Over a 5-week period, the kite developed progressive reduction in wing extension, and serial radiographs revealed a bridging callus at the ulnar fracture site, as well as development of a radioulnar synostosis. To restore wing function and extension, surgical excision of the bony union between the radius and the ulna was performed, after which a polypropylene mesh implant was interposed between the 2 bones. Within 2 weeks after the surgical procedure, the kite had recovered normal wing extension and was able to fly without noticeable impairment. The bird was released 2 weeks after surgery. This case illustrates a common complication of external coaptation used as sole means of managing fractures of the avian ulna, radius, or both, which results from lack of interosseous soft tissue in the antebrachial area. On the basis of the successful outcome in this case, surgical excision of the interdiaphyseal callus and interposition of a polypropylene mesh could be a viable option for management of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis in birds of prey. PMID:22872982
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela
This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...
Sexual "Variation" without "Deviation"
Turnage, John R.; Logan, Daniel L.
1975-01-01
Non-heterosexual behavior continues to be labeled "deviant" or "maladaptive" by those propounding a learning formulation of sexual behavior. It is suggested that the term "variation" replace, in part, the term "deviation" when describing non-heterosexual behavior, especially homosexuality. (Author)
Niihori, Tetsuya; Ouchi-Uchiyama, Meri; Sasahara, Yoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Irie, Masahiro; Sato, Atsushi; Saito-Nanjo, Yuka; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Kure, Shigeo; Matsubara, Yoichi; Imaizumi, Masue; Aoki, Yoko
2015-12-01
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by thrombocytopenia and congenital fusion of the radius and ulna. A heterozygous HOXA11 mutation has been identified in two unrelated families as a cause of RUSAT. However, HOXA11 mutations are absent in a number of individuals with RUSAT, which suggests that other genetic loci contribute to RUSAT. In the current study, we performed whole exome sequencing in an individual with RUSAT and her healthy parents and identified a de novo missense mutation in MECOM, encoding EVI1, in the individual with RUSAT. Subsequent analysis of MECOM in two other individuals with RUSAT revealed two additional missense mutations. These three mutations were clustered within the 8(th) zinc finger motif of the C-terminal zinc finger domain of EVI1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and qPCR assays of the regions harboring the ETS-like motif that is known as an EVI1 binding site showed a reduction in immunoprecipitated DNA for two EVI1 mutants compared with wild-type EVI1. Furthermore, reporter assays showed that MECOM mutations led to alterations in both AP-1- and TGF-β-mediated transcriptional responses. These functional assays suggest that transcriptional dysregulation by mutant EVI1 could be associated with the development of RUSAT. We report missense mutations in MECOM resulting in a Mendelian disorder that provide compelling evidence for the critical role of EVI1 in normal hematopoiesis and in the development of forelimbs and fingers in humans. PMID:26581901
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Aihua
2004-01-01
The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ＜r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.
创伤性桡尺远侧关节背侧半脱位的治疗%Treatment of traumatic dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李岩峰; 蔡培华; 陆叶; 詹玉林; 范存义
2015-01-01
Objective To explore a treatment protocol for acute and chronic traumatic dorsal subluxation of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and report the preliminary clinical results.Methods From August 2010 to June 2014, 28 patients with traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation and without fractures were included in our standardized treatment protocol.First, a course of conservative treatment was applied to immobilize the affected limb at forearm supination and 90°elbow flexion with an above elbow plaster for 6 weeks after manual reduction of the DRUJ.Patients with no symptom relief in 2 months after plaster removal were regarded as non-responsive and were subject to surgical reinforcement of dorsal radioulnar ligament.The flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was split in the middle.The radial half was transversely divided 5 to 7 cm proximal to the pisiform bone, tunneled through the ulnar head in a volar-ulnar oblique to dorsal-radial direction, and then fixed over dorsal-ulnar side of the radius with 2 anchors.The extremity was then immobilized in an above elbow plaster with forearm in supination position for 4 weeks, followed by a short arm cast for another 4 weeks.Results The average follow-up time for all 28 patients was 2.5 years (range, 7 months to 4.2 years).A functional evaluation was performed with modified Mayo wrist scoring system.The effective rate of conservative treatment was 85.7％ for the 14 cases with less than 3 week post-injury interval and 28.6％ for the 14 cases with longer than 3 week post-injury interval.The effective rate of 12 cases that underwent surgical treatment was 83.3％.Conclusion Early diagnosis and early treatment for traumatic DRUJ dorsal subluxation is very important.Conservative treatment is less effective in cases of subluxation older than 3 weeks.For cases non-responsive to conservative treatment, surgical reinforcement of the dorsal superficial fibers of the radioulnar hgament with a tendon slip from flexor carpi ulnaris is a rehable solution
A Process Deviation Analysis Framework
Depaire, Benoit; Swinnen, Jo; Jans, Mieke; Vanhoof, Koen
2013-01-01
Process deviation analysis is becoming increasingly important for companies. This paper presents a framework which structures the field of process deviation analysis and identies new research opportunities. Application of the framework starts from managerial questions which relate to specific deviation categories and methodological steps. Finally a general outline to detect high-level process deviations is formulated.
Large deviations from freeness
Kargin, Vladislav
2010-01-01
Let H=A+UBU* where A and B are two N-by-N Hermitian matrices and U is a Haar-distributed random unitary matrix, and let \\mu_H, \\mu_A, and \\mu_B be empirical measures of eigenvalues of matrices H, A, and B, respectively. Then, it is known (see, for example, Pastur-Vasilchuk, CMP, 2000, v.214, pp.249-286) that for large N, measure \\mu_H is close to the free convolution of measures \\mu_A and \\mu_B, where the free convolution is a non-linear operation on probability measures. The large deviations of the cumulative distribution function of \\mu_H from its expectation have been studied by Chatterjee in JFA, 2007, v. 245, pp.379-389. In this paper we improve Chatterjee's estimate and show that P {\\sup_x |F_H (x) -F_+ (x)| > \\delta} < exp [-f(\\delta) N^2], where F_H (x) and F_+ (x) denote the cumulative distribution functions of \\mu_H and the free convolution of \\mu_A and \\mu_B, respectively, and where f(\\delta) is a specific function.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.;
2011-01-01
hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...... and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0.01 for a paired t-test respectively....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul S C Malone
2016-07-01
Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that transmitted forces across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ are similar though not identical under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit.MethodsThe articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test, and Bland Altman analysis.ResultsThe findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and yet strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p<0.05. The PRUJ articulating surface area was marginally larger than the DRUJ with a PRUJ : DRUJ ratio of 1.02. Paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the two bone volumes (p<0.01 with a radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average 4% greater than ulna volume.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Hess, Florian; Farshad, Mazda; Sutter, Reto; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas
2012-11-01
We performed this study to investigate whether discrepancy of bilateral dorsovolar shift of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is decisive for the diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Although several cadaver studies have quantified the amount of physiological dorsovolar shift, so far, there is no reliable method of quantification of DRUJ mobility in daily practice. The aim was to describe a novel sonographic method of quantifying DRUJ instability and evaluate its reliability and validity. In this study, 40 healthy volunteers and 17 patients with complete rupture of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) underwent sonographic quantification of the grade of instability of their DRUJ bilaterally. Dorsovolar ulnar head translation relative to the distal radius was quantified by means of ultrasonography performed in a transversal plane through the ulnar head and Lister tubercle. Measurements were done while actively pressing the volar surface of the hand onto a brick 30 degrees pronated, and after lifting the hand. A quotient Q of the radioulnar distance (distance between the dorsal radius surface and the ulnar head) between the unloaded and loaded wrist was calculated for differentiation of a normal and unstable DRUJ. The Q ratio of the 17 patients with unilateral TFCC lesion was significantly different between the pathologic side and the contralateral wrist (1.19 vs. 0.54, p 0.8 was found to be a reasonable cut-off for pathologic laxity of the DRUJ with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 81%. A quotient Q > 0.8 determines instability of the DRUJ reliably. This was a level II diagnostic study. PMID:24179720
Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki
2014-02-01
Background As the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) anchors the distal radius to the ulna via the radioulnar ligament (RUL), a severely displaced distal fragment of the radius may be associated with a foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess, radiographically and arthroscopically, the relationship between displacement of the radius, the ulnar styloid, and avulsion of the RUL resulting in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine wrists of 29 patients with intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures/malunion who underwent reduction or a corrective osteotomy of the displaced/malunited fracture, and/or wrist arthroscopy, were assessed radiographically and arthroscopically. Radial translation, radial inclination, radial shortening, volar or dorsal tilt, and the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture with more than 4 mm of displacement were measured from the initial films. Radiocarpal arthroscopy was used to assess peripheral lesions of the TFCC, while DRUJ arthroscopy was used to assess the foveal attachment. The relationship between displacement of the distal radius or the ulnar styloid fracture and the TFCC injury, including avulsion of the RUL, was recorded. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased radial translation, decreased radial inclination, increased radial shortening, and an ulnar styloid fragment radially displaced by more than 4 mm were significant predictors of RUL avulsion at the fovea. Volar or dorsal tilt of the radius and ulnar variance did not correlate with RUL avulsion or TFCC injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that radial translation was an independent risk factor of foveal avulsion of the RUL. Conclusions Increased radial translation and radial shortening and decreased radial inclination of the distal fragment can be associated with a foveal avulsion of the RUL. Radial translation can be an independent risk
Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica
2013-01-01
The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...
Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康艺凡
2016-01-01
Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.
Angle-deviation optical profilometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu
2011-01-01
@@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized...
48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when...
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
Clinical efficacy of myofascial flap in the treatment of radioulnar synostosis%肌筋膜瓣对前臂骨连接的疗效观察
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周钢; 邱勋永; 马心赤; 王快胜; 王和驹
2013-01-01
目的 探讨创伤后尺桡骨骨连接的防治方法.方法 对2006 年4 月至2012 年4 月21 例创伤后尺桡骨间骨连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔以预防骨连接复发.结果 21 例患者术前平均旋前和旋后角度为14°和5°,术后为65°和70°,经过6~17 个月(平均11 个月)的随访,旋转范围从术前的15°改善至130°,未出现骨性连接复发,所有患者治疗效果满意.结论 骨性连接凿除后使用前臂肌筋膜瓣进行间隔能够有效地防治创伤性骨连接.%Objective To discuss our experience in treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis. Methods Twenty-one patients with posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis were treated with synostosis resection and interposition of forearm myofascial flap from 2006 to 2012. Results The mean preoperative pronation and postoperative pronation was 14° and 65° before treatment, 5° and 70° after treatment. The patients were followed up for 6—17 months, 11 months in average. The average arc of rotation improved from 15° to 130°. No case of recurrence was found. Conclusion Synostosis resection and interposition with forearm myofascial flap is an effective technique for the treatment of posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis.
Biomechanical analysis of the stability of the distal radioulnar joint%桡尺远侧关节稳定结构的生物力学分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄继锋; 钟世镇
2001-01-01
目的从生物力学的角度分析桡尺远侧关节（distal radioulnar joint，DRUJ）稳定结构在前臂活动中的稳定作用及损伤后的临床体征。方法用自制的实验架固定8侧新鲜上肢标本。分级切除桡尺远侧关节的主要稳定结构，进行生物力学测量分析。结果三角纤维软骨复合体（triangular fibrocartilage complex，TFCC）水平部分前半段切除后，DRUJ于旋后位时不稳定；水平部分后半段切除后，DRUJ于旋前位时不隐定；TFCC水平部及远侧骨间膜全部切除后，DRUJ于各个位置均不稳定。结论 DRUJ的稳定性主要依靠TFCC水平部分和远侧骨间膜的维持。背侧桡尺韧带在前臂旋前位时，维持DRUJ的稳定作用较掌侧桡尺韧带大；相反，在旋后位时掌侧桡尺韧带比背侧桡尺韧带更为重要。%Objective To assess the stabilization structures of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) from biomechanical point of view, and evaluate their role in stability of the joint and in forearm movement. Methods 8 fresh cadaver upper extremities were fixed in a custom-made jig which holds the limb rigidly and yet allows forearm rotation. The major stabilization structures of DRUJ were resected step by step, and biomechenical assessment was done. Results After resection of anterior half segment in the horizontal part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), DRUJ was unstable in supination position. After resection of posterior half segment in the horizontal part of TFCC, DRUJ was unstable in pronation. After resection of entire horizontal part of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane, DRUJ was unstable in every position. Conclusions Stability of DRUJ relies mainly on the horizontal portion of TFCC and the distal interosseous membrane. The dorsal radioulnar ligament (DRUL) was more important than the palmer radioulnar ligament (PRUL) in maintaining DRUJ stability in full pronation, while the PRUL was more important
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-10-20
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R
2005-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaguchi, Michio; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei; Minamikawa, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Shin; Morimoto, Tadanobu; Yakura, Hisayoshi; Iida, Hirosuke
1988-01-01
We investigated the accuracy of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) congruity in 10 healthy hands and 84 rheumatoid hands. Operated-on joints were excluded from this series. The CT study of DRUJ was done in positions of 90 deg, 70 deg, 45 deg, 20 deg and 0 deg in pronation and supination of the forearm. The radiographic study was done of the lateral view of the wrist with the forearm in neutral rotation, and of the P-A view with the forearm in full pronation. The evaluation was done with Mino's and Snook's criteria. All computed tomograms showed good congruity in the 10 healthy hands, so we evaluated radiograms using these results. In healthy hands, the accuracy of the lateral radiograms was 60 % and of the P-A view ones' 80 %. In the computed tomograms, good congruity was noted in 29 joints, subluxation in 57 joints and dislocation in no joints in 84 rheumatoid hands clinically diagnosed as having DRUJ incongruity. The accuracy of the lateral view radiograms was 60.5 % and of the P-A view ones' 35.7 %. Evaluation of the P-A view radiogram was impossible in 18.9 % due to bony destruction of the ulnar styloid process in RA. In the lateral view radiograms of 23 joints which showed subluxation in natural rotation by computed tomography, subluxation was noted in 11 joints, good congruity in 8 joints and dislocation in 4 joints. This study suggests that as the radiographic evaluation of DRUJ incongruity is difficult in rheumatoid hands because of severe bony and articular destruction, computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis of DRUJ subluxation.
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70....
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the...
48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470....
48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and...
48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior...
Deviations in human gut microbiota
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...... microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance.
HISA Shoichi
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭志雄; 甄允方; 袁泉文; 王晓东
2012-01-01
目的 探讨融合部旋转短缩截骨治疗儿童先天性上尺桡骨融合的疗效.方法 回顾性分析采用融合部旋转短缩截骨治疗的儿童先天性上尺桡骨融合13例(14侧肢体),男10例、女3例;年龄2～7岁,平均3.5岁.前臂旋前畸形50°～90°,平均82.1°.患侧手不能完成端碗进食、护理个人卫生、转动球形门把手、开锁、伸手接物等日常动作,手臂外观异常.均行融合部旋转短缩截骨治疗,取肘后Boyd切口,松解尺桡骨近端骨间膜,融合部截骨短缩0.5 cm,旋转前臂至中立位或旋后10°～20°位对合截骨端,以克氏针固定.8～16周截骨端骨性愈合后取出内固定.结果 融合部旋转短缩截骨后前臂固定于中立位或旋后10°～20°位,前臂旋前畸形平均矫正90.7°.未出现前臂缺血性挛缩及切口感染,截骨处愈合顺利.术后患肢外观改善,患儿可完成端碗进食、护理个人卫生等日常动作,生活质量改善,家属和患儿对手术效果满意.全部患者获得随访,随访时间14～88个月,矫正角度无丢失.结论 融合部旋转短缩截骨治疗先天性上尺桡骨融合能够改善外观和患肢功能,术后肢体发生缺血挛缩的风险低.%Objective To investigate effect of rotational and shortening osteotomy at the conjoined mass in the treatment of congenital radioulnar synostosis.Methods Fourteen cases of radioulnar synostosis in 13 patients were treated by rotational and shortening osteotomy at the conjoined mass of radius and ulna.There were 10 males and 3 females,aged from 2 to 7 years (average,3.5 years).The pronation deformity of the forearm ranged from 50° to 90° (average,82.1°).The affected limbs could not perform some activities of daily living such as eating by holding a bowl,cleaning genitals and buttocks,turning on the global door knob,turning a key in a keyhole,and accepting objects in the palm.The operation was done through Boyd approach,and the proximal interosseous
48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....
48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by...
48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...
48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2)...
48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations....
48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations....
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.
Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas
2016-03-01
During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF NEGATIVELY DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Li; Wan Chenggao; Feng Yanqin
2011-01-01
In this article, we obtain the large deviations and moderate deviations for negatively dependent (ND) and non-identically distributed random variables defined on (-∞, +∞). The results show that for some non-identical random variables, precise large deviations and moderate deviations remain insensitive to negative dependence structure.
Moderate Deviations for Mean Field Particle Models
Del Moral, Pierre; Wu, Liming
2012-01-01
This article is concerned with moderate deviation principles of a general class of mean eld type interacting particle models. We discuss functional moderate deviations of the occupation measures for both the strong -topology on the space of fi nite and bounded measures as well as for the corresponding stochastic processes on some class of functions equipped with the uniform topology. Our approach is based on an original semigroup analysis combined with stochastic perturbation techniques and projective limit large deviation methods.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation....
Deviation of Register in English Talk Shows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺静
2016-01-01
Halliday's register theory and G. Leech's deviation of register are the general knowledge of the topic in the academic field. This paper focuses on connection between deviation of register and humorous effects in English talk shows. The significance of this paper is to put this theory in broader use and to help English learners better understand western humor and talk shows.
48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
...) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies). However, see TAM 1201.403. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual...
48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403...
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
M. Foumani; S.D. Strackee; R. Jonges; L. Blankevoort; A.H. Zwinderman; B. Carelsen; G.J. Streekstra
2009-01-01
An in-vivo approach to the measurement of three-dimensional motion patterns of carpal bones in the wrist may have future diagnostic applications, particularly for ligament injuries of the wrist. Static methods to measure carpal kinematics in-vivo only provide an approximation of the true kinematics
Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry
Wanas, M I
2005-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.
Sport and Social Deviations - a Prognostic Attitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kosiewicz Jerzy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The author focuses his attention first of all on social deviations which play a negative role in highly competitive sport. He tries to define - from the viewpoint of philosophy - how they will influence its future form.
Large Deviations in Quantum Spin Chain
Ogata, Yoshiko
2008-01-01
We show the full large deviation principle for KMS-states and $C^*$-finitely correlated states on a quantum spin chain. We cover general local observables. Our main tool is Ruelle's transfer operator method.
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
Kinematic Deviations In Children With Cerebral Palsy
Sangeux, Morgan; ARMAND, Stéphane
2015-01-01
In gait analysis, a large portion of the work consists in finding the underlying causes of the abnormal movement observed during walking. The patient’s kinematics of walking is compared to that of typically developed children and the deviations are further analysed. Over the years, clinicians have observed multiple-joints kinematics deviations that were frequent in children with cerebral palsy and devised gait patterns in order to group patients and support management algorithms. However, the...
Large deviations for fractional Poisson processes
Beghin, Luisa
2012-01-01
We present large deviation results for two versions of fractional Poisson processes: the main version which is a renewal process, and the alternative version where all the random variables are weighted Poisson distributed. We also present a sample path large deviation result for suitably normalized counting processes; finally we show how this result can be applied to the two versions of fractional Poisson processes considered in this paper.
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Touchette, Hugo [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: h.touchette@qmul.ac.uk
2009-07-15
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe
Giblin, John T; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer's sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁治; 陈一晖
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND:Maxilary posterior tooth defects can be repaired using the dental implant. However, implantation accuracy is not ensured by traditional plaster models used as implant template, which leads to the incidence of complications,andaffectsthe repair effects. OBJECTIVE:To study application effects of surgical guide plates designed using the computer aided design (CAD)/computer aided manufacturing (CAM) technology for the repair of maxilary posterior tooth defects. METHODS:Implant treatment was performed in 30 patients with maxilary posterior tooth defects. Surgical guide plate was made using the CAD/CAM technology after CT scan of the jaw bone. The repair was conducted with guideplateassistant. The deviation between the virtual and actual implant position was measured after implantation. The clinical repair effects and periodontal tissues were observed during the 12-month folow-up. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Thirty-sixCAD/CAM surgical guide plates in 30 patients werestabilized after implantation. Thirty-six implants were emplaced precisely with the assist of the surgical guide plates. There was no any problem during the process of implantation. The deviation of the head between the virtual and actual implant position was very smal, which did not affect the accuracy of implant placement. Before and 6 and 12 months after the repair, gingival crevicular fluid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and sulcus bleeding index were not obviously changed in the patients. Our results suggest that the implant head deviation and angle deviation appearduring the repair process of maxilary posterior tooth defects using CAD/CAM surgical guide for dental implants;however, the implantation accuracy is not affected. The repair effect is ideal and periodontal tissue is in good status after implantation.%背景：上颌后牙缺损修复可以采用种植牙技术，但以往的种植模板大多利用传统石膏模型完成，无法有效保证种植体植入的准确性，容易导致各种
Spectral deviations for the damped wave equation
Anantharaman, Nalini
2009-01-01
We prove a Weyl-type fractal upper bound for the spectrum of the damped wave equation, on a negatively curved compact manifold. It is known that most of the eigenvalues have an imaginary part close to the average of the damping function. We count the number of eigenvalues in a given horizontal strip deviating from this typical behaviour; the exponent that appears naturally is the `entropy' that gives the deviation rate from the Birkhoff ergodic theorem for the geodesic flow. A Weyl-type lower...
Measuring the deviation from the Rutherford formula
Kuraev, E. A.; Shatnev, M.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.
2009-01-01
Modern experiments with heavy ion-leptons collisions open the possibility to measure the deviation of cross section of small angles electron(positron)-ion elastic scattering from the Rutherford formula due to multiple virtual photons exchange. The charge asymmetry and the polarization of the scattered leptons are calculated and numerical predictions are given. A generalization to elastic proton-nucleus scattering is discussed.
41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110...
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...
From Stein Identities to Moderate Deviations
Chen, Louis H Y; Shao, Qi-Man
2009-01-01
Stein's method is applied to obtain a Cram\\'er type moderate deviation result for dependent random variables whose dependence is defined in terms of a Stein identity. The result is optimal when applied to the combinatorial central limit theorem, the binary expansion of a random integer, the anti-voter model on a complete graph, and the Curie-Weiss model.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 84.4 Section 84.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...
A robust standard deviation control chart
M. Schoonhoven; R.J.M.M. Does
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse distu
MODERATE DEVIATIONS AND LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR A TEST OF SYMMETRY BASED ON KERNEL DENSITY ESTIMATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Xiaoxia; Gao Fuqing
2008-01-01
Let fn be a non-parametric kernel density estimator based on a kernel function K. And a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables taking values in R. The goal of this article is to prove moderate deviations and large deviations for the statistic sup x∈R|fn(x) - fn(-X)|.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhamoorthy
2014-10-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic isolated distal radioulnar joint instability is a relatively rare entity. Several methods of reconstruction were available to stabilize the joint and each method has some advantage over others. We proposed to assess the functional outcome following reconstruction of chronic dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using extra articular reconstruction by Fulkerson – Watson method. AIM: To assess the functional outcome following reconstruction for chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using Fulkerson –Watson method. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in five patients over three years from 2010 to 2013 with chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability who were treated by Fulkerson-Watson method of reconstruction. All patients underwent MRI evaluation before surgery to assess ligament pathology and for adequacy of sigmoid notch. Arthroscopy performed in all patients. Functional outcomes were assessed using VAS score, quick-DASH score and Mayo wrist score at every 6 months follow-up. Radiological assessment done using plain x-rays at each follow up. RESULTS: Three patients required Arthroscopic debridement for TFCC. All five patients had achieved stability at distal radio ulnar joint after surgery and remained so till their last follow up. One patient had persistent pain near ulnar styloid. The average loss of motion for pronation was 10 degrees and supination was 3 degrees in reference to the normal side. All except one patient achieved ulnar grip strength of >90 % compared to normal side. The mean pre and postoperative VAS score, quick-DASH score, Mayo wrist score were 76.6 and 17.2, 37.3 and 11.3, 45 and 77 respectively. CONCLUSION: Though extra articular reconstruction for DRUJ by Fulkerson-Watson method is non-anatomical, the procedure is simple than intra articular reconstruction and gives similar functional outcome like intra articular reconstructions as shown by our results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buck, Florian M., E-mail: florian.buck@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Nico, Marcelo A.C., E-mail: nico.marcelo@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Gheno, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.gheno@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Trudell, Debra J., E-mail: debtrudell@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Resnick, Donald, E-mail: dresnick@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)
2011-02-15
Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13{sup o}. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13{sup o} sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
Large Deviation Strategy for Inverse Problem
Ojima, Izumi
2011-01-01
Taken traditionally as a no-go theorem against the theorization of inductive processes, Duheme-Quine thesis may interfere with the essence of statistical inference. This difficulty can be resolved by \\textquotedblleft Micro-Macro duality\\textquotedblright\\ \\cite{Oj03, Oj05} which clarifies the importance of specifying the pertinent aspects and accuracy relevant to concrete contexts of scientific discussions and which ensures the matching between what to be described and what to describe in the form of the validity of duality relations. This consolidates the foundations of the inverse problem, induction method, and statistical inference crucial for the sound relations between theory and experiments. To achieve the purpose, we propose here Large Deviation Strategy (LDS for short) on the basis of Micro-Macro duality, quadrality scheme, and large deviation principle. According to the quadrality scheme emphasizing the basic roles played by the dynamics, algebra of observables together with its representations and ...
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Serrà
Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR m-NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Yijun; Ming Ruixing; Yang Wenquan
2007-01-01
M-negatively associated random variables, which generalizes the classical one of negatively associated random variables and includes m-dependent sequences as its particular case, are introduced and studied. Large deviation principles and moderate deviation upper bounds for stationary m-negatively associated random variables are proved.Kolmogorov-type and Marcinkiewicz-type strong laws of large numbers as well as the three series theorem for m-negatively associated random variables are also given.
Treatment of Congenital Upper Radio-Ulnar Joint Synosteosis by Rotional Osteotomy%旋转截骨治疗先天性上桡尺关节连接
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖增明; 庞立; 容兑熙
1995-01-01
对8例11个肢体先天性上桡尺关节连接畸形进行了桡尺骨旋转截骨和旋前肌松解术,获得满意的疗效.对手术适应证、手术方法进行了讨论,认为此手术方法尤其适用于严重前臂旋前畸形的病例.%Eight cases(male 7,femaleil)of congenital upper radio-ulnar joint synosteosis were treated from 1982 to 1991.Of them,5 were unilateral and 3 bilateral.Eight extremities were on the left side and 3 on the right side.The diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination.The pronation of the forearm was 50～105 degrees.All of them underwent radio-ulnar rotational osteostomy and pronator relaxation with satisfactory results.The indication and procedures are discussed.The authors consider that this method would be useful for cases in severe forearm pronation deformity.
Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil
of the interpreted events and by drawing on responses to the questionnaires and comments provided by these two groups. The explicit instructions issued by the Danish Court Administration (Guidelines for court interpreting) will serve as point of departure for the investigation of deviations from the prevailing norms...... to the flexibility of the concept of norms, it lends itself excellently to inquiries into interpreting, i.e. to an object of study which may be said to be characterized by an even higher degree of variability than translation. The present study forms part of a comprehensive research project on court interpreting...
Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.
Fischer, R. E.
1972-01-01
The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范少地; 钟桂舞; 闫自强
2002-01-01
@@ Background:For the clinical treatment of dislocation of distal radioulnar articulation, removal of smaller head of ulna was often adopted .Because this operation damaged ulnar stabilization of wrist, therapeutic effect couldn't be sustained for a long time, even semiluxation of carpal bone appeared.
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
A method for detecting alignment deviation on a thread-measuring instrument
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alignment deviation is an important factor affecting measurement accuracy in screw thread measurement. It needs to be detected and controlled to ensure the accuracy of relative thread parameters. The influence on pitch diameter caused by the alignment deviations of workpiece and probe is analyzed in this paper. In order to detect and control the alignment deviation, a vision detection method for the probe tip points is proposed, which integrates the detection of corners and edges and the prediction of motion. Then the X-axial rotation deviation is calculated by tracking the tip points both up and down. The result of tests demonstrates that the detection accuracy of the X-axial rotation deviation is 0.0654° with the background changing during the probe movement. The repeatability of the test procedure is ±0.16%, which proves the detection method is adequately qualified for application. (paper)
Theory of Deviation and Its Application in College English Teaching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Yanqiu
2008-01-01
Deviation is an important concept in stylistics.Besides Shklovskij and Mukarovsky,who made a theoreti cal generalization of deviational phenomena,Leech is the one who studies deviation systematically and catego rizes it into groups.To apply the theory of deviation to College English teaching is an effective way to culti rate students' interest in and aesthetic ability of English texts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İhsan Çaça
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.
An discussion on Graphological Deviation in Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖潇
2016-01-01
In stylistic analysis,when we identifying the stylistic features in literary works,deviation serves as an important sign.According to Leech,there are eight types of deviation in poetry:lexical deviation,grammatical deviation,phonological deviation,graphological deviation,semantic deviation,dialectal deviation,deviation of register,deviation of historical period. Realism marks as an significant development in the history of fiction,for its success in achieving an exposure of the truth of people’s real life and fierce social problems.And foregrounded feature is inevitable part that constitute his language style.We will focus on Oliver Twist,for it is presented with unique writing style,which worthy our investigation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)
Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhale Rajavi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Case report: A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion: This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia.
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
Spotting deviations from R^2 inflation
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Alvaro; Odintsov, Sergei D; Saez-Gomez, Diego
2016-01-01
We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SOME DEPENDENT SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Shuhe; Wang Xuejun
2008-01-01
Let (Xi) be a martingale difference sequence and Sn=n∑i=1 Xi. Suppose (Xi) is bounded in Lp. In the case p2, Lesigne and Volny (Stochastic Process. Appl. 96 (2001) 143) obtained the estimation μ(Sn n) < cn-p/2, Yulin Li (Statist. Probab.Lett. 62 (2003) 317) generalized the result to the case when p ∈(1, 2) and obtained μ(Sn n) < cn1-P, these are optimal in a certain sense. In this article, the authors study the large deviation of Sn for some dependent sequences and obtain the same order optimal upper bounds for μ(Sn n) as those for martingale difference sequence.
Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia
2014-09-01
Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.
Effect of tool centreline deviation on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded DH36 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • FSW of DH36 was tolerant to a centreline defect induced by tool deviation. • High strength welds up to 2.5 mm centreline tool deviation with ductile PM fracture. • Critical tolerance to centreline tool deviation at 4 mm with ductile weld metal fracture. • Brittle fracture above 4 mm deviation led to significant reduction in yield strength. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of steel has gone through recent tool and optimisation developments allowing the process to be considered as a technically superior alternative to fusion welding. This study expanded the scientific foundation of friction stir welding of DH36 steel to analyse the effect on weld quality when the rotating tool increasingly deviates away from the weld centreline. A centreline defect was deliberately but gradually introduced along the length of the weld seam. The tolerance to tool deviation towards both the advancing side and the retreating side of the weld was measured in terms of the transverse yield strength. Three discrete fracture modes were observed in transverse tensile specimen. Up to a tool deviation of 2.5 mm, ductile fracture in the parent material was observed and there was not a significant reduction in the yield strength of the weldment. The critical tool deviation occurred at 4 mm, where transverse tensile specimens fractured in a high strength ductile mode in the weld metal. Brittle behaviour in specimens above the 4 mm tolerance level resulted in a significant decrease in the transverse yield strength. Fracture within the weld metal was directed along the boundary between the heat-affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone, attributable to an abrupt change in the grain size and complexity of the two weld zones at this boundary. Friction stir welding of DH36 was found to be a tolerant joining process to the centreline deviation of the rotating tool
Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems
Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2016-02-01
The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.
The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.
Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D
2015-01-01
Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129
Large deviations for Glauber dynamics of continuous gas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the large deviation principles of the Glauber-type dynamics of finite or infinite volume continuous particle systems.We prove that the level-2 empirical process satisfies the large deviation principles in the weak convergence topology,while it does not satisfy the large deviation principles in the T-topology.
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a...
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these...
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Why humans deviate from rational choice.
Hewig, Johannes; Kretschmer, Nora; Trippe, Ralf H; Hecht, Holger; Coles, Michael G H; Holroyd, Clay B; Miltner, Wolfgang H R
2011-04-01
Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback negativity, an event-related brain potential that originates in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been related to reinforcement learning, predicts the decision to reject unfair offers in the Ultimatum game. Furthermore, the decision to reject is positively related to more negative emotional reactions and to increased autonomic nervous system activity. These findings support the idea that subjective emotional markers guide decision-making and that the anterior cingulate cortex integrates instances of reinforcement and punishment to provide such affective markers.
Sexual deviations of the convicts in isolation
Dzhansarayeva Rima Yerenatovna; Yelnur Yerenat
2015-01-01
Deviant sexual behavior of convicts in prisons adversely affects the correctional process, reduces the effectiveness of preventive work in a correctional facility, prevents the proper organization of the runtime and punishment, as a background component penal crime, often results in conflicts between convicts are resolved by them, as a rule, criminal actions. As the basis for deviant sexual behavior are convicted defects of personality, it applied to them; disciplinary action does not have a ...
Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan
Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho
2016-07-01
Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilton Mazzer
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 10 casos de desarranjo da articulação radio-ulnal distal tratados pela técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji. Os desarranjos eram resultantes de trauma (7, degeneração (2 e doença congênita (1 e as principais queixas pré-operatórias eram a dor, limitação da prono-supinação e deformidade. A idade média dos pacientes na época da operação era de 37,8 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínico-funcional e radiografica com um seguimento pós-operatório médio de 28,3 meses, particular atenção tendo sido dada a uma incidência radiográfica anteroposterior sob esforço de preensão manual. Todos os pacientes obtiveram melhora de suas queixas e o resultado final foi considerado satisfatório (excelente e bom em 8, e insatisfatório (regular 2. A artrodese da articulação radio-ulnal consolidou em 9 casos, independentemente do tipo de fixação empregado. O exame radiográfico sob esforço mostrou que todos os pacientes apresentavam deslocamento radial da ulna, mas isso aparentemente não interferiu com a função. Concluiu-se que a técnica de Sauvé-Kapandji é eficiente para o tratamento dos desarranjos da articulação radio-ulnal distal, pois ela não implica em perda funcional importante.A retrospective study of 10 cases of derrangement of the distal radioulnar joint treated with the technique of Sauvé-Kapandji was carried out. Derrangements resulted from trauma (7, degeneration (2 and congenital disease (1 and the main preoperative complaints were pain, limitation of pronation and supination and deformity. The patients' average age by the time of the operation was 37.8 years (range: 19 - 68 years. All were submitted to clinical, functional and radiographic evaluation at 28.3 months after the operation on average, particular attention being paid to an anteroposterior X-ray view with the hand in a moderate hand grip effort. All patients improved from their complaints and the final
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...
Importance of Nasal Septal Deviation Type on Planning of Surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imran Aydogdu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Aim: Aim of study is to evaluate effectiveness of pre operative data and classification of septal deviation in planning of surgical intervention. Material and Method: 60 patients who were operated because of septal deviation were included to study. 30 patients were applied open technique and other 30 were applied closed technique septoplasty. Types of septal deviations in both groups were classified according to Baumann’s classification peri operatively. Data obtained from both groups were compared by Mann Whitney U test. Results: Type 4 and 3 were the most common deformities seen in open technique group, whereas type 1 and 5 were the most common deformities in closed technique group. We detected significant difference between deviation types clustered between 2 techniques. Discussion: Pre operative assesment of septal deviation type helps surgeon to choose surgical technique.
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379
Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Derrida
2005-05-01
For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.
Large deviations for two scale chemical kinetic processes
Li, Tiejun
2015-01-01
We formulate the large deviations for a class of two scale chemical kinetic processes motivated from biological applications. The result is successfully applied to treat a genetic switching model with positive feedbacks. The corresponding Hamiltonian is convex with respect to the momentum variable as a by-product of the large deviation theory. This property ensures its superiority in the rare event simulations compared with the result obtained by formal WKB asymptotics. The result is of general interest to understand the large deviations for multiscale problems.
Influence of form deviations on the tolerance analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mouhssine Chahbouni
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the influence of form deviations on the tolerance analysis of an assembly. For this we will study initially the tolerance analysis using the deviations and clearances domains method, a second time we will integrate the influence of form tolerances on the allowable deviation domain. To illustrate this analysis we used a classical assembly with position and form tolerances (coaxiality and cylindricity. Finally a comparative study between the two cases was illustrated. Keywords:Tolerance Analysis, CAD/CAM, Assembly Systems, Engineering Drawings.
Proximal radioulnar arthrolysis to improve the rotation of the forearm%上尺桡关节松解改善肘部创伤后前臂旋转受限
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘兴华; 蒋协远; 张力丹; 王满宜
2009-01-01
Objective To discuss the proximal radioulnar arthrolysis for the treatment of rotatory dysfunction of the forearm after elbow injury. Methods From January to December 2007,we treated 12 patients with limited rotation of the forearm following elbow injury. They were 9 males and 3 females (3 left elbows and 9 right elbows),averaging 37.7 (27 to 48) years. Their primary injuries included "terrible triad" (3),proximal ulnar fracture (4),radial head fracture (4) and coronoid fracture (1). Before open arthrolysis,11 patients had had operation. The average time from injury to open arthrolysis was 9 (6 to 27) months. The average rotation of the forearm before arthrolysis was 56.7°(0 to 130°). We treated 7 patients through posterior approach,3 through combined bilateral approaches and 2 through lateral approach. Scar tissue,osteophyte and ectopic ossification around the proximal radioulnar joint were resected,but the radial head was retained if possible. Possible measures were tried to maintain pronation at 80° and supination at 90° during operation. The patients began active and passive exercises the first day after operation. Indomethacin was administered the first day after open arthrolysis as a routine. Results All patients were followed up for 14 to 25 (average,18.3) months. The patients got an average of 157.5° (130° to 170°) of rotation of the forearm. No elbow instability or dislocation of the proximal radioulnar joint was found. Conclusion Careful open arthrolysis of the proximal radioulnar joint and early rehabilitative exercise can lead to good results for rotatory dysfunction of the forearm after elbow injury.%目的 探讨上尺桡关节松解改善肘部创伤后前臂旋转受限的效果.方法 2007年1月至12月共收治12例肘部创伤后前臂旋转受限患者,男9例,女3例;左侧3例,右侧9例.患者初次治疗时平均年龄为37.7岁(27～48岁).原始损伤包括:"恐怖三联征"3例,尺骨近端骨折4例,桡骨头骨折4例,冠状
Large Deviations: An Introduction to 2007 Abel Prize
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Ramasubramanian
2008-05-01
2007 Abel prize has been awarded to S R S Varadhan for creating a unified theory of large deviations. We attempt to give a flavour of this branch of probability theory, highlighting the role of Varadhan.
Bounds of Deviation for Branching Chains in Random Environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Gang WANG
2011-01-01
We consider non-extinct branching processes in general random environments. Under the condition of means and second moments of each generation being bounded, we give the upper bounds and lower bounds for some form deviations of the process.
Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion
Itto, Yuichi
2016-01-01
The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.
A Note on a Normal Distribution with Varying Standard Deviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahabaleshwara Holla
1965-01-01
Full Text Available A normal distribution with varying standard deviation has been considered in this note. Statistical properties of the distribution and the estimation of the parameters involved therein are also discussed.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2011-04-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T
2014-01-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
Deviations from the critical state model observed in niobium
Gijsbertse, E.A.; Klundert, van de, L.J.M.
1980-01-01
The values of the critical current density of niobium slabs, measured with the help of trapezoidal ac magnetic fields are not in agreement with the critical state model. Extensions of this model are suggested to explain the observed deviation.
RELATIVE ENTROPY AND LARGE DEVIATIONS UNDER SUBLINEAR EXPECTATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Fuqing; Xu Mingzhou
2012-01-01
We give a definition of relative entropy with respect to a sublinear expectation and establish large deviation principle for the empirical measures for independent random variables under the sublinear expectation.
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.
Static large deviations of boundary driven exclusion processes
Farfan, Jonathan
2009-01-01
We prove that the stationary measure associated to a boundary driven exclusion process in any dimension satisfies a large deviation principle with rate function given by the quasi potential of the Freidlin and Wentzell theory.
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
Analysis of principle deviation of subpixel Zernike moments operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In original Zernike moments subpixel edge operator, ideal step edge model is chosen for calculating four parameters of a pixel point, and therefore principle deviation is caused by edge model. In order to discuss the effect of principle deviation on edge location, sampled edge model is chosen for calculating edge parameters, principle deviation of edge translation l is derived based on Zernike moments edge detection theory, and modified formula of l is given for Zernike moments operator with masks of 5×5 size. Both theory analysis and testing result demonstrate that principle deviation is zero when edge translation l is limited in central pixel of a sampled window. In another case, the modification of l should be considered, which results in edge location accuracy of non-subpixel level for this subpixel edge operator.
Quenched moderate deviations principle for random walk in random environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We derive a quenched moderate deviations principle for the one-dimensional nearest random walk in random environment,where the environment is assumed to be stationary and ergodic.The approach is based on hitting time decomposition.
Large deviation theory to model systems under an external feedback
Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Aldo
2016-01-01
In this paper we address the problem of systems under an external feedback. This is performed using a large deviation approach and rate distortion from information theory. In particular we define a lower boundary for the maximum entropy reduction that can be obtained using a feedback apparatus with a well defined accuracy in terms of measurement of the state of the system. The large deviation approach allows also to define a new set of potentials, including information, which similarly to mor...
An Upper Bound of Large Deviations for Capacities
Xiaomin Cao
2014-01-01
Up to now, most of the academic researches about the large deviation and risk theory are under the framework of the classical linear expectations. But motivated by problems of model uncertainties in statistics, measures of risk, and superhedging in finance, sublinear expectations are extensively studied. In this paper, we obtain a type of large deviation principle under the sublinear expectation. This result is a new expression of the Gärtner-Ellis theorem under the sublinear expectations whi...
Large Deviation Theory for a Homogenized and "Corrected" Elliptic ODE
Bal, Guillaume; Ghanem, Roger; Langmore, Ian
2010-01-01
We study a one-dimensional elliptic problem with highly oscillatory random diffusion coefficient. We derive a homogenized solution and a so-called Gaussian corrector. We also prove a "pointwise" large deviation principle (LDP) for the full solution and approximate this LDP with a more tractable form. These results allow one to access the limits of Gaussian correctors. In general, the corrector does not capture the large deviation behavior. Applications to uncertainty quantification are consid...
Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems
Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario
2016-01-01
Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510
Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey Teixeira
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.
2006-09-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.
Large Deviations for the Boundary Driven Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertini, L. [Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)], E-mail: bertini@mat.uniroma1.it; De Sole, A. [MIT, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: desole@alum.mit.edu; Gabrielli, D. [Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)], E-mail: gabriell@univaq.it; Jona-Lasinio, G. [Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN (Italy)], E-mail: jona@roma1.infn.it; Landim, C. [IMPA (Brazil)], E-mail: landim@impa.br
2003-08-15
The large deviation properties of equilibrium (reversible) lattice gases are mathematically reasonably well understood. Much less is known in nonequilibrium, namely for nonreversible systems. In this paper we consider a simple example of a nonequilibrium situation, the symmetric simple exclusion process in which we let the system exchange particles with the boundaries at two different rates. We prove a dynamical large deviation principle for the empirical density which describes the probability of fluctuations from the solutions of the hydrodynamic equation. The so-called quasi potential, which measures the cost of a fluctuation from the stationary state, is then defined by a variational problem for the dynamical large deviation rate function. By characterizing the optimal path, we prove that the quasi potential can also be obtained from a static variational problem introduced by Derrida, Lebowitz, and Speer.
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Callin, P
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant natu...
Why historical east deviation experiments are so difficult to perform?
Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe
2012-11-01
From the 17th to the 19th century, a big deal was to prove Earth rotation existence. For this purpose, numerous experimental physicists from Borelli in 1668 to Reich in 1832 tried to measure an eastward deviation of a falling sphere. Reich performed 106 falling experiments on a 158.5 m deep mine pit. The mean eastward deviation of its experiments is 2.8 cm. This value corresponds exactly with the theoretical one predicted by Laplace and Gauss expression at Freiberg latitude where experiments were conducted. While Reich took extreme precautions to perform its experiments, the dispersion on its results is very important. Actually aerodynamic lift forces on a smooth sphere made its free fall non perfectly straight. We understand Reich's results dispersion considering fluctuating lift forces intensity on a smooth sphere at those Reynolds numbers (Re ~104 -105). This study provides a criterion above which we can distinguish between lift force and Coriolis deviation during a free fall experiment.
Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.
Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael
2012-08-01
Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered.
The missing ingredient in effective-medium theories: Standard deviations
Bohren, Craig F; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2012-01-01
Effective-medium theories for electromagnetic constitutive parameters of particulate composite materials are theories of averages. Standard deviations are absent because of the lack of rigorous theories. But ensemble averages and standard deviations can be calculated from a rigorous theory of reflection by planar multilayers. Average reflectivities at all angles of incidence and two orthogonal polarization states for a multilayer composed of two kinds of electrically thin layers agree well with reflectivities for a single layer with the same overall thickness and a volume-weighted average of the relative permittivities of these two components. But the relative standard deviation can be appreciable depending on the angle of incidence and the polarization state of the incident illumination, and increases with increasing difference between the constitutive parameters of the two layers. This suggests that average constitutive parameters obtained from effective-medium theories do not have uniform validity for all ...
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Bini, D.; Geralico, A.
2011-11-01
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Bini, Donato
2014-01-01
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories
Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.
1974-11-01
Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.
Follicle and endocrine dynamics during experimental follicle deviation in mares.
Ginther, O J; Meira, C; Beg, M A; Bergfelt, D R
2002-09-01
Deviation during a follicular wave in mares begins when the largest follicle (F1) reaches a mean diameter of 22.5 mm and is characterized by continued growth of F1 to become the dominant follicle and regression of F2 to become the largest subordinate follicle. In the present study, F1 was ablated at the expected beginning of deviation (Hour 0) to provide a reference point for characterizing the intrafollicular changes preceding experimental deviation between F2 and F3. Diameters and concentrations of follicular fluid factors in F2 and F3 were determined in F1-ablated mares at Hours 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 (n = 8 mares/group). Circulating FSH concentrations were greater (P 0.1) to the diameter of F1 and FSH concentration at Hour 0, respectively. A differential change between F2 and F3 was not detected in follicular fluid concentrations of estradiol, inhibin-A, and activin-A by the beginning of experimental deviation. However, estradiol was higher in F2 at Hours 0 and 12 and inhibin-A was higher in F2 throughout the experiment, and both factors could have been involved in experimental deviation. Free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased (P < 0.05) in F2 beginning at Hour 12 and was higher (P < 0.05) in F2 than in F3 by the beginning of experimental deviation. Temporally, this result indicated that intrafollicular IGF-1 was involved in conversion of F2 from a destined subordinate follicle to a dominant follicle. PMID:12193395
Deviation of eyes and head in acute cerebral stroke
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilg UJ
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a well-known phenomenon that some patients with acute left or right hemisphere stroke show a deviation of the eyes (Prévost's sign and head to one side. Here we investigated whether both right- and left-sided brain lesions may cause this deviation. Moreover, we studied the relationship between this phenomenon and spatial neglect. In contrast to previous studies, we determined not only the discrete presence or absence of eye deviation with the naked eye through clinical inspection, but actually measured the extent of horizontal eye-in-head and head-on-trunk deviation. In further contrast, measurements were performed early after stroke onset (1.5 days on average. Methods Eye-in-head and head-on-trunk positions were measured at the bedside in 33 patients with acute unilateral left or right cerebral stroke consecutively admitted to our stroke unit. Results Each single patient with spatial neglect and right hemisphere lesion showed a marked deviation of the eyes and the head to the ipsilesional, right side. The average spontaneous gaze position in this group was 46° right, while it was close to the saggital body midline (0° in the groups with acute left- or right-sided stroke but no spatial neglect as well as in healthy subjects. Conclusion A marked horizontal eye and head deviation observed ~1.5 days post-stroke is not a symptom associated with acute cerebral lesions per se, nor is a general symptom of right hemisphere lesions, but rather is specific for stroke patients with spatial neglect. The evaluation of the patient's horizontal eye and head position thus could serve as a brief and easy way helping to diagnose spatial neglect, in addition to the traditional paper-and-pencil tests.
Sample-path Large Deviations in Credit Risk
Leijdekker, Vincent; Spreij, Peter
2009-01-01
The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a sample-path large deviation principle (LDP) for the portfolio's loss process, which enables the computation of the logarithmic decay rate of the probabilities of interest. In addition, we derive exact asymptotic results for a number of specific rare-event probabilities, such as the probability of the loss process exceeding some given function.
A large deviation principle for join the shortest queue
Puhalskii, Anatolii A.; Vladimirov, Alexander A.
2005-01-01
We consider a join-the-shortest-queue model which is as follows. There are $K$ single FIFO servers and $M$ arrival processes. The customers from a given arrival process can be served only by servers from a certain subset of all servers. The actual destination is the server with the smallest weighted queue length. The arrival processes are assumed to obey a large deviation principle while the service is exponential. A large deviation principle is established for the queue-length process. The a...
Large Deviations for Multiscale Diffusions via Weak Convergence Methods
Dupuis, Paul
2010-01-01
We study the large deviations principle for locally periodic stochastic differential equations with small noise and fast oscillating coefficients. There are three possible regimes depending on how fast the intensity of the noise goes to zero relative to the homogenization parameter. We use weak convergence methods which provide convenient representations for the action functional for all three regimes. Along the way we study weak limits of related controlled SDEs with fast oscillating coefficients and derive, in some cases, a control that nearly achieves the large deviations lower bound at the prelimit level. This control is useful for designing efficient importance sampling schemes for multiscale diffusions driven by small noise.
Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators
Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2014-05-01
We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.
Developmental aspects of the deviated nose -a verwoerd study-
Grewal, DS; Irani, Dinaz K
1999-01-01
In childhood functional, infectious, aesthetic and social problems can result from a deviated septum and nose, further research on the anatomic development, the mechanism of growth, and the process of wound healing is needed to develop surgical techniques that not only correct the present problem but also ensure the further normal growth of the septum and nose.
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
49 CFR 110.120 - Deviation from this part.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviation from this part. 110.120 Section 110.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING...
A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Dessen
1988-04-01
Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
Generalized deviation equations and entanglement first law for Rotating BTZ
Ghosh, Avirup
2016-01-01
The change in Holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for small fluctuations about pure AdS is given by a perturbative expansion of the area functional in terms of the change in the bulk metric and the embedded extremal surface. However it is known that change in the embedding appear at second order or higher. In this paper we show that these changes in the embedding can be systematically calculated in the 2+1 dimensional case by accounting for the deviation of the spacelike geodesics between a spacetime and perturbations over it. Here we consider rotating BTZ as perturbation over $AdS_3$ and study deviations of spacelike geodesics in them. We argue that these deviations arise naturally as solutions of a "generalized geodesic deviation equation". Using this we perturbatively calculate the changes in HEE upto second order, for rotating BTZ. This expression matches with the small system size expansion of the change in HEE obtained by HRT (Hubeny, Rangamani and Takayanagi) proposal for rotating BTZ. We also give ...
Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers.
Wilkinson, Michael
2016-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation. PMID:26799046
The Effect of Type of Punishment on Resistance to Deviation.
LaVoie, Joseph C.
The comparative effectiveness of an aversive stimulus, withholding of resources, withdrawal of love and reasoning, when used alone and combined with praise, was assessed in the standard laboratory punishment paradigm using 120 first and second graders as subjects. Resistance to deviation was used as the measure of punishment effectiveness. Sex of…
Estimation of Transition Probabilities Using Median Absolute Deviations
Kim, C. S.; Schaible, Glenn D.
1988-01-01
The probability-constrained minimum absolute deviations (MAD) estimator appears to be superior to the probability-constrained quadratic programming estimator in estimating transition probabilities with limited aggregate time series data Futhermore, one can reduce the number of columns in the probability-constrained MAD simplex tableau by adopting the median property
International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations
I. Chaieb; V. Errunza
2007-01-01
We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of inves
Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation
R. de Jonge; H. van Zanten
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a h
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
Large systematic deviations in the haptic perception of parallelity
Kappers, A.M.L.
1999-01-01
Recently, Kappers and Koenderink (1999 Perception 28 781-795) showed that what subjects haptically perceive as parallel often deviates greatly from what is actually physically parallel. In their experiment, subjects had to rotate a test bar in such a way that it felt as though it was parallel to a r
Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motesaddi Zarandi M
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-02-01
's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in “The Eightieth Stag e” . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as “han, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...” are of this type of abnormality . Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. ”Sowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (champion’’are Words that show Akhavan’s attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in “The Eightieth Stage” poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In general, Poet’s notice to the different deviations is one of his techniques and the key
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
Geodesics and Geodesic Deviation for Impulsive Gravitational Waves
Steinbauer, R
1998-01-01
The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the geodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the metric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of distributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the Dirac delta distribution. Thus, strictly speaking, it cannot be treated within Schwartz's linear theory of distributions. To cope with this problem we proceed by first regularizing the delta singularity, then solving the regularized equation within classical smooth functions and, finally, obtaining a distributional, regularization-idependent limit as solution to the original problem. We also treat the Jacobi equation which, despite being linear in the deviation vector field, involves even more delicate singular expressions, like the ``square'' of the delta distribution. Again the same regularization procedure provides us with a perfectly well behaved smooth regularization and a regularization-independent distributi...
Large deviations for stochastic flows and their applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO; Fuqing(
2001-01-01
［1］Yoshida, N., A large deviation principle for (r,p)-capacities on the Wiener space, Proba. Th. Rel. Fields, 1993, 94:473-488.［2］Gao, F. Q., Large deviations of (r,p)-capacities for diffusion processes, Advances in Math. (in Chinese), 1996, 25:500-509.［3］Millet, A., Nualart, D., Sanz, M., Large deviations for a class of anticipating stochastic differential equations, Ann.Prob.. 1993, 20: 1902-1931.［4］Millet, A., Nualart, D., Sans, M., Composition of large deviation principles and applications, in Stochastic Analysis (ed.Mayer, E. ), San Diego: Academic Press, 1991, 383-395.［5］Ocone, D., Pardoux, E., A generalized Ito-Ventzell formula, Applications to a class of anticipating stochastic differentialequations, Ann. Inst. Poincaré, Sect. B, 1989, 25: 39-71.［6］Malliavin, P., Nualart, D., Quasi sure analysis of stochastic flows and Banach space valued smooth functionals on the Wiener space, J. Funct. Anal., 1993, 112: 287-317.［7］Huang, Z., Ren, J. , Quasi sure stochastic flows, Stoch. Stoch. Rep. , 1990, 33: 149-157.［8］Gao, E. Q., Large deviations for diffusion processes in Hslder norm, Advances in Math. (in Chinese), 1997, 26: 147-158.［9］Arous, B. G. , Ledoux, M., Grandes déviations sur la déviations de Freidlin-Wentzell en norme holderienne, 1994, Lecr.Notes in Math. , 1994, 987: 1583.［10］Baldi, P. , Sanz, M. , Une remarque sur la théorie des grandes deviations, Lect. Notes Math., 1991, 1485: 345-348.［11］Airault, H., Malliavin, P., Intégration géometrique sur l'espace de Wiener, Bull. Sci. Math., 1988, 112: 3-52.［12］Ikeda, N. , Watanabe, S., Stochastic Differential Equations and Diffusion Processes, 2nd ed., Amsterdam-Kodansha-Tokyo:North-Holland, 1988.［13］Malliavin, P., Stochastic Analysis, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften 313, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997.［14］Brzezniak, Z., Elworthy, K. D., Stochastic flows of diffeomorphism. In Stochastic Analysis and Applications (eds. Davies,I. M.. Truman
Deviations in delineated GTV caused by artefacts in 4DCT
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Brink, Carsten;
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is used for breathing-adapted radiotherapy planning. Irregular breathing, large tumour motion or interpolation of images can cause artefacts in the 4DCT. This study evaluates the impact of artefacts on gross tumour volume (GTV......) size. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 19 4DCT scans of patients with peripheral lung tumours, GTV was delineated in all bins. Variations in GTV size between bins in each 4DCT scan were analysed and correlated to tumour motion and variations in breathing signal amplitude and breathing signal period. End......-expiration GTV size (GTVexp) was considered as reference for GTV size. Intra-session delineation error was estimated by re-delineation of GTV in eight of the 4DCT scans. RESULTS: In 16 of the 4DCT scans the maximum deviations from GTVexp were larger than could be explained by delineation error. The deviations...
Large deviation function of the partially asymmetric exclusion process.
Lee, D S; Kim, D
1999-06-01
The large deviation function obtained recently by Derrida and Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] for the totally asymmetric exclusion process is generalized to the partially asymmetric case in the scaling limit. The asymmetry parameter rescales the scaling variable in a simple way. The finite-size corrections to the universal scaling function and the universal cumulant ratio are also obtained to the leading order. PMID:11969632
Large deviations of inverse processes with nonlinear scalings
Duffield, N. G.; Whitt, W.
1998-01-01
We show, under regularity conditions, that a nonnegative nondecreasing real-valued stochastic process satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) with nonlinear scaling if and only if its inverse process does. We also determine how the associated scaling and rate functions must be related. A key condition for the LDP equivalence is for the composition of two of the scaling functions to be regularly varying with nonnegative index. We apply the LDP equivalence to develop equiv...
Trends and Deviations in Federal, State and Local Finance
Jeffrey S. Zax
1986-01-01
This paper contains a descriptive analysis o+ real per capita annual revenues, expenditures, deficits, debt levels and capital expenditures for federal, state and local government finance in the United States for the rears 1952-83. It summarizes each time series as a deterministic trend and an ARIM characterization of the deviations around trend. These summaries demonstrate that civilian capital outlays are falling at an accelerating pace in ail levels of government; federal government expend...
Detection of Deviations in Mobile Applications Network Behavior
Chekina, L.; Mimran, D.; Rokach, L.; Elovici, Y.; Shapira, B.
2012-01-01
In this paper a novel system for detecting meaningful deviations in a mobile application's network behavior is proposed. The main goal of the proposed system is to protect mobile device users and cellular infrastructure companies from malicious applications. The new system is capable of: (1) identifying malicious attacks or masquerading applications installed on a mobile device, and (2) identifying republishing of popular applications injected with a malicious code. The detection is performed...
Diagram of measurement series elements deviation from local linear approximations
Lande, D. V.; Snarskii, A. A.
2009-01-01
Method for detection and visualization of trends, periodicities, local peculiarities in measurement series (dL-method) based on DFA technology (Detrended fluctuation analysis) is proposed. The essence of the method lies in reflecting the values of absolute deviation of measurement accumulation series points from the respective values of linear approximation. It is shown that dL-method in some cases allows better determination of local peculiarities than wavelet-analysis. Easy-to-realize appro...
Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach
Budini, Adrian A.
2011-01-01
The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic non-stationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here, we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, i.e., with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated to the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after ap...
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
Deviation from Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alday-Maldacena conjecture is stated in this paper that the area AΠ of the minimal surface in AdS5 space with a boundary Π, located in Euclidean space at infinity of AdS5, coincides with a double integral DΠ along Π, the Abelian Wilson average in an auxiliary dual model. This comes from Alday and Maldacena's original proposal and the BDS conjecture on the extrapolation of the MHV amplitudes. The boundary Π is a polygon formed by momenta of n external light-like particles in N=4 SYM theory, and in a certain n=∞ limit it can be substituted by an arbitrary smooth curve (wavy circle). The Alday-Maldacena conjecture is known to be violated for n>5, when it fails to be supported by the peculiar global dual conformal invariance, however, the structure of deviations remains obscure. The case of wavy lines can appear more convenient for analysis of these deviations due to the systematic method developed in [H. Itoyama, A. Mironov, A. Morozov, Anomaly in n=∞ Alday-Maldacena duality for wavy circle, JHEP 0807 (2008) 024, (arXiv:0803.1547)] for (perturbative) evaluation of minimal areas, which is not yet available in the presence of angles at finite n. We correct a mistake in that paper and explicitly evaluate the h2h-bar2 terms, where the first deviation from the Alday-Maldacena duality arises for the wavy circle.
Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures
Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne
2016-01-01
AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814
PROBABILISTIC MEASURES FOR INTERESTINGNESS OF DEVIATIONS – A SURVEY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adnan Masood
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Association rule mining has long being plagued with the problem of finding meaningful, actionable knowledge from the large set of rules. In this age of data deluge with modern computing capabilities, we gather, distribute, and store information in vast amounts from diverse data sources. With such data profusion, the core knowledge discovery problem becomes efficient data retrieval rather than simply finding heaps of information. The most common approach is to employ measures of rule interestingness to filter the results of the association rule generation process. However, study of literature suggests that interestingness is difficult to define quantitatively and can be best summarized as, a record or pattern is interesting if it suggests a change in an established model. Almost twenty years ago, Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and Christopher J. Matheus, in their paper, “The Interestingness of Deviations,” argued that deviations should be grouped together in a finding and that the interestingness of a finding is the estimated benefit from a possible action connected to it. Since then, this field has progressed and new data mining techniques have been introduced to address the subjective, objective, and semantic interestingness measures. In this brief survey, we review the current state of literature around interestingness of deviations, i.e. outliers with specific interest around probabilistic measures using Bayesian belief networks.
Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacques Luauté
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.
Zhang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Qi, Yafei; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team
2015-06-01
Laboratory-scaled oblique water entry experiments for the trajectory stability in the water column have been performed with four different nosed-projectiles at a range of velocities from 20m /s to 250 m /s . The slender projectiles are designed with flat, ogival, hemi-sperical, truncated-ogival noses to make comparisons on the trajectory deviation when they are launched at vertical and oblique impact angles (0°~25°). Two high-speed cameras that are positioned orthogonal to each other and normal to the column are employed to capture the entire process of projectiles' penetration. From the experimental results, the sequential images in two planes are presented to compare the trajectory deviation of different impact tests and the 3D trajectory models are extracted based on the location recorded by cameras. Considering the effect influenced by the impact velocities and noses of projectiles, it merited concluded that trajectory deviation is affected from most by impact angle, and least by impact velocities. Additionally, ogival projectiles tend to be more sensitive to oblique angle and experienced the largest attitude changing. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088).
Deviation of Biochemical Variables in Dairy Cows with Reproductive Disorders - Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jožica Ježek
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of biochemical profiles of cows from farms with reproductive disorders. The results of blood examinations collected from 205 dairy cows, which originated from 72 Slovenian farms, were analysed. In blood samples total serum protein (TSP, albumin (Alb, urea, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (iP, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorine (Cl and betacarotene concentration were measured. Data were compared with normal reference values for cattle. The results were evaluated regarding the normal values for cattle. The descriptive statistics and percentage of cows deviating from normal values for investigated variables were calculated. The mean values of investigated variables were inside reference intervals for cattle. The results of biochemical examination show deviation from reference interval in 52.3% of cows for TSP, 70.8% for urea, 39.8% for iP, 27.5% for Na, 36.2% for K, 1.1% for Cl, 37.6% for beta carotene and 6.8% for Ca. The results of biochemical investigations revealed the greatest deviations in concentrations of TSP, urea, Na, K and carotene which can be affected by different factors (nutrition, health status, stage of lactation and season. Taking into account all of these factors may be blood biochemistry a useful tool also in identifying deficiencies in the diet.
Weaver, B. P.; Hilbe, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Plesko, C. S.; Riggs, J. D.
2015-05-01
Many crater analysts will search for deviations of observed crater population data from model crater populations and treat those deviations as a modification event - usually resurfacing. We will discuss how to assign confidences for these deviations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李庭; 蒋协远; 刘亚波; 查晔军; 王满宜
2011-01-01
目的 探讨下尺桡脱位合并桡骨头脱位的的诊断和治疗.方法 本文报道的2个典型病例,一例是下尺桡背侧脱位同时合并桡骨头后脱位,另一例是下尺桡掌侧脱位合并桡骨头前脱位,均不合并尺桡骨干的骨折.用单纯桡骨头脱位或下尺桡脱位的机制不能很好地解释.对于急性损伤,应先在麻醉下试行闭合复位,如不成功可考虑切开复位.结果 根据目前研究,"绞锁损伤"的机制能比较好得解释这种损伤,骨间膜在前臂两骨之间起到一个"枢轴"的作用.早期诊断和治疗能达到良好的效果.结论 早期诊断和早期复位固定非常重要,需要和孟氏骨折、盖氏骨折或Essex-lopresti损伤等相鉴别.%Objective To describe two cases of simultaneous ipsilateral distal radioulnar joint ( DRUJ) dislocation with radial head dislocation and review literatures. and to discuss the diagnosis and treatment. Methods Two typical cases were reported in this study. One suffered an injury of simultaneous ipsilateral dorsal dislocation of DRUJ and posterior dislocation of radial head. The other was ipsilateral volar dislocation of DRUJ and anterior dislocation of radial head. Both of them had no fracture in ulnar or radial shaft.The mechanism of isolated dislocation of DRUJ or radial head cannot explain this kind of injury. If possible, we should try close reduction of the dislocation under anaesthesia. After the close reduction failed, we performed open reduction and internal fixation.Results Until now, the mechanism of " criss-cross" mjury seems reasonable. The interosseous membrane may play a role and function as a pivot between the two forearm bones. Early diagnosis and early treatment is critical in order to obtain a satisfactory result.Conclusions This kind of injury should he differentiated from Monteggia or Galeazzi fractures, or Essex-Lopresti injury. Early diagnosis and early treatment are the most important.
Large deviation approach to the generalized random energy model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorlas, T.C.; Dukes, W.M.B. [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin (Ireland)
2002-05-24
The generalized random energy model is a generalization of the random energy model introduced by Derrida to mimic the ultrametric structure of the Parisi solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of a spin glass. It was solved exactly in two special cases by Derrida and Gardner. A complete solution for the thermodynamics in the general case was given by Capocaccia et al. Here we use large deviation theory to analyse the model in a very straightforward way. We also show that the variational expression for the free energy can be evaluated easily using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. (author)
Deviations in Tribimaximal Mixing From Sterile Neutrino Sector
Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero $U_{e3}$ element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ and atmospheric mixing $\\theta_{23}$ different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.
Frequency deviations and generation scheduling in the nordic system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhongwei; Samuelsson, Olaf; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo
2011-01-01
High penetration of variable generation such as wind power increases the demands on frequency control. The same applies to island operation and in particular if this involves variable generation, which is planned at the Danish island Bornholm. While it is obvious that the frequency control need to...... the frequency deviations and hourly scheduled generation. A simple model is given to reproduce these deterministic frequency variations. Simulations indicate that smaller system size as is typical for island operation does not necessarily increase these frequency variations provided load, generation...
Brief Analysis of the Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄二靓
2016-01-01
As one of the foremost critical realist writers of the Victorian era, Charles Dickens is adept at using language to create all kinds of characters in a humorous or ironic tone. Therefore he received massive popularity for his unique style in storytelling. Oliver Twist is one of Charles Dickens's masterpieces and also the most appropriate choice for the stylistic study on Charles Dickens. This thesis endeavors to explore the aesthetic effect of semantic deviation appearing in Oliver Twist so that we can have a better comprehension about the excellent writing skill of Charles Dickens.
Crystallographic evidence for deviating C3b structure?
Janssen, B.J.C.; Read, R.J.; Brunger, A. T.; Gros, P
2007-01-01
Activation of C3 into C3b is a critical step in the complement immune response against pathogenic, immunogenic and apoptotic particles. Ajees et al.1 report a crystal structure of C3b, which deviates from the one reported by Janssen et al.2 and Wiesmann et al.3. Analysis of the data deposited by Ajees et al.1 reveals features that are inconsistent with known physical properties of macromolecular structures and their diffraction data. Therefore, Ajees et al. do not provide substantial evidence...
Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states
Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo
2016-10-01
The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...
The Time Deviation in Packet-Based Synchronization.
Weiss, M A; Shenoi, Kishan
2016-04-01
The telecommunications industry has used the time deviation (TDEV) very effectively for specifying network equipment clock performance as well as the performance of timing signals generated by Central Office equipment such as primary reference clocks and building integrated timing supplies (BITS) and synchronization supply units (SSUs). We discuss here the development of TDEV, and the variations of TDEV motivated by the advent of packet-switching and the steady transformation of the telecom network from circuit-switched-based to packet-switched-based. We illustrate these with simulation of the performance of the precise time protocol (PTP) across a packet-switched network. We then apply published methods to automatically determine noise types, and use these to predict time dispersion from a master clock for a slave clock using these PTP packets to stay synchronized. The result shows how TDEV and the other deviations provide an extensive array of tools for telecom networks, as well as for general time and frequency applications. PMID:26529756
Some Deviations Associated With Vector Perturbation Diffraction Theory
Stover, John C.; Hourmand, Bahrarr
1985-01-01
Last year at this conference our lab presented some data which strongly supports the use of the vector perturbation relationship between light scattered from smooth surfaces and the surface power spectral density (PSD). Last year's data showed that a consistent answer was obtained for the PSD for measurements taken with S and P polarization, with incident angles up to 45', for positive and negative sweeps, and for one and two dimensional samples. If in fact the theoretical relationship is correct then this must be the case, as the PSD is determined by a combination of surface topography and the scattering situation (geometry, polarization, wavelength, etc.). It appears, however that for large scatter angles (>700) and for large angles of incidence (>60 °) there is some deviation in the calculated PSD. In addition, the high angle scatter region is an area where a scatterometer with a semicircular detector sweep loses the one-to-one relationship between detector position and surface spatial frequency. Or, in other words, light diffracted to high scatter angles from single spatial frequencies appears over a small band on the observation semicircle instead of a diffraction limited point. Fata supporting these two deviations is presented. Although they are not regarded as serious violations of the vector perturbation theory they do impose a limit on the useful range over which the PSD may be calculated.
Deviations from the local field approximation in negative streamer heads
Li, C; Ebert, U; van der Mullen, J J A M; Ebert, Ute; Li, Chao
2007-01-01
Negative streamer ionization fronts in nitrogen under normal conditions are investigated both in a particle model and in a fluid model in local field approximation. The parameter functions for the fluid model are derived from swarm experiments in the particle model. The front structure on the inner scale is investigated in a 1D setting, allowing reasonable run-time and memory consumption and high numerical accuracy without introducing super-particles. If the reduced electric field immediately before the front is >= 50kV/(cm bar), solutions of fluid and particle model agree very well. If the field increases up to 200kV/(cm bar), the solutions of particle and fluid model deviate, in particular, the ionization level behind the front becomes up to 60% higher in the particle model while the velocity is rather insensitive. Particle and fluid model deviate because electrons with high energies do not yet fully run away from the front, but are somewhat ahead. This leads to increasing ionization rates in the particle m...
Large deviations for random walk in a random environment
Yilmaz, Atilla
2008-01-01
In this work, we study the large deviation properties of random walk in a random environment on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ with $d\\geq1$. We start with the quenched case, take the point of view of the particle, and prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the pair empirical measure of the environment Markov chain. By an appropriate contraction, we deduce the quenched LDP for the mean velocity of the particle and obtain a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_q$. We propose an Ansatz for the minimizer of this formula. This Ansatz is easily verified when $d=1$. In his 2003 paper, Varadhan proves the averaged LDP for the mean velocity and gives a variational formula for the corresponding rate function $I_a$. Under the non-nestling assumption (resp. Kalikow's condition), we show that $I_a$ is strictly convex and analytic on a non-empty open set $\\mathcal{A}$, and that the true velocity $\\xi_o$ is an element (resp. in the closure) of $\\mathcal{A}$. We then identify the minimizer of Varadhan's variati...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Q. Zhang; H.Y. Zhao; Y.H. Zhang; L.H. Li; X.A. Zhang
2004-01-01
Fatigue crack growth behaviors in electron beam weldments of a nickel-base superalloy are studied. The objective of this paper is to discuss effects of the inhomogeneity of mechanical performance on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate and crack path deviation (CPD). The base metal served in a turbine disk of aerospace engine was selected to fabricate bead-on-plate weldments by using electron beam welding. Some wedge-type opening loading specimens, notched in three different zone of weld metal, HAZ and base metal, were employed and performed fatigue crack growth tests at 650℃. The results show that the fatigue crack growth of electron beam welded joints is instable due to the influence of mechanical heterogeneities. Owing to the crack deviation at the weld metal and hcat-affected-zone (HAZ), the effective growth driving force at the tip of fatigue crack was reduced with the reduction of the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) which finally causes fatigue crack rate decrease. Fatigue crack was strongly affected by size and the symmetrical characteristics of the plastic zone at the crack tip, which means that the integrity of the welded structure containing the fatigue crack mainly depended on the toughness of the low strength zone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: The Gait Deviation Index summarizes overall gait 'quality', based on kinematic data from a 3-dimensional gait analysis. However, it is unknown which clinical outcomes may affect the Gait Deviation Index in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this study......) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the 'Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability...... was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait 'quality' and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. METHOD: Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2...
Efficient computation of root mean square deviations under rigid transformations.
Hildebrandt, Anna K; Dietzen, Matthias; Lengauer, Thomas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Althaus, Ernst; Hildebrandt, Andreas
2014-04-15
The computation of root mean square deviations (RMSD) is an important step in many bioinformatics applications. If approached naively, each RMSD computation takes time linear in the number of atoms. In addition, a careful implementation is required to achieve numerical stability, which further increases runtimes. In practice, the structural variations under consideration are often induced by rigid transformations of the protein, or are at least dominated by a rigid component. In this work, we show how RMSD values resulting from rigid transformations can be computed in constant time from the protein's covariance matrix, which can be precomputed in linear time. As a typical application scenario is protein clustering, we will also show how the Ward-distance which is popular in this field can be reduced to RMSD evaluations, yielding a constant time approach for their computation.
Large deviations of the maximal eigenvalue of random matrices
Borot, Gaëtan; Majumdar, Satya; Nadal, Céline
2011-01-01
We present detailed computations of the 'at least finite' terms (three dominant orders) of the free energy in a one-cut matrix model with a hard edge a, in beta-ensembles, with any polynomial potential. beta is a positive number, so not restricted to the standard values beta = 1 (hermitian matrices), beta = 1/2 (symmetric matrices), beta = 2 (quaternionic self-dual matrices). This model allows to study the statistic of the maximum eigenvalue of random matrices. We compute the large deviation function to the left of the expected maximum. We specialize our results to the gaussian beta-ensembles and check them numerically. Our method is based on general results and procedures already developed in the literature to solve the Pastur equations (also called "loop equations"). It allows to compute the left tail of the analog of Tracy-Widom laws for any beta, including the constant term.
Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen
2009-01-01
In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.
Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.
Brindle, B R; Morris, H L
1979-11-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.
Large deviations from the thermodynamic limit in globally coupled maps
Hamm, A
1999-01-01
Systems of a large number N of globally coupled maps have become popular as a relatively simple prototype of high-dimensional dynamics, showing many interesting and typical phenomena like synchronisation, cluster formation and multistability, and having potential applications in systems like Josephson junction arrays or in biophysical models. There exists a wealth of numerical investigations of globally coupled maps. While much progress has been made in the explanation of the macroscopic behaviour of such systems in the limit of infinite N, there is still need for a sound theory about the asymptotic behaviour of finite-N systems as N approaches infinity. This article introduces a method by which it is possible to obtain asymptotic estimates for long-term deviations from the thermodynamic limit behaviour. This method is based upon the concept of quasipotentials, originally developed by Freidlin, Wentzell, and others for describing the influence of small random perturbations on the long-term behaviour of dynami...
Distributed Detection over Noisy Networks: Large Deviations Analysis
Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, Joao
2011-01-01
We study the large deviations performance of consensus+innovations distributed detection over noisy networks, where sensors at a time step k cooperate with immediate neighbors (consensus) and assimilate their new observations (innovation.) We show that, even under noisy communication, \\emph{all sensors} can achieve exponential decay e^{-k C_{\\mathrm{dis}}} of the detection error probability, even when certain (or most) sensors cannot detect the event of interest in isolation. We achieve this by designing a single time scale stochastic approximation type distributed detector with the optimal weight sequence {\\alpha_k}, by which sensors weigh their neighbors' messages. The optimal design of {\\alpha_k} balances the opposing effects of communication noise and information flow from neighbors: larger, slowly decaying \\alpha_k improves information flow but injects more communication noise. Further, we quantify the best achievable C_{\\mathrm{dis}} as a function of the sensing signal and noise, communication noise, an...
Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles continuity via large deviations
Duarte, Pedro
2016-01-01
The aim of this monograph is to present a general method of proving continuity of Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles. The method uses an inductive procedure based on a general, geometric version of the Avalanche Principle. The main assumption required by this method is the availability of appropriate large deviation type estimates for quantities related to the iterates of the base and fiber dynamics associated with the linear cocycle. We establish such estimates for various models of random and quasi-periodic cocycles. Our method has its origins in a paper of M. Goldstein and W. Schlag. Our present work expands upon their approach in both depth and breadth. We conclude this monograph with a list of related open problems, some of which may be treated using a similar approach.
Large deviations of heat flow in harmonic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider heat transport across a harmonic chain connected at its two ends to white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. In the steady state of this system the heat Q flowing from one reservoir into the system in a finite time τ has a distribution P(Q, τ). We study the large time form of the corresponding moment generating function (e−λQ) ∼ g(λ)eτμ(λ). Exact formal expressions, in terms of phonon Green's functions, are obtained for both μ(λ) and also the lowest order correction g(λ). We point out that, in general, a knowledge of both μ(λ) and g(λ) is required for finding the large deviation function associated with P(Q, τ). The function μ(λ) is known to be the largest eigenvector of an appropriate Fokker–Planck type operator and our method also gives the corresponding eigenvector exactly
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity
Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2016-02-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time αi(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy ΩDE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.
Armer, Jane M.; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W.; Zagar, Eris A.; Homan, Sherri; Bob R. Stewart
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clot...
Locked volar distal radioulnar joint dislocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadi Bouri
2016-01-01
The importance of this case is to raise the awareness among physicians in treating these kind of injuries by careful assessment of the patient and radiographs, and to consider pronator quadratus as an important cause for the blockade to reduction.
Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry
Wanas, M I
2004-01-01
A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deirdre Kindregan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer during pulsed laser deposition
Dittrich, Arne; Eberl, Christian; Schlenkrich, Susanne; Schlenkrich, Felix; Döring, Florian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich
2016-04-01
In common, one of the most characteristic properties of pulsed laser deposition is the stoichiometry transfer between target and substrate, which has been used heavily for many complex systems. In this paper we show that it is yet possible to obtain drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer in a binary system by just varying the fluence during laser deposition. In the W-Cu system, the W concentration of films grown from a composite W60Cu40 target (60 wt% W) was indeed continuously changed over an unprecedented large range of 0-70 wt% W. Close to the deposition threshold, pure Cu films are formed due to the much higher vapor pressure of Cu. At higher laser fluences, more and more W-rich W-Cu alloy samples are obtained, since ion implantation and intermixing processes occur. These alloys can reach W contents even higher than that of the target because of enhanced resputtering and reflection of the lighter Cu atoms at the film surface. Stoichiometric films with 60 wt% of W are only obtained at laser fluences around 2.7 J/cm2, when the strong Cu evaporation from the target and reflection and resputtering effects of Cu at the film surface are in balance.
Testing large-angle deviation from Gaussianity in CMB maps
Bernui, A; Teixeira, A F F
2010-01-01
A detection of the level of non-Gaussianity in the CMB data is essential to discriminate among inflationary models and also to test alternative primordial scenarios. However, the extraction of primordial non-Gaussianity is a difficult endeavor since several effects of non-primordial nature can produce non-Gaussianity. On the other hand, different statistical tools can in principle provide information about distinct forms of non-Gaussianity. Thus, any single statistical estimator cannot be sensitive to all possible forms of non-Gaussianity. In this context, to shed some light in the potential sources of deviation from Gaussianity in CMB data it is important to use different statistical indicators. In a recent paper we proposed two new large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators which provide measures of the departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. We used these indicators to carry out analyses of non-Gaussianity of the bands and of the foreground-reduced WMAP maps with and without the KQ75 mask. Here we ...
Geometry of River Networks; 1, Scaling, Fluctuations, and Deviations
Dodds, P S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2000-01-01
This article is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, we report here a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of sub-basin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We gene...
A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Least Absolute Deviation Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinbo Li
2004-09-01
Full Text Available Least absolute deviation (LAD regression is an important tool used in numerous applications throughout science and engineering, mainly due to the intrinsic robust characteristics of LAD. In this paper, we show that the optimization needed to solve the LAD regression problem can be viewed as a sequence of maximum likelihood estimates (MLE of location. The derived algorithm reduces to an iterative procedure where a simple coordinate transformation is applied during each iteration to direct the optimization procedure along edge lines of the cost surface, followed by an MLE of location which is executed by a weighted median operation. Requiring weighted medians only, the new algorithm can be easily modularized for hardware implementation, as opposed to most of the other existing LAD methods which require complicated operations such as matrix entry manipulations. One exception is Wesolowsky's direct descent algorithm, which among the top algorithms is also based on weighted median operations. Simulation shows that the new algorithm is superior in speed to Wesolowsky's algorithm, which is simple in structure as well. The new algorithm provides a better tradeoff solution between convergence speed and implementation complexity.
Constraints on deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity
Bellini, Emilio; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2015-01-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Bac...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Meng-Long; Yang Chang-Bao; Wu Yan-Gang; Chen Jing-Yi; Huan Heng-Fei
2015-01-01
Most edge-detection methods rely on calculating gradient derivatives of the potential field, a process that is easily affected by noise and is therefore of low stability. We propose a new edge-detection method named correlation coeffi cient of multidirectional standard deviations (CCMS) that is solely based on statistics. First, we prove the reliability of the proposed method using a single model and then a combination of models. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by other edge-detection methods. The CCMS method offers outstanding recognition, retains the sharpness of details, and has low sensitivity to noise. We also applied the CCMS method to Bouguer anomaly data of a potash deposit in Laos. The applicability of the CCMS method is shown by comparing the inferred tectonic framework to that inferred from remote sensing (RS) data.
Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC LIMIT OF A GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The authors consider the moderate deviations of hydrodynamic limit for Ginzburg-Landau models. The moderate deviation principle of hydrodynamic limit for a specific Ginzburg-Landau model is obtained and an explicit formula of the rate function is derived.
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration are proved for 3≤d≤6, which fills in the gap between central limit theorem(CLT)and large deviation principle(LDP).
Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.
Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles
2016-03-01
A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.
Beak deviations in the skull of Franciscana dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei from Argentina.
Denuncio, Pablo; Panebianco, M Victoria; Del Castillo, Daniela; Rodríguez, Diego; Cappozzo, H Luis; Bastida, Ricardo
2016-06-15
The Franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei is characterized by a long rostrum, a feature that is shared with the families formerly classified as river dolphins (Pontoporiidae, Platanistidae, Iniidae, Lipotidae). Although there are occasional reports on the existence of beak deformations, very little published information exists describing this process. The object of the present study was to describe and quantify the beak anomalies of Franciscana dolphins from the coastal waters of Argentina. Of 239 skulls analyzed 12% showed beak deviations (BD), affecting the premaxillary-maxillary and dentary bones to different extents. The occurrence of BD in the dentary bone represented 58%, whereas premaxillary-maxillary BDs were observed in 14% of the studied specimens, while the complete rostrum (dentary, premaxillary and maxillary) was affected in 28% of the skulls. Dorsoventral axis BD was more frequent than lateral BD (48 and 38%, respectively), and double BD was only observed in the dentary bone. Most of the BD observed in this study could be classified as mild/moderate, and we assume that it did not affect the feeding activities of individuals; however, 2 specimens (dolphin in different ways. A more detailed and thorough study of these cranial anomalies is necessary.
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
2010-01-01
... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.
Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Cases of Dissociated Vertical Deviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serpil Akar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the results of different surgical techniques for treating cases of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was performed, including 94 eyes of 47 patients who had undergone bilateral superior rectus (SR recessions (Group 1, bilateral SR recession with posterior fixation sutures (Group 2, or bilateral inferior oblique (IO anterior transposition surgery (Group 3 for treatment of DVD. Nineteen patients underwent secondary procedures (SR weakening or IO anterior transposition because of unsatisfactory results. The amount of the DVD in primary position before and after surgery, postoperative success ratios, and probable complications were evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test and chi-squared test were used for statistical evaluations. Results: In 69% of the 32 eyes in group 1, 65% of the 20 eyes in group 2, and 79% of the 42 eyes in group 3, satisfactory control of the DVD in primary position was achieved. All eyes undergoing both SR weakening and IO anterior transposition had a residual DVD of less than 5 prism diopters (pd. Of the total of 94 eyes, in 26 (89.6% of 29 eyes that had a preoperative DVD angle of more than 15 pd [ten eyes from group 1, seven eyes from group 2, and nine eyes from group 3], the residual DVD angle after surgery was more than 5 pd. However, in the 65 eyes with preoperative DVD of 15 pd or less (21from Group 1, 12 from Group 2, and 32 from Group 3, the residual DVD angle after the operation was less than 5 pd. Two eyes of 2 patients had -1 limitation to elevation after surgery. Conclusion: Only IO anterior transposition or SR weakening surgery appear to be a successful surgical approaches in the management of patients with mild- and moderate-angle (≤15 pd DVD. Weakening both the SR and IO muscles yield a greater success in the management of patients with large-angle (>15 pd DVD. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 132-7
Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations
Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.
2001-12-01
Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations
Sarem, Sarem; Nekka, Fahima; Ahmed, Iman Saad; Litalien, Catherine; Li, Jun
2015-10-01
The regression limited sampling strategy approach (R-LSS), which is based on a small number of blood samples drawn at selected time points, has been used as an alternative method for the estimation of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). However, deviations from planned sampling times may affect the performance of R-LSS, influencing related therapeutic decisions and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sampling time deviation (STD) scenarios on the estimation of AUC by the R-LSS using a simulation approach. Three types of scenarios were considered going from the simplest case of fixed deviations, to random deviations and then to a more realistic case where deviations of mixed nature can occur. In addition, the sensitivity of the R-LSS to STD in each involved sampling point was evaluated. A significant impact of STD on the performance of R-LSS was demonstrated. The tolerance of R-LSS to STD was found to depend not only on the number of sampling points but more importantly on the duration of the sampling process. Sensitivity analysis showed that sampling points at which rapid concentration changes occur were relatively more critical for AUC prediction by R-LSS. As a practical approach, nomograms were proposed, where the expected predictive performance of R-LSS was provided as a function of STD information. The investigation of STD impact on the predictive performance of R-LSS is a critical element and should be routinely performed to guide R-LSS selection and use.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡纯; 周胜法; 陈伟; 何家维; 黄兆文
2016-01-01
目的：比较数字化X线摄片（ DR）和多层螺旋CT（ MSCT）对下尺桡关节（ DRUJ）脱位定量评价的差异。方法选择74例均行DR和MSCT检查且DRUJ脱位的患者，由一位影像科副主任医师在PACS工作站上，借助DR片和MSCT后处理重建图像进行DRUJ脱位程度的测量，并进行统计学分析。结果74例患者中Colles骨折46例，Galeazzi骨折3例，Smith骨折6例，前臂其他骨折12例，7例没有骨折。其中DRUJ横向、纵向和掌或背侧半脱位分别是31例、17例和26例，DR片上测量横向、纵向和掌背侧脱位或半脱位间距分别是（5．5±2．3）mm、（8．5±2．6）mm、（5．7±1．6）mm， MSCT测量分别是（7．1±2．5）mm、（9．3±1．8）mm、（3．4±1．2）mm，两种测量方式间比较，纵向脱位间距没有统计学差异（ P ＞0．05），相关性为0．71，横向、掌或背侧脱位间距间存在统计学差异（ P ＜0．05），相关性为0．65和0．52。结论 DR和MSCT对DRUJ脱位或半脱位定量评价是可行的，但DR测量受到多种因素的影响，准确性不如MSCT，尤其在评价掌背侧半脱位时。%Objective To compare the difference of quantitative evaluation for distal radioulnar joint ( DRUJ) dislocation be-tween digital radiography ( DR) and multi-slice CT( MSCT) .Methods A total of 74 DRUJ dislocation patients underwent both DR and MSCT examination were collected in this study .One associate chief physician in radiology department measured the de-gree of DRUJ dislocation on the DR images and MSCT processed reconstruction images on PACS workstation .The data were ana-lyzed by statistics.Results For 74 patients, 46 cases had Colles’ fracture, 3 Galeazzi fracture, 6 smith fracture and 12 others’ forearm fracture and 7 cases had no fracture .Among them, 31 cases had DRUJ lateral dislocation , 17 had longitudinal dislocation and 26 had volar or distal subluxation .And the lateral , longitudinal and
The Visual N1 Is Sensitive to Deviations from Natural Texture Appearance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Balas
Full Text Available Disruptions of natural texture appearance are known to negatively impact performance in texture discrimination tasks, for example, such that contrast-negated textures, synthetic textures, and textures depicting abstract art are processed less efficiently than natural textures. Presently, we examined how visual ERP responses (the P1 and the N1 in particular were affected by violations of natural texture appearance. We presented participants with images depicting either natural textures or synthetic textures made from the original stimuli. Both stimulus types were additionally rendered either in positive or negative contrast. These appearance manipulations (negation and texture synthesis preserve a range of low-level features, but also disrupt higher-order aspects of texture appearance. We recorded continuous EEG while participants completed a same/different image discrimination task using these images and measured both the P1 and N1 components over occipital recording sites. While the P1 exhibited no sensitivity to either contrast polarity or real/synthetic appearance, the N1 was sensitive to both deviations from natural appearance. Polarity reversal and synthetic appearance affected the N1 latency differently, however, suggesting a differential impact on processing. Our results suggest that stages of visual processing indexed by the P1 and N1 are sensitive to high-order statistical regularities in natural textures and also suggest that distinct violations of natural appearance impact neural responses differently.
The Visual N1 Is Sensitive to Deviations from Natural Texture Appearance.
Balas, Benjamin; Conlin, Catherine
2015-01-01
Disruptions of natural texture appearance are known to negatively impact performance in texture discrimination tasks, for example, such that contrast-negated textures, synthetic textures, and textures depicting abstract art are processed less efficiently than natural textures. Presently, we examined how visual ERP responses (the P1 and the N1 in particular) were affected by violations of natural texture appearance. We presented participants with images depicting either natural textures or synthetic textures made from the original stimuli. Both stimulus types were additionally rendered either in positive or negative contrast. These appearance manipulations (negation and texture synthesis) preserve a range of low-level features, but also disrupt higher-order aspects of texture appearance. We recorded continuous EEG while participants completed a same/different image discrimination task using these images and measured both the P1 and N1 components over occipital recording sites. While the P1 exhibited no sensitivity to either contrast polarity or real/synthetic appearance, the N1 was sensitive to both deviations from natural appearance. Polarity reversal and synthetic appearance affected the N1 latency differently, however, suggesting a differential impact on processing. Our results suggest that stages of visual processing indexed by the P1 and N1 are sensitive to high-order statistical regularities in natural textures and also suggest that distinct violations of natural appearance impact neural responses differently.
Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
2010-08-15
To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
Century-Scale of Standard Deviation in Europe Historical Temperature Records
Xie, F.
2015-12-01
The standard deviation (STD) variability in long historical temperature records in Europe is analyzed. It is found that STD is changeable with time, and a century-scale variation is revealed, which further indicates a century-scale intensity modulation of the large-scale temperature variability. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) can cause significant impacts in standard deviation. During the periods of 1870-1910 and 1950-80, increasing standard deviation corresponds to increasing AMO index, while the periods of 1920-50 and 1980-2000 decreasing standard deviation corresponds to decreasing AMO index. The findings herein suggest a new perspective on the understanding of climatic change
An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘聪
2013-01-01
Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.
Bilateral symmetry of the mastoid processes in jaw deformity cases with mandibular deviation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We used three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) to investigate differences in the amount of mandibular deviation and the position of the mastoid processes at the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in subjects who had jaw deformities with mandibular deviation. We measured the distance from the Frankfort horizontal (FH), frontal and sagittal median planes to the mastoid processes. We also measured mandibular deviation as the distance from the sagittal median plane to Me (Me deviation distance), the angle of the FH plane to Ag line (vertical mandibular deviation angle), as well as the angle of the sagittal median plane to Ag line (axial mandibular deviation angle). We calculated the ratios of the vertical, anteroposterior and lateral distances from each plane to the bilateral mastoid processes. Significant correlation was found between the Me deviation distance and the ratio of the vertical distance to the bilateral mastoid processes. Significant correlation was also found between the axial mandibular deviation angle and the ratio of the vertical distance to the bilateral mastoid processes. Our results suggest that in patients with jaw deformities there is a correlation between deviation of the mandible from the body axis and the position of the mastoid processes. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li
2009-01-01
A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.
Trade Finance Affects Trade Dynamics
ARESPA CASTELLÓ, Marta; Gruber, Diego
2016-01-01
Existent literature is by no means conclusive on the effects of trade finance on trade and the economy. We propose a suitable framework to explore the linkages between international trade and finance based on an international real business cycle model where firms require external finance to import and can be financially constrained. We find that credit shocks do affect the dynamic properties of the economy and they have the potential to cause significant deviations in trade and economic perfo...
A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuncheng Zhou
Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Samson, Kristine
. Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...
On Translation of Language Deviation from the Perspective of Peter Newmark’s Translation Dichotomy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡娜; 延宏
2016-01-01
Language deviation can bring fresh vitality to literary creation. In literary works translation,through adoption of proper translation strategies, the effects created by language deviation in the original text can be efficiently reproduced. Here, the writer attempts to make a narration and relevant analyses on it.
Large Deviations for Parameter Estimators of Some Time Inhomogeneous Diffusion Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shou Jiang ZHAO; Fu Qing GAO
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to study large deviations for estimator and score function of some time inhomogeneous diffusion process.Large deviation in the non-steepness case with explicit rate functions is obtained by using parameter-dependent change of measure.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Wen JIANG; Li Ming WU
2005-01-01
All known results on large deviations of occupation measures of Markov processes are based on the assumption of (essential) irreducibility. In this paper we establish the weak* large deviation principle of occupation measures for any countable Markov chain with arbitrary initial measures. The new rate function that we obtain is not convex and depends on the initial measure, contrary to the (essentially) irreducible case.
75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
2010-11-01
... Corp., to market test a product designated as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviates from the U.S... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...
Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI
1991-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
Moderate Deviations for M-estimators in Linear Models with φ-mixing Errors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun FAN
2012-01-01
In this paper,the moderate deviations for the M-estimators of regression parameter in a linear model are obtained when the errors form a strictly stationary φ-mixing sequence.The results are applied to study many different types of M-estimators such as Huber's estimator,Lp-regression estimator,least squares estimator and least absolute deviation estimator.
7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards. The provisions of this section apply to all borrower electric system facilities regardless of...
Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters
M. Schoonhoven; M. Riaz; R.J.M.M. Does
2011-01-01
This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the
An Upper Bound on Standard Deviation as a Function of Range
Petocz, Peter
2005-01-01
This article disproves a conjecture that the ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the range of a set of data decreases as the number of data points increases. It also provides an alternative and more general approach for examining the standard deviation as a function of the range.
Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A
2012-10-01
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and
Deformation behavior of A6063 tube with initial thickness deviation in free hydraulic bulging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Lian-fa; GUO Cheng; DENG Yang
2006-01-01
Experiment on seamless tubes of aluminum alloy A6063 with initial thickness deviation of 0-20% was conducted through a free hydraulic bulging with tube ends free. The influence of initial thickness deviation on the cross-section profile, thickness distribution, maximum internal pressure and maximum radial expansion was investigated. FEM simulation was also performed in order to examine and help explaining the experimental results. The results indicate that the internal pressure and maximum internal pressure appear to be little influenced by the initial thickness deviation, and that the cross-section profile of the bulged tube changes diversely and can not be a perfect circle. The results also suggest that the increase in initial thickness deviation may lead to a remarkable decrease in maximum radial expansion, and a rapid increase in thickness deviation and the center eccentricity of the inner and outer profiles.
Bongiorno, C; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Miccichè, S
2016-01-01
Understanding the relation between planned and realized flight trajectories and the determinants of flight deviations is of great importance in air traffic management. In this paper we perform an in depth investigation of the statistical properties of planned and realized air traffic on the German airspace during a 28 day periods, corresponding to an AIRAC cycle. We find that realized trajectories are on average shorter than planned ones and this effect is stronger during night-time than daytime. Flights are more frequently deviated close to the departure airport and at a relatively large angle to destination. Moreover, the probability of a deviation is higher in low traffic phases. All these evidences indicate that deviations are mostly used by controllers to give directs to flights when traffic conditions allow it. Finally we introduce a new metric, termed difork, which is able to characterize navigation points according to the likelihood that a deviation occurs there. Difork allows to identify in a statist...
The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-02-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:15692343
The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salovaara-Moring, Inka
. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...
Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.
Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo
2016-01-01
Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. PMID:26436712
A contribution to large deviations for heavy-tailed random sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU; Chun
2001-01-01
［1］ Nagaev, A. V., Integral limit theorems for large deviations when Cramer's condition is not fulfilled I, II, Theory Prob. Appl., 1969, 14: 51-64, 193-208.［2］ Nagaev, A. V., Limit theorems for large deviations where Cramer's conditions are violated (In Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser., Fiz-Mat Nauk., 1969, 7: 17.［3］ Heyde, C. C., A contribution to the theory of large deviations for sums of independent random variables, Z. Wahrscheinlichkeitsth, 1967, 7: 303.［4］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities for sums of random variables which are not attracted to the normal law, Ann. Math. Statist., 1967, 38: 1575.［5］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities in the case of attraction to a nonnormal stable law, Sanky, 1968, 30: 253.［6］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations for sums of independent random variables, in Sixth Prague Conf. on Information Theory, Random Processes and Statistical Decision Functions, Prague: Academic, 1973, 657674.［7］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations of sums of independent random variables, Ann. Prob., 1979, 7: 745.［8］ Embrechts, P., Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1997.［9］ Cline, D. B. H., Hsing, T., Large deviation probabilities for sums and maxima of random variables with heavy or subexponential tails, Preprint, Texas A&M University, 1991.［10］ Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Large deviations of heavy-tailed random sums with applications to insurance and finance, J. Appl. Prob., 1997, 34: 293.
Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films
Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao
2013-08-01
The deviations of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
Level 1 quenched large deviation principle for random walk in dynamic random environment
Drewitz, David Campos Alexander
2011-01-01
Consider a random walk on a continuous time-dependent random environment on the hiper-cubic lattice. Recently, Rassoul-Agha, Seppalainen and Yilmaz proved a general large deviation principle under mild ergodicity assumptions on the random environment for such a random walk, establishing first a level 2 and 3 large deviation principle. Here we present an alternative short proof of the level 1 large deviations under mild ergodicity assumptions on the environment, which provides the existence and convexity of the rate function, in the continuous time case. Our methods are based on the use of sub-additive ergodic theorem as presented by Varadhan in 2003.
Analysis of Road Base Uniformity via the Deviation of Modulus of Asphalt Mixtures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHI Yufeng; ZHANG Xiaoning
2007-01-01
The modulus deviation of base material calculated from the data of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to evaluate the uniformity of road base so as to reflect the construction quality. Four parameters,the repeatability standard deviation of the data in the same driveway, the reproducibility standard deviation of the data in the different driveway, the consistency statistics value of the data in the different driveway, and the consistency statistics value of the data in the same driveway, were introduced for the construction uniformity analysis. The experimental result shows that the materials modulus calculated from FWD has a highly correlative relationship with the uniformity of road base.
A large deviations approach to limit theory for heavy-tailed time series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Wintenberger, Olivier
2016-01-01
In this paper we propagate a large deviations approach for proving limit theory for (generally) multivariate time series with heavy tails. We make this notion precise by introducing regularly varying time series. We provide general large deviation results for functionals acting on a sample path...... and vanishing in some neighborhood of the origin. We study a variety of such functionals, including large deviations of random walks, their suprema, the ruin functional, and further derive weak limit theory for maxima, point processes, cluster functionals and the tail empirical process. One of the main results...
Narikawa, Tatsuya
2016-01-01
We discuss the potential of the advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the prediction of General Relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess how much magnitude of the deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters by using a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jahangir Vajed Samiei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2–34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1 to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2 to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn, dark respiration (R, autotrophic capability (Pn/R, and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature.
Large deviation statistics of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a sheared model-fluid
Dolai, Pritha; Simha, Aditi
2016-08-01
We analyse the statistics of the shear stress in a one dimensional model fluid, that exhibits a rich phase behaviour akin to real complex fluids under shear. We show that the energy flux satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen FT across all phases in the system. The theorem allows us to define an effective temperature which deviates considerably from the equilibrium temperature as the noise in the system increases. This deviation is negligible when the system size is small. The dependence of the effective temperature on the strain rate is phase-dependent. It doesn’t vary much at the phase boundaries. The effective temperature can also be determined from the large deviation function of the energy flux. The local strain rate statistics obeys the large deviation principle and satisfies a fluctuation relation. It does not exhibit a distinct kink near zero strain rate because of inertia of the rotors in our system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion BULAC
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Due to technical deviations, in the elements of the 4R spatial spherical mechanism appear efforts thatadditionally loads the mechanism, efforts that can be determined with the calculation algorithm that will bepresented in this paper
Deviation Prevention Ability of Rollers in Continuous Annealing Furnace and Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yan; YANG Quan; HE An-rui; YAO Xi-jiang; GUO De-fu
2012-01-01
In order to reduce the strip deviation in the practical production procedure in the continuous annealing fur- nace, a dynamic simulation model was built through finite element method (FEM) to conduct the quantification cal- culation of the effect of regular roller contour types on strip deviation. The result reveals that comparing to the flat roller, forward roller contour can prevent the strip deviation to some degree. In terms of prevention ability, double- taper roller is the strongest, single-taper roller and crown roller are less stronger; and more roller contour values raise the prevention ability. Accordingly, optimization method was applied to continuous annealing furnace, and it largely reduced accidents such as strip break and limited speed that are caused by the deviation.
Large deviations for Hilbert space valued Wiener processes: a sequence space approach
Andresen, Andreas; Imkeller, Peter; Perkowski, Nicolas
2012-01-01
Ciesielski's isomorphism between the space of alpha-H\\"older continuous functions and the space of bounded sequences is used to give an alternative proof of the large deviation principle for Wiener processes with values in Hilbert space.
40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November... § 60.2215, for any pollutant or parameter that deviated from the emission limitations or...
40 CFR 62.14740 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... include in the deviation report? In each report required under § 62.14735, for any pollutant or...
40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter...
41 CFR 102-33.10 - May we request approval to deviate from these rules?
2010-07-01
...,” revised May 22, 1992. You should consult with GSA's Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA) before you request a deviation. Also, you should fax a copy of your letter of request to MTA at 202-501-6742 at...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO; Fuqing
2006-01-01
We first give a functional moderate deviation principle for random processes with stationary and independent increments under the Ledoux's condition.Then we apply the result to laws of the iterated logarithm.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Driven by a Poisson Random Measure
Budhiraja, Amarjit; Dupuis, Paul
2012-01-01
Stochastic partial differential equations driven by Poisson random measures (PRM) have been proposed as models for many different physical systems, where they are viewed as a refinement of a corresponding noiseless partial differential equations (PDE). A systematic framework for the study of probabilities of deviations of the stochastic PDE from the deterministic PDE is through the theory of large deviations. The goal of this work is to develop the large deviation theory for small Poisson noise perturbations of a general class of deterministic infinite dimensional models. Although the analogous questions for finite dimensional systems have been well studied, there are currently no general results in the infinite dimensional setting. This is in part due to the fact that in this setting solutions may have little spatial regularity, and thus classical approximation methods for large deviation analysis become intractable. The approach taken here, which is based on a variational representation for nonnegative func...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne
2014-01-01
Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habibollah Ghassemzadeh
1994-06-01
Full Text Available The Bender-Gestalt Test was given to thirty mentally-retarded psychiatric patients. The mean, standard deviation, and standard error were 56.73, 26.25, and 4.80 respectively. Rotation was the most frequent major deviation which occurred in all the designs."nDesign # 7 was the most difficult one to be reproduced in the sample. This design by itself, was subject to 47% of distortion, 79% of omission, and 21% of rotation.
Model for crystallization kinetics: Deviations from Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics
Castro, Mario; Domínguez-Adame Acosta, Francisco; Sánchez, A; Rodriguez, T.
1999-01-01
We propose a simple and versatile model to understand the deviations from the well-known Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics theory found in metal recrystallization and amorphous semiconductor crystallization. We analyze the kinetics of the transformation and the grain-size distribution of the product material, finding a good overall agreement between our model and available experimental data. The information so obtained could help to relate the mentioned experimental deviations due to pr...
Large deviations for multidimensional state-dependent shot-noise processes
Budhiraja, Amarjit; Nyquist, Pierre
2015-01-01
Shot-noise processes are used in applied probability to model a variety of physical systems in, for example, teletraffic theory, insurance and risk theory, and in the engineering sciences. In this paper we prove a large deviation principle for the sample-paths of a general class of multidimensional state-dependent Poisson shot-noise processes. The result covers previously known large deviation results for one-dimensional state-independent shot-noise processes with light tail...
Finite-time deviations from exponential decay in the Weisskopf-Wigner model of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the first time to the authors' knowledge, a mathematically rigorous method is used for treating finite-time deviations from the exponential decay in the case of spontaneous Lyman-α transition in a two-level hydrogenic atom. In the so-called Weisskopf-Wigner model (where the rotating-wave approximation is implied), finite-time deviations with a rigorous validity range, based on accurate error estimations, are derived. (orig.)
Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result
Jacques Luauté; Sophie Jacquin-Courtois; Jacinta O'Shea; Laure Christophe; Gilles Rode; Dominique Boisson; Yves Rossetti
2012-01-01
Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purpos...
Cost Contingency as the Standard Deviation of the Cost Estimate for Cost Engineering
Geoffrey Rothwell
2004-01-01
Traditional cost contingency estimation relies heavily on expert judgment based on various cost-engineering standards. This paper compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contingencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Institute. It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingencies equal to the standard deviation of the cost estimate. It suggests how this standard deviation can be derive...
Research of the Problem of Vehicle Deviation%车辆跑偏问题研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐晓峰
2009-01-01
针对售后常见的车辆跑偏问题,提出两种通用的评判方法以及评判标准;同时着重分析了车辆跑偏产生原理以及解决的办法.%Two evaluation methods and standards are put forward aiming at the after - sales problem of vehicle deviation. The principle of vehiele deviation and its solution method are focused.
Analysis of the neutron albedo’s influence on TIP deviations in Forsmark 1
Skan, Moa
2016-01-01
In the operation of a nuclear reactor, detailed calculations are performed to predict the power distribution in the core and to ensure the maintenance of a number of safety margins. Repeatedly during a power cycle, the predictions are verified in so-called TIP measurements, and the consequences of possible deviations are investigated. During the latest power cycles until today, the Forsmark 1 reactor has experienced large deviations in TIP measurements at the edge of the reactor core that ha...
Sadgrove, M; Parkins, S; Leonhardt, R; Sadgrove, Mark; Mullins, Terry; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer
2004-01-01
We present experimental measurements of the mean energy for the atom optics kicked rotor after just two kicks. The energy is found to deviate from the quasi--linear value for small kicking periods. The observed deviation is explained by recent theoretical results which include the effect of a non--uniform initial momentum distribution, previously applied only to systems using much colder atoms than ours.
Gait deviations and compensations in pediatric patients with increased femoral torsion.
Bruderer-Hofstetter, Marina; Fenner, Verena; Payne, Erika; Zdenek, Katja; Klima, Harry; Wegener, Regina
2015-02-01
Coxa antetorta describes an abnormal torsion of the femur. It is commonly considered a cosmetic problem and is treated surgically only in severe cases and the presence of physical complaints. The purpose of this study was to identify deviations in gait kinematics and kinetics in pediatric patients caused by coxa antetorta and to categorize these deviations into primary and secondary deviations. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis study to detect gait deviations in adolescents (n = 18; age range 10.5-17.5 years) with coxa antetorta compared to age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 17). Principal component (PC) analysis was used for data reduction. Linear mixed models applied to PC-scores were used to estimate the main effects within retained PCs followed by a post-hoc subgroup analysis. Patients walked with smaller external foot progression angle, greater knee adduction, more internally rotated and flexed hips and greater anterior pelvic tilt. Subgroup analysis revealed that-depending on knee alignment-patients had higher knee and hip adduction moments. These deviations in joint kinematics and kinetics may be associated with physical complaints and accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Assessment of gait deviations related to coxa antetorta using 3D gait analysis may be an additional tool in individual clinical decision-making.
Inferior Oblique Muscle Weakening: Is It Possible to Quantify Its Effects on Horizontal Deviations?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hande Taylan Sekeroglu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate and quantify the effect of inferior oblique muscle weakening on horizontal deviations. Methods. The medical files of patients who had undergone an inferior oblique weakening as a single procedure were all reviewed. The main measures were the type of inferior oblique overaction (IOOA, pre- and postoperative amount of IOOA, and horizontal deviations in primary position. Results. The study was conducted with 66 patients (30 males, 36 females. The median age was 11 years (1–49. Of the 66 patients, 30 (45.5% had primary and 36 (54.5% had secondary IOOA. The most common procedure was inferior oblique anteriorization in 32 patients (48.5%. The mean postoperative horizontal and vertical deviations and the amount of IOOA were decreased postoperatively ( for all. The median amount of correction of horizontal near and distance deviations was (0–20. The preoperative amount of IOOA, the presence of fourth nerve palsy, and the type of the weakening procedure had no significant effect on the amount of correction of horizontal deviations. Conclusion. The inferior oblique weakening procedures have secondary effects and warrant reduction of horizontal deviations in varying degrees. This should be borne in mind in planning a simultaneous horizontal muscle surgery and setting the surgical amount.
Lindell, Annukka K; Nicholls, Michael E R; Castles, Anne E
2003-02-01
Words with an early or late orthographic uniqueness point and nonwords with an early or late orthographic deviation point were presented to the left, right, or both visual fields simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 20 participants made lexical decision judgements to horizontal stimulus presentations. In Experiment 2, a further 20 participants completed the task using vertical presentations to control for attentional biases. Consistent with previous research, words with earlier orthographic uniqueness points prompted faster responses across visual fields, regardless of stimulus orientation. Although research has suggested that the left hemisphere's superiority for language processing stems from a comparatively parallel processing strategy, with the right hemisphere reliant upon a serial mechanism, left and right visual field presentations were not differentially affected by orthographic uniqueness point. This suggests that differential sequential effects previously reported result during processes other than retrieval from the lexicon. The overall right visual field advantage observed using horizontal presentations disappeared when stimuli were presented vertically. Contrary to expectations, there was a facilitatory effect of late orthographic deviation point for horizontal nonword presentations. Overall, the results were interpreted as being consistent with predictions of a cohort model of word recognition, and they highlighted the effect of stimulus orientation on left and right hemisphere word recognition. PMID:12613565
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghazipour
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Background Nasal septal deviation (NSD can cause upper airway obstruction, which results in hypoxia and therefore, pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventricular hypertrophy and right-sided heart failure. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP of the patients with NSD and the effect of septoplasty on pulmonary arterial pressure. Patients and Methods Thirty five patients with NSD (mean age, 31.37 years; 19 men and 16 women were included in the study. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was measured in the preoperative period and after third month postsurgery. Results The preoperative mPAP value (23.43 mmHg [SD, 3.84] was higher than postoperative values (20.17 mmHg [SD, 3.36]. There was a significant decrease in mPAP after the surgery (3.26 mmHg. P-value in our study was smaller than 0.001. Conclusions Nasal septal deviation like other causes of upper airway obstruction such as adenotonsillar hypertrophy affects mPAP. Nasal septoplasty is effective in reduction of mPAP in patients with NSD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jodi Dean
2010-02-01
Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Moreva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in
Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Identification of characteristic model-observation deviations for coupled data assimilation
Geppert, Gernot; Ament, Felix
2016-04-01
Exchange fluxes of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere lead to the propagation of errors from one model component to the other. Data assimilation can correct such errors in two ways, either by correcting the observed state directly or by changing the state that caused the exchange fluxes. The land surface, for example, strongly determines the temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. The assimilation of boundary layer temperature can then correct the model's temperature directly. Or the assimilation of boundary layer temperature can act on the model's land surface state. A coupled data assimilation system should exploit these links and enable the second type of correction across model components. Data assimilation relies on instantaneous deviations between model forecasts and observations. Such instantaneous deviations are often hard to relate to errors in specific model components. Therefore, model verification builds on more sophisticated statistics such as long-term biases, gradients, phase shifts, or conditional differences that yield characteristic differences between model forecasts and observations. Compared to the instantaneous deviations in data assimilation, the characteristic deviations in model verification are more closely linked to errors in specific model components. Consequently, such characteristic deviations can potentially be used for data assimilation across model components where instantaneous deviations are not sufficiently informative. As a first step towards data assimilation with characteristic deviations (here named fingerprints), we use ensembles of simulations with the Icosahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) model to identify applicable statistics of observable variables. We run ICON in a large eddy simulation configuration on a small, limited domain and systematically perturb soil and land-surface parameters and states to produce the ensembles. Subsequently, we test statistics of boundary layer observables to
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Using the T63L16 analysis data with the resolution of 1.875╳1.875 degree of latitude and longitude obtained from National Meteorological Center (NMC) and the real central position information of tropical cyclone (referred to as TC hereafter) numbered by NMC, the basic environmental geostrophic flow at 126 time levels of 25 TCs in 1996 are calculated. The vertical distribution features of the flows are analyzed. Besides, the deviation of real TC tracks from the flows (referred as steering deviation hereafter, namely, the deviation between the real central position of TC and the position calculated according to the steering flow) is also investigated. The result shows that the steering deviation would be different if the domain used to calculate the steering flow is different. The present paper obtains the optimum domain size to calculate the steering flow. It is found that the steering deviation is related to the velocity of steering flow and the initial latitude and intensity of TC itself, and that TC motion has relationship with the vertical shear structure of environmental geostrophic flow. The result also shows that the optimum steering flow is the deep-layer averaged basic flow from 1000 hPa to 200 hPa. Having the knowledge of these principle and features would help make accurate forecast of TC motion.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $\\Lambda$CDM $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity
Ganiou, M G; Houndjo, M J S; Tossa, J
2016-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation has been investigated in the framework of $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity, where $T$ denotes the torsion and $\\mathcal{T}$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The FRW metric is assumed and the geodesic deviation equation has been established following the General Relativity approach in the first hand and secondly, by a direct method using the modified Friedmann equations. Via fundamental observers and null vector fields with FRW background, we have generalized the Raychaudhuri equation and the Mattig relation in $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ gravity. Furthermore, we have numerically solved the geodesic deviation equation for null vector fields by considering a particular form of $f(T,\\mathcal{T})$ which induces interesting results susceptible to be tested with observational data.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in ΛCDM f(T,{T}) Gravity
Ganiou, M. G.; Salako, Ines G.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Tossa, J.
2016-09-01
The geodesic deviation equation has been investigated in the framework of f(T,{T}) gravity, where T denotes the torsion and {T} is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The FRW metric is assumed and the geodesic deviation equation has been established following the General Relativity approach in the first hand and secondly, by a direct method using the modified Friedmann equations. Via fundamental observers and null vector fields with FRW background, we have generalized the Raychaudhuri equation and the Mattig relation in f(T,{T}) gravity. Furthermore, we have numerically solved the geodesic deviation equation for null vector fields by considering a particular form of f(T,{T}) which induces interesting results susceptible to be tested with observational data.
Analysis of Deviations in an Agent and Ontology-Based Dialogue Management System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Algorithms of detecting dialogue deviations from a dialogue topic in an agent and ontology-based dialogue management system(AODMS) are proposed. In AODMS, agents and ontologies are introduced to represent domain knowledge. And general algorithms that model dialogue phenomena in different domains can be realized in that complex relationships between knowledge in different domains can be described by ontologies. An evaluation of the dialogue management system with deviation-judging algorithms on 736 utterances shows that the AODMS is able to talk about the given topic consistently and answer 86.6% of the utterances, while only 72.1% of the utterances can be responded correctly without deviation-judging module.
Large deviations of the shifted index number in the Gaussian ensemble
Pérez Castillo, Isaac
2016-06-01
We show that, using the Coulomb fluid approach, we are able to derive a rate function \\Psi(c,x) of two variables that captures: (i) the large deviations of bulk eigenvalues; (ii) the large deviations of extreme eigenvalues (both left and right large deviations); (iii) the statistics of the fraction c of eigenvalues to the left of a position x. Thus, \\Psi(c,x) explains the full order statistics of the eigenvalues of large random Gaussian matrices as well as the statistics of the shifted index number. All our analytical findings are thoroughly compared with Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining excellent agreement. A summary of preliminary results has already been presented in Pérez Castillo (2014 Phys. Rev. E 90 040102) in the context of one-dimensional trapped spinless fermions in a harmonic potential.
Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys
Murphy, S. T.
2010-08-03
Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beitz Eric
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoegl, A.
1996-07-01
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird untersucht, wie aus rechtlicher Sicht Messabweichungen bei Strahlenschutzmessungen zu beruecksichtigen sind, wenn Messergebnisse mit Grenzwerten des Atomrechts oder Gueterverkehrsrechts verglichen werden. Hierzu wird eine Fallunterscheidung vorgeschlagen, die von den jeweiligen Rechtsfolgen eine Messung ausgeht. In Kommentaren zum Atomrecht konnten keine Hinweise fuer die rechtliche Bewertung von Messabweichungen bei Strahlenschutzmessungen gefunden werden. Die in Rechtskommentaren zur Zivil- und Strafprozessordnung enthaltenen Beispiele der Fehlerberuecksichtigung bei Messungen zur Geschwindigkeitsueberwachung und Blutalkoholbestimmung sowie ein Kommentar zum Ozongesetz wurden auf Analogien zu Strahlenschutzmessungen untersucht. Gerichtliche Grundsatzentscheidungen aus dem Bereich der Kerntechnik werden im Hinblick auf Anforderungen bei Messabweichungen ausgewertet. Im letzten Abschnitt sind die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen
Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M
2013-01-01
Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587
Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M
2013-01-01
Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neelima Gupta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common problem bringing a patient to an otorhinolaryngologist. Occasionally, these patients may also complain of olfactory impairment. We proposed to study the effect of septal deviation on the lateralised olfactory function and the change in olfaction after surgery of the septum (septoplasty. Methods. Forty-one patients with deviated nasal septum were evaluated for nasal airflow, olfactory score, and nasal symptomatology. Septoplasty was done under local anesthesia. Pre- and postoperative olfactory scores, airflow and olfactory scores, and nasal symptomatology and olfactory scores were compared and correlated. Results. The range of preoperative composite olfactory score (COS on the side of septal deviation was 4–14 (mean 7.90±2.234 and on the nonobstructed side was 9–18 (mean 14.49±2.378. Severity of deviated nasal septum and preoperative COS of diseased side were correlated and the correlation was found to be significant (rho = −0.690, p=0.000 (<0.001. The preoperative mean COS (7.90±2.234 was compared with the postoperative mean COS (12.39±3.687 and the improvement was found to be statistically significant (p=0.000 (<0.001. Conclusion. We found improvement in olfactory function in 70.6% patients after surgery, no change in 20.1%, and reduced function in 7.6%. With the limitation of a small sample size and a potential repeat testing bias, we would conclude that correction of nasal septal deviation may lead to improvement in sense of smell.
2010-07-01
... which are distinct from the standard deviation process and specific to the requirements of the Federal... agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part? 102-38.30 Section 102-38.30 Public Contracts... executive agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part? Refer to §§ 102-2.60 through...
From dynamic to static Large Deviations in boundary driven exclusion particle systems.
Bodineau, T
2002-01-01
We consider the large deviations for the stationary measures associated to a boundary driven symmetric simple exclusion process. Starting from the large deviations for the hydrodynamics and following the Freidlin and Wentzell's strategy, we prove that the rate function is given by the quasi--potential of the Freidlin and Wentzell theory. This result is motivated by the recent developments on the non-equilibrium stationary measures by Derrida, Lebowitz and Speer and the more closely related dynamical approach by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona Lasinio, Landim.
Sensitivity analysis of the channel estimation deviation to the MAP decoding algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WAN Ke; FAN Ping-zhi
2006-01-01
As a necessary input parameter for maximum a-posteriori(MAP) decoding algorithm,SNR is normally obtained from the channel estimation unit.Corresponding research indicated that SNR estimation deviation degraded the performance of Turbo decoding significantly.In this paper,MAP decoding algorithm with SNR estimation deviation was investigated in detail,and the degradation mechanism of Turbo decoding was explained analytically.The theoretical analysis and computer simulation disclosed the specific reasons for the performance degradation when SNR estimation was less than the actual value,and for the higher sensitivity of SNR estimation to long-frame Turbo codes.
Control of the multiclass G/G/1 queue in the moderate deviation regime
Atar, Rami
2012-01-01
A multi-class single-server system with general service time distributions is studied in a moderate deviation heavy traffic regime. In the scaling limit, an optimal control problem associated with the model is shown to be governed by a differential game, that can be explicitly solved. While the characterization of the limit by a differential game is akin to results at the large deviation scale, the analysis of the problem is closely related to the much studied area of control in heavy traffic at the diffusion scale.
Rosenbluth, Jeffrey M
2008-01-01
We take the point of view of the particle in a multidimensional nearest neighbor random walk in random environment (RWRE). We prove a quenched large deviation principle and derive a variational formula for the quenched rate function. Most of the previous results in this area rely on the subadditive ergodic theorem. We employ a different technique which is based on a minimax theorem. Large deviation principles for RWRE have been proven for i.i.d. nestling environments subject to a moment condition and for ergodic uniformly elliptic environments. We assume only that the environment is ergodic and the transition probabilities satisfy a moment condition.
Definition of resulting angle of the deviation after the passage of neutrons through the crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper is dedicated to the consideration of passage of neutrons in the crystal. The expression for intensity distribution is obtained by the method of the multiple scattering theories. The received results are applied to calculation angle of the deviation of neutrons by nucleus of the crystal. Here is shown that at the large angle of deviation, the intensity of distribution decreases with reduction of angle much more slowly than till Gaussian law. The received expression for the angle of the dviation allows defining of the impulse of the neutron
Fixed pattern deviations in Si pixel detectors measured using the Medipix 1 readout chip
Tlustos, L; Davidson, D; Heijne, Erik H M; Mikulec, B
2003-01-01
Dopant fluctuations and other defects in silicon wafers can lead to systematic errors in several parameters in particle or single-photon detection. In imaging applications non-uniformities in sensors or readout give rise to fixed pattern image noise and degradation of achievable spatial resolution for a given flux. High granularity pixel detectors offer the possibility to investigate local properties of the detector material on a microscopic scale. In this paper, we study fixed pattern detection fluctuations and detector inhomogeneities using the Medipix 1 readout chip. Low-frequency fixed pattern signal deviations due to dopant inhomogeneities can be separated from high-frequency deviations.
Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.
Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sampa Ray (Bhattacharya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.
Stylistic Analysis of Rossetti’s Song with the Technique of Deviation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡争艳
2013-01-01
Song is one of Christina Georgina Rossetti’s most outstanding death poems, dealing with the main themes that she concerns:death, love and religion. This paper tries to use the technique of deviation that refers to violations to the standard lan⁃guage and readers’expectations to interpret this poem’s stylistic features from the aspects of grammar, phonology, image, theme and narrative point of view. Through the stylistic analysis with the method of deviation, its solemn theme is exposed clearly.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke;
2014-01-01
A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....
THE STRUCTURE AND PRECISE MODERATE DEVIATIONS OF RANDOM VARIABLES WITH DOMINATEDLY VARYING TAILS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuebao; YANG Yang
2005-01-01
This paper shows the structure of the random variables with dominatedly varying tails and that of the associated random variables,and obtains some results on these r.v.s' precise moderate deviations with random centralizing constants,which extend the boundary γλ(t) of large deviations to γ(λ(t))1/s,where γ＞0,1＜s＜2,λ(t) is the expectation of the random index N(t),t＞O.
LARGE DEVIATION FOR THE EMPIRICAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT OF TWO GAUSSIAN RANDOM VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Si
2007-01-01
In this article, the author obtains the large deviation principles for the empirical correlation coefficient of two Gaussian random variables X and Y. Especially, when considering two independent Gaussian random variables X, Y with the means EX, EY(both known), wherein the author gives two kinds of different proofs and gets the same results.
Electrocardiographic precordial ST-segment deviations and the risk of cardiovascular death
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Pietersen, Adrian;
2014-01-01
computerized analysis of ECGs from 285 194 persons, we evaluated the association between precordial ST-segment deviations and the risk of CVD. All data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from Danish registries. After a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, there were 6679 cardiovascular...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pradeep Kumar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to prove the existence of piecewise continuous mild solutions to impulsive functional differential equation with iterated deviating arguments in a Banach space. The results are obtained by using the theory of analytic semigroups and fixed point theorems.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Fanning, D M
2009-02-03
INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.
Large deviations for the Fleming-Viot process with neutral mutation and selection
Dawson, Donald; Feng, Shui
1998-01-01
Large deviation principles are established for the Fleming-Viot processes with neutral mutation and selection, and the corresponding equilibrium measures as the sampling rate goes to 0. All results are first proved for the finite allele model, and then generalized, through the projective limit technique, to the infinite allele model. Explicit expressions are obtained for the rate functions.
Feng, Shui
1994-01-01
A large deviation system is established for the empirical processes of a mean-field interacting particle system with unbounded jump rates under assumptions that are satisfied by many interesting models including the first and the second Schlogl models. The action functional obtained has a form that is very useful for applications.
EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTION TO HIGHER ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH DEVIATING ARGUMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper,using the coincidence degree theory of Mawhin,we investigate the existence of periodic solutions to higher order differential equations with deviating argument. Some new results on the existence of periodic solutions to the equations are obtained. In addition,we give an example to illustrate the main results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech;
2015-01-01
Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Fanning, D M
2012-02-01
INTRODUCTION: We report the first described case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the setting of a female renal cadaveric transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of this clinical case was performed. CONCLUSION: This rare cancer represents only about 1% of all cervical adenocarcinoma.
Analysis on the deviation of feeder pipe ultrasonic thickness-measuring data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is an analysis on the large deviation of feeder ultrasonic thickness-measuring data in Qinshan NPP III, through which the influence of the inner surface of thin wall carbon steel pipe on ultrasonic thickness measurement accuracy is verified and a principle for selection of a thickness measuring probe for thin wall carbon steel pipe with rough inner surface is introduced. (author)
Analysis of apical deviation by type of system used to drive NRT® MANI rotary instruments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elise Sasso Faccin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: One of the major challenges encountered in treatment of curved canals is maintaining their original features. This study aimed to examine whether the type of system used with NRT® rotary instruments might in fl uence the occurrence of deviation in the apical region. Methods: Twenty simulated curved canals were divided into two experimental groups. In Group 1, canal preparation was performed with the pneumatic hand piece, using constant speed, but without torque control. In Group 2, an electric motor with constant speed and torque control was used. The simulated blocks were photographed before and after preparation using a platform to maintain the same position in both photographs. Images were manipulated in Adobe Photoshop® to evaluate deviation at 1 mm and 3 mm from the working length (WL. The t test was used for statistical analysis of data. The signi fi cance level was set at 1%. Results and Conclusion: Group 2 (electric motor had lower values for deviation at both locations analyzed (1 mm and 3 mm from the WL. In both groups, sites 3 mm from the WL had lower mean deviation than sites 1 mm from WL.
Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott form
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.Friedberg; T.D.Lee
2010-01-01
We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott(HPS)form.These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector.The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary(thus maximally T-violating)and to have a strength in energy scale no greater(but perhaps smaller)than the muon mass.As we shall show,it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tan lepton deviate by no more than O((mμ/mτ)2)≈3.5 × 10-3 from their HPS values.Assuming that(mμ/mτ)2 can be neglected,we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters θ12,θ23,θ31,and δ of the mapping matrix.These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix.We also show that the e and μ parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters a and β; any deviation of order mμ/mτ can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters.
Possible deviations from (V-A) charged currents: precise measurement of muon decay parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This short review examines the experimental limits on possible deviations from (V-A) charged weak currents, as would occur at some mass scale, for example, in manifestly left-right-symmetric electro-weak theories. Both present and anticipated limits are considered, emphasizing muon-decay experiments but including other experimental input where convenient
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study an even order neutral differential equation with deviating arguments, and obtain new oscillation results without the assumptions which were required for related results given before. Our results extend and improve many known oscillation criteria, based on the standard integral averaging technique.
Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns
Roman, A.A.
2006-01-01
Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate
AUTOMATED METERING SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL-ANGULAR DEVIATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Zvetkov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Automatic metering system using devices and instruments for inertial navigation has been elaborated. The system allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measuring of the azimuth angle error.
J* INTEGRAL OF THE SPECIFIC DEVIATOR STRAIN ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋玉川; 王启智
2004-01-01
First the deviator strain energy is introduced, then the problem of plane-crack critical growth was discussed, a path independent line integral J * was defined, furthermore its conservation was proved strictly. As application examples, Mode-I stress intensity factors of cracked beams were obtained with present approach. The results are shown to agree well with those available in the open literature.
Solutions to quasi-linear differential equations with iterated deviating arguments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajib Haloi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions to quasi-linear differential equations with iterated deviating arguments, complex Banach space. The results are obtained by using the semigroup theory for parabolic equations and fixed point theorems. The main results are illustrated by an example.
Farfan, Jonathan; Valentim, Fabio J
2009-01-01
We prove the dynamical large deviations for a particle system in which particles may have different velocities. We assume that we have two infinite reservoirs of particles at the boundary: this is the so-called boundary driven process. The dynamics we considered consists of a weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with collision among particles having different velocities.
Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status
Carlson, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…
Deviations of the distributions of seismic energies from the Gutenberg-Richter law
Pisarenko, V; Rodkin, M
2003-01-01
A new non-parametric statistic is introduced for the characterization of deviations from power laws. It is tested on the distribution of seismic energies given by the Gutenberg-Richter law. Based on the two first statistical log-moments, it evaluates quantitatively the deviations of the distribution of scalar seismic moments from a power-like (Pareto) law. This statistic is close to zero for the Pareto law with arbitrary power index, and deviates from zero for any non-Pareto distribution. A version of this statistic for discrete distribution of quantified magnitudes is also given. A methodology based on this statistics consisting in scanning the lower threshold for earthquake energies provides an explicit visualization of deviations from the Pareto law, surpassing in sensitivity the standard Hill estimator or other known techniques. This new statistical technique has been applied to shallow earthquakes (h < 70 km) both in subduction zones and in mid-ocean ridge zones (using the Harvard catalog of seismic m...
MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Ghazipour
2011-03-01
Headache is one of the most common symptoms in patients with nasal anatomical abnormalities such as septal deviation and usually responds well to surgical treatment. More studies with long-term follow-ups seems to be inevitable to determine the relationship between headaches and nasal anatomical abnormalities, accurate surgical results in patients’ recovery and the recurrence rate of headaches.
Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery
A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...
On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution
Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott
2007-01-01
Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…
Unbiased Estimation Formula of Unit Weight Standard Deviation in Regularization Solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Yunzhong; LIU Dajie
2004-01-01
Regularization method is an effective method for solving ill-posed equation. In this paper the unbiased estimation formula of unit weight standard deviation in the regularization solution is derived and the formula is verified with numerical case of 1 000 sample data by use of the typical ill-posed equation, i.e. the Fredholm integration equation of the first kind.
Hooghiemstra, R.B.H.
2012-01-01
The comply-or-explain principle is a common feature of corporate governance codes. While prior studies investigated compliance with corporate governance codes as well as the effects of compliance on firm behaviour and performance, explanations for deviations from a corporate governance code remain l
How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?
Truong, Khiet Phuong
2009-01-01
The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati
MUSIC -- An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation
CMS Collaboration
We present a model independent analysis approach, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. We outline the importance of systematic uncertainties, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons have been used as an input to the search algorithm. %Several models involving supersymmetry, new heavy gauge bosons and leptoquarks, as well as possible detector ef...
Interharmonics analysis of power signals with fundamental frequency deviation using Kalman filtering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koese, Neslihan; Salor, Oezguel; Leblebicioglu, Kemal [TUBITAK UZAY, Power Electronics Group, TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey); METU, Electrical and Electronics Eng. Dept., TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey)
2010-09-15
In this paper a spectral decomposition-based method for interharmonic computation is proposed for power systems where the fundamental frequency fluctuates significantly. In the proposed method, the frequency domain components of the voltage waveform are obtained by Kalman filtering. Both the system fundamental frequency and the correct spectrum of the voltage waveform, and hence the exact interharmonics are obtained. The proposed method is tested with both simulated and field data obtained from different electric arc furnace (EAF) plants, where the system frequency deviates continuously due to the fluctuating load demands. Since the interharmonic frequencies are obtained by using Kalman filtering, no leakage effect of the DFT-based methods is involved in case of frequency deviations, which is an important advantage of the proposed method. (author)
Evidence of fissiogenic Cs estimated from Ba isotopic deviations in an Oklo natural reactor zone
Hidaka, Hiroshi; Holliger, Philippe; Masuda, Akimasa
1993-01-01
Isotopic studies of many elements from the uranium ore natural nuclear reactors at Oklo provide useful information on the migration of radioactive nuclides. The fissiogenic isotopic composition of Ba is particularly interesting, as it is an important indication in the search for fissiogenic Cs. In this report we detail the detection of remarkable isotopic deviations of Ba in the Oklo samples and estimate the geochemical behaviour of fissiogenic Cs from excess Ba isotopes. Six samples systematically collected from borehole SF84 (zone 10) at the Oklo uranium mine have been analyzed. Isotopic deviations of Ba indicate the existence of fissiogenic Cs and Ba. A good correlation between the elemental abundance of Cs and isotopic abundances of excess 135Ba and 137Ba suggests that fissiogenic 135Ba and 137Ba behaved as Cs rather than Ba.
Living at the Edge: A Large Deviations Approach to the Outage MIMO Capacity
Kazakopoulos, P; Moustakas, A L; Caire, G
2009-01-01
Using a large deviations approach we calculate the probability distribution of the mutual information of MIMO channels in the limit of large antenna numbers. In contrast to previous methods that only focused at the distribution close to its mean (thus obtaining an asymptotically Gaussian distribution), we calculate the full distribution, including its tails which strongly deviate from the Gaussian behavior near the mean. The resulting distribution interpolates seamlessly between the Gaussian approximation for rates $R$ close to the ergodic value of the mutual information and the approach of Zheng and Tse for large signal to noise ratios $\\rho$. This calculation provides us with a tool to obtain outage probabilities analytically at any point in the $(R, \\rho, N)$ parameter space, as long as the number of antennas $N$ is not too small. In addition, this method also yields the probability distribution of eigenvalues constrained in the subspace where the mutual information per antenna is fixed to $R$ for a given ...
Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function
Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques
2016-09-01
The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t ≫1 . This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O (t ) and thus much beyond the O (t1 /2) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large.
Analysis of laser cutting speed influence on the surface quality and shape deviation of steel parts
Kowalczyk, R.; Zebala, W.
2014-11-01
The results of laser cutting speed influence on the quality of machined surface, defined by the Ra roughness parameter and the shape errors, in case of machining two types of steel: i) P265GH, ii) 1.4307 are presented in the paper. Two CO2 laser cutters with maximum power of the laser beam 4000W and 3200W were used for the investigation. The characteristics of the roughness parameter Ra depending on the laser cutting speed vc are presented. The diagrams of shape deviation of the machined specimens for the greatest and lowest values of the Ra for the both laser cutters are also presented. The deviation values from the theoretical profile of the particular samples, taking into account the type of the cut-out shape profiles (circular, linear) are calculated.
A contribution to large deviations for heavy-tailed random sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In this paper we consider the large deviations for random sums S(t)=∑N(t)i=1Xi, t≥0, where ｛Xn, n≥1｝ are independent, identically distributed and non-negative random variables with a common heavy-tailed distribution function F, and ｛N(t), t≥0｝ is a process of non-negative integer-valued random variables, independent of ｛Xn, n≥1｝. Under the assumption that the tail of F is of Pareto's type (regularly or extended regularly varying), we investigate what reasonable condition can be given on ｛N(t), t≥0｝ under which precise large deviation for S(t) holds. In particular, the condition we obtain is satisfied for renewal counting processes.
A technique to compensate the specified flow deviation among control areas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez, Juan M.; Cano E Mauricio; Ruiz Leon, Javier [Cinvestav - Unidad Guadalajara, Av. Patria No. 3200-39, Col. La Calma, 45080 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico)
2007-05-15
This paper is aimed to present a strategy to compensate the deviations of the tie line power flow among control areas after a load change in some of them. In an actual power system, the area control error (ACE) is not necessarily a measure able to correct both the deviations of frequency and the tie line flows. In this paper a hierarchical strategy to carry out this purpose is proposed. It is assumed that each area has at least one generator in charge of carrying out the automatic generation control (AGC). A detailed state space model is used without necessity of carrying out many of the assumptions that commonly are considered for this type of studies. Results of simulation are exhibited that show the applicability of the proposal. (author)
MUSiC - A general search for deviations from Monte Carlo predictions in CMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model independent analysis approach in CMS is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving Supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons are used as an input to the search algorithm.
Cayon, Laura
2010-01-01
The Standard Inflationary model predicts an isotropic distribution of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature fluctuations. Detection of deviations from statistical isotropy would call for a revision of the physics of the early universe. This paper introduces the variogram as a powerful tool to detect and characterize deviations from statistical isotropy in Cosmic Microwave Background maps. Application to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data clearly shows differences between the northern and the southern hemispheres. The sill and range of the northern hemisphere's variogram are lower than those of the southern hemisphere. Moreover the variogram for the northern hemisphere lies outside the 99% c.l. for scales above ten degrees. Differences between the northern and southern hemispheres in the functional dependence of the variogram with the scale can be used as a validation bench mark for proposed anisotropic cosmological models.
An alternative approach to the analysis of sucker-rod dynamics in vertical and deviated wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lollback, P.A.; Wang, G.Y.; Rahman, S.S. [The Centre for Petroleum Engineering, School of Applied Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)
1997-05-01
A set of partial differential equations which consider the combined effects of fluid column, sucker-rod string and tubing motion were developed to describe the motion of a sucker-rod pumping system. If the tubing is fixed, only the fluid column and rod motion need be considered; however, when the tubing is free to move, energy in the system is lost and, therefore, pump system efficiency declines, hence, the need to consider these effects in the design of the sucker-rod system. Using finite differences this model was used to evaluate performance of sucker-rod pumps (pumping rate as a function of number of strokes, stroke length, rod length, ratio of plunger to cylinder diameter, etc.) in both vertical and deviated wells. The results indicate that the developed model simply and accurately models the dynamic motion of the sucker-rod string. The examples presented illustrate its general applicability in both vertical and deviated wells
A phase deviation based split-spectrum processing algorithm for ultrasonic flaw detection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhenqing
2002-01-01
The Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique has proved its ability in reduction of interference noise in ultrasonic nondestructive testing for coarse grained materials. However,the results of SSP algorithms are not sufficiently stable since they are sensitive to the filter bank and filter parameters. And the mechanism of the technique to fully explore the signals is not clear. The statistical phase response characteristic of filter outputs for ultrasonic testing is discussed. Thus, a new SSP algorithm based on phase standard deviation is proposed. The performance is examined for both computer simulated and experimental data, and compared to commonly used minimum algorithm. The phase standard deviation algorithm is proved its superior effect and is less sensitive on the number of filters.
Missing data in aftershock sequences: explaining the deviations from scaling laws.
Lennartz, Sabine; Bunde, Armin; Turcotte, Donald L
2008-10-01
In this paper we extend the branching aftershock sequence model to study the role of missing data at short times and small amplitudes after a mainshock. We apply this model, which contains three parameters characterizing the missing data, to the magnitude and temporal statistics of four aftershock sequences in California. We find that the observed time-dependent deviations of the frequency-magnitude scaling from the Gutenberg-Richter power law dependency can be described quantitatively by the model. We also show that, for the same set of parameters, the model is able to explain quantitatively the observed magnitude-dependent deviations of the temporal decay of aftershocks from Omori's law. In addition, we show that the same sets of data can also reproduce quite well the various functional forms of the probability density functions of the return times between consecutive events with magnitudes above a prescribed threshold, as well as the violation of scaling at short and intermediate time scales.
MUSiC - A general search for deviations from Monte Carlo predictions in CMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biallass, Philipp A, E-mail: biallass@cern.c [Physics Institute IIIA, RWTH Aachen, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2009-06-01
A model independent analysis approach in CMS is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving Supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons are used as an input to the search algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Se Hwan Hwang
Full Text Available Nasal septal deviation (NSD is often associated with overgrowth of the unilateral inferior turbinate. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that turbinate size affects human turbinate-derived MSC (hTMSCs quantity, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic lineages, and that hypertrophic turbinates may predispose to NSD on the contralateral side.The hypertrophic and contralateral inferior turbinate tissues used in our study were obtained and cultured from the tissue discarded from 10 patients who underwent septoplasty and partial turbinectomy. After isolating the hTMSCs from both turbinates, the cells were enumerated using an automated cell counter. The expression of surface markers for MSCs over four passages was assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis (FACS, and cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit (CCK-8 according to turbinate size. In addition, osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs was identified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alizarin red S staining, after which osteoblastic gene expression was evaluated.There was no significant difference in the number of hTMSCs. FACS analysis revealed that the hTMSCs were negative for CD14, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR, and positive for CD29, CD73, and CD90, representing a characteristic MSC phenotype, with no significant difference between the two groups. The cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of the hTMSCs were also not significantly different between the two groups.We conclude that turbinate size does not affect the characterization, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation potential of hTMSCs in vitro test, and therefore should not affect the clinical decision of whether to use autologous or allogenic hTMSCs. However, more experiments are required to definitively state the relationship of
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD
S. A. Moreva; A. V. Silaeva; A. N. Kornetov; Ye. N. Borodina; A. Ye. Yankovskaya; N. I. Pryadukhina; N. E. Golovakha; V. B. Obukhovskaya
2015-01-01
The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy). Total was...
Kamil, Anton A.; Adli Mustafa; Khlipah Ibrahim
2009-01-01
Problem statement: The most important character within optimization problem is the uncertainty of the future returns. Approach: To handle such problems, we utilized probabilistic methods alongside with optimization techniques. We developed single stage and two stage stochastic programming with recourse. The models were developed for risk adverse investors and the objective of the stochastic programming models is to minimize the maximum downside semi deviation. We used the so-called Here-and-N...
Estimation of horizontal stress magnitudes in a reservoir using sonic data from a deviated borehole
Sinha, Bikash K.; Wendt, Anke S.
2013-04-01
Geomechanical analysis of sonic data from a deviated wellbore requires rotation of the formation principal stresses to those referred to the wellbore measurement axes. Sonic data and wellbore stability are influenced by these rotated stresses. Inversion of sonic data for formation stress magnitudes has been performed on a deviated wellbore located in the North Sea. The well azimuth is about 36.5 degrees from the maximum horizontal stress direction and a deviation of 35.2 degrees from the vertical. The logged interval comprised gas/condensate in the upper part, and water in the lower part. Production of the reservoir caused a decrease of pore pressure of up to 13.4 MPa in the gas zone and almost no reduction in the pore pressure in the water zone. The new inversion algorithm estimates the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses using radial profiles of the three shear stiffness moduli in the two axial and cross-sectional planes of a deviated borehole. This algorithm inverts differences in the far-field shear moduli together with the two difference equations obtained from radial profiles of the dipole shear moduli in the two axial planes between near and far radial positions from the borehole surface. Results for estimated horizontal stress magnitudes obtained in the depleted areas of the well showed significant differences from the nearly isotropic stress state before production. Estimates of stress magnitudes after depletion showed a sharp increase in differences among the three principal stresses from 2% before production to a ratio of overburden to minimum horizontal stress in the order of 10% to 20% and maximum to minimum horizontal stresses from 5% to 10%. The redistribution of formation stresses in depleted reservoirs is important for maintaining geomechanical reservoir and wellbore stability and has a considerable impact on reservoir management and subsequent drilling and completion decisions. Acknowledgement Schlumberger gratefully acknowledges the
Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart
2013-01-01
Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint." First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15 min. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20 months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold.
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.3
Goodwin, Roger L
2014-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.0
Goodwin, Roger L
2014-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 4.3
Goodwin, Roger L
2015-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Random Variables, Their Properties, and Deviational Ellipses: In Map Point and Excel, v 5.0
Goodwin, Roger L
2015-01-01
This book is a practical reference guide accompanied with an Excel Workbook. This book gives an elementary introduction of the weighted standard deviational ellipse. This book also presents the computational aspects of the weighted exponential distributions as well. For the examples given, calculations are performed using VBA for Excel. This book makes comparisons (and shows the computations via VBA for Excel) using the likelihood functions with spatial data of the weighted ellipses. Lastly, ...
Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes
Inahama, Yuzuru
2012-01-01
Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is a kind of potential theory in Malliavin calculus.
Large deviations viewpoints for a heavy-tailed β-mixing sequence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Yan; HU; Yijun
2005-01-01
Let {Xn; n ≥ 1} be a stationary sequenceof non-negative random variables with heavy tails. Under mixing conditions, we study logarithmic asymptotics for the disp(Sn ＞ nx) ≈ n-αx+1 for appropriate values of x, where α is a specific parameter. The related conjecture proposed by Gantert is investigated. As a by-product, the so-called supremum large deviations principle is also studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Van Der Horst
2003-08-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.
He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei
2010-04-01
Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[
Selecting Video Key Frames Based on Relative Entropy and the Extreme Studentized Deviate Test
Yuejun Guo; Qing Xu; Shihua Sun; Xiaoxiao Luo; Mateu Sbert
2016-01-01
This paper studies the relative entropy and its square root as distance measures of neighboring video frames for video key frame extraction. We develop a novel approach handling both common and wavelet video sequences, in which the extreme Studentized deviate test is exploited to identify shot boundaries for segmenting a video sequence into shots. Then, video shots can be divided into different sub-shots, according to whether the video content change is large or not, and key frames are extrac...
Kunzinger, Michael; Steinbauer, Roland
1998-01-01
The geodesic as well as the geodesic deviation equation for impulsive gravitational waves involve highly singular products of distributions $(\\theta\\de$, $\\theta^2\\de$, $\\de^2$). A solution concept for these equations based on embedding the distributional metric into the Colombeau algebra of generalized functions is presented. Using a universal regularization procedure we prove existence and uniqueness results and calculate the distributional limits of these solutions explicitly. The obtained...
A unified approach to the large deviations for small perturbations of random evolution equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡亦钧
1997-01-01
Let be the processes governed by the following stochastic differential equations:where v (t) is a random process independent of the Brownian motion B(·).Some large deviation (LD) properties of are proved.For a particular case,an explicit representation of the rate function is also given,which solves a problem posed by Eizenberg and Freidlin.In the meantime,an abstract LD theorem is obtained.
Medial deviation of the first metatarsal head as a result of flexion forces in hallux valgus.
Sanders, A P; Snijders, C J; van Linge, B
1992-01-01
Several questions with regard to the hallux valgus complex, which includes metatarsus primus varus, give rise to discussion. How do bunions develop? Is disturbed muscle balance at the first metatarsophalangeal joint important in the pathogenesis of the hallux valgus complex? What is the relation between dynamic plantar load distribution and pain in the ball of the foot? What is the cause of recurrences of deformity after surgery? To answer these questions, we started with the biomechanical model of Snijders et al., which states that contraction of flexor muscles of the hallux worsens its valgus angle and causes medial deviation of the first metatarsal head. The present study was designed to validate the model on patients. When pressing the hallux downward, simultaneously the force under the toe and the medial deviation of the first metatarsal head were measured on preoperative patients and on controls (35 subjects in all). We could demonstrate with statistical significance that (1) when the subjects with hallux valgus push the great toe on the ground, the first metatarsal head moved in medial direction; in other words the foot widened. In the controls, as an average, the foot became narrower. (2) The greater the valgus deviation of the hallux, the greater the effect of the toe flexors, and (3) the greater the valgus deviation of the hallux, the less maximal flexion force it can apply. Implications of these findings on conservative and surgical therapy are discussed. The recurrences of deformity after first metatarsal osteotomies are explained by the action of the hallux flexors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1478581
Epihyoid bone fracture associated with tongue deviation in an adult dog.
Gómez, Marcelo; Kani, Yukitaka; Mieres, Marcelo; Mansilla, Miguel
2016-09-01
An 8-month-old male Rhodesian ridgeback dog was evaluated for right lingual deviation, mild dysphagia, and inability to retract the tongue. Transverse and three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images revealed a transverse fracture of the left epihyoid bone. After 4 months of conservative management, that included assisted feeding of a semi-liquid diet or small volumes of food and analgesics, the dog recovered. PMID:27587884
An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.
Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.
1971-01-01
A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.
Carreras-Mar??n, Anna; Badia-Mir??, Marc
2005-01-01
We have analyzed the spatial accuracy of European foreign trade statistics compared to Latin American. We have also included USA?s data because of the importance of this country in Latin American trade. We have developed a method for mapping discrepancies between exporters and importers, trying to isolate systematic spatial deviations. Although our results don?t allow a unique explanation, they present some interesting clues to the distribution channels in the Latin American Continent as well...
Abbas, Mohammed; Khalil, Shaaban; Rashed, Ahmed; Sil, Arunansu
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme, based on Δ (27 ) flavor symmetry and supplemented by other discrete symmetries and the inverse seesaw mechanism, where both the light neutrino masses and the deviation from tribimaximal mixing matrix can be linked to the source of lepton number violation. The hierarchies of the charged leptons are explained. We find that the quark masses including their hierarchies and the mixing can also be constructed in a similar way.
Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms
2014-01-01
Background Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. Methods We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. Results We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Conclusion Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment. PMID:26491488
Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling
Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.
2008-05-01
We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Yan(刘艳); HU; Yijun(胡亦钧)
2003-01-01
We prove large deviation results on the partial and random sums Sn = ∑ni=1 Xi, n≥1; S(t) =∑N(t)i=1 Xi, t≥0, where {N(t);t≥0} are non-negative integer-valued random variables and {Xn;n≥1} areindependent non-negative random variables with distribution, Fn, of Xn, independent of {N(t); t≥0}. Specialattention is paid to the distribution of dominated variation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Yang; Xuejun Sha; Zhonghua Zhang
2011-01-01
The deviation caused by acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) diffraction in multispectral imaging is analyzed through derivation calculus of the deviation angle. The rotatory polarization of acousto-optic crystal is taken into account in this analysis. The relationships between the polar angle of the incident and the diffracted beams are acquired by using the momentum-matching condition. During the diffraction of the incident beams, far more deviations are induced.%@@ The deviation caused by acousto-optic tunable filter(AOTF) diffraction in multispectral imaging is analyzed through derivation calculus of the deviation angle.The rotatory polarization of acousto-optic crystal is taken into account in this analysis.The relationships between the polar angle of the incident and the diffracted beams are acquired by using the momentum-matching condition.During the diffraction of the incident beams,far more deviations are induced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies
Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p<5; pared T test)
Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)
2013-02-15
In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.
A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy disks: vertex deviation maps
Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè
2014-01-01
We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the vertex deviation of the velocity ellipsoid. We use test particle simulations including, for the first time, fully self-consistent and high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the analytical predictions of the Tight-Winding Approximation (TWA) model. We see that, independently of the model, when the spiral arms are non-corotant the vertex deviation parameter values are related with the position of density peaks of overdense and underdense regions. We also find that if the spiral arms do not corotate with the disk, the sign of the vertex deviation changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of rotation, in the places where the spiral arms are in between corotation and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when they are inside the corotation radius and outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, l$_v$ changes from negative to positive. We propose that measurements of the ve...
A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation
Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke
2016-01-01
In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.
Multiple immune deviations predictive for IVF failure as possible markers for IVIG therapy.
Chernyshov, Viktor P; Dons'koi, Boris V; Sudoma, Iryna O; Goncharova, Yana O
2016-08-01
Recently we have shown that immune deviations (ID) may predict IVF failure. Benefit from IVIG therapy was observed in 115 women with repeated IVF failure according to proposed multiple ID that appeared unfavorable for implantation and live birth. Group of 123 women with repeated IVF failure without IVIG therapy was compared with former group. Immune phenotype and NK activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied by flow cytometry. Potentially predictive for IVF failure ID included elevated expression of CD56, CD158a in T lymphocytes, decreased levels of CD4T lymphocytes, up-regulated expression of HLA DR in CD8+ T cells and NK cells, elevated number of NK cells and increased NK cytotoxicity, increased or decreased expression of CD158a and CD8 in NK cells. Three or more ID may predict implantation failure to a greater degree than one or two ID. In women receiving IVIG in subgroups with 0-1 and 2 ID, there was no increase in implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) after IVIG in comparison with patients with the same number of ID but without IVIG correction. After IVIG therapy decreased IR and LBR were restored in women with three or more immune deviations. Multiple immune deviations indicate IVF patients who may benefit from IVIG therapy. IVIG seems to convert "unfavorable" immune phenotype to "favorable" one.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludwiczak, Bogna, E-mail: bogna.ludwiczak@zumtobelgroup.com [Zumtobel Lighting GmbH, Schweizerstr.30, 6851 Dornbirn (Austria); Jantsch, Wolfgang [Institut für Halbleiter- und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, 4040 Linz (Austria)
2015-02-15
We investigate experimentally the color stability of high power phosphor converted InGaN LEDs under pulse width modulation (PWM) and continuous current reduction (CCR) dimming modes and for varied operation temperatures. Our measurements reveal that the chromaticity coordinate pathways of the warm white and the cold white LED's differ for the same operation conditions. The color deviation- minimizing phenomenon of opposite peak wavelength shifts appears only for a cold white LED under CCR driving mode. This favorable effect does not occur for warm white LEDs. This type of LED exhibits the best color stability under PWM driving mode. The experimental results are consistently explained in terms of the quantum confined Stark effect and temperature induced changes of the LED emission. - Highlights: • Cold and warm white LEDs reacts colorimetrically unlike in different driving modes. • For cold white emission driving conditions are crucial. • Opposite peak wavelength shifts reduces color deviations for cold white emission. • For warm white emission rather phosphor properties determines color deviations.
Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space
Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.
2013-01-01
Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.
Beniwal, Vijay; Kumar, Anil
2016-08-24
Physico-chemical properties of liquid mixtures in general display large deviations from linear behaviour, arising out of complex specific and non-specific intermolecular interactions. The polarity of liquid mixtures displaying large positive and negative deviations can be minimized and linear mixing can be achieved in liquids using a pseudo-solvent methodology. The work described herein is designed to investigate the influence of different physical parameters on the linear pseudo-solvent composition in ionic liquid mixtures. For this purpose, we have determined the deviations from linearity, ΔE values (defined as given by ) for binary mixtures of a variety of ionic liquids, including two molecular solvents, DMSO and formamide. Firstly, the investigations were carried out in three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based aprotic ionic liquids and the roles of anionic structure and hydrogen bond acceptor basicities (β values) of the ionic liquids were determined. The influence of the cationic structure, i.e., the hydrogen bond donor acidity (α values) and non-associative nature of the ionic liquids, was determined using C2-methylated analogs, 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids. The role of the protic nature of ionic liquids was studied in two protic ionic liquids, viz., 1-methylimidazolium formate and 1-methylimidazolium acetate. The effects of the temperature, pseudo-solvent structure and solvatochromic probe structure on the ΔE values were also explored. PMID:27523572
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by the study of rare events for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, in this paper we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction systems. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals for the considered two-scale processes based upon the second quantization path integral technique. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two timescales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by the path integral. We find that the three regimes possess the same deterministic mean-field limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit for chemical reactions. We also discuss its implication on the single-molecule Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes. (paper)
Armer, Jane M; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W; Zagar, Eris A; Homan, Sherri; Stewart, Bob R
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clothing and carrying out activities of daily living, and impacts self-esteem, self-concept, and quality of life. Lymphedema is associated with self-care deficits (SCD) and negatively impacts self-care agency (SCA) and physiological and psychosocial well-being. Objectives of this report are two-fold: (1) to explore four approaches of assessing and diagnosing breast cancer lymphedema, including self-report of symptoms and the impact of health deviations on SCA; and (2) to propose the development of a clinical research program for lymphedema based on the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). Anthropometric and symptom data from a National-Institutes-of-Health-funded prospective longitudinal study were examined using survival analysis to compare four definitions of lymphedema over 24 months post-breast cancer surgery among 140 of 300 participants (all who had passed the 24-month measurement). The four definitions included differences of 200 ml, 10% volume, and 2 cm circumference between pre-op baseline and/or contralateral limbs, and symptom self-report of limb heaviness and swelling. Symptoms, SCA, and SCD were assessed by interviews using a validated tool. Estimates of lymphedema occurrence varied by definition and time since surgery. The 2 cm girth change provided the highest estimation of lymphedema (82% at 24 months), followed by 200 ml volume change (57% at 24 months). The 10% limb volume change converged with symptom report of heaviness and swelling at 24 months
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Song, Yonghua;
2013-01-01
Wind power fluctuation raises the security concern of grid frequency deviation, especially for an isolated power system. Thus, better control methodology needs to be developed to smooth the fluctuation without excessive spillage. Based on an actual industrial power system, this paper proposes...... loss, this paper designs a risk assessment model of grid frequency deviation, which is capable of locally estimating the maximum grid frequency deviation risk of the next dispatch cycle. A wind turbine speed optimizer then uses the estimated frequency deviation risk to search for the optimal power...
Influence of Piston Compressor Crosshead Alignment Deviation%活塞压缩机十字头对中偏差之影响
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙仰波
2012-01-01
十字头中心对中偏差严重影响着压缩机正常运行,使得十字头的受力面不断的上下发生变化,造成活塞杆易产生疲劳,引发事故.%The crosshead center alignment deviation will seriously affect the normal operation of compressor, and it will make the crosshead stress surface constantly changes up and down, resulting in the piston rod easy to produce fatigue and cause accident.
Serum dosage of CPK-MB in dogs with ST deviation by chemiluminescence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André L.F. Santos
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Although frequently in humans, hypoxic and ischemic heart diseases are poorly documented in dogs, with only few reports of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in this species. Some electrocardiographic findings might suggest myocardium hypoxia/ischemia, like ST segment elevation or depression, but there are no studies showing whether deviations in ST segment are associated to myocardial injury and serum increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB. In order to investigate possible myocardial cells injury in poor perfusion conditions, 38 dogs were studied, 20 with normal electrocardiogram and 18 with ST segment elevation or depression, recorded in lead II, at a paper speed of 50 mm/sec and N sensibility (1mV=1cm. Serum measurement of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme MB (CPK-MB in normal dogs (group 1 determined control values (in ng/mL, which were compared to those obtained from dogs with deviation (group 2, which allowed confirmation or not of myocardial injury. CPK-MB mean values obtained from dogs in groups 1 and 2 were 0.540ng/ml (SD±0.890ng/mL and 0.440ng/mL (SD±1.106, respectively. At a significance level of 5%, the relation of CPK-MB with age, mass and total creatine phosphokinase (CPK-T was not significant in groups 1 and 2. CPK-MB showed no difference, at 5% level, between groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, it is possible to use the human chemiluminescent immunometric assay kit in canine species and that hypoxia/ischemia revealed by ST segment deviation does not mean significant myocardium injury.
Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.
2016-04-01
There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.
Erratum: Erratum to: Geodesic deviation equation in f(R) gravity
Guarnizo, Alejandro; Castañeda, Leonardo; Tejeiro, Juan M.
2015-10-01
In the context of metric f( R) gravity, the geodesic deviation equation (GDE) was first studied in Guarnizo et al. (Gen Relativ Gravit 43:2713-2728, 2011), giving a general expression and studying a particular case, the FLRW universe. In the paper (De la Cruz-Dombris et al. Physical Review D 89:064029-2014) a similar analysis was made. However, there is a discrepancy in the expressions for the null vector field case due to an algebraic error in our original paper. Here, we make explicit the contribution of the different operators in the GDE, and we correct our previous results.
A Brief Comment on Geodesic Deviation Equation in f(R) Gravity
Guarnizo, Alejandro; Tejeiro, Juan M
2014-01-01
In the context of metric $f(R)$ gravity, the Geodesic Deviation Equation (GDE) was first studied in arXiv:1010.5279v3, giving a general expression and studying a particular case, the FLRW universe. Recently, a new work appears arXiv:1312.2022v1 making a similar analysis. However, there is a discrepancy in the expressions for the null vector field case. Here we make explicit the contribution of the different operators in the GDE, finding the differences with our previous result.
The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight
Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal
2015-01-01
Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Approximate formula enabling to evaluate hydraulic nonuniformity at reactor core inlet is given. The mentioned nonuniformity depends on 13 structural parameters of reactor hydraulic pipeline - from branch pipes up to the header. Dispersion technique for evaluation of the effect of structural parameter deviation on the spread of resulting nonuniformity is applied to the dependence. Coefficients of the effect have been obtained. Calculation has been conducted for the example, the minimal flow rate in reactor channel has been evaluated as 0.65±0.14
Classification Model with High Deviation for Intrusion Detection on System Call Traces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A new classification model for host intrusion detection based on the unidentified short sequences and RIPPER algorithm is proposed. The concepts of different short sequences on the system call traces are strictly defined on the basis of in-depth analysis of completeness and correctness of pattern databases. Labels of short sequences are predicted by learned RIPPER rule set and the nature of the unidentified short sequences is confirmed by statistical method. Experiment results indicate that the classification model increases clearly the deviation between the attack and the normal traces and improves detection capability against known and unknown attacks.
Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations
Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo
2015-10-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.
A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values
Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin Yowell Yousif
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional wit...
Morozov, Anton
2012-01-01
Like all other knot polynomials, the superpolynomials should be defined in arbitrary representation R of the gauge group in (refined) Chern-Simons theory. However, not a single example is yet known of a superpolynomial beyond symmetric or antisymmetric representations. We consider the expansion of the superpolynomial around the special polynomial in powers of (q-1) and (t-1) and suggest a simple formula for the first-order deviation, which is presumably valid for arbitrary representation. This formula can serve as a crucial lacking test of various formulas for non-trivial superpolynomials, which will appear in the literature in the near future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Rabelo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a new methodology to stabilize systems with complex dynamics like the supply chain. This method is based on the accumulated deviations from equilibrium (ADE. It is most beneficial for controlling system dynamic models characterized by multiple types of delays, many interacting variables, and feedback processes. We employ the classical version of particle swarm optimization as the optimization approach due to its performance in multidimensional space, stochastic properties, and global reach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method based on ADE using a manufacturing-supply-chain case study.
Large Deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen Principle for Dissipative PDEs with Rough Noise
Jakšić, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.
2015-05-01
We study a class of dissipative PDEs perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) in τ-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production rate in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDEs with strong nonlinear dissipation.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF INDEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES WITH DOMINATEDLY VARYING TAILS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kong Fanchao; Zhang Ying
2007-01-01
In this paper the large deviation results for partial and random sums Sn-ESn=n∑i=1Xi-n∑i=1EXi,n≥1;S(t)-ES(t)=N(t)∑i=1Xi-E(N(t)∑i=1Xi),t≥0are proved, where {N(t); t≥ 0} is a counting process of non-negative integer-valued random variables, and {Xn; n ≥ 1} are a sequence of independent non-negative random variables independent of {N(t); t ≥ 0}. These results extend and improve some known conclusions.
Isolating the Systematic Component of a Single Stock’s (or Portfolio’s) Standard Deviation
Cara Marshall
2008-01-01
This paper revisits the roots of modern portfolio theory and the recognition that a stock’s (or a stock portfolio’s) risk can be decomposed into a systematic component and an unsystematic component, and, further, that only the former should contribute to expected return. However, instead of isolating the systematic component of risk by recasting the risk in terms of a stock’s beta coefficient, I choose to decompose the standard deviation, or variance if one prefers the original risk measure, ...
Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional
Bonaschi, Giovanni A.; Peletier, Mark A.
2016-07-01
We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits, we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via ` L log L' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Gang; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Zhang, Y;
2010-01-01
This study compared genomic predictions using conventional estimated breeding values (EBV) and daughter yield deviations (DYD) as response variables based on simulated data. Eight scenarios were simulated in regard to heritability (0.05 and 0.30), number of daughters per sire (30, 100, and unequal......), the EBV and DYD approaches provided similar genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) reliabilities, except for scenarios with unequal numbers of daughters and half of sires without genotype, for which the EBV approach was superior to the DYD approach (by 1.2 and 2.4%). Using a Bayesian mixture prior model...
Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.
Observation of a diverse deviation from macropore-formation theory in silicon electrochemistry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bao Xiao-Qing; Ge Dao-Han; Jiao Ji-Wei
2008-01-01
Via anodizing patterned and unpatterned samples with a high HF concentration ([HF]), the degree of deviation from pore-formation theory was found to be markedly different. Based on the analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs and current-voltage (Ⅰ - Ⅴ) curves, the variation of physical and chemical parameters of patterned and unpatterned substrates was found to be crucial to the understanding of the observations. Our results indicate that the initial surface morphology of samples can have a considerable influence upon pore formation. The electric-field effect as well as current-burst-model was employed to interpret the underlying mechanism.
Deviation of Cup and Propeller Anemometer Calibration Results with Air Density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Pindado
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The effect of air density variations on the calibration constants of several models of anemometers has been analyzed. The analysis was based on a series of calibrations between March 2003 and February 2011. Results indicate a linear behavior of both calibration constants with the air density. The effect of changes in air density on the measured wind speed by an anemometer was also studied. The results suggest that there can be an important deviation of the measured wind speed with changes in air density from the one at which the anemometer was calibrated, and therefore the need to take this effect into account when calculating wind power estimations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first aim of this study was to quantify estimated translational setup deviations of patients treated with a wedged pair of oblique beams for parotid gland and tonsillar tumors, using portal imaging. The second aim was to design an off-line setup verification procedure, to improve the setup accuracy, if necessary. Thirty-one patients were treated with two conformal fields (anterior-oblique and posterior-oblique). The patients were immobilized with a head cast. For the last 10 patients, the rigidity of the cast was improved while, in addition, wax molds with metal markers were placed into the outer ear for image correlation. Portal images were acquired about weekly. Setup deviations were analyzed, using anatomical structures and, when available, metal markers for image matching. The consistency of the deviations was determined by the correlation between deviations in the cranio-caudal direction, as measured from both beams. When the deviations were consistent, the translational setup deviation during a treatment session could be described by a three-dimensional (3D) vector. A setup verification procedure was designed using a computer simulation. The statistics of the 3D setup deviations were used as input. The output consisted of the resulting setup accuracy and workload (i.e., the number of setup corrections and portal images). Using the anatomical structures for image correlation, the deviations in the cranio-caudal direction were not correlated, either for the old or the improved cast. However, by using the metal markers, the deviations were correlated and a 3D analysis could be performed. The standard deviations, averaged over the three directions, were equal to 1.8 and 1.4 mm for the distribution of systematic and random deviations, respectively. Application of a setup verification procedure, with 0.7 corrections on the average per patient, could potentially reduce the percentage of 3D systematic deviations larger than 4 mm from 30 to 2%. It can be concluded
System for the measurement of the deviation of a laser beam from the vertical direction.
Zeng, Tao; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Hongxin; Hu, Pengcheng; Liu, Yongmeng; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua
2016-04-01
If a used "vertical beam" is not perfectly vertical in a measurement, a cosine error will be introduced into it. To decrease and compensate for this cosine error, a measurement system is proposed to measure the deviation of the laser beam from the vertical direction. The structure of our measurement system is illustrated, and a model for solving for the deviation angle is established. As the distance of the beam spots on the charge-coupled device is the essential parameter for the measurement results, the acquisition process for this distance is explained. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm used in the acquisition process is also tested by experiments. Further, a self-correction module is designed and applied to reduce the error caused by the corner cube reflector in the system. The characteristics of the measurement system such as the resolution, stability, temperature drift, and direction accuracy are analyzed through experiments. The combined uncertainty of the measurement system is calculated to be 11×10-6 rad.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton A. Kamil
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The most important character within optimization problem is the uncertainty of the future returns. Approach: To handle such problems, we utilized probabilistic methods alongside with optimization techniques. We developed single stage and two stage stochastic programming with recourse. The models were developed for risk adverse investors and the objective of the stochastic programming models is to minimize the maximum downside semi deviation. We used the so-called Here-and-Now approach where the decision-maker makes decision now before observing the actual outcome for the stochastic parameter. Results: We compared the optimal portfolios between the single stage and two stage models with the incorporation of the deviation measure. The models were applied to the optimal selection of stocks listed in Bursa Malaysia and the return of the optimal portfolio was compared between the two stochastic models. Conclusion: The results showed that the two stage model outperforms the single stage model in the optimal and in-sample analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salor, Oezguel [TUeBiTAK - Uzay, Power Electronics Group, METU Campus, TR 06531, Ankara (Turkey)
2009-07-15
In this paper, a spectral correction-based algorithm for interharmonic computation is proposed for especially highly fluctuating fundamental frequency cases in the power system. It has been observed and reported that fluctuating demands of some loads such as arc furnaces, or disturbances and subsequent system transients make the fundamental frequency of the power system deviate and this causes non-existing interharmonics to appear in the spectrum due to grid-effect when a standard window length is used for the entire FFT process. The proposed method uses a synthetic waveform produced at the fundamental frequency and amplitude to determine the amount of the leakage due to the grid-effect at each frequency. Then the leakage is subtracted from the original FFT of the signal to correct the frequency spectrum. It has been shown that the leakage effect caused by the fundamental frequency variation is avoided with a correction algorithm applied after FFT and the error in the first interharmonic computation due to frequency deviation is reduced to zero exactly if the fundamental frequency can be determined accurately. Both simulative and field data tests have been performed. The method does not require online sampling frequency or FFT window length adjustment and it is simple to implement. (author)
Out-of-plane deviation of a mode I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle
Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Ponson, Laurent
2016-07-01
One possible explanation of out-of-plane deviations of cracks loaded in mode I+III was suggested by Gao and Rice in 1986. These authors noted that small in-plane undulations of the crack front, arising from fluctuations of the fracture toughness, should generate a small local mode-II component, causing the crack to depart from planarity. Their analysis is completed here by explicitly calculating the evolution in time of the out-of-plane deviation of a mode-I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle. The calculation is based on (i) first-order formulae for the stress intensity factors of a crack slightly perturbed within and out of its plane; and (ii) a "double" propagation criterion combining a Griffith condition on the local energy-release rate and a Goldstein-Salganik condition on the local stress intensity factor of mode II. It is predicted that the crack must evolve toward a stationary state, wherein the orthogonal distance from the average fracture plane to the perturbed crack front is constant outside the obstacle and varies linearly across it. We hope that this theoretical prediction will encourage comparison with experiments, and propose a fracture test involving propagation of a mode-I+III crack through a 3D-printed specimen containing some designed obstacle. xml:lang="fr"
Frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows
Ladiges, Daniel R.; Sader, John E.
2015-10-01
Oscillatory non-continuum low Mach number gas flows are often generated by nanomechanical devices in ambient conditions. These flows can be simulated using a range of particle based Monte Carlo techniques, which in their original form operate exclusively in the time-domain. Recently, a frequency-domain weight-based Monte Carlo method was proposed [D. R. Ladiges and J. E. Sader, "Frequency-domain Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows," J. Comput. Phys. 284, 351-366 (2015)] that exhibits superior statistical convergence when simulating oscillatory flows. This previous method used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model and contains a "virtual-time" variable to maintain the inherent time-marching nature of existing Monte Carlo algorithms. Here, we propose an alternative frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method that facilitates the use of a wider range of molecular models and more efficient collision/relaxation operators. We demonstrate this method with oscillatory Couette flow and the flow generated by an oscillating sphere, utilizing both the BGK kinetic model and hard sphere particles. We also discuss how oscillatory motion of arbitrary time-dependence can be simulated using computationally efficient parallelization. As in the weight-based method, this deviational frequency-domain Monte Carlo method is shown to offer improved computational speed compared to the equivalent time-domain technique.
变异修辞的理论探讨%Theoretical Discussion of Deviated Rhetoric
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程珏
2014-01-01
变异修辞，就是突破常规、变通使用的特异表达方式。通过运用“同义手段”的分析范式，对现实生活中、艺术作品中大量存在的实际语料和新近流行的网络语在语音变异、字形变异、词语变异、语法变异四大方面进行分类整理，以求探讨变异修辞的环境制约及功能问题。%Deviated rhetoric is a flexible use of specific expression .This article studies the analytical paradigm of “synonymy”and classifies linguistic data in the voice variation, font variations, verbal variation and grammar variation .And it attempts to ex-plore the environmental constraints and functions for the deviated rhetoric .
Convex Hulls of Multiple Random Walks: A Large-Deviation Study
Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N
2016-01-01
We study the polygons governing the convex hull of a point set created by the steps of $n$ independent two-dimensional random walkers. Each such walk consists of $T$ discrete time steps, where $x$ and $y$ increments are i.i.d. Gaussian. We analyze area $A$ and perimeter $L$ of the convex hulls. We obtain probability densities for these two quantities over a large range of the support by using a large-deviation approach allowing us to study densities below $10^{-900}$. We find that the densities exhibit a universal scaling behavior as a function of $A/T$ and $L/\\sqrt{T}$, respectively. As in the case of one walker ($n=1$), the densities follow Gaussian distributions for $L$ and $\\sqrt{A}$, respectively. We also obtained the rate functions for the area and perimeter, rescaled with the scaling behavior of their maximum possible values, and found limiting functions for $T \\rightarrow \\infty$, revealing that the densities follow the large-deviation principle. These rate functions can be described by a power law fo...
A large deviation analysis on the near-equivalence between external and internal reservoirs
Medeiros, João R.; Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.
2016-06-01
Within the spirit of van Kampen's "Langevin approach", we discuss the limits of validity of rephrasing the non-equilibrium problem of a particle subject to an external (work) reservoir-a system where the fluctuation-dissipation relation is not verified-into the simpler case with an internal (heat) reservoir for which the fluctuations and the dissipation arise from the same source. Using a convenient mapping of the thermomechanical parameters we show that, counter-intuitively, such approach is not only valid for steady state time independent quantities, but also for time dependent thermostatistical quantities, namely the injected and dissipated fluxes. We connect this result with the problem of large deviations and conclude that, in this context, we can only distinguish reservoirs by analysing the "fluctuations of accumulated fluctuations". As a by-product, we learn that the best reference approximation to the large deviation functions of a non-Markovian external reservoir system is not the respective internal reservoir limit-as often assumed and suggested by the Langevin approach-but its internal reservoir analogue system obtained from the mapping of the original thermomechanical parameters.
2012-01-01
Background and purpose Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an established method of treating isolated gonartrosis. Modern techniques such as computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are attractive complementary methods to UKA. However, the positioning of the components remains a concern. Thus, we performed a prospective study to assess whether there was deviation between the navigated implant position and the final implant position. Patients and methods We performed UKA with MIS and CAS in 13 patients. By comparing intraoperative navigation data with postoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements, we calculated the deviation between the computer-assisted implant position and the final 3-D implant position of the femoral and tibial components. Results The computer-assisted placement of the femoral and tibial component showed adequate position and consistent results regarding flexion-extension and varus-valgus. However, regarding rotation there was a large variation and 6 of 10 patients were outside the target range for both the femoral component and the tibial component. Interpretation Difficulties in assessing anatomical landmarks with the CAS in combination with MIS might be a reason for the poor rotational alignment of the components. PMID:23043273
Phase separation in random cluster models I: uniform upper bounds on local deviation
Hammond, Alan
2010-01-01
This is the first in a series of three papers that addresses the behaviour of the droplet that results, in the percolating phase, from conditioning the Fortuin-Kasteleyn random cluster model on the presence of an open dual circuit Gamma_0 encircling the origin and enclosing an area of at least (or exactly) n^2. (By the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation, the model is a close relative of the droplet formed by conditioning the Potts model on an excess of spins of a given type.) We consider local deviation of the droplet boundary, measured in a radial sense by the maximum local roughness, MLR(Gamma_0), this being the maximum distance from a point in the circuit Gamma_0 to the boundary of the circuit's convex hull; and in a longitudinal sense by what we term maximum facet length, MFL(Gamma_0), namely, the length of the longest line segment of which the boundary of the convex hull is formed. The principal conclusion of the series of papers is the following uniform control on local deviation: that there are positive ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamed Bagheri Esfe
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, effects of non-equilibrium condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of wet stages of steam turbines are investigated. The AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve the two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around a turbine rotor tip section. The dominant solver of the computational domain is the non-diffusive AUSM scheme (1993, while a smooth transition from AUSM in regions with large gradients (e.g. in and around condensation- and aerodynamic-shocks to the diffusive scheme by van Leer (1979 guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces a condensation shock. To validate the results, the experimental data by Bakhtar et al. (1995 has been used. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for supersonic wet case with back pressure Pb=30 kPa, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, with respect to that in dry case.
New identification method for Hammerstein models based on approximate least absolute deviation
Xu, Bao-Chang; Zhang, Ying-Dan
2016-07-01
Disorder and peak noises or large disturbances can deteriorate the identification effects of Hammerstein non-linear models when using the least-square (LS) method. The least absolute deviation technique can be used to resolve this problem; however, its absolute value cannot meet the need of differentiability required by most algorithms. To improve robustness and resolve the non-differentiable problem, an approximate least absolute deviation (ALAD) objective function is established by introducing a deterministic function that exhibits the characteristics of absolute value under certain situations. A new identification method for Hammerstein models based on ALAD is thus developed in this paper. The basic idea of this method is to apply the stochastic approximation theory in the process of deriving the recursive equations. After identifying the parameter matrix of the Hammerstein model via the new algorithm, the product terms in the matrix are separated by calculating the average values. Finally, algorithm convergence is proven by applying the ordinary differential equation method. The proposed algorithm has a better robustness as compared to other LS methods, particularly when abnormal points exist in the measured data. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is easier to apply and converges faster. The simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Lysenko, V. G.; Kupko, V. S.; Makarevich, V. B.
2016-01-01
A trilateral comparison has been performed in the subject field of roundness measurement. The comparison was pilot by VNIIMS, Russia and took place between February 2014 and August 2014. The circulated standards were a roundness transfer standard in the form of a glass hemisphere and a magnification standard often referred to as a 'Flick' standard. Data from the roundness standard were processed using a Gaussian filter and a bandpass up to 50 undulations per revolution to provide a measured value of Roundness Deviation (RONt). For the magnification standard, data were also filtered and the fitted element was the circumscribed circle together with the deviation of the valleys (RONv). The results of comparisons show the correspondence of measurement uncertainties to the declared values and the compared measurement standards are equivalent. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
The Relativistic Effect of the Deviation between the CMB Temperatures Obtained by the COBE Satellite
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Rabounski D.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS on the COBE satellite, gives different temperatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background. This deviation has a theoretical explanation in the Doppler effect on the dipole (weak component of the radiation, the true microwave background of the Universe that moves at 365 km/sec, if the monopole (strong component of the radiation is due to the Earth. Owing to the Doppler effect, the dipole radiation temperature (determined by the 1st derivative of the monopole is lower than the monopole radiation temperature, with a value equal to the observed deviation. By this theory, the WMAP and PLANCK satellites, targeting the L2 point in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, should be insensitive to the monopole radiation. In contrast to the launched WMAP satellite, the PLANCK satellite will have on board absolute instruments which will not be able to detect the measured temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. That the monopole (strong component of the observed Cosmic Microwave Background is generated by the Earth is given a complete theoretical proof herein.
Dispersion in the large-deviation regime. Part I: shear flows and periodic flows
Haynes, P H
2014-01-01
The dispersion of a passive scalar in a fluid through the combined action of advection and molecular diffusion is often described as a diffusive process, with an effective diffusivity that is enhanced compared to the molecular value. However, this description fails to capture the tails of the scalar concentration distribution in initial-value problems. To remedy this, we develop a large-deviation theory of scalar dispersion that provides an approximation to the scalar concentration valid at much larger distances away from the centre of mass, specifically distances that are $O(t)$ rather than $O(t^{1/2})$, where $t \\gg 1$ is the time from the scalar release. The theory centres on the calculation of a rate function obtained by solving a one-parameter family of eigenvalue problems which we derive using two alternative approaches, one asymptotic, the other probabilistic. We emphasise the connection between large deviations and homogenisation: a perturbative solution of the eigenvalue problems reduces at leading o...
An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions
Campbell, Denado M.
The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.
Vitreous Cavity-Associated Immune Deviation Induced by Retinal S Antigen
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhijie Li; Guanghua Peng; Chen Li
2001-01-01
Purpose: To determine whether the vitreous cavity(VC) supports the induction of deviant immune responses to retinal soluble(S) antigen and to observe the influence of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on the immunologic properties of the VC. Methods: Retinal S antigen was inoculated into the anterior chamber(AC) and the VC in Wistar rats. Seven days after antigen inoculation, the recipient animals were immunized with S antigen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Delayed-type hypersen- sitivity(DTH) was assessed by footpad challenge. To alter systemic immune conditions,IL-1 was administrated by intraperitoneal injection.Results: Antigen-specific DTH did not develop in rats in which S antigen was injected into the AC and the VC. By contrast, when IL-1 administrated systemically, S antigen was injected into the AC and VC elicited strong DTH.Conclusion: The VC supports immune deviation for soluble antigen by acitivity suppressing antigen-Specific DTH. Systemic administration of exogenous IL-1 eliminates the capacity of the VC to support immune deviation to soluble antigen locally injected.
An analysis of anatomic landmark mobility and setup deviations in radiotherapy for lung cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To identify thoracic structures that exhibit little internal motion during irradiation and to determine setup variations in patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional images were generated with an electronic portal-imaging device from the AP fields of 10 patients, during several fractions. To determine the intrafractional mobility of thoracic structures, visible structures were contoured in every image and matched with a reference image by means of a cross-correlation algorithm. Setup variations were determined by comparing portal images with the digitized simulator films using the stable structures as landmarks. Results: Mobility was limited in the lateral direction for the trachea, thoracic wall, paraspinal line, and aortic notch, and in the craniocaudal direction for the clavicle, aortic notch, and thoracic wall. Analysis of patient setup revealed random deviations of 2.0 mm (1 SD) in the lateral direction and 2.8 mm in the craniocaudal direction, while the systematic deviations were 2.5 and 2.0 mm (1 SD) respectively. Conclusions: We have identified thoracic structures that exhibit little internal motion in the frontal plane, and recommend that these structures be used for verifying patient setup during radiotherapy. The daily variation in the setup of lung cancer patients at our center appears to be acceptable
Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang
2015-01-01
Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Wang
Full Text Available Standard deviational ellipse (SDE has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE. Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy J. Fullman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.
LiDAR-mast deviations in complex terrain and their simulation using CFD
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Tobias Klaas
2015-11-01
Full Text Available LiDARs (Light Detection and Ranging are becoming important tools for wind resource assessments in all kinds of terrain. Compared to mast measurements, mobility and flexibility are their greatest benefits. However, care needs to be taken when setting up a measurement campaign. The influence of complex terrain on the wind leads to inhomogeneous flow. This can cause considerable errors in ground based mono-static LiDAR measurements due to their measurement principle and simplifying assumptions.Within this work, wind measurements from Fraunhofer IWES’s 200 m research mast in complex terrain at “Rödeser Berg” in Kassel, Germany, and a pulsed Doppler LiDAR (Leosphere windcube, located at the mast, are compared. The relative deviation between the measurements of the horizontal wind speed by the LiDAR and the mast (LiDAR-mast deviations varies with wind direction and height. It ranges from about −4 % underestimation to +2.5 % overestimation by the LiDAR - for heights between 120 and 200 m. Two steady-state Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-models and a model based on linearized Navier-Stokes Equations were used to estimate the LiDAR error from a flow simulation. Model results were evaluated depending on model parameterisation such as forest height and density. Given the right parameterisations – especially for the forest model – the CFD-models showed a good performance when compared to the observed LiDAR-mast deviations. These simulations can thus be used to correct the LiDAR error induced by the complex flow.To demonstrate variations of LiDAR errors due to choice of measurement location, one of the models was run to calculate the wind flow in an area of 2×2km2$2\\times2\\,\\text{km}^{2}$ around the 200 m measurement mast. This allows the visualization of the estimated LiDAR errors to characterize measurement locations. Results showed the significant variation of measurement errors due to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Ghazipour
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Investigators believe that anatomical abnormalities in the sinonasal region can be the cause of some chronic and refractory headaches that may respond well to surgical intervention. This study presents the prevalence of headache in patients with nasal septal deviation and their response to surgical treatment over a 2-year follow-up period. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and prospective study was conducted on 98 patients with nasal septal deviation who underwent septoplasty surgery in the Imam Hospital in Ahwaz. Preoperative information was acquired by asking the patients and by completing SNOT-20 questionnaires by patients. After the surgery, information about changes in the quality of headache in patients with dominant contact points in preoperative nasal endoscopy whose headache responded to topical anaesthesia with lidocaine 2%+naphazoline 0.5% was collected over a 2-year follow-up. Final data were analyzed by SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Ninety-eight patients were studied, comprising 58.2% men and 41.8% women. They ranged in age between 18 and 46 years (mean=24. Nasal obstruction (72.4%, snoring (58.1%, headache (46% and epistaxis (17.3% were the most frequent preoperative symptoms. The most common site of the headache was the frontal region (68.8%. Patients' headache was bilateral in 71.1% of cases. In 82.2% of patients, headache lasted less than four hours a day. The headache was pulsatile in 53.3%, sharp in 31.2% and compressive in 15.5% of cases. In the post-operative assessment, despite gradual decline in the referral patients for follow-up, a notable and gradual recovery in patients’ headache was seen with 82.8% of the patients reporting complete or partial recovery of the headache at the end of the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion: Headache is one of the most common symptoms in patients with nasal anatomical abnormalities such as septal deviation and usually responds well to surgical treatment. More
DEVIATION OF STELLAR ORBITS FROM TEST PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES AROUND SGr A* DUE TO TIDES AND WINDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)
2013-11-01
Monitoring the orbits of stars around Sgr A* offers the possibility of detecting the precession of their orbital planes due to frame dragging, of measuring the spin and quadrupole moment of the black hole, and of testing the no-hair theorem. Here we investigate whether the deviations of stellar orbits from test-particle trajectories due to wind mass loss and tidal dissipation of the orbital energy compromise such measurements. We find that the effects of stellar winds are, in general, negligible. On the other hand, for the most eccentric orbits (e > 0.96) for which an optical interferometer, such as GRAVITY, will detect orbital plane precession due to frame dragging, the tidal dissipation of orbital energy occurs at timescales comparable to the timescale of precession due to the quadrupole moment of the black hole. As a result, this non-conservative effect is a potential source of systematic uncertainty in testing the no-hair theorem with stellar orbits.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis B;
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: In this paper, the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) was used as a convenient method to evaluate pre-to-postoperative gait pattern changes after total hip arthroplasty and identify factors which might be predictive of outcome. DESIGN: Three-dimensional gait data from a randomized clinical...... trial was used to determine changes in gait quality in participants walking at self-selected speed. Upon completion of the first assessment, the participants were randomly assigned to either resurfacing hip arthroplasty or conventional hip arthroplasty. The outcome was changes in overall gait 'quality......-operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: -2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8-7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p
[A unique Lemierre syndrome case in an elderly woman with deviation of the tongue].
Nakamichi, Seiko; Izumikawa, Koichi; Inoue, Keita; Sakamoto, Noriho; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kohno, Shigeru; Ozono, Yoshiyuki
2014-09-01
We report herein on the case of a 71-year-old woman hospitalized for continued postauricular pain of unknown origin with tongue deviation. In view of the severe inflammatory reaction and multiple nodular shadows of the lungs, the existence of infectious disease was indicated. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck revealed a thrombosis of the right internal jugular vein, osteomyelitis of right temporal-occipital bone and upper cervical spine, and cellulitis of the adjacent soft tissue. Multiple nodular shadows of the lungs were suspected to be the result of a metastatic septic embolism. Hence, she was diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome. Following treatment with long course of antimicrobial therapy including beta-lactams and clindamycin, complete recovery in this patient was achieved. PMID:25672142
Particle dynamics and deviation effects in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave
Bini, Donato; Haney, Maria; Ortolan, Antonello
2014-01-01
Some strong field effects on test particle motion associated with the propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in the exact theory of general relativity are investigated. Two different profiles of the associated radiation flux are considered in comparison, corresponding to either constant or oscillating electric and magnetic fields with respect to a natural family of observers. These are the most common situations to be experimentally explored, and have a well known counterpart in the flat spacetime limit. The resulting line elements are determined by a single metric function, which turns out to be expressed in terms of standard trigonometric functions in the case of a constant radiation flux, and in terms of special functions in the case of oscillating flux, leading to different features of test particle motion. The world line deviation between both uncharged and charged particles on different spacetime trajectories due to the combined effect of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is studied. The int...
Large deviations for the local times of a random walk among random conductances
König, Wolfgang; Wolff, Tilman
2011-01-01
We derive an annealed large deviation principle for the normalised local times of a continuous-time random walk among random conductances in a finite domain in $\\Z^d$ in the spirit of Donsker-Varadhan \\cite{DV75}. We work in the interesting case that the conductances may assume arbitrarily small values. Thus, the underlying picture of the principle is a joint strategy of small values of the conductances and large holding times of the walk. The speed and the rate function of our principle are explicit in terms of the lower tails of the conductance distribution. As an application, we identify the logarithmic asymptotics of the lower tails of the principal eigenvalue of the randomly perturbed negative Laplace operator in the domain.
Two-parameter sample path large deviations for infinite-server queues
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Jose H. Blanchet
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Let Qλ(t,y be the number of people present at time t with y units of remaining service time in an infinite server system with arrival rate equal to λ>0. In the presence of a non-lattice renewal arrival process and assuming that the service times have a continuous distribution, we obtain a large deviations principle for Qλ( · /λ under the topology of uniform convergence on [0,T]×[0,∞. We illustrate our results by obtaining the most likely path, represented as a surface, to ruin in life insurance portfolios, and also we obtain the most likely surfaces to overflow in the setting of loss queues.
Deviations from uniform power-law scaling due to exposure to high altitude
Posiewnik, A.
2002-12-01
A major challenge in biological physics is the analysis of time series that are typically highly nonstationary. Viswanathan et al. (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1) (1997) 845-899) using techniques based on the Fano factor and the Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis showed that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems in normal conditions are more stable than those of pathological systems-there is underlying loss of uniform power-law scaling in disease. Here we test, using the same techniques as Viswanathan et al. (1997), the hypothesis that deviations from uniform power-law scaling, similar to those seen in heart failure and deep apnea syndrome occur also for healthy subjects under pathological conditions (hypoxaemic stress during exposure to high altitude, over 6000 m).
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Viktor Shevchuk
2010-10-01
Full Text Available By means of VAR and 2SLS assessments in the article researches the influence of the RER deviations from the equilibrium signification received through the Hodrick-Prescott filter. The author proved that understated RER worsens the GDP dynamics and accelerates the inflation simultaneously restricting the export and import demand. The results obtained testify to the benefit of hryvnia exchange rate growth as a means of dynamic acceleration of the economic growth in the low-inflation environment. It’s appropriate to neutralize possible balance deterioration of the trade balance is with the use of nonprice factors like reduction of the budget deficit and limitation of the money stock offers.
A study of decision-making behavior of aircraft pilots deviating from a planned flight
Flather, G. W., II; Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.
1981-01-01
This paper outlines an investigation into the worth structures of pilots facing a deviation from a planned flight. A 'paper and pencil' simulation was used to frame the situation into which pilots interjected their own decision making skills in a simple ranking of candidate diversion airports with varying locational, navigational aid, radar and weather attributes. Using the conjoint measurement technique, attribute worth functions of 30 pilots were constructed. It was discovered that systematic differences in the worth functions of the pilots did not occur as a result of dividing the pilot sample according to any measure of flight hour experience. However, differences were found when the pilot sample was grouped according to grade of pilot certificate, type of pilot training, and type of flying most commonly done.
Back in the saddle: Large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field
Uhlemann, Cora; Pichon, Christophe; Bernardeau, Francis; Reimberg, Paulo
2015-01-01
We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically-averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading-order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few percent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellen...
Milos, Piotr
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider two related stochastic models. The first one is a branching system consisting of particles moving according to a Markov family in R^d and undergoing subcritical branching with a constant rate of V>0. New particles immigrate to the system according to a homogeneous space time Poisson random field. The second model is the superprocess corresponding to the branching particle system. We study rescaled occupation time process and the process of its fluctuations with very mild assumptions on the Markov family. In the general setting a functional central limit theorem as well as large and moderate deviations principles are proved. The subcriticality of the branching law determines the behaviour in large time scales and in "overwhelms" the properties of the particles' motion. For this reason the results are the same for all dimensions and can be obtained for a wide class of Markov processes (both properties are unusual for systems with critical branching).
Chiu, Ming-Hung; Lai, Chin-Fa; Tan, Chen-Tai; Lin, Yi-Zhi
2011-03-01
This paper presents a study of the lateral and axial resolutions of a transmission laser-scanning angle-deviation microscope (TADM) with different numerical aperture (NA) values. The TADM is based on geometric optics and surface plasmon resonance principles. The surface height is proportional to the phase difference between two marginal rays of the test beam, which is passed through the test medium. We used common-path heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference in real time, and used a personal computer to calculate and plot the surface profile. The experimental results showed that the best lateral and axial resolutions for NA = 0.41 were 0.5 μm and 3 nm, respectively, and the lateral resolution breaks through the diffraction limits.
Large deviations of the extreme eigenvalues of random deformations of matrices
Benaych-Georges, Florent; Maïda, Mylène
2010-01-01
Consider a real diagonal deterministic matrix $X_n$ of size $n$ with spectral measure converging to a compactly supported probability measure. We perturb this matrix by adding a random finite rank matrix of a certain form, with delocalized eigenvectors. We show that the joint law of the extreme eigenvalues of the perturbed model satisfies a large deviation principle, in the scale n with a good rate function given by a variational formula. We tackle both cases when the extreme eigenvalues of X_n converge to the edges of the support of the limiting measure and when we allow some eigenvalues of X_n, that we call outliers, to converge out of the bulk. We can also generalise our results to the case when X_n is random, with law proportional to e^{- Trace V(X)}d X, for V growing fast enough at infinity and any perturbation of finite rank with orthonormal eigenvectors.
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Zagoris Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index,agricultural economic index,resources index,and environment index.According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person,comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized deviation and the participation of many people is established.Based on the case studies,agricultural sustainable development status of a certain region is evaluated.Result shows that the evaluation scores of the social index and agricultural economic index are high in this region,but the score of resources index is general and the evaluation result of environment index is not very good.The comprehensive evaluation value of overall sustainable development is 0.665 5;and the evaluation result is "good".
Selecting Video Key Frames Based on Relative Entropy and the Extreme Studentized Deviate Test
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Yuejun Guo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the relative entropy and its square root as distance measures of neighboring video frames for video key frame extraction. We develop a novel approach handling both common and wavelet video sequences, in which the extreme Studentized deviate test is exploited to identify shot boundaries for segmenting a video sequence into shots. Then, video shots can be divided into different sub-shots, according to whether the video content change is large or not, and key frames are extracted from sub-shots. The proposed technique is general, effective and efficient to deal with video sequences of any kind. Our new approach can offer optional additional multiscale summarizations of video data, achieving a balance between having more details and maintaining less redundancy. Extensive experimental results show that the new scheme obtains very encouraging results in video key frame extraction, in terms of both objective evaluation metrics and subjective visual perception.
Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Bhide, Shruti S; Tripathi, Raakhi K; Shetty, Yashashri C; Marathe, Padmaja A; Katkar, Janhavi; Thatte, Urmila M
2016-01-01
Protocol deviations (PDs) may jeopardize safety, rights, and welfare of subjects and data integrity. There is scarce literature and no guidelines for Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs) to process PD reports. The PD reports submitted to IECs from Jan 2011 to August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Types of studies reporting PDs, category and type of PDs, PD rate per participant, time of reporting PD since its occurrence and corrective actions stated by principal investigator (PI) for major deviations were noted. Out of 447 PDs from 73/1387 total studies received during study period, 402 were from 126 pharma studies. Investigator initiated studies and dissertations reported negligible PDs. Median number of PDs was 4 per protocol. Out of 447 PDs, 304 were related to study procedure, 87, 47 and 9 were from safety, informed consent document (ICD) and eligibility category respectively. The most common reason for PDs was incomplete ICD (22/47). Maximum study procedure related PDs were due to patient visiting outside window period (126/304). Thirty five of 87 PDs were due to missed safety assessment. The overall PD reporting rate per participant was 0.08. In 90% of reports, date of occurrence of PD was not specified. The median delay for reporting PDs after occurrence was 94 days. PDs classified as Major were 73% (323/447). The most common corrective actions stated by PI were participant counseling (85/323) and caution in future (70/323). The study findings emphasize the need for GCP training at regular interval of study team members. IEC have to be vigilant and visit sites frequently, take initiative and formulate guidelines regarding PD reporting. PMID:26735850
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharmila V Jalgaonkar
Full Text Available Protocol deviations (PDs may jeopardize safety, rights, and welfare of subjects and data integrity. There is scarce literature and no guidelines for Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs to process PD reports. The PD reports submitted to IECs from Jan 2011 to August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Types of studies reporting PDs, category and type of PDs, PD rate per participant, time of reporting PD since its occurrence and corrective actions stated by principal investigator (PI for major deviations were noted. Out of 447 PDs from 73/1387 total studies received during study period, 402 were from 126 pharma studies. Investigator initiated studies and dissertations reported negligible PDs. Median number of PDs was 4 per protocol. Out of 447 PDs, 304 were related to study procedure, 87, 47 and 9 were from safety, informed consent document (ICD and eligibility category respectively. The most common reason for PDs was incomplete ICD (22/47. Maximum study procedure related PDs were due to patient visiting outside window period (126/304. Thirty five of 87 PDs were due to missed safety assessment. The overall PD reporting rate per participant was 0.08. In 90% of reports, date of occurrence of PD was not specified. The median delay for reporting PDs after occurrence was 94 days. PDs classified as Major were 73% (323/447. The most common corrective actions stated by PI were participant counseling (85/323 and caution in future (70/323. The study findings emphasize the need for GCP training at regular interval of study team members. IEC have to be vigilant and visit sites frequently, take initiative and formulate guidelines regarding PD reporting.
Postural deviations from chronic low back pain and correction through exercise therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farahpour N
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that five deficits of the proprioceptive system and poor motor skills are associated with chronic low back pain (CLBP. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the dynamic postural balance behavior of CLBP patients, as well as the effects of a specific exercise therapy for the treatment of CLBP and related postural imbalances. Methods: Sixteen females with CLBP and 30 healthy females all between 20 and 40 years of age, of similar height and weight, voluntarily participated in this study. Patients underwent a three-month therapeutic exercise program. The disability and back pain of the patients were measured using the Oswestry and Quebec questionnaires, respectively. A dynamic stability platform system (Biodex was used to evaluate the postural imbalances in both groups. All measurements of the experimental group were repeated after the therapy. Results: Overall deviation of center of gravity (COG from COBOS in patients and controls were 3 (±0.3 and 1.3 (±0.2, respectively. Thus, postural imbalances were 2.3 times greater in the patients than those of the controls. After the treatment, the disability and pain of the patients were diminished by 53% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, with the improvement of the patients COG deviation, both groups had similar posture. Conclusions: The postural orientation of CLBP patients was significantly improved by the therapeutic exercise program. The applied exercise therapy significantly reduced both the pain and the disability of the patients. Based on these conclusions, we recommend that postural correction be included in regular therapeutic exercise programs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper shows the regulatory work made through inspections concerning radiation safety and security in the area of industrial gamma radiography. An account is shown of the items which should be available in the storage facility where the equipment and radioactive sources are placed as well as in site radiography and which are required to the users of the equipment meant for this practice, in order to ensure compliance with the regulations in force. The objective of this paper is to assess the most frequent deviations to the regulatory standards found during this type of inspections, such as lack of complete and operable radiation protection equipment, lack of available elements bound to act in case of emergency, no delimitation of controlled areas, gamma radiography equipment stored in unlocked position, wear gauge unavailable, record of movements of equipment and radioactive sources not updated, anomalous monthly or annual personal dose values, among the main findings. In particular, in connection with dose reports, some cases of occupational exposed workers exceeding the annual dose limits or investigation levels are highlighted. In addition, the explanations provided by the person responsible for radiation protection of companies in regard to the possible causes or circumstances which might have given rise to such dose values, the conclusions reached and the preventive and corrective measures implemented by these companies are analysed. Finally, an assessment of the annual dose distributions of the occupational exposed workers concerned with this kind of practice in the period 2004-2007 is shown. As a conclusion, the relevance of these deviations according to degradation in safety and security performance and the role of the regulatory work as a promoter of the implementation of safety culture will be emphasized. (author)
Johnson, B M; Gaudreau, M-C; Al-Gadban, M M; Gudi, R; Vasu, C
2015-08-01
Environmental factors, including microbes and diet, play a key role in initiating autoimmunity in genetically predisposed individuals. However, the influence of gut microflora in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not well understood. In this study, we have examined the impact of drinking water pH on immune response, disease incidence and gut microbiome in a spontaneous mouse model of SLE. Our results show that (SWR × NZB) F1 (SNF1 ) mice that were given acidic pH water (AW) developed nephritis at a slower pace compared to those on neutral pH water (NW). Immunological analyses revealed that the NW-recipient mice carry relatively higher levels of circulating autoantibodies against nuclear antigen (nAg) as well as plasma cells. Importantly, 16S rRNA gene-targeted sequencing revealed that the composition of gut microbiome is significantly different between NW and AW groups of mice. In addition, analysis of cytokine and transcription factor expression revealed that immune response in the gut mucosa of NW recipient mice is dominated by T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th9-associated factors. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) promote a Th17 response and autoimmunity in mouse models of arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, however, not only was SFB colonization unaffected by the pH of drinking water, but also SFB failed to cause a profound increase in Th17 response and had no significant effect on lupus incidence. Overall, these observations show that simple dietary deviations such as the pH of drinking water can influence lupus incidence and affect the composition of gut microbiome.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard deviation of depth was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each cell using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Focal Statistics "STD" parameter. Standard...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李从心
2013-01-01
Objective To evaluate the influence of inappropriate position deviation on radioactive iodine uptake(RAIU),effective half-life(Teff)and the corresponding dose variances in patients suffering from Graves hyperthyroidism.Methods RAIU was examined in 20 patients with
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Li Liangchuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper establishes the model of sandstone, porosity and permeability on single well in allusion to 10 highly deviated and fractured wells in deep oil and gas reservoirs of Jidong Oilfield, which forms a numerical simulation method of highly deviated and fractured wells in deep oil and gas reservoirs of Jidong Oilfield. The numerical simulation results of highly deviated and fractured wells productivity in deep oil and gas reservoirs are given out under different layers (layer ES1, layer ES3, layer ED2,and layer ED3, different deviation angles(60° and 75°, different fracture parameters and producing pressure drops. Through the comparison with testing data getting from exploration wells, we know that the calculation results of numerical simulation are consistent with practical testing results.
Narikawa, Tatsuya; Tagoshi, Hideyuki
2016-09-01
We discuss the potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the predictions of general relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess what magnitude of deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters for different binary masses from the observation of a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order. We also find that neglect of orbital eccentricity or tidal deformation effects do not cause a significant bias on the detectable region of generic deviations from general relativity.
Lin, Jonathan K; Wheatley, Francis C; Handwerker, Jason; Harris, Norman J; Wong, Brian J F
2014-01-01
IMPORTANCE Accurately characterizing nasal septal deviations is valuable for surgical planning, classifying nasal septal deviations, providing a means to accurately perform outcomes research, and understanding the causes of chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE To determine and quantify regions of septal deformity that can be used to develop a comprehensive classification system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective case series study was conducted at an academic tertiary care hospital. Sixty-four participants were selected based on a convenience sample of computed tomography (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses and midface available between June 29, 2011, and August 16, 2012. Exclusion criteria consisted of incomplete or inadequate CT series. The most recent CT scans were chosen for analyses regardless of the indication for imaging. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format bitmap file–formatted data were obtained and analyzed using MATLAB and OsiriX. The line to curve ratio, deviation area, and root mean square (RMS) values of the septal contour vs the ideal straight septum fit were calculated. Analysis was performed to detect significant differences (P < .05) using the 3 measures.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quantitative analysis of nasal septal deviation.RESULTS The population consisted of 50 male and 14 female patients aged 3 to 83 years(mean, 42 years). Mean line to curve ratios, areas, and RMS values were highest in contours that intersected the perpendicular plate–vomer junction, with a mean line to curve ratio of1.04 and mean deviated area of 627.16 arbitrary units (P = .02). Maximal deviation areas were also seen midway from the perpendicular plate–vomer junction to the nasal spine with a mean area of 577.31 arbitrary units (P = .01). The RMS values were significantly elevated along the crista galli and perpendicular plate–vomer junction (P < .05).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Maximum septal deviation is seen at the perpendicular plate
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Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Sun Gene; Lee, Eun Joo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jae Seo; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja [School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Ja [Dept. of Nursing, Kwangju Women' s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
Facial asymmetry has been measured by the severity of deviation of the menton (Me) on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to compare PA cephalograms and 3D CT regarding the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me. PA cephalograms and 3D CT images of 35 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (19 males and 16 females, with an average age of 22.1±3.3 years) were retrospectively reviewed in this study. By measuring the distance and direction of the Me from the midfacial reference line and the midsagittal plane in the cephalograms and 3D CT, respectively, the x-coordinates (x1 and x2) of the Me were obtained in each image. The difference between the x-coordinates was calculated and statistical analysis was performed to compare the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me in the two imaging modalities. A statistically significant difference in the severity of Me deviation was found between the two imaging modalities (Δx=2.45±2.03 mm, p<0.05) using the one-sample t-test. Statistically significant agreement was observed in the presence of deviation (k=0.64, p<0.05) and in the severity of Me deviation (k=0.27, p<0.05). A difference in the direction of the Me was detected in three patients (8.6%). The severity of the Me deviation was found to vary according to the imaging modality in 16 patients (45.7%). The measurement of Me deviation may be different between PA cephalograms and 3D CT in some patients.
Bell, Michael Stephen
Sixty-four trained musicians listened to four -bar excerpts of selected chorales by J. S. Bach, which were presented both in four-part texture (harmonic context) and as a single voice part (melodic context). These digitally synthesized examples were created by combining the first twelve partials, and all voice parts had the same generic timbre. A within-subjects design was used, so subjects heard each example in both contexts. Included in the thirty -two excerpts for each subject were four soprano, four alto, four tenor, and four bass parts as the target voices. The intonation of the target voice was varied such that the voice stayed in tune or changed by a half cent, two cents, or eight cents per second (a cent is 1/100 of a half step). Although direction of the deviation (sharp or flat) was not a significant factor in intonation perception, main effects for context (melodic vs. harmonic) and rate of deviation were highly significant, as was the interaction between rate of deviation and context. Specifically, selections that stayed in tune or changed only by half cents were not perceived differently; for larger deviations, the error was detected earlier and the intonation was judged to be worse in the harmonic contexts compared to the melodic contexts. Additionally, the direction of the error was correctly identified in the melodic context more often than the hamonic context only for the examples that mistuned at a rate of eight cents per second. Correct identification of the voice part that went out of tune in the four-part textures depended only on rate of deviation: the in tune excerpts (no voice going out of tune) and the eight cent deviations were correctly identified most often, the two cent deviations were next, and the half cent deviation excerpts were the least accurately identified.
Vessel Weapon System Baseline Deviation Analysis Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的舰船武器装备基准变化分析方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张磊; 王安国; 李辉
2013-01-01
Vessel weapon system baseline deviation caused by external condition affects attack accuracy. The finite element model is constructed by ANSYS. 3D wave loads calculation method is used to simulate the wave force in sailing condition. Vessel weapon system baseline deviation in the case of two limit sea conditions is researched. The simulation result indicates that vessel weapon system baseline deviation of certain vessel structure of this text is remarkable in the rolling condition and the weapon baseline near stem and broadside has a tremendous influence. Therefore this certain vessel should be sailing a-gainst wave while it carries out combat duty in order to decrease the influence of rolling.%舰船武器装备基准在外界因素作用下产生变化,从而影响武器系统的打击精度.应用ANSYS平台建立舰船有限元模型,利用三维波浪载荷的计算方法模拟航行条件下舰船所受载荷,研究了舰船甲板面武器装备基准在两种极限海况下的变化情况.仿真结果表明:针对所选取的某型舰船主体结构而言,舰船横摇使武器装备基准产生较大的变化,并且靠近船体尾部和两舷位置处装备的基准变化较为显著,所以该型舰船在执行作战任务中,应尽量采取顶浪航行,减小舰船横摇对武器装备基准的影响.
Experiencing affective interactive art
Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.
2010-01-01
The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Kaeng Won; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Kook, Min Suk; Lee, Jae Seo [School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Martin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 18 patients who received orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment were reviewed. Each CT scan was reconstructed by three methods for establishing three orthogonal reference planes (namely, the horizontal, midsagittal, and coronal reference planes). The horizontal (bilateral porions and bilateral orbitales) and midsagittal (crista galli, nasion, prechiasmatic point, opisthion, and anterior nasal spine) landmarks were identified on each CT scan. Vertical deviation of the horizontal landmarks and horizontal deviation of the midsagittal landmarks were measured. The porion and orbitale, which were not involved in establishing the horizontal reference plane, were found to deviate vertically from the horizontal reference plane in the three methods. The midsagittal landmarks, which were not used for the midsagittal reference plane, deviated horizontally from the midsagittal reference plane in the three methods. In a three-dimensional facial analysis, the vertical and horizontal deviations of the landmarks from the horizontal and midsagittal reference planes could vary depending on the methods of establishing reference planes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago André Fontoura de Melo
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory system preparation. Material and methods: For this purpose, we used twenty simulated root canals with 21 mm length and 30 degree angle, which were divided into two experimental groups according to curvature’s initial position: 8 mm (group A and 12 mm (group B short of the canal orifice. The canals were prepared using crown-down technique, and memory instrument was size #30. For apical deviation analysis, before and after preparation, canals were filled with Indian ink and standardly photographed with the aid of a platform. After that, the images were manipulated by Adobe Photoshop® software, through superimposing pre- and post-operative images. Deviation occurrence was measured 1 mm short of working length and at the middle of the curvature by using the ruler tool. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. Results: Although group B showed a significantly greater deviation mean than group A, no significant interaction was verified between the analysis site and the experimental group. Conclusion: According to the present data, it could be observed that the smaller the curvature radius, the greater the deviation. Concerning to the analysis site, it could be noted that the area 1 mm short of working length presented a higher deviation than the point at the middle of the curvature.
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Kyle D. Smith
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of concha bullosa and nasal septal deviation and their potential relationships to maxillary sinusitis. 883 CT scans taken at Creighton University School of Dentistry from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of concha bullosa, nasal septal deviation, and maxillary sinusitis. 67.5% of patients exhibited pneumatization of at least one concha, 19.4% of patients had a deviated septum, and 50.0% had mucosal thickening consistent with maxillary sinusitis. 49.3% of patients who had concha bullosa also had evidence of maxillary sinusitis. Only 19.5% of patients with concha bullosa also had nasal septal deviation, whereas 19.7% of patients with sinusitis also presented with nasal septal deviation. Although concha bullosa is a common occurrence in the nasal cavity, there did not appear to be a statistically significant relationship between the presence of concha bullosa or nasal septal deviation and maxillary sinusitis.